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Week 1 – EOI: Case for Innovation: Architecture as a Discourse 2-5 Week 2 – EOI: Case for Innovation: Computation in Architecture 6-10 Week 3 – EOI: Case for Innovation: Parametric Design 11-12 Learning Outcomes-Case for Innovation 13 This section discusses state of the art projects which use architecture as a discourse. These projects were selcted as I beleive they possess innovative Week 4 – EOI: Research Project: CUT: Develop 14-18

qualities in their design, and these innovative ideas are clearly expressed through their architectural language.

Week 5 – EOI: Research Project: CUT: Develop19 Week 6/7 – EOI: Research Project: CUT: Fabricate: 20 Week 8- Learning Outcomes/EOI Conclusion: 21-22

Week 9-12 – Project Proposal: Develop/Refine/Project Final 23-36 Learning Objectives/Future- 37 References- 38

‘Contents’ [1]

‘Case for Innovation’ [2]

Architecture as a Discourse Seattle Central Library

Architecture as a Discourse AD on The Streets: M2 Building by Kengo Kuma

The Seattle Central Library is an innovative design as it is distinguished from other Libraries. Its highly flexible form, using bookcases to define space within an area, allows one to discover an entirely new atmosphere within a public space. The Libraries unique appearance consists of ‘floating platforms’, divided into 8 horizontal layers, specifically designed in consistency with its function. A glass cover is beneath a detailed steal wrapping, making for an attractive contrast of materials as well as formally defining public spaces through the language of architecture. A key ‘state of the art’ feature within this building is the ‘Dewey Ramp’. This is a fourstory ramp, allowing visitors to views books in a continuous sequence. The innovative design of the library maximises the publics engagement with resources, as well as establishing a connection with the outside world with fact, fiction and resourcefulness.

“The stacks, arranged along a continuous spiral ramp contained within a four-story slab, reinforce a sense of a world organized with machinelike precision.” (Nicolai Ouroussoff, Los Angeles Times). This link of the outside world with fact and fiction is similar to that of proposed in the Gateway project, with the ambition of linking nature with people.

Architecture as a Discourse [3]

This bizaree piece of architecture is soley an expression of choas, with ideas derived for postmodern America. The architectural language of this building is highly chaotic, and shows the effect of mixed, oversized elements within a construction. This building speaks of true diversity, and represents the endless restrictions within design. Elements used are dervied from classic architecture, however when combined in such a mixed and disproportionate fashion, appears far from elegant and classical, but rather conjested and disorderly. A truly heavy design, both physically and aesthetically.

Architecture as a Discourse [4]

Architecture as a Discourse




My project of designing a discovery centre for ‘Herring Island’ allowed me to explore the nature of organic and curvaceous forms in architecture. Conveying this type of language through a building allows its visitors to embrace movement within a buidling and experiance a sense of guidance through the curves of the spaces, thus creating a sense of continuity. This sense of continuity creates a sense of security, making the design more welcoming and inhabitable, which I believe to be an integral ingrediant in architectural design.

This section will discuss the unique innovations presented by contemporary computa tional design techniques and their advantages with building construction. Frank Gehry’s Nationale-Nederlanden Building, in particular, will be discussed and howthree dimen sional computer modelling has acheived specific outcomes to the design which would not be made possible without the the of computation in architecture.

CONCLUSION: After research on these state of the art projects, I have discovered that architecture as a discourse allows one to connect with the buildings visual culture. Architecture can be viewed in many form other than materialistic. It is a language, which can communicate to the public on a social and philisophical level. Is is through understanding and considering architecture as a discourse, that we can truly establish an understanding of the building. language

Architecture as a Discourse [5]

Computation in Architecture [6]

Computation in Architecture Contemporary computational design allows for the transformation of forms in a continuous manner, allowing for digital experimentation. Digital design allows conception to transform into product. Some unique innovations include concepts of ‘key shape animation’, parametric design’ and ‘topological space’. Computational design offers the possibility for a consistent and dynamic transformation of forms, as opposed to conventional methods. It is through digital modelling software the ‘finding of form’ can be achieved in addition to the ‘making of form. -‘Topological’ geometry consists of continuous curves and surfaces, which are mathematically referred to as NURBS. -‘Parametric’ design defines parameters of an object, rather than its shape. Various objects can be created with different assigned values. Parametric design is evident in ‘The International Terminal’ at Waterloo Station in London, by Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners.

