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The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

Prepared by The Oglesby Charitable Trust (OCT) Issue: January 2014


“More than 148,000 criminals convicted or cautioned in the past year had at least 15 previous convictions or cautions. More than 500,000 offenders had at least one previous conviction or caution, including 95% of those given short sentences of less than 12 months. That group of offenders - prisoners who are released from short sentences of less than a year - have long been neglected by the system. They are at the heart of what we want to achieve. The overall re-offending rates of that group are shocking. In the year to September 2011, nearly 60% of them went on to commit a further crime. Nearly 85,000 further crimes were committed by the group who walk out of prison with £46 in their pockets and get little or no support to get their lives back together and turn away from crime. Many have deep rooted problems, such as drug, mental health and educational problems. We currently expect them to change on their own. When we do nothing they carry on re-offending, which means more victims and more ruined lives.... It also means a cost as estimated by the National Audit Office of between £9.5 billion and £13 billion a year. The status quo is not an option. Reoffending rates are too high.”

" The rehabilitation of offenders is crucial as this ultimately reduces the number of people who become victims of crime, increases public confidence and reduces some of the burden on the public purse. Choose Change has provided that vital bridge between prison and life in the community. The programme ensures that those most at risk have access to support for drug and alcohol issues and mentoring and also assists offenders with access to employment and housing. It helps them to break out of the cycle of dependency. The programme has a proven success rate in turning lives around and preventing their early return to prison. " Sir Peter Fahy Chief Constable Greater Manchester Police

Chris Grayling Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice

The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

“ If partnership commissioning is about collaborative problem solving, designed to develop services that work towards outcomes which achieve the best for individuals and the wider community, then working on behalf of Manchester City Council to help develop Choose Change was one of the most exciting and creative pieces of partnership commissioning I have been involved in.” Nigel Stott Programme Lead (Criminal Justice) Public Health Manchester


Contents

02

Summary

03

Chairman’s foreword

04

The Revolving Prison Door: Where we are now

06

Choose Change

08

Lessons learned

10

Conclusion and Recommendations

12

References

13

Acknowledgements

The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013 |

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Summary

The Ministry of Justice is in the process of implementing an extensive programme of reform for the delivery of probation services across England and Wales. As part of this agenda, which is designed to reduce re-offending rates, statutory support will be extended to shortsentenced prisoners upon release. This group of prisoners, who are serving sentences of less than 12 months, are currently discharged from prison with no formal support or assistance. From 2009-13 the Choose Change Project provided voluntary support for short- sentenced prisoners at HMP Manchester who were returning to their home areas of Manchester, Salford and Trafford. This pilot project was a unique collaboration of private, public and third sector partners who came together to tackle the complex issues presented by this group of offenders. Funding and resources were provided by The Oglesby Charitable Trust, The High Sheriffs Police Fund, HMP Prison Manchester, Greater Manchester Probation Trust, The Cooperative Group, and Drug and Alcohol Teams in Manchester, Salford and Trafford.

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Our experience whilst working on the pilot project taught us that; Partnership working across all agencies is essential; Work needs to start inside the prison prior to an offenders release; A teamwork approach across disciplines is critical; Working in this area is tough and staff need to be resilient; Prisoners are not a homogeneous group and services need to be tailored to meet individual need; A service for short-sentenced prisoners needs to be delivered, and held accountable, at a local level; Changing people’s lives takes time.

| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

Choose Change was a pioneering project where partners in Manchester collaborated to commission a service which anticipated the Coalition governments reform agenda. The lessons learned from the project, as outlined in this report, will assist in the development of services for this group of offenders and, by doing so, make our communities safer places to live and work.


Chairman's foreword

It is clear that the present regime is not working for short-term prisoners given the high level of re-offending, the resultant cost and the effect this has on the lives of the offenders and their families. Although everyone connected with this sector has been fully aware of these facts it has, nevertheless, been put into the “too difficult� box for too long and the Government has to be commended for taking positive action in endeavouring to deal with this on a national scale.

and growth which has taken place over the years. Meanwhile, the minority is marginalised and their lives are typified by persistent worklessness, poor health and life expectancy. This is a deepseated problem within our society today and, if we can solve the problem of repeated re-offending, this will make a major contribution although, clearly, tackling this on its own is not the complete solution.

