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[re]claiming u r b a n s p a c e Activating the Residual Space From Transport Infrastructure

Jennifer Palumbo

Thesis 2012-2013 Advisor: Maurice Cox


contents abstract

3

thesis

5

annotated bibliography

19

precedents: design strategies

21

site analysis

27

precedents: site strategies

37

program analysis

45

precedents: program strategies

49

sources

55

design documentation

59

1 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

2


abstract As highways meander through large urban areas, they often slice neighborhoods into pieces and leave behind undesirable spaces. The presence of these elevated highways in neighborhoods can cause nearby businesses and residents to suffer and even relocate. This trend disrupts the urban fabric and most importantly the identity of the neighborhood. Many cities across the United States struggle with reconnecting neighborhoods divided by elevated infrastructure. The Congress for New Urbanism has created an initiative to tear down portions of elevated highways and transform them into boulevards in order to restore the separated neighborhoods. The city of New Orleans is a current campaign for the Highways to Boulevards initiative as neighborhoods such as Tulane/Gravier, Treme/Lafitte, and the Seventh Ward have been greatly affected by the elevated portion of Interstate 10. This thesis strives to explore how an architectural intervention can activate the residual space under the I-10 and create a collective identity for the neighborhoods divided by it.

3 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

4


thesis Introduction In today’s cities, convenient and fast mobility is vital to the success of urban areas. While discussing ideal cities, Le Corbusier explains that “the conquest of speed has always been the dream of mankind” . In his designs, these ideal cities were futuristic utopias where the automobile was a central focus. Corbusier stated, “I tell you straight: a city made for speed is made for success.” 1

2

1

Le Corbusier, City of Tomorrow and Its Planning (New York: Dover Publications), 1987, p. 190.

2

Le Corbusier, City of Tomorrow and Its Planning (New York: Dover Publications), 1987 p. 179.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

5


Fiat factory Lingotto, Turin, Italy

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

6


Freeways are the transport infrastructure used to achieve this speed that Corbusier refers to as a brutal necessity. As these freeways approach large urban areas, they often become elevated in order to avoid surface congestion and maintain higher speed limits. The elevated portions of freeways tend to create undesirable spaces and have negative effects on surrounding neighborhoods. These two factors have driven the campaign to replace elevated urban highways with surface boulevards.

7

However, I believe there is a beauty to the repetition of the structural elements of the freeways and the new spatial typology that they are creating beneath them. This new typology presents the opportunity to test the potential of an architectural intervention to activate space and create a collective identity for a neighborhood divided by infrastructure.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

8


History

9

By the 1930’s, mass transit in urban areas was on the decline almost everywhere across the country as Americans shifted to the convenience, flexibility, and privacy of the automobile. This trend pushed for a highway system linking the largest metropolitan areas across the country.3 The construction of the Interstate Highway System began in the 1950’s and continued until the 1970’s. After World War II, the Interstate Act of 1956 planned to build over 41,000 miles of highway across the country linking many US cities and sprawling suburbs.4 These expressways altered the urban landscape permanently throughout the nation. This highway system carved out primary arteries, dividing cohesive neighborhoods and fragmenting core cities into pieces. Huge interchanges, access ramps, cloverleaf’s created large areas of residual and dead space in cities.5

3

R. Mohl, “The Interstates and the Cities: Highways, Housing, and the Freeway Revolt” (Research Report, Poverty and Race Research Action Council, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2002). 1-2.

4

“The Interstate Highway System,” The History Channel website, http://www.history.com?topics/ interstate-highway-system (accessed Nov 19, 2012).

5

R. Mohl, “The Interstates and the Cities: Highways, Housing, and the Freeway Revolt” (Research Report, Poverty and Race Research Action Council, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2002). 1-2.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Phoenix, AZ

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

10


Highways to Boulevards Initiative

11

With the aging of infrastructure systems, negative impacts on surrounding neighborhoods, and the disruption of city densities, ideas about changing the highway system have become popular in many cities, and even sometimes a reality. The Congress for the New Urbanism was organized in 1993 and has since been promoting healthier living conditions in US neighborhoods. Recently they have started the “Highways to Boulevards� initiative that highlights the top ten locations in North America where the removal of urban highways would stimulate valuable revitalization through the introduction of boulevards and case studies of model cities that have removed portions of the Interstate System. The list of prospective cities is based on factors such as the redevelopment potential, potential cost savings, and the ability to improve overall mobility and local access. The I-10 Claiborne Overpass In New Orleans is featured on the 2012 list and is currently receiving significant community attention.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

