Unit 03 Material Cultures Manual Final

Page 1


Material Cultures

Introductory Sections

Chapters

Overview Roles


Contents

i ii iii iv v vi

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4

Acknowledgments Introduction About this manual Concept & schematic design Tools and working facilities Building control & general information

1 2 3 4 7 10

Megastructure Infill and air tightness Cladding Windows and doors Kitchen and living

16 46 60 80 106

Scheduling Budget Transport Data

134 138 150 154


Material Cultures

Introductory Sections Design Team + CSM MArch Unit 3 Tutors + Paloma Gormley + Summer Islam Workshop Team + Ian Barratt + Craig Barnes + Kazuya Tsuji + Rachel Mandley HG Matthews + Jim Matthews + Will Stanwix ARUP + Tara Clinton + Richard Boyd + Tom Clewlow + Orlando Gibbons Collaborators + Henry Stringer

Thanks are due to the client H.G. Matthews who have financed the project, and in particular to Jim Matthews and Will Stannix for their close involvement and correspondence. We would also like to thank our various research collaborators for their expertise and guidance, including Tara Clinton, Richard Boyd, Tom Clewlow and Orlando Gibbons of ARUP, as well as designer Henry Stringer for his fabrication workshop. Special thanks go to the project’s dedicated workshop team and to all the staff and caretakers at CSM who helped to coordinate deliveries and facilitate work around the university. Lastly but most importantly, our deepest and warmest thanks go to the module unit leaders Paloma and Summer - for all their organisation, enthusiasm and commitment to the project and for their shared determination to see it through to completion.


Acknowledgments

1


Material Cultures

The building was designed and constructed in summer 2019, over the course of seven weeks as part of the Central Saint Martins MArch programme Unit 3, led by tutors Paloma Gormley and Summer Islam. Building X was intended to be temporarily located at the British Library’s Story Garden, as part of the Skip Garden (a community-led urban agricultural project). Building X was conceptualised as a dining facility capable of seating 30 people, with adequate kitchen facilities included in the design. After a period of three months, the building would leave the Story Garden, moving to its permanent home at H.G Matthews in Chesham. The size of Building X means that, once at its permanent home, it could be converted into a small dwelling. The building could also be masterplanned as a series of stacked terraced units. As a result of delays in the construction programme (most notably groundworks), it was not possible to temporarily install Building X at the Story Garden. Instead, the components were pre-fabricated at Central Saint Martins, with component assembly not occurring until October 2019. The assembly of the build took place at the H.G Matthews site. The gross floor area (GFA) for Building X comes to 73sqm, with a gross internal area (GIA) of 60sqm. This can be broken down into 20sqm for the kitchen, and 40sqm for the dining space. The design also includes an outdoor decked area, which equates to XXsqm. Building X was completed on a total budget of £25,000.

Introduction

‘London Self Build’: Residential project led by Paloma Gormley of Practice Architecture, exploring the use of simple and sustainable materials to encourage a new UK architectural language


About this manual

The aim of this manual is to document the processes that were undertaken during the construction of building X and its components. The manual details how each building component was designed, prototyped and constructed, with the aim to provide guidance to others wishing to undertake a similar project. A forthcoming revision of the manual will also document the steps required to assemble the individual components together into the completed building. Specialist construction equipment, as well as a standard set of tools, will be required for anybody wishing to undertake such a project. It should be noted that the hire of trained construction workers - such a crane driver and a forklift driver - will be necessary to assemble some larger elements of Building X. However, the majority of the build can be achieved using a small team of workers. The total estimated construction time for this project is four weeks - two weeks have been allocated for the prefabrication of components; an additional two weeks for component assembly.

Unit 3 Cladding Team: Material testing and prototypes for renders

3

The manual is split into five main construction chapters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Megastructures Infill and airtightness Cladding Windows & doors Kitchen & living

Each chapter divulges a step-by-step process of how the components in question were created - starting with the design principles, moving on to design process and material selection, and prototyping. Each chapter concludes with a finalised set of drawings. Throughout the manual, four different illustration methods are used within each construction package. These are: photos; diagrams; architectural drawings and tables. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure that the information in this manual is correct, no liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors from the information supplied.


Material Cultures

Concept & schematic design

by a lead designer, with the overall design coordinated with other groups and the cost information/schedules aligned to the project budget.

After receiving a brief, project time-frame and workforce, it is necessary to produce an initial concept design that meets the requirements of the initial project brief. The project team should also aim to develop a number of project strategies in parallel with this stage and their importance will depend on how they are to influence the concept and schematic design. For example, for projects of a similar scale and design as this one, fabrication strategy is likely to be a fundamental component of the concept, whereas a maintenance strategy may have minimal or no impact and can therefore be developed during a later stage or potentially when the building is in use. A number of other related tasks may also need to be progressed in parallel with the emerging design by delegated groups or team members, including a review of the overall budget, the development of the construction and cladding strategy and updating of the project execution plan and all necessary schedules. During schematic design, the concept design is further developed and, most importantly, the design work of the various building components are iteratively progressed until the spatial coordination exercises have been completed and rectified. This part of the process may require a number of iterations of the design and different tools may be used, including design workshops and prototyping. By the end of concept and schematic design, architectural, construction logistics and structural designs will all have been developed, and will have been consented

There are several areas the designer/design group may focus on at the early stages of design that will begin to inform the concept and direction. It is essential to approach this stage through a process of iterative testing, contextual and site analysis, and any necessary material or precedent research. The following processes were used by Unit 3 during the initial stages of the project, and might help inform or develop your design concept strategy.

Workshops Workshops may be of use when exploring the processes of a particular building technology, material or any other specialised element of the project. The design group will gain a deeper understanding of their chosen resources, work with industry professionals or specialists and may also have the opportunity to engage practically. Unit 3 began with a site visit to brick manufacturers H.G. Matthews, who are to client and eventual landlords of the project. On a guided tour of the brickworks, we learnt of the buildings contextual context and were also able to gain an understanding of the parameters of our material palette. Design competition If your project team consists of more people than can realistically work together at once, it may be useful to subdivide designers into smaller groups during the concept design. For Building X, an architectural competition was set, which asked each group (10 people) to develop a design that responded to a particular construction and transportation method. This consisted of designs for means of BLAH BLAH. Even if no one particular design wins, or is the product of multiple propositions, by working to a series of hypothetical situations, the design


5

group can be better informed on the potential parameters the project may experience. Sketching Sketching should form the basis of any design and can be produced independently when thinking through ideas or collaboratively when sharing or combining them. In this way, it can be considered as another vital form of communication. It is important to sketch at all scales, whether this is small elements of design detail, or conceiving the general form or arrangement of your building. It is also paramount to keep a record of your sketches, to keep referring back to them as a source of inspiration as the design develops. Prototyping The various design groups should produce and use prototypes in the concept phase of the project to test them structurally, aesthetically and technically. Whether the prototype works or not is not the point: prototyping is the revelatory process through which the designer gains insight into a range of construction parameters and solutions. Unit 3 produced a series of prototypes in parallel with more detailed drawings that tested a range of elements involved in the build. These included; models that looked at cladding configurations and installation approaches; 1:20 sketch-models of structural roof and wall details; material testing in clay, hempcrete and engineered timber; and also mock-ups of the pre-fabricated structural components that eventually developed up to a 1:1 scale. Consultants/Specialists Bringing a range of consultants and specialists into the project is strongly advised in the early stages of the design. Having conversations with the many players involved in the delivery of a built project allows the design team to make informed decisions and develop their critical understandings of construction processes. Unit 3 worked closely with the engineering Introductory site visit and workshop at H.G. Matthews=


Material Cultures

Consultancy group ARUP in order to synthesize design and technical performance. The client, H.G. Matthews, were able to advise on different material choices and specifications, either drawn from those available or produced at the brick factory or sourced from other companies. These included different types of clay, glazes, flint, straw, lime, pallet timber and some other commercially available products or appliances, such as sinks and wood burners. We have also worked with material expert Will Stanwix on material systems, as well as skilled designer and maker Henry Stringer for the development of fabrication techniques.

Competition design review

Concept & schematic design


Tools & working facilities

7

Building X’s components were pre-fabricated at Central Saint Martins using numerous tools, the school’s workshop facilities, and assistance from the school’s workshop technicians. Aside from the standard set of tools of one might find at home (i.e. drills, screwdrivers, hammers), the pre-fabrication of Building X required the use of the following tools: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Chop saw Plunge saw Table saw Router Impact driver Combi drill Dust extractors

Despite having all of the aforementioned equipment, the workshops Central Saint Martins did not have the facilities to produce all of the components required for Building X namely the pieces of timber for the doors and windows, which had to be cut and planed by the timber manufacturer. Although a small building, sufficient space was needed to store materials before, during and after component creation. If undertaking such a project, the amount of space needed should not be underestimated. Tools & safety equipment used in the production of cassettes


Material Cultures

Tools & working facilites

The following map shows all the working premises & facilities used at Central Saint Martins during the project build. Key: 3D large, metal and casting workshops Assembly, working & material storage space Loading bay / goods-in Delivery access route Mock-up installation space


9

Stable Street

Handyside Street

Granary Square

CSM: Ground floor plan


Material Cultures

Building control & general information

1 Architectural drawings

There are different types of architectural drawing which are used to explore and represent proposed projects. Drawings for use in construction or for the attention or use of other specialists involved in the project should always aim to follow a coherent and consistent style. Issued drawings should be set to an appropriate scale, reference other drawings where necessary, and should include title and revision blocks for presentational/reference purposes. The following are some of the most common types of architectural drawing. Elevation A drawing taken from one side of the subject without perspective, used to explore and describe the overall composition and shape of a facade.

ELEVATION

SECTION

Plan A drawing taken slicing through the subject horizontally, used to develop and explain the organisation of one level of the building. Elements that are cut by the chosen height of the plane should be represented with a thicker line or hatched in.

PLAN

Section A drawing taken slicing through the subject vertically, used to explore and show the relationship between spaces and materials on different levels. Lineweights apply similarly to those represented in Plans. Site plan A smaller scale plan to include and show surrounding context. Axonometric A 3D drawing without perspective. Typically drawn on a 45˚ imaginary horizontal datum line running across the page. Axo’s are scaled but not a true representation.

SITE PLAN

45˚

45˚

AXONOMETRIC


11

2 Circulation

3 Room Layouts

In the UK, there is a standardised set of regulations that stipulate the requirements of circulation design. Below are some of the most important.

Kitchens In a typical western kitchen there are three main work areas: the hob, the fridge and the sink. For an effective use of space, it is best to arrange these elements in a triangle

Stairs The gradient of a set of stairs is governed by two elements: risers and treads. All steps must have the same rise.