Choose Change was an attempt by a group of professionals and charitable funders engaged in this field to find a practical solution, working with the existing institutions, largely within today’s cost constraints. Had it been successful without doubt the savings in time, money and human misery would have been very substantial. Although the project did not succeed in this pilot stage it could be argued that it may have, had it been given more time to develop itself and the lessons learned during the 3 years of its lifetime had been applied. This would have resulted in a solution which would have had a major impact on this problem, with a significant reduction in re-offending.

Michael Oglesby CBE DL Chairman

It is quite clear that this problem is only one manifestation of the wider issues within society today. We need to address these issues and break the cycle of a two-stream society, where the majority benefits from the progress

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The Revolving Prison Door

Where we are now On the 8th November 2013 the prison population in the UK stood at 85,9951 with approximately 60,000 being sentenced to under 12 months imprisonment each year. Across Greater Manchester the short stay figure is approximately 4,500 per year. Patterns of offending and sentence length indicate repeat convictions and re-sentencing of some individuals during this period. Whilst overall crime rates are falling in England and Wales2, The National Audit Office has estimated that prisoners released after serving short sentences are more likely to re-offend than any other group. Their probability of reoffending in the first year of release from a custodial sentence is estimated to be 59.9%.3 Despite being most likely to re-offend, the short duration of their time in prison means they are less likely than other prisoners to receive the help they need to change their behaviour and lead a law abiding life. The majority of short sentences are for 3 months or less. Only 10% are for more than 6 months and there is no provision for statutory supervision by the Probation Service.

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Two steps forward, one step back “It's really hard on the outside...it was easier to do something silly and go back to prison than actually talk about it” Choose Change service user Helping people to move away from crime is a slow and demanding process because of the complexity of offenders' lives. Many will have a lack of qualifications and work experience, drug and alcohol misuse problems, lack of family and social support, limited means to obtain stable and suitable accommodation, and a tendency to revert to previous patterns of behaviour in a crisis. Some offenders will have been the victims of violence as children (both sexual and physical) and have mental health problems. Reducing re-offending amongst this group of offenders has long been seen as a huge challenge because of their complex needs and entrenched patterns of behaviour.4 The history of research evaluations into rehabilitative work with offenders over the past 50 years demonstrates that there is no “silver bullet” solution to this problem. However, it is also apparent that the majority of offenders do not wish to continue with a life of crime. How to galvanise an offender’s willingness to change is the key challenge facing anyone working in the field of criminal justice.

| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

Understanding how and why people stop offending That most young offenders eventually “mature” out of deviant behaviour is one of the most well- known findings in criminology. Most juvenile delinquents are leading successful lives by the age of 32.5 So, why are some people unable to attain this goal and what does the change process involve? The problem for many offenders is that they do not have the inner resources to turn their lives around without practical and emotional support. However, their experiences to date (of family life, education and statutory agencies), may have led them to be mistrustful of others.


What works with offenders?

Developing theories and developing understanding Traditionally, one of the goals of imprisonment has been rehabilitation. However, there has been much debate about the efficacy of different interventions for offenders, and the ability of these “treatments” to decrease recidivism rates. Developed in the 1980s and formalised in the 1990s the Risk-Need- and Responsivity model was developed to evaluate programme effectiveness.6 The three core principles are as follows: Risk principle: Match the level of service to the offender’s risk to re-offend Need principle: Assess criminogenic needs and target them in treatment Responsivity principle: Maximise the offender’s ability to learn from a rehabilitative intervention by providing cognitive behavioural treatment and tailoring the intervention to the learning style, motivation, abilities and strengths of the offender.

drug misuse; alcohol misuse; emotional well-being; thinking and behaviour; and attitudes. McNeill, 2012 in his work on the Desistance Process, has shone further light on how to engage with offenders by acknowledging the complexity of these criminogenic factors, and the situation they face when they try to move away from a life of crime.7 Interventions need to individualise support for change; build and sustain hope; recognise and develop people's strengths; build relationships; develop social capital and recognise and celebrate progress. “It is a process which places emphasis on valuing people for who they are and what they could become, rather than judging, rejecting or containing them for what they have done” (McNeill, 2012). Our work on the Choose Change project has taught us the value of this approach and the benefits it can bring to individuals and the communities they will return to on leaving prison.