-Through the use of ‘Animated form’, Greg Lynn studies object motion and forces with keyframe animation. He was one of the first architects to use animation software as a form of generation. -Morphing is another innovative digital design technic which blends different forms and shapes in order to create a ‘hybrid’ form with unique formal elements and principles. -Ruled Surfaces is a technique allowing for forms to be unfolded into shapes, then digitally fabricated. Frank Ghery uses this principle to address building and budget constraints within his designs.

Computation in Architecture [7]

Computation in Architecture Nationale-Nederlanden Building created- Frank Gehry The fluidity and complexity of Frank Gehry’s Nationale-Nederlanden Building, could not have been achieved without the use of three dimensional computer modelling. The building was erected between 1992 and 1996 in Prague. Advances in technology and computer design have allowed Ghery to explore and refine forms in glass, steel and stone, as can be reflected in the Nationale-Nederlanden building through a glass tower constructed of a double layered steel supported glass curtain wall.

This project used computer modelling to aid in methods of project documentation, which created a more direct link to the design process as well as fabrication and construction technologies. Ghery is more closely involved with the fabrication process as the geometric information is extracted from the digital model, and inserted into the ‘control data’ which enables the digital fabrication equipment. The use of this modern technology also allows Ghery to control construction costs of the buildings and ensure the budget of the project is not exceeded.

Computation in Architecture [8]

Computation in Architecture

Computation in Architecture

cont... These advantages of parametric modelling allowed the National-Nederlanden building to successfully incorporate complex interlocking curves. Gehry uses a software called CATIA, a French Jet aircraft design programme. The curvature in the building does indeed reflect the fluidity of the form of an aeroplane and incorporates the use of irregular shaped glass panels. These panels were cut with digital cutting machines, assisting in the design of an irregular and jagged composition. The state of the art technology used by Ghery contributes to the compelling nature of the building. The Wyndham City Gateway project will relate closely in terms of innovation and visual creativity compelling and surprising viewers. Like the National Nederlanden building, the project will encourage reflection through its non-literal ambiguity and will be achieved through similar abstract representation of form.


After studying computation in architecture, I have become aware of the many possibilities and flexibility in design enabled with digital software. A greater range of design outcomes can be achieved as there is more of an established link between the designer and the com puter. Computer software limits the repetition of the design process, allowing for greater experimentation without comprimising time spent on a project. Ghery’s building discussed, indicates that through the use of computation comes much more control over the project in relation to the design and construction process and time/cost constraints. It also shows

The ship building and aerospace industry prove to be highly influential on architects and builders through 3D digital modelling. Through the curves and complex geometries in a car or a plane, this allows for many opportunities in the architecture and building industry. Frank Gehry’s ‘Guggenheim Museum’ in Bilbao, reflects principles of design in the shipping industry. Local steel is what produced this fine masterpiece.

how this technology can achieve unique and vaste design outcomes.

Topological Transformation Sequence

Unique innovations presented by contemporary computational design techniques

Computation in Architecture [9]

Computation in Architecture [10]

WEEK 3- CASE FOR INNOVATION This section will discuss the project ‘King’s Cross West Gateway’ and its use of scripting/programming cultures. Both pros and cons of the project will be discussed.