12


Current Debate On Removing The Elevated 1-10

13

Across the city of New Orleans there is a debate about future of the elevated I-10 and the Claiborne Corridor. There have been many organizations formed, neighborhood meetings held, and research done to determine what is the best solution for the area. The arguments against the removal of the 1-10 focus on the issues of traffic, safety, pollution, gentrification, and the effects on nearby businesses. There have been concerns from businesses in New Orleans East that by removing their main connection to the city, access to their shops and services will be limited and they will greatly suffer.6 Neighborhood residences have expressed concerns that by removing the I-10 this will create more surface traffic near their homes and they fear for the safety of pedestrians in the area. In addition, residents are worried that the redevelopment of I-10 into a boulevard will increase nearby property values which will lead to gentrification.7

6

Richard A. Webster., “Claiborne I-10 Corridor in Crosshairs of Draft Plan,” The Urban Conservancy.” (2009), http://www.urbanconservancy.org/news/roundup/archive/966.php (accessed November 19, 2012).

7

Richard A. Webster., “Claiborne I-10 Corridor in Crosshairs of Draft Plan,” The Urban Conservancy.” (2009), http://www.urbanconservancy.org/news/roundup/archive/966.php (accessed November 19, 2012).

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Waggonner & Ball sketches

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

14


15

In contrast, there has been a great deal of research supporting the removal of the I-10. The Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition was formed to plan and advocate for the restoration of the Claiborne corridor into a boulevard.8 The coalition is made up of developers, funders, neighborhood organizations, church and faith based groups, and schools and universities. The coalition was commissioned by the Congress for the New Urbanism to create a report summarizing their research on alternatives for the elevated I-10. The report addresses issues of traffic, pedestrian safety, and the great possibilities of redevelopment along the new boulevard. Ideas include the restoration of the landmark St. Bernard Circle to recreate the historical neighborhood focal point and even adding bike lanes to the boulevard to increase safety for drivers and cyclists. The boulevard would also bring back many trees in hopes to return the Claiborne Corridor to its former greenway glory.

8 Smart Mobility Inc, Waggonner & Ball Architects, “Restoring Claiborne Avenue: Alternatives for the Future of Claiborne Avenue.� (Report to the Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition and Congress for the New Urbanism, 2010.) 3-4.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

16


The Future of Elevated Infrastructure While there still remains a great deal of research to be done before there are any major decisions made on removing the elevated I-10, there is an immediate solution to many of the problems it has caused. I believe that an architectural intervention under the highway can activate the residual space and recreate a collective identity for the neighborhoods divided by it.

17

By using the structure of the elevated highway as the framework for an architectural intervention, a solution can occur with or without the highway. The highway will become the regulating force on the intervention, but it will not be essential for its survival. The solution is not whether to tear down the highway or not, it lies in how to occupy the space where it exists now, and how to preserve the memory if it is removed. Using this strategy, the gap between infrastructure and architecture will decrease and the impacts of these structures on neighborhoods will be lessened. Frank Lloyd Wright writes, “I forsee that roads will soon be architecture too. As they well may be. Great architecture.� 9

9

Frank Lloyd Wright, Frank Lloyd Wright: An Autobiography (Pomegranate, 2005.) 327.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Remains of an elevated highway in Seoul, Korea.

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

18


annotated bibliography Lewis, Tom. Divided Highways. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc, 1997. Divided Highways is a collection of stories about the history of the Interstate system told by the people who designed, constructed, and even tried to stop the highways from being built. This source is useful for background information on the Interstate system and most importantly the reasons for people opposing it. The information specifically on New Orleans will be crucial to the development of this thesis. Stoll, Katrina, and Scott Lloyd. Infrastructure as Architecture Designing Composite Networks. Berlin: Jovis Verlag GmbH, 2010. This book is a selection of the writings of influencial architects and writers who evalute the combination of architecture and infrastructure. These short pieces are divided into the themes: Infrastructure Economy, Infrastructure Ecology, Infrastructure Culture, Infrastructure Politics and Infrastructure Space/Network. This source will be particularly useful when discussing the potential for multi functions of highways and the development of the space beneath them. Smart Mobility and Waggonner & Ball Associates. “Restoring Claiborne Avenue: Alternatives for the Future of Claiborne Avenue. Report to the Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition and Congress for the New Urbanism, July 15, 2010. This report was a summary of the research done about removing a two mile stretch of the elevated I-10 and restoring Claiborne Avenue to a boulevard. It will be useful to discuss the current debate happening in New Orleans revolving around the removal of the I-10.