Criminogenic factors or needs which contribute to re-offending are contained in the offender assessment tool Oasys, which is used by both the probation and prison services in the UK. They include: accommodation, education, training and employability; financial management and income; relationships; lifestyle and associates;

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Choose Change

The challenge of re-offending rates “I have been talking about this group of offenders since I first joined probation. There have been all sorts of initiatives but none of them have ever got off the ground. Nobody wanted to invest in this group of offenders and that's what made Choose Change so unique and it is why we, as Mancunians should be so proud of the work that has been done in our city.� Roz Hamilton, Chief Executive Officer, Greater Manchester Probation Trust

Those working in the criminal justice field recognised that without support, through the prison gate and back into the community, almost 60% of short sentenced prisoners would return to custody within a given twelve month period. It was this that provided the impetus to establish Choose Change as a pilot project within HMP Manchester.

Successive Governments have recognised that inmates released from custody without supervision in the community have a higher re-offending rate than those released on a statutory licence. Provision for the supervision on release of short sentenced prisoners known as Custody Plus was contained in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 introduced by the previous Government. However, Custody Plus provisions were never brought into force because of a lack of resources and the potential increase in prison population (caused by offenders who may breach their licences).

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| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

Working together HMP Manchester (formerly known as Strangeways Prison) is a high security male prison which houses both category A prisoners and local prisoners. It has an operational capacity of 1238 as of 1st April 2013.8 The Greater Manchester Probation Trust supervises approximately 15,000 offenders of whom 4,770 are subject to a prison licence in the community. The Oglesby Charitable Trust aims to make a difference to the lives of people in Greater Manchester. In 2008 a meeting took place between the Chairman of the Trust and the then Governor of HMP Manchester Richard Vince to discuss how the Trust could support a group of short sentenced prisoners. Other local partners were sought to fund a pilot project initially for a 3 year period. These were The Greater Manchester Probation Trust, The High Sheriffs Police Fund, The Co-operative Group, and Drug and Alcohol Teams in Manchester, Salford and Trafford. The Choose Change project was both innovative and at the vanguard of attempts to reduce re-offending and turn around the lives of individuals with complex needs and problems.


The project commenced in September 2009 with a part-time manager from the Probation Trust, a seconded prison officer, two seconded probation service officers and part-time administrative support all based at HMP Manchester. The annual cost of the project was £160,000, with donations from the Oglesby Charitable Trust, The High Sheriff's Police Fund, and The Cooperative Group. Local authority funding was provided by Drug and Alcohol Teams in Manchester and Salford and, when the project was later expanded into Trafford, by the Trafford Drug and Alcohol Team.

Through the gate “It's a real graft being homeless, sleeping rough on park benches and in bus stops. So it was great Choose Change got involved. Being homeless makes it very easy to slip into bad habits” Choose Change service user The first few hours and days following a prisoners release are the most critical in terms of a potential lapse into criminal activities. Around a third of all offenders lose their accommodation when sent to prison.9 If they have no job to return to they will need to claim state benefits, and if they have a drug of alcohol misuse problem they will need to seek appropriate treatment in the first few days following release. However, many offenders will have little or no family support to help them resettle as their criminal behaviour is likely to have stretched the patience of once supportive families. Going “through the gate” back into the community can be daunting and challenging, and for many who have been through the revolving prison door the practical tasks which need to be undertaken can quickly defeat them. Choose Change recognised that rehabilitation is built on the foundations of a trusted relationship between service users, staff, external agencies, and the wider community. From 20092013 Choose Change staff worked with over 400 released prisoners, each of whom received a bespoke service based on their individual needs.

