Four design movements plus one future projection
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek, chronos, “time”; and , -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time, such as the use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also “the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events”. Chronology is part of periodization. It is also part of the discipline of history, including earth history, the earth sciences, and study of the geologic time scale (see Prehistoric chronologies below). Chronology Magazine was written and designed by Jordan Haynie in Salt Lake City. The images contained within the magazine are contemporary reflections of work made during the different periods presented. Issue 001 deals with the De Stijl movement starting in 1917 and ending in 1931. Simultaneously the Bauhaus started in 1919 and was closed in 1933. In 1975 Wolfgang Wiengart was working at the Basel school of design in Switzerland. Using Swiss typography as his base, he bagan to blow that apart and started a ‘New Wave’ of Swiss typography. Memphis started in Italy in 1980 and challenged notions of ‘Good Design’. We will also see what the future holds for design with one future projection—Common Type.
1931 Theo Van Doesburg dies in Davos. 1924 Mondrian leaves the movement after the introduction elementarism. 1920 Le Neo-Plasticisme was published by Mondrian. 1917 De Stijl movement begins in the Netherlands.
De Stijl, Dutch for “The Style”, also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands. De Stijl is also the name of a journal that was published by the Dutch painter, designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), propagating the group’s theories. Next to van Doesburg, the group’s principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), and Bart van der Leck (1876– 1958), and the architects Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), Robert van ‘t Hoff (1887–1979), and J.J.P. Oud (1890– 1963). The artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group’s work is known as neoplasticism — the new plastic art (or Nieuwe Beelding in Dutch). Proponents of De Stijl sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white. Indeed, according to the Tate Gallery’s online article on neoplasticism, Mondrian himself sets forth these delimitations in his
essay ‘Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art’. He writes, “...
tion, both in architecture and painting, by using only
this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of
straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular
appearance, that is to say, natural form and colour.
forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was
On the contrary, it should find its expression in the
limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue,
abstraction of form and colour, that is to say, in the
and the three primary values, black, white, and grey.
straight line and the clearly defined primary colour.”
The works avoided symmetry and attained aesthetic
The Tate article further summarizes that this art
balance by the use of opposition. This element of the
allows “only primary colours and non-colours, only
movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: “a
squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal
post or support”; this is best exemplified by the con-
or vertical line.”
struction of crossing joints.
The Guggenheim Museum’s online article on De Stijl
In many of the group’s three-dimensional works,
summarizes these traits in similar terms: “It [De Stijl]
vertical and horizontal lines are positioned in layers
was posited on the fundamental principle of the ge-
or planes that do not intersect, thereby allowing each
ometry of the straight line, the square, and the rect-
element to exist independently and unobstructed
angle, combined with a strong asymmetricality; the
by other elements. This feature can be found in the
predominant use of pure primary colors with black
Rietveld Schröder House and the Red and Blue Chair.
and white; and the relationship between positive and negative elements in an arrangement of non-objective forms and lines.”
De Stijl was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about “ideal” geometric forms (such as the “perfect straight line”) in
The name De Stijl is supposedly derived from Gott-
the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M.H.J.
fried Semper’s Der Stil in den technischen und tek
Schoenmaekers. The works of De Stijl would influ-
tonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik (1861–3),
ence the Bauhaus style and the international style of
which Curl suggests was mistakenly believed to ad-
architecture as well as clothing and interior design. It
vocate materialism and functionalism. In general,
did not adhere to the principles of art schools like the
De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstrac-
Bauhaus; it was a collective project.
The Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that com-
closed by its own leadership under pressure from
bined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for
the Nazi regime.The changes of venue and leadership
the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique,
It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the Ger-
instructors, and politics.
man term Bauhaus literally “house of construction”, stood for “School of Building”.
For instance: the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even
The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius
though it had been an important revenue source;
in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its
when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930,
founder was an architect; the Bauhaus did not have
he transformed it into a private school, and would not
an architecture department during the first years of
allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.
its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a “total” work of art in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aes-
The school existed in three German cities (Weimar
thetic issues and material possibilities as the school.
from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and
They also responded to the promise of a “minimal
Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different ar-
dwelling” written into the new Weimar Constitution.
chitect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928,
Ernst May, Bruno Taut, and Martin Wagner, among oth-
Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van
ers, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin
der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was
and sometimes fierce public debate.
1919 Walter Gropius opens The Bauhaus in Wiemar, Germany
1925 The Bauhaus moves to Dessau
1928 Hannes Meyer becomes director
1930 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe becomes director and moved to Berlin in 1932
1933 The Bauhaus Closes under pressure from the Nazis.
1963 Wiengart attends the Basel school of design.
1968 Wiengart begins teaching at the BAsel School
1970 Wiengart joins the editorial board of Typographische MonatsblĂ¤tter
2005 Wiengart retires from teaching at the Basel School.
Just as Herbert Bayer, Jan Tschichold, and others
lead type and letterpress systems. In his teaching and
employed a new approach to typographic design in
personal projects he sought to breathe a new spirit
the 1920s, some forty years later, opposition to the
into the typography of order and neatness by ques-
cool formalism of the modernist tradition emerged
tioning the premises, rules, and surface appearances
first in Switzerland and then spread around the world.
that were hardening the innovations of the Swiss mas-
In 1964 young Wolfgang Weingart (b. 1941), who had
ters into an academic style. Time-honored traditions
already completed a three-year apprenticeship in
of typography and visual-language systems were re-
typography and studied art, arrived in Basel from
thought. To emphasize an important word in a head-
southeastern Germany to study with Emil Ruder.
line, Weingart often made it white on a chunky, black
Weingart joined Armin Hofmann on the faculty of the Basel School in 1968. As a student, Weingart had worked under the influence of Ruder and Hofmann; as a faculty member, however, he taught type differently than his mentors. Weingart began to question the typography of absolute order and cleanness.