19 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Mohl, Raymond. “The Interstates and the Cities: Highways, Housing, and the Freeway Revolt.” Research Paper for the Pverty and Race Research Action Council at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2002. This report is a summary of information about US Highways and their effects on surrounding cities. Most importantly, Mohl speaks directly about residual space and how it is created and the effects of these areas on neighborhoods. This information will be particularly helpful when defending the idea of reclaiming residual space. Congress for the New Urbanism, “Highways to Boulevards: Reclaiming Urbanism Revitalizing Cities.” http://www.cnu.org/highways. (accessed November 10, 2012). This website is the main source for information about the current initiative by the Congress for New Urbanism to remove elevated highways and transform them into boulevards. There are descriptions of model cities and also the current campaigns. Since New Orleans is one of the current campaign cities, this website will be crucial in explaining the current issues with the elevated I-10. Webster, Richard A.. “Claiborne I-10 Corridor in Crosshairs of Draft Plan.” The Urban Conservancy (April 3, 2009), http://www.urbanconservancy.org/news/roundup/ archive/966.php (accessed November 11, 2012). This article provides the framework for the current debate on removing the I-10 in New Orleans. Webster describes the different arguements that have surfaced either for the removal of the highway or against. This source will be useful when describing the current state of the debate to remove the elevated I-10 in New Orleans.

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

20


precedents: design strategies The Edge Park Brooklyn, New York W Architecture and Landscape Architecture Completion: 2011 The Edge Park in Brooklyn is a large public space that also explores the idea of path vs. place. The architects use different site materials to define paths or places.

path vs. place

21 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

22


Laban Dance Center Deptford, London Herzog & de Meuron Completion: 2003

23

The Laban Dance Center features a facade material that I find intriguing. The building appears strikingly different during the day and at night. The panel system used at the Laban Dance Center features colored elements that seem to disappear on an overcast day. This change in appearance is caused by the material selection for the facade and the building seems to transform throughout the day.

visibility

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

24


Housing Pisa, Italy Massimo Carmassi Completion: 1988

25

This Housing project contains 56 flats in a long and skinny volume. There are strong repetitions across the plan and facade. The windows read as long linear strips across the facade, breaking up the continuous brick. The windows are set in from the brick to create the dramatic shadows and contrast between dark and light that is seen across the front of the building.

repetition

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

26


site analysis City Scale New Orleans, LA Interstate 10 is the southernmost transcontinental highway, stretching from Santa Monica, California to Jacksonville, Florida. It crosses eight states and passes through many large cities such as Los Angeles, Houston, and New Orleans. New Orleans is a city situated in between two bodies of water, Lake Ponchartrain and the Mississippi River. The I-10 becomes a third regulating line as it runs through the city.

27 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


central business district

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

28


City Scale I-10 Claiborne Corridor I-10 runs over Claiborne Ave. through New Orleans, along the Central Business and through the neighborhoods of Tulane/Gravier, Treme/ Lafitte, the Seventh Ward, and St. Roch. Claiborne turns at St. Bernard Ave. in the Seventh Ward and leaves the I-10 to rip through the neighborhood.

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Construction of the I-10 over Claiborne Ave.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


I-10

e

rn bo ai Cl e. Av Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

30


Neighborhood Scale

31

Current Zoning of the Seventh Ward Single Family Residential Two Family Residential Multiple Family Residential General Commercial Neighborhood Commercial General Office Medical Services Historic Marigny/Treme Light Industrial Light Industrial

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

I-

In the 1960’s, when the elevated I-10 was built through the center of the Seventh Ward, the prosperous business district of this neighborhood was destroyed. In the residents’ plans for the redevelopment of their neighborhood, they include restoring business districts, adding greenways and re-establishing a mixed use main street.

10

The Seventh Ward Claibo

rne Av e.


Flor

ida

Ave .

St.

Br oa N.

Elysian Fields Ave.

ve. dA nar

d

St

.

Ber N. Claiborne Ave.

Es

pl

an

ad

eA ve .