The delivery model was based on the early identification of cases on reception into the prison. Potential participants were allocated to a Choose Change worker who made contact with them following their prison induction to discuss voluntary support to assist in their resettlement after their release from custody. Given the short length of the sentences early engagement was a crucial issue for the team and the offenders. If the prisoner agreed to voluntary participation on the project the Choose Change worker undertook an assessment of their needs and worked with them both inside the prison and, when released, in the community. By adopting this case worker approach, a critical supportive relationship was established with Choose Change participants and potential barriers to re-integration into society were removed. Whilst still in custody, participants were introduced to agencies who could offer support in their local community and they were able to access services in the first few days following their release, with staff from the project accompanying them to initial appointments. This was particularly important for those needing substance misuse services, and accommodation and welfare benefits advice. Following release participants were offered support for a three month period. This was later extended to six months.

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Lessons learned

An interim evaluation of Choose Change was published in July 2010 by Manchester Metropolitan University.10 By then the project had worked with over 100 participants. The prisoners had on average 8 previous prison sentences and10 previous court disposals. The analysis considered the cost of the project per participant (£2,034) against the potential cost of further reoffending by this group of prisoners (the estimated cost of a future criminal career for a typical short-term prisoner after release is a little over £150,000).11 The evaluation concluded that only a very modest reduction in re-offending was required for Choose Change to justify the investment made in the pilot. A further evaluation was concluded in July 2011. The evaluation was based on an extensive programme of in-depth offender interviews and found that participants were “overwhelmingly positive about Choose Change and felt that it had and would make a positive contribution to their resettlement experience”12 However, it was recognised that the period of engagement post release, at 3 months was not sufficient. There is an on-going debate about how success is measured by the Ministry of Justice in terms of reducing re-offending. The debate is about the balance between “binary” (whether someone re-offends) and “frequency” (how many times they re-offend) within a given period.13 We know that desistance from crime (the process of giving up offending) is not a single 08

event, but a process and the path of change is not a straight line but more like a game of snakes and ladders. Success, if it is achieved, is more likely to take place over a period of years. The challenge is much greater if you are also trying to conquer dependence on drugs or alcohol. The lapse of a further offence or a resumption of substance misuse can be a “teachable moment”– a real opportunity to enable change. Following the evaluation the period of support post release was extended to 6 months. Whilst the pilot project was also voluntary it was not possible to mandate attendance for appointments or to impose a structured programme on participants. Whilst initially planned to run for 3 years, the Choose Change pilot ran from September 2009 until June 2013 thanks to additional funding from partners. A follow- up evaluation was published in July 2013. This evaluation was limited in its scope, revisiting earlier data and conducting in depth interviews with participants and staff. A key strength of the project was identified as continuity, which is establishing a relationship with the client in custody and continuing to work with them in the community. The theme which has emerged from Choose Change and the Ministry of Justice pilots (the Diamond Initiative in London and the Social Impact Bond at HMP Peterborough) is that reducing

| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013

re-offending is an arduous and challenging task. Many offenders have entrenched problems which will take years to address. Learning how to become a good citizen requires more than a good intention. As a community we need to take a long term view of how to turn offenders lives around and we will learn much from offenders themselves about what has helped them to achieve this goal. The intention of the government to invest in this group of discharged prisoners is a laudable one. Choose Change has demonstrated that lives can be turned around and our experience, and that of the Ministry of Justice pilots, will inform the development of future services.


Try, try, again “Tis a lesson you should heed: Try, try, again If at first you don't succeed, Try, try again” William Edward Hickson (1803-1870) “I think some of the experiences and things that happened to me as a kid (physical and emotional abuse) really effect what I'm like now. When I was 12 I was drinking alcohol and smoking cannabis. At 14 I was running errands for the local drug dealers and when I was 15 I was introduced to heroin. I didn't really understand what it was at first, but before I knew it I was hooked. At 14 I ended up in Court and it's been like that ever since. I realised things had to change when I was 40. I wanted to be a better role model to my children, especially my 12 year old son.” “It's really hard on the outside; I could see people trying to give me more responsibility and that scared me”. Choose Change service user “He came back to prison three times in two years. Something then clicked. All that processing of information around change and why it is a positive thing had finally caught up with him”. Choose Change staff member