PARAMETRIC DESIGN King’s Cross West Gateway: John McAslan and Partners King’s Cross station seves approximately 45 million people a year. Architects John McAslan and Partner define the lattice roof work structure as the largest single span station structure in Europe. The crossing web like steel structure wraps itself around the the roof and front elevation, then leads down into the public area. The eye is drawn to the top of the structure and follows the unravelling of web to the ground floor. A 20m high core ‘funnel’ supports the structure with an additional 16 smaller columns, creating a weblike structure which contributes to the structure both functionally and aesthetically. The domed roof is a captivating element, made from 1,200 tonnes of steel and is supported but column each weighing in at 1.5 tones. Physcially it is evident it is a rather heavy structure, however aesthetically the architects still maintain and sense of lightness and flexibility. The airness of the structure is a direct contrast to Cubitt’s solid building behind. This distinguishes the web like structure further, as well as drawing visitors to admire the previous older structure behind.

Parametric Design [11]

WEEK 3- CASE FOR INNOVATION cont.. This architectural tranformation is said to involve the use of three distinguished architectural styles; re-use, restoratio and new build. Elements of the station have been reused (train shed and range buildings). The building Grade I facade is being restored, and a new ‘Western Concourse’ has been designed as a centrepiece for the project. The philosophy behind this architecture is to create a new iconic landmark, reflecting London’s ongoing regeneration. This can be seen through the strutures ambiguous and modern architectual style as well as its functional new facilities. This ambition proves to be successful as this new facility provides improved transportation links, meeting the demands of passangers and increasing conveniance. The shell like steel and glass is said to provide three times more space as the previous structure as well as more shops/restaurants and clearer station announcements (Network rail spokesman). In addition to adding to travelers comfort, 15% of the roof cladding is glazed to ensure plenty of natural light whilst passengers wait for their trains. The structure evidently is attempting to connect with the outside natural world.

A critique of the new design philosophy is that users might find the change in the station confusing. It may take a great deal of time for some passenger to learn the new layout and location of facilities in the station and this new architectural abstract cob web feature might prove daunting on some passengers who prefer their familiar and traditional surroundings,

Parametric Design [12]



Learning objectives and outcomes: Through the reading, lectures and extended research, I have been introduced to the innovative techniques in architecture , particularly those created through digital tech

This section includes a matrix of combinations using a combination of defintions for

nology. I have become aware of the great advantages associated with computation in

the Input, the Technique and the Output. It also includes further grasshopper experi

architecture, aiding in the flexibility of design projects as well as creating a vaste range

mentation and combined matrix results within the project group. The combination

of possibilitis. Architecture as a discourse is important as it allows viewers to connect

of the different functions used by each group member has created a vaste number of

with and understand a building.

outcomes with form and shape manipulation.

These ideas brought about by computation in architecture, scripting cultures and architecture as a discourse relate to the Gateway project, in order to create unique and innovative design.

Case for Innovation [13]

‘Cut’ [14]

‘cUT’ Input/Association/Output Matrix

Surface Normals + Boolean Patterning

Data driven rotation + Boolean Patterning Overlapping patterns + Data driven extrusion

‘cUT’ Further Grasshopper Experimentation

Data driven rotation + Curve Attractor



Explode Expand

‘Cut’ [15]

‘Cut’ [16]

‘cUT’ Group experimentation with grasshopper Group Member: Samantha Yim

‘cUT’ Gateway Project and Matrix Experimentation The data driven rotation and boolean patterning reflects the circular shapes in spired by the Natinal Netherlanden building prevoiusly discussed. It is composed of rotating forms within a circular pattern, reflecting a sense of continuity, which can inturn represent the continous growth and progression of the Western Suburbs.

Group Member: Mia Willemsen

Group Member: Ryan Seychell The circles create an ‘unfolding’ pattern, buring a path of discovery and exploration, which are key concepts to be developed further in the design of the Gateway.