Neighborhood Redevelopment Plan Current Commercial Proposed Commercial Proposed Greenways Proposed Mixed-Use Development

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

32


Site Plan Scale The neighborhood directly surrounding the site is mostly residential with a few commercial and community buildings. There are many empty lots and abandoned houses that contribute to the lack of collective identity for the neighborhood.

Frenchmen St.

Touro St.

Pauger St.

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N. Tonti St.

Elysian Fields Ave.

N. Miro St.

N. Galvez St.

Land Use Surrounding the Site Residential Abandoned Residential Commercial

N. Johnson St.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

Community Empty Lots


There are two main bus routes that run near the site and four main roads. Each of the roads is a one way road.

Site Access Public Transportation Elysian Fields Bus Route N. Galvez Bus Stop Pedestrian and Vehicular N. Galvez St. N. Miro St. Touro St. Frenchmen St.

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

34


Site Plan Scale The structural elements of the elevated Interstate creates many repeating lines across the site. From above, they are seen as joints in the highway slab. From ground level supports and beams form a series of regulating lines.

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highway beams

figure ground before the I-10

highway column supports

current figure ground [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

street grid


regulating lines across the site

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

36


precedents: site strategies A8erna

The Netherlands NL Architects Completion: 2003 Highway A8 runs through the village of Koog aan de Zaan, near Amsterdam, and was built on columns in order to cross a nearby river. NL Architects saw the space under this Highway as an opportunity to collaborate with the local government and residents to reconnect the two sides of town.

recreational

commercial

recreational

37 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Supermarket

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

38


Gulfgate Housing Houston, Texas Brian Andrews and Jude LeBlanc

39

The Gulfgate Housing project consists of housing units developed beneath an interstate in Houston, Texas. This exploration serves to develop prototypes that can be used in new infill sites that will decrease urban sprawl. These new site strategies would allow access to the housing by the car, but also create small pedestrian districts. The repetition and spacing of the structural elements of the highway has determined the massing of the housing project and has created regulating lines across the site.

Housing Open Space

Longitudal Section

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Housing Highway Structural Element

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

40


IM Viadukt Zurich, Switzerland EM2N Completion: 2010

41

The Wipkingen Viadukt runs through the city of Zurich dividing it into two distinct zones. The IM Viadukt project by EM2N transformed the viadukt from a spatial barrier into a connecting structural element. EM2N used the development of a commercial shopping district into the arches of the viadukt to develop the infrastructure element into an integral part of the urban fabric. Each of the shops has a series of skylights to bring natural light into the spaces.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

42


The Highline New York City James Corner Field Operations Diller Scofidio + Renfro Piet Oudolf First Section Completion: 2009

43

The Highline is a 1.5 mile long public park built on an abandoned elevated railroad. The success of the park has relied on what exists on top of the railroad, but what is truly intriguing is what happens beneath the Highline. In Renzo Piano’s design for the New Whitney Museum, he uses underneath the Highline as part of the entrance sequence to the museum. This strategy will encourage people to occupy the space under the Highline.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Where the Highline meets the Standard Hotel, there is a layering of public and private space and infrastructure. By placing the main entry to the hotel under the railroad, a public plaza is formed outside of the entrance. The hotel entry beneath the Highline also becomes a link to the private hotel spaces above. Private Space Infrastructure Public Entry Public Space

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

44


program analysis Project Description The Public Market system was a very integral part of American life and a huge part of New Orleans history. When most other cities had switched to private markets and grocery stores, there were still 32 operating public markets in New Orleans. These markets were placed in the city’s neighborhoods and used as centers for exchanging goods, gathering, and socializing. Historical markets featured spaces for local vendors to sell their goods and the public to circulate, view, and purchase these goods. Historically, market days in New Orleans fell on Sundays and the markets would be bustling with activity. Today the Crescent City Farmer’s Market operates three days a week. These schedules leave times when the market is slow or not even operating. Adding program to the pubic market such as a garden center, childcare center, and exhibition space, will allow the market to attract people at all times of the day and into the night. This new public market will create a public space that will encourage social gathering and community.