“It's just taken me time to work out how to manage this new life. This was always the better option but it's harder. I've responsibilities like my flat and turning up to places on time, and people look up to me now. I've never had that before, it's scary at first but then I get a real buzz out of it”. Choose Change service user “I was a ragamuffin teenager. My Mum couldn't cope and I was nicking cars aged eight.... I left jail with just the clothes I was stood up in. Then (Choose Change worker) took me to Project 34: they are a hostel, so I had temporary accommodation. He came to see me and calls to check everything is okay. I can talk to him about problems. It's a big change being helped through processes from when I was last inside. It was there or nothing-that was your lot. Now for the first time in years I've got my head together. I am a volunteer now. The support I've been given is amazing”. Choose Change service user

The importance of partnership working As well as the partnership which came together to develop Choose Change the project team forged strong links with agencies working both inside HMP Manchester and across Greater Manchester. This was critical for the successful rehabilitation of offenders into the community. Partners included Shelter, Back on Track, Project 34, Community drug and alcohol teams, Mustard Tree, Salford Unemployment Resource Centre, English Churches Housing Group and the Turnkey Trust.

“Choose Change has been an exciting project for HMP Manchester to be part of. From initial conception the commitment shown by a unique collaboration of private, public and third sector partners to work together to tackle the difficult issues presented by this client group has been very impressive. The work of Choose Change has preceded the conception of government plans to develop statutory provision for these service users, and has afforded us as a prison an excellent head start in understanding the complexities of delivery to this group.” Tim Coghlan, Head of Reducing Re-offending, HMP Manchester “We have supported the work of Choose Change since its start 3 years ago because of its importance and significance in providing support and help to offenders for whom no such help previously existed.” Christian Wewer, Trustee High Sheriffs Police Fund “We have had some real successes through effective collaborative working with Choose Change. The identification of suitable clients in custody pre-release has really helped us to prepare individuals for release and most critically to appropriately risk assess and manage the risk posed by individuals” Alec McFadden, Salford Unemployment Resource Centre “Our link with Choose Change has provided a range of opportunities for us to evolve our work and consider the use of our resources to support a wider group. Choose Change has afforded us a unique opportunity to access clients at really critical stages in their lives and we are able to contribute to offering a better option than re-offending. We have seen some real successes with clients completing training, work experience and applying for jobs.” David Fisher, Chief Executive Officer, Back on Track

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Conclusion and Recommendations

“As a former magistrate, I have taken a particular interest in sentencing policy, and what can work to reduce reoffending. It has long been clear to me that short custodial sentences are of themselves rarely effective. I have also been aware of the range of issues to be resolved when an offender leaves prison if the chances of re-offending are to be reduced. Choose Change was a highly innovative programme, which rightly focussed attention on offenders being released from short term custodial sentences. The government has now also recognised the need to address the needs of these offenders, and will make provision for post-release supervision of them. Choose Change has been in the vanguard of this initiative. There has been good learning from Choose Change. It is clear that working with offenders who have long offending histories is very challenging. It is also clear that offenders welcomed the extra engagement and support. I hope the government will look very carefully at Choose Change in formulating its own plans. It will be important to set realistic expectations, but I am very supportive of the overall thinking and approach.� Kate Green OBE, Labour Member of Parliament for Stretford and Urmston

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| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013


Manchester demonstrated civic responsibility in attempting to address the problems faced by this group of local prisoners. A unique partnership was formed from the private, public and voluntary sector by committed organisations and individuals.Through our local commissioning we were able to harness multi-agency support.

This is a Team Effort

It takes As Long as it Takes

Working with short sentenced prisoners should be a team effort, with team members drawn from a variety of disciplines. A single agency cannot do everything for this group of offenders.

Turning lives around takes time. 3 months is not long enough. A year may also be insufficient in some cases.