RISE

GOING

TREAD

NOSING

RISER

INTERNAL STAIR REGULATIONS (UK) TYPE OF STAIR

MAX. RISE

MIN. GOING

PRIVATE

220 mm (9 in)

220 mm (9 in)

INSTITUTIONAL/

180 mm (7 in)

280 mm (11 in)

190mm (7 in)

250mm (10 in)

ASSEMBLY OTHER STAIR

WHEELCHAIR ACCESS RAMPS RAMP LENGTH

MAX. GRADIENT

MAX. RISE

10m (32 ft 10 in)

1:20

500 mm (20 in)

5m (16 ft 5 in)

1:15

333 mm (13 in)

2m (6 ft 7 in)

1:12

166 mm (7 in)

Accessible toilets There should be at least one wheelchair accessible toilet per set of toilets in all new public buildings. Below shows the basic minimum dimensions for an accessible WC.


Material Cultures

Building control & general information

4 Glazing and windows

Windows and openings in a building facilitate natural light penetration, frame views and control interior temperatures. The following are some popular examples.

Glazed panel/fixed

Casement

Hopper

A panel of glazing that cannot be

A panel supports the pane of glass

A type of casement window that

opened.

and is hinged along one edge to

is hinged along the base. Typically

enable opening.

opens inwards to stop rain from coming in.

French

Sash

Brise-soleil / Louvre

Door-height windows that can be

Moveable panels hold panes of

Shading device fitted to exterior of

opened, typically to allow access to

glass and slide vertically to open.

buildings that shades glazing from

garden or terrace.

controls seasonal temperatures.


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5 Structure

Types of structure Structures are geometrical arrangements of components deisgned to span distances, enclose spaces and bear loads. Below are some common structural systems.

Masonry

Post and beam

Portal frame / prefab

Heavyweight structures

Typically structures that use

A system of construction using

constructed from bricks and

vertical columns and horizontal

prefabricated portals that are

concrete. Poor in spanning long

beams. The term typically refers to

arranged consecutively, then held

distances but can bear large loads.

timber constructions. Versatile and

together with beams and bracing.

robust method of construction.

Simple and cheap constructions but do not offer great flexibility.

BEAMS

MATERIAL

TYPE

TIMBER

SECTION

TYPICAL SPAN

TYPICAL DEPTH TO SPAN RATIO

Solid timber

3 - 7 m (10-23 ft)

1:15 - 1:25

Timber I-Joist

6 - 10 m (20 - 33

1:20 - 1:25

ft) Plywood box

4 - 9 m (13 - 29 ft)

1:18 - 1:20

Glue Laminated

4 - 25 m (13 - 82

1:18 - 1:20

Timber (Glulam)

ft)

beams


Material Cultures

Building control & general information

WALLS

TYPE OF WALL

DEPTH TO HEIGHT RATIO

SOLID LOAD

1:20

-BEARING WALL LOAD-BEARING

1:18

WALL WITH OPENINGS NON-STRUCTURAL

1:18

EXTERIOR WALL NON-STRUCTURAL

1:36

INTERIOR WALL

6 U-Values All elements of a building envelope are constructed from several layers of material. Each of these has thermal performance characteristics that can be modelled mathematically using U-values. U-Value, or thermal transmittance, is expressed in watts per metres squared kelvin (W/m 2K).

HEAT LOSS THROUGH ELEMENT = U-VALUE X SURFACE AREA X TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE Q= U X A x DT

REGULATIONS

ROOF

0.20 W/m2K

WALL

0.30 W/m2K

FLOOR

0.25 W/m2K

PARTY WALL

0.20 W/m2K

WINDOWS,

2.00 W/m2K

ROOFLIGHTS & CURTAIN WALL


15

TYPICAL U-VALUES

GLOSSARY U-VALUE

LOCATION

CONSTRUCTION

ROOF

Uninsulated loft Loft with 100mm

(W/m2K) 2 0.3

insulation Loft with 300mm

0.12

insulation WALL

Solid brick wall,

2.20

225mm thick Brick wall with

1.30

cavity Timber frame

0.45

wall - 50mm ins. Cavity/timber

0.35

frame wall 100mm ins. FLOOR

Uninsulated

0.83

timber floor Timber floor -

0.25

150 mm ins. Solid masonry

0.70

uninsulated floor Solid masonry

0.25

floor - 100 mm ins. WINDOW

Single-glazed

4.80

window Double-glazed window with 10mm (1/3 inch) airspace

1.5

BREEAM (British Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) A UK-based environmental assessment method and rating system for buildings. Embodied energy Amount of energy consumed in the production of something. When referring to materials, embodied energy is the amount of energy that was consumed to produce, harvest and transport that given material. When referring to a building, embodied energy is the total amount of energy associated with the production of the materials as well as the construction of the building. Use energy Amount of energy consumed in the normal running of a building. Mechanical heating, cooling, ventilation, and electrical appliances all contribute to the total use energy. Watt (W) Unit of measurement for the rate of energy transfer. When discussing insulation, energy loss is measured in watts. Kelvin (K) Unit of measurement for temperature where 0 degrees kelvin is absolute zero (the coldest temperature possible) rather than 0 degrees centigrade, which is the temperature at which water freezes.


Material Cultures

Mega structures Team members: Hannah Bergstrand - Roof Design & Data Master Adolfs Kristapsons - Roof Design & Team QS Mojan Kavosh - Floor Design & Building Control Liaison Neil Dixon - Floor Design, Production & Drawing Master Gabriele Pauryte - Wall Design & Production Joy Mulandi - Wall Design & Team Budget Kleanthis Kyriakou - Foundation Design Liza Shneider - Foundation Design & Temporary Works Jemima Ashton-Harris - Drawing Master

Megastructures team were responsible for the structure design and prefabrication methods. It was decided to prefabricate building elements into cassettes made from timber I joists, that could be moved with a minimal help of machinery. On site, it would be filled with insulation and clad. It was important to accommodate large openings to assure enough light in the deep plan of the building. The key elements that influenced the structural design language were: 1. Possibility to terrace the building if used as a dwelling. 2. Tall ceilings achieved by 32 degree pitched roof above the kitchen/dining area. 3. Two different pitches in the roof to create a playful feel in the building. We worked closely with Arup to design an efficient and easy to assemble structure within the constrains of the timber I joists. The roof was supported by LVL beams. Main principles of cassette construction were: 1. Modular elements designed to be easily handled by max. 5 people. 2. Efficient cutting schedule to reduce waste. 3. I joists at 600mm centres to achieve the most efficient layout (wall), 400 centres and OSB sheets to reduce waste (floor), 300 centres and OSB sheets (roof).


Megastructures

17

Pre-galvanised mild steel restrain strap

Roof constructed from cassettes that are made from 60x240mm I joists at 600 mm centres

LVL ridge beams 45x300mm x3 with bevelled support plate

Sloped top cassettes to catch the roof loads going down

120x38mm timber battens to fix wall cassettes together

LVL sole plate 75x400mm to distribute the load equally to the floor cassettes Floor constructed from cassettes that are made from 60x240mm timber I joists at 300mm centers and 18mm and 11mm OSB boards LVL ring beam

Pad foundations


Material Cultures

Design principles

1 Structure / Function

3 Budget

Structural principles:

It was important that budget calculations were produced in tangent with the design process, and that communication between the QS and I was clear. The team budgeter was in charge of requesting lead times, talking to different suppliers, asking for competitive quotes and trying to barter the best deal. This involved a lot of phone calls and emails throughout the process of the build; it was a consistent challenge to deal with people. At one point in the project, the build was significantly over budget, which called for a re-evaluation of the materials and design. This included reducing the doubling up of JJI joists, reducing the building height, and using OSB sheet material instead of the more expensive ply. It was not always possible to keep all processes in tangent, with outstanding Steico JJI joists to be ordered. However, by ensuring other timber members were sourced at a good price, the team were able to manage the limitations of the budget.

1. Pitched roof on the longest elevation to achieve more efficient structural design. 2. Using LVL timber beams to catch the load of the roof. 3. Using 60 x 400mm deep timber I joists for load bearing walls. 4. Using 60 x 240mm deep timber I joists for floors and roof to achieve necessary spanning distances. 5. Working to existing sizes of OSB boards to reduce construction waste. 6. Prefabricating all of the building components into movable cassettes. 7. Assembling on site. The primary function of the building is a dining hub for Material Cultures. The tallest section of the building is above kitchen/dinning area to emphasize the space as a heart of the building. In the future, the building could also be used as a one bedroom house. There are possibilities to terrace the dwelling, as all of the openings were positioned on one end of it.

2 Transportability

As the building elements were constructed at CSM, it was very important to assure that cassettes were easy to transport and move around with the help of people, trolleys and skates that were available in the building. Once on site, the cassettes were constructed with the help of cranes, however, it was essential to assure that they are lightweight enough for people to move them around.


Process diagram

19

designing 50-60sqm building that is easily assembled, zero carbon and is within allocated budget of ÂŁ14 k

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ducin e

LVL

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set t as c

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40sqm

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d te e ca il i f o pl m pr co of ro l p os s ro s t r b of u le c m c t h u s a r w r a i a l t c s h te p twice o r a ve r n budget s

efficient design retaining change in roof slopes and necessary floor area


Material Cultures

Material selection

Timber I joists - used for floor, wall and roof cassettes

LVL - used for ridge beams

Main characteristics 1. Engineered wood product. Flange – made from of solid LVL. Web – made of natural fibre board. 2. Wide range of structural uses such as floor and roof joists as well as wall studs. 3. Naturally insulating material reduces thermal bridges

Main characteristics 1. Engineered wood product – LVL (laminated vennered lumber) 2. Made up of multiple 3mm layers of graded laminated softwood veneers glued together longitudinally. 3. The softwood veneer’s used are mainly spruce or pine. 4. Can be used for floor joists, rafters, beams, studs, sole and top plates or lintels.

Main benefits of using material 1. Ease/ speed of building and installation 2. High strength/ stiffness ensure long spans for highly loaded elments (roof and floor joists) 3. Flange enables great access for service holes 4. High dimensional stability through controlled moisture content 5. Precise manufacturing tolerances

Main benefits of using material 1. Uniform strength as points of weakness such as knots will be dispersed in different layers of veneer. 2. Higher strength and density compared to softwood results in material savings and smaller required sections. 3. No drying shrinkage - STEICO LVL is made with a moisture content of approx. 9%

Disadvantages of using material 1. It is an engineered timber product which involves many processes during manufacture, meaning that a lot of energy is consumed. 2. The structural integrity of the flange and web of the joist mean that only certain joints and fixing are appropriate, which reduces the possible applications of the product.

Disadvantages of using material 1. It is an expensive material, more expensive than softwoods. 2. It is an engineered timber product which involves many processes during manufacture, meaning that a lot of energy is consumed.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. The timber is grown across 70-80 forests in Poland, and the products are produced in two polish factories.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. The LVL production process involves many stages from: veneer cutting, drying, gluing, pressing and calibrating and finally ripping. 1. The timber is grown across 70-80 forests in Poland, and the products are produced in two polish factories.