45 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

46


Program Diagrams

educational

47 central market concept

commercial

indoor

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

cultural

outdoor


public market vendor stalls cafe corner grocery service spaces

performance area stage area outdoor gathering space shaded seating

daycare

indoor facilities protected outdoor space

health clinic exam rooms meeting rooms offices

garden center garden indoor tool storage

exhibition space indoor art exhibition space storage

technology center computer and internet access

commercial shops sales floor storage

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

48


precedents: program strategy The Celje Market Celje, Slovenia Arhitektura Kruťec Completed: 2009 The Celje Market is located at the heart of Celje, Slovenia. It’s large steel roof covers both indoor and outdoor vendor spaces, a cafe, and support spaces. The roof is broken down into different planes and then shifted to allow natural light into the market during the day. The indoor vendor spaces are designed to be flexible stations for vendors to use in different ways.

Roof Design of old markets

Roof Design of the Celje Market

49 [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Outdoor Vendor Space Indoor Vendor Stalls Outdoor Seating Cafe

Indoor Vendor Stalls

Outdoor Vendor Stations

The Celje Market

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

50


Santa Caterina Market Renovation Barcelona, Spain EMBT Completed: 2005

51

The Santa Caterina Market is located in a dense urban neighborhood. With taller buildings surrounding the perimeter of the market, the roof became the focus of the design as it is completely visible from all around. This market is an example of the juxtaposition of new and old. The old market structure remains on the ground level with the typical repeating arches across the facade. The exquisite roof is then placed above and secured with steel columns. On the interior of the market, the vendor stalls are not placed linear to each other but instead they branch off one another and the circulation between them is different then at a typical linear market.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Circulation primary circulation secondary circulation

interior of market

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

52


Reconstruction of San Michele in Borgo Pisa, Italy Massimo Carmassi 1985-2002

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The reconstruction of San Michele in Borgo is a renovation of a block that was majority destroyed in WWII. The complex includes housing units and commercial spaces. The commercial spaces are on the ground level and tucked into the arches of the slender mass. The two other masses contain housing that open on to the courtyard. The commercial mass serves as a gateway to pass through to get to the courtyard.

Housing Units Commercial Spaces

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

54


sources Thesis Congress for the New Urbanism, “Highways to Boulevards: Reclaiming Urbanism Revitalizing Cities.” http://www.cnu.org/highways. (accessed November 10, 2012). Lewis, Tom. Divided Highways. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc, 1997. Mohl, Raymond. “The Interstates and the Cities: Highways, Housing, and the Freeway Revolt.” Research Paper for the Pverty and Race Research Action Council at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2002. Smart Mobility and Waggonner & Ball Associates. “Restoring Claiborne Avenue: Alternatives for the Future of Claiborne Avenue. Report to the Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition and Congress for the New Urbanism, July 15, 2010. Stoll, Katrina, and Scott Lloyd. Infrastructure as Architecture Designing Composite Networks. Berlin: Jovis Verlag GmbH, 2010. Webster, Richard A.. “Claiborne I-10 Corridor in Crosshairs of Draft Plan.” The Urban Conservancy (April 3, 2009), http://www.urbanconservancy.org/news/roundup/archive/966.php (accessed November 11, 2012). Images Cover Photo: Author Table of contents: Author Abstract: Greg Pease Photography. http://www.gregpeasephoto.com/index.php#mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&s =22&p=1&a=0&at=0. (accessed December 5, 2012). Thesis 2012 NCAA Tournament. “As Superdome goes, so does New Orleans.” Yahoo Sports. http://rivals.yahoo.com/ncaa/basketball/news?slug=jh-hart_superdome_represent_new_ orleans_033112. (accessed December 12, 2012).

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Congress for the New Urbanism, “Highways to Boulevards: Reclaiming Urbanism Revitalizing Cities.” http://www.cnu.org/highways. (accessed November 10, 2012). Exhibitions. “The Enduring Landscape:Michael Light, photographs.” Etherton Gallery. http://www. ethertongallery.com/exhibitions/enduringlandscape/light.html. (accessed December 5, 2012). “Johanne Brunet Portfolio.” Red Bubble. ”http://www.redbubble.com/people/johannebrunet/ works/5232919-danger-lies-aheadv “New Orleans skyline from I-10.“ Panoramio. http://www.panoramio.com/photo/17814902. (accessed December 14, 2012). Tout Sur Google Earth. http://www.tout-sur-google-earth.com/t8528-usine-fiat-lingotto-turinitalie. (accessed December 5, 2012). Smart Mobility and Waggonner & Ball Associates. “Restoring Claiborne Avenue: Alternatives for the Future of Claiborne Avenue. Report to the Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition and Congress for the New Urbanism, July 15, 2010. Vanderbuilt, Tom. “Unbuilt Highways.” Slate, Entry 8 (December 23, 2010), http://www.slate.com/articles/life/transport/features/2010/unbuilt_highways/seoul_samil_ elevated_expresswaycheonggye_road.html. The Edge Park Carmassi Architecture Studio. http://www.carmassiarchitecture.com/eng/. (accessed December 12, 2012). Carmassi, Massimo, Marco Mulazzani and Sergio Polano. Maximum Carmassi. Architecture of simplicity. Mondadori Electa, 1992. Holmes, Damian. “The Edge Park , Brooklyn USA , W Architecture & Landscape Architecture.” World Landscape Architecture, (Februrary 7, 2012), http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/theedge-park-brooklyn-usa-w-architecture/#.UM4ICXPjlCc.