Partnership Working Across all Agencies is Essential

All staff members working with this group of offenders need to be emotionally resilient and well trained. They need to understand how to offer both challenge and support, and be able to motivate others to change their behaviour and lifestyle.This is especially important when offenders are discharged from custody and risk a relapse into a previously chaotic lifestyle.

The aim of Choose Change was to engage offenders who would not otherwise have received resettlement help to live a better life and make a more positive contribution to society. Everyone involved in the project had a commitment to the participants themselves and to the city of Manchester, holding each other accountable for the delivery of the service and its outcomes.

Start inside the Prison and Continue Through the Gate It is essential to start working with shortsentenced prisoners inside prison establishments. Choose Change was located inside HMP Manchester but carried the torch for case management and case co-ordination beyond the prison gate.This was appreciated by the prisoners themselves as it removed barriers to them obtaining assistance and support upon release.

Working in this Area is Tough and Needs Tough People

Success can only be Achieved by Keeping Project Delivery Local The service must be delivered and supervised at a local level. Local agencies have expertise and experience with this client group. They understand the local landscape and will be best placed to galvanise resources for working in this area.

Not All Prisoners are the Same and This Is Not a “One Size Fits All Solution” Each offender needs an individually tailored care plan and a bespoke service. A “one size fits all” approach will not be effective in reducing re-offending.

Think About Risk Not all short- sentenced prisoners present a low risk of serious harm to themselves or others. Risk assessment and risk management arrangements need to be robust and communicated effectively between all agencies.

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References

1

Mark Easton, Social affairs Editor, BBC 8th November, 2013 www.bbc.co.uk

2

Home Office Statistical Bulletin 2010/11

3

“Managing offenders on short custodial sentences”. National Audit Office Report HC431, March 2010)

4

“Desistance and Development: The psychosocial process of “Going straight”, Shadd Maruna. British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings Volume 2, Queens University, Belfast, 15th-19th July 1997

5

“The Delinquent Way of Life”. West, D.J. and Farrington, D. P. (1997). London: Heineman

6

“Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis”. Criminology, 28, 369-404 Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J., Hoge, R.D., Zinger, I., Gendreau, P., and Cullen, F.T., (1990).

7

“How and why people stop offending: discovering desistence”. McNeill, F., Farrell, F., Lightowler, C., Maruna, S. Insights evidence summaries to support social services in Scotland, April 2012

8

www.justice.gov.uk.

9

The long and winding road: routes to settled accommodation for offenders in the North West” Manchester Metropolitan University, 2010

10 “Interim findings from the Evaluation of Choose Change”. Fox, C., Williams, P., Albertson. K., Provan, A., and Woods, A. Manchester Metropolitan University, 2010 11 “Evaluation of Choose Change at HMP Manchester”. Smith, C., Smyth, G., Watson, A., Fox, C., and Ellison, M. Manchester Metropolitan University, July 2013 12 ibid 13 www.russellwebster.com/blog

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| The Revolving Door of Prison: Learning from the Choose Change Project 2009-2013


Acknowledgements

This report has been compiled on behalf of the Oglesby Charitable Trust by Angela Buckley of the Greater Manchester Probation Trust. We would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their work on the Choose Change pilot: Helen Greenard and Alix Critchlow Choose Change Project managers Richard Vince former Governor HMP Manchester Roz Hamilton CEO

Greater Manchester Probation Trust Sir Peter Fahey, Chief Constable Greater Manchester Police Nigel Stott Programme Lead (Criminal Justice) Public Health Manchester Suzanne Worrall and Tim Coghlan Heads of Re-offending Unit HMP Manchester Jane Birch Commissioner Salford DAAT Christian Wewer High Sheriffs Police Fund Alison Hodges The Co-operative Group Manchester Metropolitan University Prison and Probation staff who worked on the pilot from 2009-2013 Over 400 inmates of HMP Manchester who voluntarily participated in the pilot project

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Š The Oglesby Charitable Trust The publication is copyright and no part of the document may be reproduced without prior permission. January 2014. The Oglesby Charitable Trust PO Box 336 Altrincham Cheshire WA14 3XD e: oglesbycharitabletrust@bruntwood.co.uk www.oglesbycharitabletrust.co.uk

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