How sustainable is it? 1. The timber is sourced from FSC certified forests. The main timber species used are Picea Abies and Pinus Sylvestris 2. Following manufacture in Poland, the timber products were sourced from Alsford Timber in Kent 3. The timber can be recycled at the end of lifetime

How sustainable is it? 1. The timber is sourced from FSC certified forests. The main timber species used are Picea Abies and Pinus Sylvestris 2. Following manufacture in Poland, the timber products were sourced from Alsford Timber in Kent 3. The timber can be recycled at the end of lifetime

Maintenance 1. Timber I-Joists should be protected from the elements and particularly protected from excessive exposure to moisture. They should then be installed internally.

Maintenance 1. LVL should be protected from the elements and particularly protected from excessive exposure to moisture.

Cost:

Cost:

£6.55 / linear metre (60x400x12000mm); £5.80 / linear metre (60x240x12000mm)

£11.75 / linear metre

Quantity needed:

38 of 60x400x12000mm; 40 of 60x240x12000mm

Quantity needed:

9No. x 45x300mm LVLR Beams

Total cost:

£565.92 of 400mm deep £584.64 of 240mm deep

Total cost:

£647


21

OSB

Main characteristics 1. Consistent quality of product 2. Good in load bearing, dry conditions 3. A cheaper and versatile alternative to ply wood 4. Can be used for load bearing in roofs and floors.

Main benefits of using material 1. Stronger and tougher than most softwood plywood, thanks to the tens of thousands of real wood strands that go into every board. 2. Easy to work with - nails can be driven as close as 8mm from the panel edge without splitting. 3. Easy to use different for different finishes. 4. More cost effective than plywood Disadvantages of using material 1. Heavier than ply wood 2. If used for floor, some squeaking might occur, as the material is not very stiff 3. Does not handle moisture well, best to use it indoors.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Unknown

How sustainable is it? 1. Uses tree farms instead of forest growth, however is made with PF resins 2. The timber that is used is grown in the UK 3. If not affected by moisture, possible to reuse OSB panels. 4. It is also possible to convert OSB into mulch, that does not have much impact for the soil below it

Maintenance 1. After install, protect it from moisture. Possible to treat with vanish or resin.

Cost:

£12.50/per board (11x1220x2440mm) £18.50/per board (18x1220x2440mm)

Quantity needed:

66 boards (11x1220x2440mm)

Total cost:

£990 (11x1220x2440mm) £821 (18x1220x2440mm)


Material Cultures

Process & testing

1. Building of 1:50 concept models to explore different design options 2. Choosing favourite design features from the conceptual exploration 3. Building 1:20 prototype of walls and floors to explore relationship between hempcrete insulation and timber I joists 4. Building of 1:1 prototype for a wall cassette to explore fixings, cladding possibilities and flexibility of the element

1. Concept model exploring the idea of a split section building, that could be constructed in 4 different modules. Due to site constrains and limited footprint, this idea was not carried forward.

Concept model exploring the idea of constructing the building with I joists in larger modular elements. I joists were the material that we decided to use, constructed into smaller elements movable without the help of the crane.

2. Concept elevation model exploring a roof profile with two different pitches. This idea was retained in the design from the early conceptual stages.

Expressing different heights of modular elements in the elevations was the idea we took away from this exploration. It was important to manifest the method of construction in the facade.


Prototyping

3.

1:20 model exploring the relationship between walls and floors.

23

1:20 model showing necessary insulation in relation to the structure and setting out the thickness of the wall and floor build ups.

4. 1:1 prototype of the wall cassette exploring fixings, time taken to build and weight of the element.

The mock up was also used to design different cladding options and window styles.

This rough exploration allowed to understand the time and challenges of building wall cassettes - minimum two person job, impact drivers are essential.

This mock up was a useful too to take production of the wall cassettes further.


Material Cultures

Process & testing

1. We decided that the gable end would unconventionally be on the long elevation, inspired by a form that was explored during the first week. We wanted to be playful with varying heights and pitches. 2. The I-joists would be at 600mm centres in the wall. It follows that the ridge beams would sit at the point where two wall cassettes met. 3. The 240mm deep I joist could span max. 4m. A ridge beam would be needed every 4m. 4. The minimum pitch was 15 degrees and max. 45 degrees because of the cladding system. This was another limitation to work within. This however changed down the line,

an aluminium cladding system would allow for a pitch as low as 4 degrees. 5. The foundation drawings affected the spacing of our roof beams, as the foundation pads were spaced out at 3068mm. We started working with this dimension, but this would start to limit the scale of the elevation pitches. As the site became no longer viable, our beam centres were no longer governed by that distance. 6. To further reduce cost, the highest point of the pitch was reduced, and the elevation simplified. However, alternative compromises were found to keep the playfulness in the elevation.


25

17 1709 09

Prototyping

4141 5151

4444 5050

4220 4220

5050 2525

424 424 55

8° 8°

45° 45°

° ° 3030

20 20

17 1700 00

45° 45°

44 323525

4475 4475

2400 2400

2400 2400

4800 4800

20° 20°

Option 2. designing with more shallow slopes, after deciding that aluminium could be used for roof cladding. 00

51

17

3030 0000

7°7° 45°

°

°

4220

4220

2550

4450

7070 3939

2550

4200 4200

2424 9898

4245

45°

30

45°

30

3737 4744 4750

20

4

45°

4 3250000 325 3030

4245

4800

4800

20°

4475

4475

2400

900 900

2400 2400

2400

4550 4550

2400 2400 2400 1500 1500

5000 5000

37° 37°

2400

16° 16°

41°° 41 20°

23°

23°

5° 5°

36° 36°

3131 2323

41

51

00

41

17

00 300 300

17 09

17 09

4 different slopes would have complicated prefabrication

20

23° 23°

Option 1. method.

3000 3747 30

70

3

5000

3123

16°

36°

36°

28 28° °

° ° 3333

3636 6565

3131 7070

4550

3615 3615

5° 5°

2400

1200 1200

900

900

38° 38°

11° 11°

° ° 1919

35° 35°

2400

3636 6565

2400

4550

1500

0000 4444

41°

1500

2498

2121 4545

41°

37°

37°

0000 3838

2498

39

4200

3123

2020 4040

2400

70

39 4200

3

00

5000

0 00

3747

30

00

0 00

16°

3000

Design option exploring 4 different slopes.

Option 4.

Design option exploring 4 different slopes. 21

40

00

°

44

°

33

°

3665

2530

°

33

3170

3170

3665

3

45°

260

3615

3665

°

3162

1200

4430

600 1200

4430

2400

1200 2100

600

900

900

2100

1200

3408

5000

23° 35°

35°

38°

38°

11°

3615

°

19

19

11°

3665

°

28

28

00

38

19

00

44

00

38

45

08

24

20

40

2530

21

45

20

18°

Option 3.

4430 4430

1200 1200

900 900

2100 2100

600 600

2530

19

°

08

24

20

40

2530

0 80

3665

3

3

3162

18°

45°

260

900

2100

4430

1200

2400

3408

5000

23°

11°

3665

Option 5. Design option exploring 3 different slopes, however, not feasible due to large spans.

Option 6. This design was favoured by the team and was taken further into detail design stages.

20

40

0 80

3665

3

00

2100

4430

1200

11°

3665


Material Cultures

Process & testing

In construction, cross bracing is a system utilised to reinforce building structures in which diagonal supports intersect. Cross bracing can increase a building’s capability to withstand lateral forces. Cross bracing can be applied to any rectangular frame structure and is usually seen with two diagonal supports placed in an X shaped manner; these support compression and tension forces. With different forces, one brace will be under tension while the other is being compressed. The bracing should not be too shallow or too steep - somewhere between 30 deg and 60 deg is most efficient.

We used the top pattern (bracing study) as it fulfilled all parameters needed. We used a timber element that crossed each cassette on two sides and acted as temporary bracing for when the cassette was transported and placed in the wall. This bracing would be removed on one side whilst hempcrete blocks were placed inside and plastered and replaced to ensure support while the same procedure was repeated on the other side to provide permanent support. The bracing was exposed on the internal elevations - so that the diamond shaped pattern was visible in the end.


Prototyping

27


Material Cultures

Process & testing

1. 400mm deep timber I joists were cut by a circular saw to the cutting schedule (image below) and tagged by an appropriate code. 2. The team of two people set up the I joists into the cassette ready to be made. 3. 540mm wide spacing boards were used to assure that the vertical I joists are at 600mm centres. 4. To fix cassettes 6.0x100mm screws were used. First of all, we pre-drilled the holes, counter-sank them to assure that the timber did not crack and then used impact driver to screw the elements together. 5. Every element was checked to be at a right

angle and at 600mm centres from each other. 6. 24 different types of wall cassettes were made using these steps.


Prototyping

1.

Use of circular saw to cut timber I joists

29

2. One person holding timber I joists together while the other is fixing them in place

3. Using 540 wide spacers to assure equal distances between the elements

4.

Fixing I joists together with the help of impact drivers

5.

6.

Making sure the elements are flush and fixed appropriately

Checking the right angles & distances between I joists


Material Cultures

Process & testing

1. 240mm deep timber I joists and 18mm, 11mm OSB were cut by a chop saw to the cutting schedule (image below). 2. For the base of the floor cassettes, timber battens were layed as a support for fixing. 3. I joists then were layed to the correct spacing - 400 mm centres. 4. The spacing of the I joists were drawn on the side OSB boards to align the I joists evenly. 5. The next step was to fix the end I joists with the OSB boards on short sides with 6.0x50mm screws. 6. Further steps were to fix the remaining I joists to the sides. 7. After the I joists were fixed, 11mm OSB board was centered on the cassette with the help of 30mm timber batten either side of the board. 8. The four corners of the OSB were fixed with

the I joists with 6.0x50mm screws. 9. While one person was fixing the long side of the board to the exterior I joists with screws spaced 300mm centres, the second person was marking the position of the joists below as a guide for fixing. 10. Steps 7-9 were repeated for the remaining fixings. 11. Once the 11mm OSB was fixed, the floor cassette was flipped by 2 people. 12. Steps 7-9 were taken to fix 18mm OSB board, which was the internal side of the floor cassette. 13. Before fixing the second half of the 18mm OSB, 3 timber battens were placed in between I joists to strengthen the joints between two OSB boards. 14. The floor cassette was finished by fixing the final 18mm OSB board.