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

56


Site City Planning Commission, “Draft Zoning Maps.” City of New Orleans. http://www.nola.gov/RESIDENTS/ City-Planning/DRAFT-Zoning-Ordinance/Draft-Zoning-Maps/. (accessed December 14, 2012). The Highline The City Review. “The Whitney Museum of American Art.” http://www.thecityreview.com/ues/madison/ whitney.html. (accessed December 5, 2012). Projects. “The Highline.” NYCEDC. http://www.nycedc.com/project/high-line. (accessed December 12, 2012). A8erna Info and Images Architecture & Design. “NL Architects: A8erna.” Architonic. http://www.architonic.com/aisht/a8erna-nlarchitects/5100103. (accessed December 10, 2012).

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Gulfgate Housing Info/Images “Wall Housing/Highway Type, Gulfgate Housing, The Gulfgate Mall (at the intersection of Interstate 45 and the 610 Loop), Houston, Texas, 1993-94.” W. Jude LeBlanc Architect. http://www. judeleblancarchitect.com/Wallhighway.htm. (accessed December 10, 2012). New Market in Celje Images “New Market in Celje / Arhitektura Krušec.” ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/60657/new-market-incelje-arhitektura-krusec/. Caterina Market Projects. “Santa Caterina Market renovation.” Enric Miralles - Benedetta Tagliabue | EMBT. http://www. mirallestagliabue.com/project_cm.asp?id=59. (accessed December 8, 2012). Primary spaces image Arquinauta.com: Comunidad de Arquitectura. http://www.arquinauta.com/foros/showthread. php?t=26683. (accessed December 14, 2012). IM Viadukt Info The Gondola Project.http://gondolaproject.com/2010/11/24/im-viadukt-zurich/. (accessed December 14, 2012).

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Projects. “Refurbishment Viaduct Arches, Zurich, Switzerland.” EM2N. http://www.em2n.ch/projects/ viaductarches. (accessed December 12, 2012). Plan Image “S. Michele in Borgo - Pisa.” Association Limen. http://www.limen.org/BBCC/tutela/S.Michele%20Pisa/ Carmassi.htm. (accessed December 12, 2012).

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

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design documentation

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Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

60


r e m o v i n g the elevated 1-10 Re-Imagining the I-10/Claiborne Corridor

61

Across the city of New Orleans there is a debate about the future of the elevated I-10 and the Claiborne Corridor. There have been many organizations formed, neighborhood meetings held, and research done to determine the best solution for the area. In their 2010 report to the Claiborne Corridor Improvement Coalition and the Congress for New Urbanism, Smart Mobility Inc. and Waggonner & Ball Architects divided the elevated I-10 into three segments. Segment A is made up of the interchange with I-10, Ponchartrain Expressway, and North Claiborne Ave. Segment B includes the Claiborne Corridor from the interchange to St. Bernard Ave where Claiborne Ave. diverges from I-10. Segment C includes the elevated I-10 where it then continues through the Seventh Ward. Proposals for Segment A include the simplifying of a very complex interchange between highway systems. Segment B is proposed to be transformed into a surface Boulevard. Segment C has proposed options including the continuation of the surface boulevard or simply the reconnecting of previously detached roads and the restitching of the neighborhood in a conventional way.

St. Bernard Circle Today

The chosen site for this thesis is in the Seventh Ward due to the location along the elevated I-10 and its negative effects on the neighborhood. St. Bernard Circle before the I-10

Segment B: Surface Boulevard [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

Claiborne Ave as a Boulevard before the I-10


Segment C through Seventh Ward Neighborhood

AVE ST. BERN ARD

ESPLANADE AVE

ORLEANS AVE

CANAL

E AVE TULAN

Undesirable spaces created by highway

VE SA

LD

N

IA YS EL

A

C

ST.