He wondered if perhaps the international style had become so refined and prevalent throughout the world that it had reached an anemic phase. Reject-
rectangle. Wide letterspacing, discarded in the fetish for tight type in the revolution from metal to photographic typographic systems in the 1960s, was explored. In response to a request to identify the kinds of typography he designed, Weingart listed “sunshine type, bunny type, ant type, five-minute type, typewriter type,” and “for-the-people type.” The humor and expressive metaphors Weingart used to define his work find close parallels in his typographic invention.
ing the right angle as an exclusive organizing principle,
But by the mid-1970s Weingart set off in a new direc-
Weingart achieved a joyous and intuitive design with
tion, turning his attention toward offset printing and
a richness of visual effects. Ideology and rules col-
film systems. He used the printer’s camera to alter
lapsed in the face of his boundless energy. Drawing
images and explored the unique properties of the film
on broad technical knowledge and a willingness to
image. Weingart began to move away from purely ty-
explore the untried, he turned up the intensity of
pographic design and embraced collage as a medium
the page. From 1968 until 1974, Weingart worked with
for visual communication.
PU NK I
IN THIS DAY AND AGE KV: First of all, that kid is just YOUR hanging out with his friends talking a rapid amount of smack on his Twitter account. I don’t
have that kind of time. Is it hard to support your family as a musician? I don’t know. It
probably is. But I have a really
good manager, good booking agents, and a really smart
INTERVIEW W/ KURT VILE
IN MMXIII PUNK IDEALS ARE IRRELEVANT
07 The Memphis group comprised of Italian designers and architects who created a series of highly influential products in the 1980’s. They disagreed with the conformist approach at the time and challenged the idea that products had to follow conventional shapes, colours, textures and patterns. The Memphis group was founded in 1981. One of the leading members of the group Ettore Sottsass called Memphis design the ‘New International Style’. Memphis was a reaction against the slick, black humorless design of the 1970’s. It was a time of minimalism with such products as typewriters, buildings, cameras, cars and furniture all seeming to lack personality and individualism. In contrast, the Memphis Group offered many bright, colourful, shocking pieces. The colours they used contrasted the dark blacks and browns of European furniture. It may look dated today but at the time it looked remarkable. The word tasteful is not normally associated with products generated by the Memphis Group but they were certainly ground breaking. All this would seem to suggest that the Memphis Group was very superficial but that was far from the truth. Their main aim was to reinvigorate the Radical Design movement. The group intended to develop a new creative approach to design. On the 11th of December 1980 Scottsass organised a meeting with other such famous designers. They decided to form a design collaborative. It would be named Memphis after the Bob Dylan song ‘’Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again’’. Coincidentally the song had been played repeatedly throughout the evening. Memphis was historically the ancient Egyptian capital of culture and the birthplace of ‘Elvis Presley’. This was quite ironic but so were most of the pieces created by the group. They drew inspiration from such movements as Art Deco and Pop Art, styles such as the 1950’s Kitsch and futuristic themes. Their concepts were in stark contrast to so called ‘Good Design’.
1980 Ettore Sottsass founded the the Memphis Group
1988 The Memphis group disbands.
In the future there will be a proliferation of people creating thier own typefaces. The field of experts will become so large that a new movement of experimental type and typography will change the way we communicate through design. The tools and technology to make and distribute the type will be available to everyone. The skills to use the technology will be taught schools starting in 6th grade. The time when â€˜tried and trueâ€™ typefaces were the only respectable options will end. While the alphabet will remain the same, the type of letters will change. Because so many people will have the skills to design type the results will be surprising. Legibility will be increased and the most sophisticated and beautiful letters will be made. Letterforms will be read not only on the printed page but on the web. HTML will support every typeface and will be used integrated into every device. This will lead to a new kind of graphic design that exceeds all of the prior historical work. All other movements will have contributed to this common type movement but this will be the best one. It will be a turning point in the design world and the work will get better and better.
In early printed books the colophon, when present, was a brief description of the printing and publication of the book, giving some or all of the following data: the date of publication, the place of publication/ printing (sometimes including the address as well as the city name), the name(s) of the printer(s), and the name(s) of the publisher(s), if different. Sometimes additional information, such as the name of a proofreader or editor, or other more-or-less relevant details, might be added. The normal position for a colophon was after the explicit, at the end of the text (and often right at the end of the book, after any index or register). After around 1500 these data were often transferred to the title page, which sometimes existed in parallel with a colophon. In Great Britain colophons grew generally less common in the 16th century. The statements of printing which appeared (under the terms of the Unlawful Societies Act 1799) on the verso of the title-leaf and final page of each book printed in Britain in the 19th century are not, strictly speaking, colophons, and are better referred to as “printers’ imprints” or “printer statements”.With the development of the private press movement from around 1890, colophons became conventional in private press books, and often included a good deal of additional information.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek, chronos, “time”; and , -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time, such as the use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also “the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events”. Chronology is part of periodization. It is also part of the discipline of history, including earth history, the earth sciences, and study of the geologic time scale. Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time, basically a time line and is distinct from, but relies upon chronometry or timekeeping, and historiography, which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of formerly living things by measuring the proportion of carbon-14 isotope in their carbon content. Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.