01A02

01A04

02A08 02A06

01A01 01A01 01A01 01A01 02A07

02A08

01A04 01A05 01A03

FLOOR CASSETTE 01A

FLOOR CASSETTE 02A

Quantity per cassette:

Quantity per cassette:

16

14

Quantity per parts:

Quantity per parts:

01A01 - 64 01A02 - 16 01A03 - 16 01A04 - 32 01A05 - 4

02A06 - 14 02A07 - 14 02A08 - 28

Dimension: 01A01 - 60 x 240 x 2920 mm 01A02 - 18 x 1200 x 2956 mm 01A03 - 12 x 1200 x 2956 mm 01A04 - 18 x 240 x 1200 mm 01A05 - 18 x 240 x 2956 mm

Dimension: 02A06 - 18 x 400 x 2956 mm 02A07 - 12 x 400 x 2956 mm 02A08 - 18 x 240 x 400 mm


Prototyping

31

18 mm and 11mm OSB boards cut to the right dimensions

240mm I joists layed out on timber battens for support

Side OSB board was used to layout I joists at 400mm centers

The end I joists fixed to the side OSB board

Timber battens fixed on the inside of 18mm OSB to strengthen the joint between two boards

The final piece of 18mm OSB fixed on the board before the process is repeated on the other side


Material Cultures

1. The floor of the mock up was moved to the street at CSM and fixed together. 2. Bottom cassettes were positioned on the floor and screwed into the floor. 3. After the bottom cassettes were fixed together and to the base, we placed the middle layer cassettes on top (1600mm high) and fixed them together. 4. Once the bottom and middle cassettes were fixed, we placed timber battens where the two cassettes meet on the inside and outside and fixed them to the flanges of the wall cassettes. 5. After that, we decided to put the top

Process & testing

6.

7.

8. 9.

cassettes. As the genie lift did not go to the necessary height, we fixed a timber batten to be able to lift the cassette. We lifted the cassette and had to slide it diagonally to the right position with two people on the ladder on the outer side and one person on the ladder on the inner side. To stop the cassette from moving, we filled the web with timber to be able to slide the cassette into place. Once it was positioned, we fixed the cassettes together. The same process was repeated with the remaining roof cassettes


Prototyping

33

Floor of the mock up at CSM with bottom cassettes

After cassettes were placed on the floor, they were fixed with screws

Once the bottom cassettes were fixed, we placed the top cassettes and fixed them together

After the corner was in place, window seat cassette was placed on the floor and fixed with the other cassettes

With the help of a genie lift, the top cassette, the tallest part of the building was placed on top

The same process was repeated for the remaining top cassettes


400

8

1260

8

5846

2590

8

1260

8 400

1260

660

1980

1077

1980

8 1200

1792 900

8 1564

1925

1563

3060 8

12272

3060 8 1792 8 1260 400

660

1260

8

8

1254 8

1260

660

8

8

400 8

Material Cultures

Ground Floor Plan


Proposed - Plan Plan

Drawing Title:

811

3887

0

0.5

1

-

-

Date -

Note

5m

3848

First Issue

12332

6218

-

-

Rev.

811

Date:

15 / 07 / 2019

35

Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square

6600

347 5906 347

13954

Roof Plan


Material Cultures

Structural Ground Floor Plan

3

2925

2

5846

2925

1

Cassette to sub-frame detail 503 - Right

Cassette to sub-frame detail 504 - Centre

Drawing Title: Central Saint Martins

Note

First Issu


ue

37

Date

Rev.

-

-

Central Saint Martins MArch


Material Cultures

3

2

8 300 400

60 60 540

8

60 60 540

60 540

60 8 60 537

8 60 537

60 540

b09

300

b11

b10

b08

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900

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60 540 60

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1600

b25

8

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b22

b11

60 60 540

450

b13

1

2300

2300

380

380

evation

East Elevation

400

660

1260

8

1254

8

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3

1260 8

660 8

400 8

2

0

0.5

1

1

5m

Note First Issue Updated Datums


39

3

2300

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1600 900

b06

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60 540

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380

8

60 8 60 60 556 540

1600

b07 8

60 556

b06

60 60 556

900

b24 60 556

b07

60 60 540

b15

540

2559

Date

Rev.

15.07.19

-

17.07.19

A

8

1

2559

on

West Elevation

3

2

0

0.5

1

Central Saint Martins MArch Date: Check by: S.I.

Note 24 / 07 / 2019 First Issue Scale: 1:50 @ A3

5m

Dat

1


Material Cultures

North Elevation

B

2300

2300

A

b20

b19

b03

b02

b04

b01

380

900

1600

450

b21

1260

1792

3060

8

A

8

B

0

Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square

0.5

1

Drawing Title:

Note

Proposed - North Elevation

First Issue Updated Datu


41

D

E

ums

b01

b01

1600

b02

380

b02

900

b17

675

900

b18

450

2300

C

3060

3060

8

8

D

C

E

5m

Date

Rev.

15.07.19

-

17.07.19

A

Central Saint Martins MArch Date: Check by: S.I.

30 / 07 / 2019 Scale: 1:50 @ A3


Material Cultures

South Elevation

E

C

D

2300

b18

674

300 450

b17

1600 900

b02

b02

b01

b01

380 3060

8

C

D

3060

0

Drawing Title: Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square London

0.5

1

Note Updated Datum

Proposed - South Elevation Project:

8

E

Updated Roof Client:

Updated Desig


43

C

B

A

2300

2174

b20

b21

b04

8

1792

3060

8

C

380

b05

900

b01

1600

b03

b02

1260

899

b19

B

A

5m

Date

Rev.

ms

17.07.19

A

Pitch

22.07.19

B

24.07.19

C

gn

Central Saint Martins MArch Date: Check by: S.I.

30 / 07 / 2019 Scale: 1:50 @ A3


Material Cultures

Short wall to floor detail

Details


45

Roof to short wall


Material Cultures

Infill and airtightness Team members: Kate Mcaleer - Principal Designer Fin Orme - Team QS Jessica Buss - Transport Master Valeria Sapigni - Team Drawings Matteo Rossetti - Team Budget

The infill package is concerned with void filling within the super structure. Using specialist insulating materials, that are specified to meet the U-value requirements outlined by building regulations. A buildings ability to insulate well is inherent to its long-term impact on the environment. Throughout the building’s lifetime energy used to create comfortable living conditions inside, either through heating or cooling can be significantly reduced by ensuring; wall, floor and ceiling build ups achieve high U-values. The performance of the materials used is important, although little emphasis is given to the ecological impact of materials which appear to be contributing to a building’s measurable sustainability. For instance, many insulating materials contain plastic which cannot be naturally broken down. The following is an investigation into alternative materials that are more holistically sustainable.


Infill and air tightness

47


Material Cultures

Design principles

1 Structure / Function

3 Budget

Insulation can come in many different forms to suit different applications. Some have structural integrity were they can be used to accompany and strengthen structural systems like wood fibre boards. Others may be very light such as sheep’s wool which in turn can influence the section sizes of structural members as their loading requirements can be reduced. Others can be used only to infill void such as Celluose. All have high thermal performance and can be used to limit heat transfer through the building.

Forming a large proportion of the total material for the building, insulating materials are allocated a healthy proportion of the budget. Although with a complex and intricate design used to achieved the compartmentalised cassette super structure the materials used for insulating need to conform to an overstretched budget.Using a combination of insulating materials can be one way of creating a cost saving across the building, combining wood fibre and Hempcrete allows the form of the Hempcrete block to be simplified creating cost savings. Moving to Cellulose insulation also allowed large savings to be made over wood fibre insulation it also presented more flex-ability for the project as lead in times were more consistent.

2 Transportability

To ensure that the building can be easily transported the choice of materials to fill the cassettes will be carefully considered so that the weight and complexity of the transport is kept to a minimum. In some areas decision are made where instructive actions will have to be taken so that the building can be transported. For instance the wall cassettes filled with Hempcrete block and rendered will have to be broken out of the render or measures put in place to secure the Hempcrete during transit although it is likely that cracking will occur.


Process diagram

49

Wall, Floor and Roof build up details to meet U-value and budget requirements

Variations to build-ups are explored coordination with other teams influence decisions elsewhere to support insulation requirements

u

on ti a

alue -V

Thickness of insualtion zone using different materials is determined

alcul c

d o

e

ibr F Wo

eps e

l

oo w

Sh

sula t in i

suppl o

r e

y

n o

erm d Th r

ell C

ose u

red uc of r ing th oof e si ze sec suppo rt tion s v

t u io s i n n g o f c m om a b t i e n r a ia l s

ng di

tab ui s

e l

Findin g

Fin

d a le ks g ee y n n lo 4 w a o 2- rm c e g ie e st im om t r f

Usi n

t la e q u

antiti u

s and e

therm

atio ul s

g

n

ex in fl

Calc

av a

il a ex bl p e, en b si ut v e to

o

Celluose Insulation is selected as the best option

ive

ns

pe

x y e er

Thickness of insualtion zone reduced due to building clasiification change.


Material Cultures

Material selection

Wood Fibre Insulation (Stieco Thermdry)

Sheeps Wool (ThermaFleece)

Main characteristics 1. Made through the processing of tree material into a cellulosic substance containing wood fibre, Polyurethane Resin, Paraffin Wax 2. Has a compressive strength of 50kPa 3. Thermal conductivity 0.037W/m*K 4. Density 110Kg/m3

Main characteristics 1. 1. Made using a combination of Sheep’s wool and wood fibres 2. 2. Ignition point >500°C 3. 3. Thermal conductivity 0.039W/mK. 4. 4. Density 18 kg/m3

Main benefits of using material 1. Easy handling and classified as non-irritant to skin 2. Sustainable alternative insulation product 3. Wood fibre insulation has a high thermal mass meaning that it is an excellent material at reflecting the sun’s radiation reducing solar gain keeping the inside of the building cool in the summer months . 4. Wood Fibre is breathable allowing moisture from the inside of the b building to gradually escape

Main benefits of using material 1. Easy handling and classified as non-irritant to skin 2. Sustainable alternative insulation product 3. Sheep’s wool is able to absorb harmful substances e.g. Nitrogen Dioxide, and neutralise them through Chemisorption. 4. Sheep’s wool is able to regulate humidity by being able to absorb 33% of its own weight.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Usually more expensive than widely used plastic based materials 2. Most wood fibres are typically manufactured oversees. 3. In most cases your walls will need to be thicker in comparison to 4. plastic based products 5. Limits use limited to above damp course

Disadvantages of using material 1. Sheep’s wool is comparably more expensive than other materials. 2. The process of cleaning it ready for use requires a lot of treatment with harmful chemicals like Borax where after the process has finished harmful substances like organophosphates can be found in the wool.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Stieco Thermdry is produced in Germany and is shipped to the UK by road.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. ThermaFleece is a company based in the UK in the Lake district and is shipped by road around the county.

How sustainable is it?

How sustainable is it? 1. Sheep’s wool is naturally produced therefore little to no energy is used in its creation it is ISO 9001 certified. 2. The insulation will be shipped from the lake district. 3. Sheep’s wool insulation has a life expectancy of around 60 years 4. Sheep’s wool is biodegradable and therefore 100% recyclable

1. 2.

3. 4.

Stieco Thermdry insulation is sustainable sourced and has FSC and PEFC certification The order of wood fibre insulation is substantial and as it is not widely used by the industry it is made to order so a large proportion will be shipped from Germany. Rigid wood fibre insulation boards have a life expectancy of 150 years Wood Fibre is biodegradable and therefore 100% recyclable.

Maintenance 1. Wood Fibre requires little to no maintenance over the course of its lifetime.