BER

NA

RD

AVE

B

E AV

DS

N

IA YS EL

L FIE

ST.

BER

NA

RD

AVE

Segment C Option 1: Continue Surface Boulevard

VE SA

N

IA YS EL

D IEL

F

ST.

BER

NA

RD

AVE

Segment C Option 2: Reconnect streets and restich neighborhood

VE SA

N

IA YS EL

D IEL

F

Segment C New Proposal: Pedestrian Path to Neighborhood Node at Elysian Fields Ave. Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

62

FIE


reconnecting a d i v i d e d neighborhood Creating a New Neighborhood Node

63

Claiborne Ave. features many neighborhood nodes along its path beneath the elevated I-10. They exist at the intersections with major streets such as Tulane Ave, Lafitte St., and St. Bernard Ave. These neighborhood nodes generate activity through providing neighborhood amenities, such as the medical campus at Tulane Ave, or the reopening of the Circle Foods at St. Bernard Ave. Elysian Fields Ave. is a major artery in the city and where it intersects with the I-10 in the Seventh Ward, would be an ideal location for a new neighborhood node due to its proximity to a major street and the need of amenities in the area. The Seventh Ward currently suffers from the negative effects of elevated infrastructure. The elevated I-10 rips through the neighborhood and creates a barrier from one side to the other. In order to attempt to reconnect the divided neighborhood, an architectural intervention that encourages activity in the residual space from the elevated highway is developed. This new node features many neighborhood amenities centering around the historically significant public market. Other amenities include a health clinic, commercial shops, cafe and coffee shop, childcare facility, technology center, garden center, art exhibition spaces, and a performance area.

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


ER N ST. B

AVE

AR

DA VE

ESPLANADE AVE

CANAL

LAFITTE ST.

TULANE

S

LD

N

IA YS EL

E AV

FIE

Neighborhood nodes along Claiborne Ave.

I-10 divides the Seventh Ward

Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

64


preserving a m e m o r y Developing a new block typology Assuming the elevated I-10 is no longer in use, a new block typology and neighborhood node incorporating some of the structural elements of the highway are developed to reconnect the Seventh Ward neighborhood, activate once undesirable spaces, and preserve a memory of where the infrastructure once existed.

65 St. Bernard Circle

Pedestrian Path

Neighborhood Node at Elysian Fields Ave.

Typical block before construction of the I-10

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure

When Seoul, Korea removed an elevated highway above a main river in the city, they preserved some of the supports in order to symbolize their history.

Typical block condition after the construction of the I-10


I-10 without road surface during construction.

Current I-10 structure.

Proposed partial deconstruction of highway structure.

Tulane University School of Architecture

Proposed new block typology with preserved highway supports, pedestrian path, and community green space

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

66


site regulating lines health center commercial shops public market childcare technology center garden center exhibition space performance area

67 Program Service program vs. service

connecting elements/ shading

site circulation [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


neighborhood node plan

health clinic

market shops

garden center

multipurpose hall

childcare tech center

exhibit space

exhibit space

coffee shop

performance area

commercial shops

cafe corner grocery

figure ground before the I-10

current figure ground

Tulane University School of Architecture

figure ground with proposed neighborhood node Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

68


visibility Views through the buildings straight to the market are achieved through the use of glass panels that completely open the faรงades.

69

street view

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

70


outdoor space By positioning the service zones on the perimeter and the program components towards the interior of the block, the outdoor space in the middle of the block is activated.

71

protected outdoor space near childcare [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


performance area Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

72


vegetation By removing the road surface and stripping the highway down to its skeleton, light is allowed to pass through the structure to once dark and undesirable spaces. Vegetation is also able to grow and green the neighborhood.

73

performance area [Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

74


shade Perforated metal panels connect the edges of the neighborhood node and also add a human scale to the large highway structure and provide shade.

75

section perspective through market

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

76


Model Photographs

77

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

78


Final Presentation Boards

79

[Re]claiming Urban Space: Activating the Residual Space from Transport Infrastructure


Tulane University School of Architecture

Thesis 2012-2013

Jennifer Palumbo

80


Thesis documentation - Jennifer Palumbo