‘Cut’ [17]

‘Cut’ [18]


’Cut’ reverse-Engineered Case-Study

WEEK 6/7- RESEARCH PROJECT fabrication

Composed of irregular hexagons and diverse vibrant colours, the Spanish Pavillion marks a captivating and innovative piece of architecture. Hexagonal forms are placed within an orthagonal grid, creating extraordinary shadows through passing light through hollow and solid forms. Grasshopper reproduction of the Pavillion: The biggest issue in the replication process proved to be ‘puncturing’ the hexagonal grid with smaller hexagon shapes in order to achieve hollow forms. This was resolved through the use of the polygon component within the hexagonal grid, allowing for more freedom to create ‘shapes within shapes’. The extrude tool was used to give the model three dimentionality.

Idea of movement of shadows with the sun through repetivive patterns Group Member:Samantha Yim

Idea of Sweeping Curves and shadows Group Member: Mia Willemsen

‘Reverse Engineered Case-Study’ [19]

‘Cut’ [20]

WEEK 8- RESEARCH PROJECT Learning objectives/outcomes

WEEK 8- RESEARCH PROJECT expression of interest conclusion The Wyndham City Gateway project will use architecture as a catalyst for change and innovation, through reflecting innovative advantages through its use of parametric design. The new installation will inspire municipality whilst still maintaining a distinct

I have gained a better understanding of computational principles in digital geometry through the use of Rhino and Grasshopper. I have been able to develop conceptual and design capabilities through the use of experimentation with matrix functions, allowing

connection between nature and humans. For consistency, the evolution of humans and nature must be matched with the representation of evolution in advanced parametric design. Visual creativity will enhance the surround ing natural environment, and this intriguing diversity within the design will

for the development of design ideas for the Gateway project.

embrace onlookers, leaving them with heightened curiosity and interest in With the creation of different matrixes across all group members, this has expanded the

the Western interchange. The ever growing design innovations are to reflecT the progressive evolution in the Western suburbs. Material choice will be af

design possibilities for the Gateway project.

fected by the high speed of movement surrounding the site, in terms of its practicality and costs. The design will encourage reflection, through its non-literal ambiguity. This will be achieved through abstract representation throughout the form, combining daring ideas with a courageous attempt at generating and identifying a new architectural language. Ultimately, this will result in a new aspirational face for Western Melbourne.

‘Cut’ [21]

‘Cut’ [22]


DEVELOPMENT -’S’ shaped structure extends underground -3D curvature: adding more ‘flow’ to the structure -Addition of cubes along structure increase perception of ‘change’ throughout the form

The new Gateway for Wyndham will reflect ‘movement’ , encouraging growth and municipality. This new icon will attract residents of the area as well as visitors.

Through the careful development and refinement of our design, we have attempted to meet the requirements of the brief. We have done this through creating an innova tive and eye capturing design which visitors can visually follow down the freeway.

The structure of the gateway replicates movement through its curved nature and change through its twists along the curve. The structure aims to reflect both physi cally and philosophically, the ideas of movement and change. These two key ideas are significant in reflecting the expanding Western suburbs, and meet ideas adressed in the brief. Its self supporting structure allows for greater efficiency with material use and mini mises costs, thus adressing economical issues.

‘Project Proposal’ [23]

‘Project Proposal’ [24]


DEVELOPMENT Digital experimentation

-Initial experimentation with attatching cubes to a smooth and curved surface.

Digital refinement is achieved through using skills obtained in previous tasks. The gradual change of the curves shape and surface can be seen. This change allows for practical and efficient construction to be acheived

As can be seen to the left, the structure from all angles is different, creating an ‘ever changing’ atmosphere throughout the gateway.

‘Project Proposal’ [25]

-Further experimentation with forming a curved surface out of cube structures

‘Project Proposal’ [26]



Initially, the sculpture was to use an ‘I-beam’ type structure. Shown to the right and below are ibeam construction concepts, using a 4-way ibeam connecting to the junctions of the form through the use of steel angled frames.

Changes were made due to fabrication and structural purposes, however aesthetics and ideas behind the initial design idea are maintained

However, this became a structural problem as the overall form would be too heavy, thus not adressing design efficiency as mentioned in the brief. Also, it was concluded that and ‘Ibeam’ was not necessary within the form,as the framework of the structure can infact be self supporting.