Maintenance 1. Sheep’s wool will require little to no maintenance over the course of its lifetime and will keeps its shape better than many man made insulations.

Cost:

Cost:

Quantity needed: Total cost:

£25.10 per 240mm 575x1220mm board 201.4 boards £5,055.12 inc VAT

Quantity needed: Total cost:

£16.78pm2 612m2 £10269 inc VAT


51

Cellulose (ThermaFLOC)

Hempcrete

Main characteristics 1. Made using recycled paper and mineral fire retardant. 2. Fibrous material which can be poured or blown into cavities. 3. Thermal Conductivity 0.039W/mK. 4. Density 40kg/m3

Main characteristics 1. Made from chopped hemp shiv fibre cement and lime. 2. Flexural strength 0.3-0.4 N/mm2 3. Thermal Conductivity 0.06W/m.K 4. Density 275kg/m3

Main benefits of using material 1. Easy handling and classified as non-irritant to skin 2. Sustainable alternative insulation product 3. As fibrous material is can be used to fill awkward voids and areas. 4. Cellulose able to regulate humidity by absorbing water moisture in the air.

Main benefits of using material 1. Sustainable alternative insulation product 2. Blocks can be cast to the desired size 3. Aesthetically pleasing 4. High thermal mass keeps buildings cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Cellulose insulation absorbs moisture easily, which not only reduces long-term efficiency but can cause the insulation to mold and rot. 2. Cellulose insulation creates a large amount of dust when installed. 3. Cellulose has a tendency to sag as it settles, reducing its R-value over time. 4. Installation costs for cellulose can be higher than for fibreglass.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Hempcrete walls are generally thicker so there is a risk of losing internal floor area. 2. Hempcrete blocks do not fall into a structurally usable range and so remain as an infill product.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. In Germany and is shipped around the word.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Hemp is grown on East Anglia and is processed in Chesham.

How sustainable is it? 1. Thermafloc is CE ETA-05/0186, Natureplus® 0107-1301-121 certified. 2. There is enough Thermafloc in stock within the UK for the project. 3. Cellulose insulation has a life expectancy of around 20 -30 years. 4. Sheeps wool is biodegradable and therefore 100% recyclable

How sustainable is it? 1. The hemp is grown in East Yorkshire and is processed into hemp blocks in Chesham 2. The blocks will be made at the HG Matthews site where the building will be located. 3. The Hempcrete blocks have a suggested lifespan of around 100 years

Maintenance 1. Cellulose insulation will require little to no maintenance over the course of its lifetime.

Maintenance 1. Hempblock will require little to no maintenance over the course of its lifetime.

Cost:

Cost:

Quantity needed: Total cost:

£ 17.32 per bag 170 bags £2,944.75 inc VAT

Quantity needed: Total cost:

£12 per block 413 Blocks £4,956 inc VAT


Material Cultures

Process & testing

Each of the materials was in-putted into a virtual calculator which processed a U-value across the combination of materials. This enabled an understand into how thick the insulation zones needed to be and the positives and negatives qualities each materials have. A key design challenge was dealing with the voids created by the web of the JJI joists this void needed to be filled with insulation and would require a specialist size.

We found that wood fibre boards would be the most suitable material to use as they would be best suited for easy relocation of the building. However due to the cost constraints it the cheapest insulation was selected that achieved the same U-value ratings. Celluose insulation which is far cheaper than wood fibre and also solved the problem of infilling between the JJI joist as the cellulose is fibrous and could be poured into the voids filling any gaps. Prototyping determined the custom size of the Hempcrete block while revealing potential areas where air-leakage may occur.

A major influence on the choice of materials was price.

400 mm JJI JOIST

Ubakus software stores up to date test information on many materials and runs U-value calculations for details where many are used together. This image describes the potential build for the floor.

Inside

This detail describes the floor build up using this combination of materials with these thickness will achieve the required U-Value for a residential building of 0,130 W/m²K.

Outside

Required U value wall 0.15

Potential thermal bridge ? WOOD BATTENS FOR CLADDING HEMPCRETE BLOCK

L

400 mm JJI JOIST

25 mm STIECOflex

75 mm base plate 25 mm STIECO termdry/flex 240 mm STIECO Flex 038 240 mm JJI JOIST WOOD BOARD

20 mm PLYWOOD

18 mm LAMINATED

80mm STIECO FLEX /dry

During early design development of the cassettes it was identified that there was potentially a thermal cold bridge through the base of one of the wall cassettes.

This was queried with the Arup engineers to determine if the structure could be altered to prevent this from happening. They advised that there would be minimal heat transfer in a building of this size but additional insulation could be added in skirting detail.


Prototyping

53

To determine how the junction of the wall and floor cassettes would come together and who we would insulate in between the voids a 1.20 model was made.

The model also dealt with the joins between cassettes which allowed us to see and test how to make the structure airtight. A detail was developed that allowed us to seal the joint line using cork tape with a timber board spanning across the two cassettes.

The model also revealed the issue of how frequent the spaces caused by the web of the JJI joists was. Once realised that this was going to be an issue focus was given to the issue and separate materials specified to close these gaps.

This image described the finalised design of the floor and the wall cassettes and how they are supported underneath by frame. The model was left unsecured so that we could methodically dismantle and test new materials and compositions.

The delivery of materials coming from HG Matthews and Stieco enabled us to work with the materials we will be using at 1.1 scale.

In creating a large 1.1 sectional model we were able to decide the custom size of the Hempcrete blocks. It was decided that time could be saved on site by having the blocks made to a size that would fill across the JJI joist.


Material Cultures

Manufacturing

We returned to HG Matthews to make use of their brick making facilities so that we could make the custom size Hempcrete blocks that we required for Building X. We pre-assembled the moulds at CSM to make the Hemp blocks, deciding that time and waste materials could be saved on site by making angled moulds to follow the profile of the roof cassettes. In total we would require 414 Hempcrete blocks. It was found that making the Hempcrete blocks was labour intensive and that the size of the blocks, far larger than the standard size required 3 people to safely remove each mould.

Further difficulties were found where due to the larger size of the blocks the size of the mixer in comparison was small meaning the process was slowed down by having to stop and make more hemp mixture. However the moulds were successful and over the course of a day 20 blocks could be made with greater efficiencies achieved as the process of making the blocks became more familiar.

Completed hempcrete block


55

The first step is to mix the materials together top make a batch of Hempcrete, each batch will make 2 blocks of our custom size. 1 bag of chopped hemp shiv along with 2 bags of cement and lime mix, followed by 72 litres of water.

Once the mixture has been mixed for 5 minutes or more the solution is slowly emptied from the mixer and onto a conveyor belt which takes it up and into the mould.

The pre made moulds are prepared by placing them on to a steel drying tray and dusting them with sand, so that the wet Hempcrete mixture does not stick to the moulds when they are removed.

As the mixture falls into the mould from the conveyor belt, sticks are used to compress down the mixture so that is fills the mould without leaving any gaps and the right density is achieved.

Once the mould has been filled to the top a lid is inserted onto the top of the mould. The sides of the mould are lifted up and the lid pushed down to maintain the shape of the hempcrete block.

The cast blocks are placed into drying racks and left in the open air for 5 days, after which they will be moved to a drying room where they will cure for a further 5 days.


Material Cultures

Wall details

Hempcrete block 540x285x390 mm 1600mm wall cassette

Woodfiber

900mm wall cassette

Thermofloc Building paper

240mm floor cassette

Wall detail


57

11 mm OSB board

240 mm joist

Thermofloc

11 mm OSB board

18 mm OSB board

Roof detail


Material Cultures

Floor detail

Floor detail


59

Hemp crete block casting at H.G. Matthews brickworks


Material Cultures

Cladding & Lining Team members:

Abby Bird - Schedule Master Annie Dermawan - Team Budget Annija Silanagle - Sponsorship Jake Johnson - Data Master & Roof James Bromley - Team QS

The overarching theme of Building ‘X’ is to promote the use of natural materials and demonstrate that they are a viable and affordable alternative to modern, unsustainable building techniques. This is something that becomes very important when integrating the different options of cladding and linings into the design. There are four elements of the building that require different material approaches responding to the different tasks that they need to perform: external walls, internal walls, flooring, and roof. In each instance the aim was to reduce the number of layers forming each construction build-up, therefore making the overall construction process much simpler and avoiding the need to introduce various synthetic materials which have become common in architectural practice today. Alongside this, it was also important to demonstrate that the chosen materials could be used in a relatively easy way and be assembled using building techniques that required little training. The process began with identifying a range of natural materials which could be suitable elements of the building. Then through a process of experimentation and elimination, it was possible to establish the final material palette. Determining factors ranged from preferred aesthetics, weatherproofing, ease of construction, airtightness, embodied energy and cost.


Cladding + Lining

61

Exploded Axo: Annie Dermawan


Material Cultures

Design principles

1 Structure / Function

2 Transportability

After a phase of prototyping it was concluded that the most appropriate material palette was:

The pallet timber cladding is prefabricated onto handleable timber frames that correspond to the width of buildings cassette structure. Both the clay and the lime plaster will be transported to site as raw material from HG Matthews before being mixed on site and applied to the hempcrete in situ. The galvanised aluminium sheeting for the roof will be delivered to site and comes in sizes that are man-handleable.

External Walls - Pallet timber skirting finished with wire wool to act as a durable, protective cladding to the areas of the building closer to the ground. Lime render directly onto the hempcrete blocks to provide a weatherproof, airtight external skin of various textured finishes. Internal Walls - Pallet timber skirting to wrap round from outside to inside with sanded finish to expose a range of natural colours. Clay plaster to be applied directly to the hempcrete blocks internally above the skirting, to ensure that the wall build-up is breathable. Floor Finish - Pallet timber with a sanded finish to match skirting, to be laid directly onto the floor cassettes. Roof - Galvanised Steel Box Profile Sheets to be fixed to a timber baton roof structure with 300mm overhang to provide effective weatherproofing and drainage to the pitched roof design, providing a hard-wearing yet comfortable floor finish.

3 Budget

Cladding Budget:

£2,000

A £2,000 budget to clad and line an entire building is extremely tight, so naturally we have struggled to meet it. We have minimised the need for excess fixing and materials by choosing the use clay and lime render that can both be applied directly onto the hempcrete and are both products of HG Matthews to avoid the need to outsource. Lime render all inclusive total: Clay render all inclusive total: Timber cladding all inclusive total: Roof cladding all inclusive total:

£1,720.20 £1,877.94 £1,272.01 £2,078.52

Cladding total:

£6948.67


63

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HOW CAN WE CREATE CLADDING THAT SPEAKS TO THE PROCESSES AND MATERIALS USED IN BRICK MAKING AND IS BOTH EASY TO APPLY, EFFECTIVE AND BEAUTIFUL?

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Process diagram

REQ UIR ES OF SO GLU ME E ( SO UN RT NA TU RA L)


Material Cultures

Material selection

Palette Timber

Clay

Main characteristics 1. Natural aesthetic 2. Adaptability 3. Inexpensive 4. Durable

Main characteristics 1. Earthy tones 2. Malleable 3. Naturally & locally sourced 4. Historically the oldest form of plaster

Main benefits of using material 1. Easily transformed into a beautiful product 2. Readily available 3. Lightweight 4. Up-cycling 5. Modular, therefore less waste

Main benefits of using material 1. Easier application than other conventional plasters 2. Can be easily repaired 3. Inexpensive 4. Sourced from the site 5. Breathable

Disadvantages of using material 1. Variable quality 2. Unpredictable aesthetic 3. Possible shorter lifespan than more expensive alternatives 4. Up-cycling 5. Requires treatment to ensure longevity

Disadvantages of using material 1. Requires regular maintenance 2. Does not last as long as other plasters 3. Direct water on the plaster can affect the finish negatively 4. Not as strong as other plasters when considering shear and compressive strength

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Sourced: Charles Ransford & Son, Bishops Castle, Shropshire. Produced: Charles Ransford & Son, in Bishops Castle, Shropshire.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Sourced: HG Matthews, Chesham. Produced: HG Matthews, Chesham.

How sustainable is it? 1. The process from freshly sawn log to finished pallet timber takes place on one site and therefore has one of the lowest carbon footprints in the industry 2. Delivered to site from Bishops Castle, Shropshire, a total of 148 miles. 3. Untreated pallet timber is said to have a lifespan of approx 3-5 years, however with heat/oil/paint treatment this can be significantly improved 4. Could be re-purposed and is biodegradable

How sustainable is it? 1. Sourced directly from the site 2. No travel required 3. Unknown 4. Clay can be continuously recycled simply be adding water

Maintenance 1. Requires the re-application of oil/paint treatment every 3-5 years.

Maintenance Clay plaster can be wetted and re-worked indefinitely. Erosion can be further inhibited by the inclusion of fibres such as chopped straw.

Cost:

44p/1metre piece

Cost:

£20.00/20l Tub

Quantity needed:

2025 metres

Quantity needed:

65.9m2 (= 76 20L tubs)

Total cost:

£891

Total cost:

£1824


65

Natural Hydraulic Lime Render

Steel

Main characteristics 1. Natural ingredients. 2. Malleable. 3. Naturally & locally sourced. 4. Self healing properties.

Main characteristics 1. Durability. 2. Longevity. 3. Low maintenance. 4. Industrial aesthetic.

Main benefits of using material 1. Capable of a faster initial set in cold weather. 2. Cracks are self healing. 3. Exceptionally durable. 4. Creates hygienic surfaces and improve comfort conditions.

Main benefits of using material 1. Long lifespan in comparison to other materials. 2. Lightweight. 3. Easy installation. 4. Easy to clean.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Long curing times between each layer. 2. Toxic to skin with a pH of 12 when wet. 3. Lime plaster is more difficult to work with than cement plaster. 4. Relatively expensive.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Relatively expensive. 2. Can be noisy during rain. 3. Prone to denting and scratching. 4. Expansion and contraction as it warms and cools can result in fastenings coming loose.

Where is the material sourced and produced?

Where is the material sourced and produced?

Sourced: HG Matthews, Chesham. Produced: HG Matthews, Chesham.

Source: Roofing Megastore Ltd, Oxfordshire. Produced: Unknown

How sustainable is it? 1. How sustainable is the source? Sourced directly from the site. 2. Where are we getting from - how far does it need to travel to get to CSM? No travel required. 3. How long does it last? 3-7 years on average. 4. Can if be recycled at end of lifetime? Yes, it can be crushed up and re-used as a base for new mortars.

How sustainable is it? 1. How sustainable is the source? Longevity, durability, and recyclability make metal roofing a good 2. Where are we getting from - how far does it need to travel to get to CSM? Banbury, Oxfordshire. 48 miles from the site. 3. How long does it last? 10-15 years 4. Can if be recycled at end of lifetime? Yes.

Maintenance

Maintenance

Lime plasters are generally ‘sealed’ with limewash. This procedure must be repeated every 4-5 years on exposed façades and around 25 years on protected façades.

Removal of leaves, branches, sticks, and other debris that could get stuck on the roof or in the gutters is an integral part of yearly metal roofing maintenance.

Cost:

Cost:

£11.75 per 25kg bag

£6.71/sheet

Quantity needed:

122 bags

Quantity needed:

28 sheets

Total cost:

£1433.50

Total cost:

£961.55


Material Cultures

Process & testing

Clay Testing Our first experiments with the clay plaster were mainly concerned with textural finishes and testing the colours. The main problem we experienced throughout the course of testing has been cracks showing in the clay. Traditionally this is solved by adding ingredients to the clay mix to bind it better, such as courser sand aggregates or hair.

Colour Test: Clay plaster mix with ash to provide the grey colour. A thin layer applied with a washing motion onto an unprepped MDF board.

Colour Test: Clay plaster mix with brick dust to provide the reddish colour. A thicker layer applied with a spreading motion onto an unprepped MDF board.

Texture Test: Red clay plaster mix applied as a rough, random layer with a small plastering spatula onto unprepped MDF board.

Texture Test: Ash clay plaster mixed with hemp shiv and applied as a thick layer directly onto an untreated MDF board.

Texture Test: Ash clay plaster mix applied as a thick layer directly onto a hempcrete block.


Clay Plaster Render

67

Testing: Pre-mixed clay plaster was provided by HG Matthews in order to make our testing process easier and more efficient and ensure the ratios of sand to clay were accurate.

Testing: We then set out doing preliminary tests with the various mixes onto MDF board, just to get a feel of the material and the potentials it has. Results of these tests are documented on the opposing page.

Mock-Up: The clay render on the final design will be applied directly onto hempcrete, but due to the absence of hempcrete blocks to experiment on the mock-up required coating MDF boards in a jute scrim in order for the clay to stick onto the boards.

Mock-Up: We then mixed together the pre-mixed clays and layered them over the scrim in order to experiment with colour and texture,

Mock-Up: After the base layer has been left to set, top layers can be applied. Here we experimented using mainly plaster tools with a ‘blob it on’ technique.

Mock-Up: The thicker top layer allows for experimentation with application in order to create different finishing textures.

Clay Plaster Testing Team: Abby Bird Annie Dermawan


Material Cultures

Process & testing: lime render tests

The process of lime rendering requires three different coats:

very damp will take longer to harden up. Ultimately, a leather dry consistency is the aim. Top Coat: The final coat is treated much the same as the previous coats, assuming any straightening required has been carried out prior to this point. Most importantly, the thickness of the final topcoat is crucial and should not be applied any thicker than 5-7mm.

Bonding/Harl Coat: The material for a cast-on coat should be wetter than that for normal rendering and should incorporate more gritty material. Thrown on by hand, it will provide a suitable bonding coat for the scratch coat. The Straightening Coat: Should be treated the same as the first, and applied before the first coat has developed too much of a set. In normal conditions this should be about one week, but there is no hard and fast rule to the time it may take; Surfaces that are

Similarly to the clay plaster, the main thing to look out for is cracking. We will be looking to apply various textured finishes to the lime rendered sections.

Experimenting: Wet lime render mix on the left applied directly onto hempcrete block shown on the right.

Experimenting: Textural lime render study.

Experimenting: Textural lime render study.


Prototyping

69

Mock-Up: Like with the clay plaster, the lime render will be applied directly onto the hempcrete, so similarly for the mock-up we had to prepare MDF with jute scrim in order to have a surface in which to test the lime

Mock-Up: Jute scrim was applied in strips to the MDF using a watered down PVA glue mix and left to dry over night.

Making: After mixing the lime render for approx. 15-20 minutes with water the mix was then applied directly onto the scrimmed MDF boards with a layer of up to 4mm thick.

Making: The first layer of lime render is traditionally ’hurled’ onto the masonry wall. A course aggregate is advised in order for the extra layers to adhere to the surface.

Making: Close-up showing lime renders consistency and texture when applied to the boards.

Making: Full MDF board mock-up coated with thrown coat of lime render.

Lime Render Testing Team: Annie Dermawan


Material Cultures

We were initially looking into creating clay shingles in order to recreate the appearance of bricks being fired in the kilns at HG Matthews. It quite quickly became apparent that this option was unfeasible due to the complication of the process, the sheer amount of shingles that would be required to be made, and the lack of the kiln in which to fire them. Having received a relatively large amount of pallet timber from HG Matthews for free we decided to explore using it as an alternative material in order to replicate the same effect. The idea would be to dye or treat the timber in order to get the desired reddish and black colours. These prototypes were made with untreated timber.

Process & testing: timber shingles


Timber Cladding Tests & Options

71

Timber Shingles Testing Team: Jake Johnson James Bromley


Material Cultures

The making of the mini mock-up proved to be the most insightful way of testing and eventually deciding on a cladding system. After extensive tests with a shingle cladding it became clear that the job of creating shingles would be too great for the time frame given, as well as the number of battening required in order to attach the shingles to would add a great cost and weight to the building that we could not afford. Through making the mini mock-up we then decided on a standard vertical timber cladding that utilised the palette wood already gifted to us from HG Matthews. This timber has a naturally beautiful colouring and required only a small amount of sanding to obtain a good quality finish.

Process & testing


Mini Mock-Up

Making: Cutting cladding pieces to size.

73

Making: Sanding timber to create smooth finish.

Making: Cladding is fixed to frames using small, unnoticable nails.

Mock-up: first iteration of finalised cladding mock-up.

Mockup: Cladding base with window design.


Material Cultures

Process & testing

Mock-Up: External lime render test with hempcrete blocks on the left showing the intended insulative material.


Mock-Up

75

Mock-Up: Internal cladding with test MDF boards of different clay colours and textures paired with timber cladding that is fixed with nails onto a simple frame that is then secured to the JJI Joist structure.

Mock-Up: Both the lower casettes and floor are clad with this naturally coloured timber provided by HG Matthews which is also used as the capping piece for the timber.

Mock-Up: Inserting the different clay tests for reference with the 1:1 timber cladding mock-up.

Mock-Up: The wall cladding sits on top of a basic timber flooring utilising the same palette wood provided by HG Matthews to minimise cost.