More angled form allows for more distinguished views of the sculpture all around, and embraces the ‘everchanging’ concept.

‘Project Proposal’ [27]

A self supporting construction method was instead implemented.

‘Project Proposal’ [28]

REFINEMENT A 25mm circular hollow section frame is to be used. This will be lightweight and self supporting.

structural DEVELOPMENT

REFINEMENT site plan

Overall, the structure spans 50m in length, with its highest point reaching 15m. The large scale of the design immediately becomes distinguished. The communicative traffic tower is located where the two lanes on the highway converge, becoming a key focal point, attracting commuters to the overall structure.

The general form of the structure is designed so that the ‘S’ shaped is developed on 2 planes. This becomes self supporting through the act of compression. -Angled T-shaped brackets will join the junctions -Steel angled will be attached to lightweight cladding on the exterior via steel bolts. The bolts are to be hidden beneath the cladding as can be seen in the detail drawing. Therefore, aesthetics of the sculpture are not compromised. ‘Project Proposal’ [29]

‘Project Proposal’ [30]



Fabrication issues arised and inevitably compromised the aesthetics of the final model. Boxboard of 1mm thickness was used, but proved to be too thick as several gaps appeared at the joining of the strips comprising the structure. We assembled a mock-up prior to the final which proved to be more aesthetically appealing, using 210 gsm paper. This was made through manually cutting out templates. Although the joinery of this model was cleaner, it was structurally weak and unstable due to the lightweight material used.

Although the final model had some issues with joinery, its overall structural stability overrides its small aesthetic issues.

‘Project Proposal’ [31]

-Reconstruction of model after final presentation using 296gsm pasteboard

‘Project Proposal’ [32]


‘Project Proposal’ [33]


‘Project Proposal’ [34]

PROJECT PROPOSAL CONCLUSION Our Wyndham City Gateway project acts as a catalyst for change. It primarily revolves around the idea of movement, as is reflected through the curvaceoous form of the structure, twisitng and evolving in shape and size throughout. It is eye catching at all angles, evolving, changing and moving. The sculpture through these means, aims to reflect the growth and expansion of the Western suburbs. The large scale of the structure and the traffic tower also make this a key focal point along the freeway. Its structurally self-supporting design and use of lightweight materials meets design efficiency as mentioned in the brief.

‘Project Proposal’ [35]

‘Project Proposal’ [36]



Through the course of Design Studio Air, I have found it both challenging and stimulating. The introduction to Rhino and Grasshopper was daunting at first, however through using the programs progressively throughout the semester I found it easier to understand and have realised the many benefits and possibilities of computational design in architecture.

-Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 - 62

I have grasped a foundation of knowledge on computation principles in digital programming. With this knowledge, I have been able to apply to my own conceptual and design work, and have been able to further develop my ideas via computer software.

-Rem Koolhaas OMA, Seattle Public Library,, accessed March 12 2012

With the major project, I have been able to explore and generate a variety of design possibilities, allowing for much experimentation with 3D modelling. This project has also allowd me to exercise skills in regard to adressing a design brief.

-Arch Daily,, accessed March 12 2012

Digital fabrication was also introduced to me. I found it an easy and efficient way to construct models (although not always reliable). Overall this subject has mainly taught me about the advantages and disadvantages of using digital software in architecture and the greater potential is has to offer to design.

-Ray Massay, 2012 ‘Criss-Cross King’s Cross, article-2114575/Kings-Cross-vest-structure-unveiled-London-railway-station-500mrevamp.html, accessed MArch 20 2012 -Galinsky, 2005,, accessed April 10 2012

FUTURE With the knowledge I have gained through this subject, I would like to apply to my future design work. I found the use of 3D modelling and computer programming software to allow much freedom and experimentation without the compromise of time. I think the use of these softwares will be beneficial for future architectural/ design projects, allowing for a greater range of possible design outcomes.

‘Learning Objectives’ [37]

‘References’ [38]


Design Studio Air