Material Cultures

Elevation, Plan

1 2 3

4

4

5

Elevation 1:50

1

2

5

4 3

Detail Plan 1:10

2

1


Short Elevation. Section

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1

2 2 3 4 6

6

4

2

4 5 5

3

Section 1:50

Short Elevation 1:50

Elevation 1:50 1. Box profile steel roofing 2. Roof batten system 3. Lime render 20-25mm 4. Palette timber capping piece

Short Elevation 1:50 1. Box profile steel roofing 2. Roof batten system 3. Lime render 20-25mm 4. Palette timber capping piece 5. Palette timber cladding 22mm depth

Detail Plan 1:10 1. Palette timber cladding 22mm depth 2. Timber frame 38mm depth 3. Structural timber stud 32mm depth 4. JJI Joists

Section 1:50 1. Palette timber cladding 22mm depth 2. Palette timber capping piece 3. Timber frame 38mm depth 4. JJI Joists 5. Thermofloc insulation

1


Material Cultures

Maintenance

Walls: Lime Render With materials such as lime plaster it is important to note the necessity of care taken during the appliation of the render onto the building facade. It should be applied onto bare, unpainted surfaces that are both clean and dry, and allowed a enough time to cure after each 5mm layer of render is applied (recommended curing time up to 4 weeks). Clay Render Clay plaster can be wetted and re-worked indefinitely. Erosion and cracking can be further inhibited by the inclusion of fibres such as chopped straw or hair. Sometimes a top coat of lime render can be used to protect the clay. Palette Timber Cladding The timber cladding will require a reapplication of oil/paint treatment every 3-5 years to keep the material weatherproof and to prevent the timber from rotting. Roof: Steel Sheets Removal of leaves, branches, sticks, and other debris that could get stuck on the roof or in the gutters is an integral part of yearly metal roofing maintenance. Floor: Internally like with the walls the timber cladding floor will require a re-application of oil/paint treatment every 3-5 years to keep the material weatherproof and prevent the timber from rotting.



Material Cultures

Windows and doors Team members: Ameeka Babra - Team Budget George Fisher - Team QS Lydia Hyde - Budget Master Sara Lohse - Document Master Viktorija Mankeviciute - Team Drawings

Windows and Doors are extremely important in enhancing the look and feel of a space, and are fundamental to the functionality of a building. Sustainability is also key for windows and doors, as they are elements of a building that aren’t regularly changed. Timber is rapidly coming back into use due to its low environmental impact and, if treated correctly, its long-life cycle and its ability to be recycled. Building X’s design follows a few set principles to decide the rational for the placement of the openings: 1. The majority of the building’s long elevations are to be left blank to allow for future terracing 2. The space for openings is limited towards the two short ends of the building Three window and door typologies have been designed: 1. One fixed window 2. Two casement window seats 3. Two doors


Windows & doors

81


Material Cultures

Gowercroft Joinery - factory visit

At the start of the design process we visited Gowercroft Joinery, a wooden windows, doors and joinery manufacturing firm in Derbyshire, in order to understand what is involved in the making process for building openings. We wanted to learn how modern high specification windows and doors are constructed using contemporary manufacturing methods. We then adapted this approach to deduct a simpler construction method in order to achieve products of the same quality. 1.

Timber Yard

2. Workshop

3.

Cutting List

4. Planer

5.

Planed Timber


83

6.

Machine for timber windows

7.

Finger Joint

8.

Window Profile

9.

Finger Joint

10.

Window Assembly

11.

Window Press


Material Cultures

Gowercroft Joinery - factory visit

12.

V Nail

13.

Lock Rebate

14.

Door Assembly

15.

Paint Mixing Station

16.

Spraying Station

17.

Drying Rack


85

18.

Drying Rack

19.

Dead Locks

20.

Glazing Installation

21.

Silicone Seal

22.

Glazing Installation - Pinning

23.

Windows - Finished and Packaged


Material Cultures

Design principles

1 Structure / Function

3 Budget

Windows and door have been designed to accommodate the design of:

It was a consistent challenge to source affordable, yet high quality materials to construct the windows and doors for Building X. Numerous timber and glazing suppliers were contacted in order to achieve the most cost-effective solution. Research was done on various timber options; whilst Accoya is considered to be a very suitable timber for windows and doors, the cost of the material led us to alternatives, such as Red Grandis, Utile and Sapele. It was necessary to strike a balance between adequate natural light coming into the building and the overall cost. The reduction of double glazing sizes meant that 4mm toughened glass with 16mm cavity units could be used, instead of using a thicker glass, which would have doubled the costs.

1. A kitchen 2. Dining area 3. The potential of conversion to a dwelling The openings are made of a wooden frame and a large amount of glazing. The openings serve as sources of ventilation, light and general comfort.

2 Transportability

Windows and doors are relatively small components of a building that are easy to transport, lift and place. However, great precision in assembling the frame, glazing and ironmongery together. The timber frames were created and assembled at CSM; the glazing will be placed into the frames after onsite in order to preserve fragile elements from the breaking.


Process diagram

87

which type of timber is best suited to windows and doors?

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Material Cultures

Material selection

Accoya

Red Grandis

Main characteristics 1. Accoya is a chemically altered softwood 2. Manufactured using acetylation - a process that alters the chemical make-up of the material, within the wood’s cell wall 3. Wide range of internal and external uses, such as doors and windows, decking and cladding 4. Because of the material’s stability, any coatings applied to Accoya will typically last longer than that of other timbers

Main characteristics 1. Red Grandis is a hardwood 2. Largely uniform in colour, with variations from pale to medium pink 3. Consistent straight grain 4. Uniform appearance and knot-free

Main benefits of using material 1. Exceptional dimensional stability - low rate of tangential and volume shrinkage Guaranteed 50 years above ground, 25 years in fresh water 2. Accoya is naturally insulating 3. Accoya is a sustainable timber, as it is sourced from softwood timber, and has a long lifespan

Main benefits of using material 1. Good dimensional stability - similar to Sapele, but not as good as Accoya 2. Red Grandis is resistant to insects and decay 3. The raw material is available in abundance and can be grown in 20 years

Disadvantages of using material 1. It is an expensive material - out of budget for this project 2. Accoya has limited local availability and long lead times

Disadvantages of using material 1. It is an expensive material - out of budget for this project 2. Red Grandis has a lead time that extended beyond our project duration

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Radiata Pine - a fast growing softwood species - is regularly used for Accoya 2. The Radiata Pine that is often used for Accoya is typically plantation grown in New Zealand 3. The raw material is then processed in The Netherlands

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Red Grandis is native to the east coast of Australia, but is now grown in plantations worldwide 2. Once felled, the material is manufactured into pre-planed engineered lengths at timber mills worldwide

How sustainable is it? 1. Accoya is sourced only from FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) woods, from abundantly available timber species 2. As softwoods are used for Accoya, the trees used take just 30 years to reach harvesting point 3. Accoya is compliant with the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) 4. But despite this, the material still has to be shipped from New Zealand to The Netherlands, and then to distributors worldwide 5. The long life span of the material improves its sustainability 6. Accoya can be recycled

How sustainable is it? 1. Red Grandis is sourced from FSC (forest Stewardship Council) woods, the raw material is also available in abundance 2. Red Grandis is grown worldwide in plantations - although it is a fast-growing timber, the plantation land would of had to have been cleared in order to produce the material 3. Externally used Red Grandis, if sufficiently maintained, is typically expected to last 50 years

Maintenance 1. Because of its durability and stability, Accoya used for decking or cladding does not necessarily need to be treated 2. Accoya used for windows and doors should be treated with a timber coating to avoid rot 3. Coatings applied to Accoya will typically twice as long than coatings applied to regular timber 4. Any timber coatings and finishings can be applied to Accoya

Maintenance 1. Red Grandis needs to be treated 2. Teknos water-based acrylic coatings are recommended, as they provide greater resistance to dimensional change and moisture inhabitation 3. Coatings need to be regularly maintained and re-applied (more so than Accoya)

Total cost:

Total cost:

£4153.81

£4153.81


89

Sapele

Main characteristics 1. Sapele is a tropical hardwood 2. Colour is a golden to dark-reddish brown, that darkens with age 3. Interlocked grain 4. Medium density timber

Main benefits of using material 1. Good dimensional stability - similar to Red Grandis, but not as good as Accoya 2. Good resistance to rot 3. Within project budget and lead time within project duration

Disadvantages of using material 1. Unsustainable - sourced from a vulnerable tree species 2. Can be difficult to machine due to its tight interlocking grain 3. Becomes distorted and stained when put into direct contact with iron Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. The Sapele we used is from West Africa 2. It was planed at a London sawmill prior to being sent to Central Saint Martins

How sustainable is it? 1. Sapele is unsustainable as it is sourced from a tree species that has seen a 20% population reduction over the past 20 years - this is as a result of exploitation and decline in its natural range 2. Sapele timber is grown in West and Central Africa 3. Sapele is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Maintenance 1. Sapele needs to be treated as it is only moderately resistant to insects and decay 2. Coatings need to be regularly maintained and re-applied (more so than Accoya or Red Grandis)

Total cost:

ÂŁ2878


Material Cultures

Process & testing

We tested several different frame joints to find the most functional, structural and aesthetically suitable solution. The test pieces were analysing for the following:

Following the tests, we chose three different joint types for Building X’s openings:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Resistance to tension Stability in regards to movement Joint simplicity Time consumption Aesthetics

1. Butt joint - the end of a piece of wood is butted against another piece of wood. This is the simplest and weakest joint. 2. Mitre joint - similar to a butt joint, but both pieces have been bevelled (usually at a 45-degree angle). 3. Bridle joint - the through mortise is open on one side and forms a fork shape. The mate has a through tenon or necked joint.

Mitre Joint - Detail

Mitre Joint - Frame

Tongue & Groove Joint - Detail

Tongue & Groove - Frame


Prototyping: joint types

91

Butt Joint - Detail

Butt Joint - Frame

Bridle Joint - Detail

Japanese Bridle Joint - Detail


Material Cultures

Process & testing

The prototypes were extremely useful, giving us to the opportunity to understand how to create a number of joints.

frame. During the process we learned that these were:

As part of the prototyping process we made domino joints: 1. Domino joints are time-consuming to make 2. Necessary where connections need to be strong, or where joints are exposed. 3. To improve efficiency of construction, screws were used to hold each component together. The screws will be located where they are not visible. We also used half-lapped joints to make the

The components of the fixed window prototype

1. Also time consuming to make 2. Necessary where connections in the frame need to be strong. Through prototyping, it was decided that half-lapped joints would only be used when butt joints could not be used. This was a time-saving measure. Prototyping enabled us to make decisions on the type of joints we should use, and where we should use them. Understanding these processes made us more efficient and limited our margin for error in the final production of the windows and doors.


Prototyping: fixed window

93

Lapped joint

Sill close-up

fixed window 1:1 mock up

Glazing rebate

Lapped joint showing glazing rebate

Domino sill joint


Material Cultures

1. A fixed window sits above the kitchen sink. 2. There are two window seats, one adjacent to the fixed window on the long elevation and the other opposite the kitchen on the short elevation. 3. The window seats also have an open-able casement section. 4. The two doors sit on opposite ends of the building, one mirroring the kitchen window, the other on the opposite short elevation.

Door - 1:15 at A3

Plans, sections & elevations


95

Door with fixed window - 1:15 at A3


Material Cultures

Window seat with openable casement - 1:15 at A3

Plans, sections & elevations


97

Large window seat with openable casement - 1:15 at A3


Material Cultures

Fixed kitchen window - 1:15 at A3

Plans, sections & elevations


Details

Casement detail - 1:2 at A3

99


Material Cultures

Door detail - 1:2 at A3

Details


101

Fixed window detail - 1:2 at A3


Material Cultures

Window seat and casement detail axo

Window axonometrics


103

Window seat and casement detail exploded axo


Material Cultures

Maintenance

Maintenance is crucial for timber windows and doors. If moisture penetrates the timber, the thermal performance and structural integrity of the window or door may be compromised. If using raw timber for the construction of windows and doors, a weatherproof coating will need to be applied, preferably prior to the assembly of the unit. The Sapele timber that was used for the windows and doors of ‘Building X’ came to us cut, planed and treated, so it was not necessary to treat the Sapele prior to unit assembly. The coating needed will vary depending on what type of timber is used. As Sapele is only moderately resistant to insects and decay, it will need to be treated more regularly than other timbers, such as Accoya or Red Grandis. Recommended coatings for timber doors and windows are: 1. Teknos AQUA PRIMER 2907-02 - a clear wood preservative coating 2. Teknos AQUAFILLER 6500-01 - an intermediate clear coating 3. Teknos AQUAOIL 2775-36 - a topcoat spray coating Once in use, the coatings will need to be re-applied every couple of years. This will of course depend on climatic conditions.


105

Domino joint installation

Domino join connection

Completed frame

Frame connection detail


Material Cultures

Kitchen and living Team members: Freya Tigerschiรถld - Team Drawings & Production Cameron Bray - Sponsorship Lead & Production Xiao Ding - Team Drawings Mama Akyere Sekyi-Djan - Team Budget & Production Lois Innes - Document Master

Fundamental to a well structured kitchen is planning the space and the location of the most important appliances to enable frequent tasks to be completed easily and efficiently. These facilities should be designed so that can be accessed and reached by all people independently or with companions. It is advisable to check what building regulations affect the design of your project in regards to its dwelling typology. In its first iteration as a building capable of seating 30 people for a communal feast, the kitchen, living and food preparation amenities within Building X form the main internal features of the space, but have also been designed to be adapted when in use as a one person dwelling. Three aspects define the kitchen & living amenities for Building X: 1. One fixed worktop unit 2. One fixed worktop counter/ island 3. One internal woodburning stove


Kitchen and living

Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square London N1C 4AA

107

Drawing Title:

Note

Proposed - Kitchen Counter Detail

First Issue

Project: Prototype A

Client: H. G. Matthews

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Material Cultures

Design principles

1 Structure / Function

The kitchen units and living amenities have been designed to facilitate: 1. Two sinks & a stove 2. Flexible and functional use 3. The potential of conversion to a dwelling by way of making provisions for other appliances, such as a fridge and oven The units are predominately made of salvaged plywood, timber and stainless steel, while the use of an open structure provides greater flexibility of use for future occupancy.

2 Transportability

Kitchen units are typically the amongst the last components of a building to be installed, and so consideration must be given to the ways in which they will be transported into the space when all other structural elements have been completed. All kitchen units were designed to fit through Building X’s 1200mm doors. The plywood frames and counters were created and assembled at CSM: the various appliances will be installed on site to keep the units lightweight enough to carried by two people.

3 Budget

Due to other building components taking precedent, the budget for the kitchen and living amenities was the lowest in Building X, at just ÂŁ1000. Initial costings far exceeded the revised budget and required a redesign of the units to make most dimensions costeffective for material orders. However, through salvaging, upgrading and customising materials and appliances, it was still possible to achieve a high-quality kitchen design with limited funds. The design of the units is minimal, with more consideration given to fixings and joinery.


Process diagram

109

Material / appliances sourcing & application with limited budget

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Provisional designs and layout for future occupant consideration

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Recycled, upgraded & free timber worktop units

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Re-des i

Two free ceramic Belfast sinks


Material Cultures

Material Selection

Constructional Spruce timber

Plywood

Main characteristics 1. Creamy white to light yellow and to red-brown colour 2. Straight-grained with thin and regular texture. Soft and very elastic. 3. Wide range of internal and external uses, such as internal studwork, domestic flooring and general carpentry 4. Spruce wood is available as round and sawn timber, as laminated timber and veneer.

Main characteristics 1. Plywood is an engineered medium-density wood product made of thin layers or plies of wood glued together. 2. Normal product consists of at least 3 plies, with the grain in the alternate plies running at right angles for increased strength. 3. Extremely versatile product, plywood is used for a wide range of structural, interior and exterior applications

Main benefits of using material 1. Spruce can be worked with all tools and machines. It is easy to saw, plane, drill and sand as well as to slice or peel, to split or shred. 2. Good strength and not susceptible to shrinkage 3. High availability and cheap timber option 4. Softwood is a safe type of wood material as it is naturally non-toxic.

Main benefits of using material 1. Plywood is easy to work with because it is uniform and strong 2. Good strength and durability. Plywood offers all the inherent advantages of the parent wood plus enhanced properties in its laminated structure 3. Inexpensive 4. High impact resistance and easily reusable material.

Disadvantages of using material 1. Low natural durability, but can be compensated for by applying a protective coat of paint 2. Not naturally weather-resistant and susceptible to rot and fungi. Can deform in high temperatures

Disadvantages of using material 1. The layers of plywood can come apart on prolonged exposure to water. This drawback can be overcome by choosing BWR Waterproof grade for plywood furniture that is likely to get wet. 2. Tendency to sag or bend when longer pieces are used 3. Not considered as strong as solid wood.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. Spruce trees are native throughout Europe with the exception of the western and southern extremes. Spruce grows in lowlands and mountainous regions. Also grown widely throughout the world, providing a good low carbon timber option. 2. Once felled, the material is manufactured into pre-planed engineered lengths at timber mills worldwide - Widely distributed throughout Europe.

Where is the material sourced and produced? 1. In most cases, trees intended for ply production have been planted and grown in areas owned by a plywood company. 2. Consists of nine main processes from raw to composite engineered material. 3. Once trees are felled, the material is manufactured into pre-planed laminated sheets and distributed worldwide.

How sustainable is it? 1. Softwood species are fast growing, meaning that with the same amount of land more wood can be produced each year. 2. The timber used for this build was all sourced from the CSM workshop - 0 carbon footprint. 3. Srpuce timber has a long life span if treated properly 4. Spruce is a recyclable material and can be used as fuel

How sustainable is it? 1. Is sometimes sourced from endangered tropical rainforests or illegal sources, however FSC plywood is widely available. 2. The timber used for this build was all salvaged from the CSM workshop - 0 carbon footprint or transport necessary. 3. Emissions that are produced from the manufacture of plywood can negatively impact air quality. Three of the main types of emissions include those created from particle matter, veneer dryers and adhesives.

Maintenance 1. Spruce timber used should be treated with a protetive timber coating to avoid rot. Resin residues should be removed before use in construction.

Maintenance 1. Spruce timber used should be treated with a protective timber coating to avoid water absorption which can force it to distort or rot.

Total cost:

Total cost:

Quantity needed:

ÂŁ0 82m 2

Quantity needed:

ÂŁ0 5 boards @ (1220 x 2440)mm


H.G. Matthews visit

111

At the start of the start of the concept design phase for the kitchen and living amenities for the build, a number of the Unit 3 visited the site of H.G. Matthews to collect materials and products for testing. Also noted on site were a collection of discarded or unused material that could potentially be made use of in the kitchen design, in particular some large metal chutes that could be re-purposed as extractors or chimneys, plastic water tanks for rain collection/water storage, and a series of metal brick moulding palletes that were considered for shelving. We were keen from the outset to keep material costs at a minimum, and to use the language of the eventual site context to guide the aesthetics and functionality of the kitchen and living spaces.

Salvageable materials on-site and products for potential use in kitchen. Brick moulding pallets were sourced for use as shelving.


Material Cultures

Process & testing

A woodburning stove was desired for Building X as a central and celebratory element of the living space. It was initially designed and planned to be located towards the entrance of the space, opposite to the kitchen area to the building’s rear. The idea was that it would function as an effective and alternative heat source whilst the building is in its first occupancy, until a more comprehensive central heating system is installed when the building becomes a dwelling. H.G. Matthews had a number of wood burners that they were willing give us at cost price. However, due to limited budgets and the need to prioritise the kitchen construction, we unfortunately had to omit the woodburner from the design. However, the following pages document the research & prototype process.


Prototyping: Woodburning stove

113

Cost savings over other methods of heating

Wood is a renewable resource

Benefits of Burning Wood

Security of a heat source, doesn’t require any modern infrasture

PHASE 1

A mild wood smoke smell, views of fires Occasional cleanup (bringingwood into the house can bring dirt & insects with it. Stove can create ash and soot)

Lifestyle

Might chop wood

Local Policy

Only ‘DEFRA’ approved STOVE

Yes

Smoke Contol or Not (check with local council)

Any Good Quality STOVE

Perchase

Budget Tight

Sources Self-made

Lack guidance for making a stove that could be qualified. It’s a field to be explored Enough surface for cooking

PHASE 2

The CONSIDERATIONS FOR HAVING A STOVE

No

(Budget/ Fun)

High Cost, limited Choices

Cook

A smaller firebox to contain an intense fire insulated sides to prevent excessive heat loss to the kitchen.

Functions / Needs

Some products have surfaces for cooking cups of tea a large firebox to hold a long-lasting fire

Heat

bare sides to encourage maximum heat transfer to the room.

Air Vent

Calucate the size of stove according to the volume and insulation of the room. (Find free stove calc. online, or roughly the size of firebox is around voulmes of room divided by 14)

By calcuation, a stove around14.4 kw is needed for heating this building. However, as London has mild weather, for using the stove in more seasons, it can be around 10kw to avoid overheating.

No Specific Reuirements for stoves whose output less than 5kw All wood burning and multi-fuel stoves with a heat output in excess of 5kW must have an air vent in the room unless they incorporate an 'external air facility'.

Below the floor level

Location

Heating Participation Difficulty on synergy with other functions ++

Heating Participation Difficulty on synergy with other functions ++++

Platform accessories

Ash Pans, Placement, etc. Wood Stroage

Heating Participation Difficulty on synergy with other functions ++++

un-combustible materials

The hot air is lighter than the cold one and rise to heat the whole space, it is more efficient to put the stove lower. However, it requires the pre-construction of the floor.

Above the floor level

For above the floor, a non-combustible platform sometimes needed to protect the floor, which should less than 20cm height.


Process & testing

Flue terminal Flue Terminal (rain cap) (rain cap) 30˚ - 40˚ lead flashing or Aquaseal Versatile 30º - 40º Lead flashing Flashing or Aquaseal Versatile Flashings

Steel box or

Steel interiorBox plate or Interior Plate

Insulated Insulated stainless Stainless-Steel steel flue lengths Flue Lengths 650mm, 153 diameter (650mm, 0153)

15˚ Bend

15º Bend, 0153 153 diameter Insulated StainInsulated stainless less-Steel steel flue lengths Flue Lengths 600mm, 153 diameter (600mm, 0153) 15˚ Bend

15º Bend, 0153 153 diameter Insulated Stainless-Steel Insulated stainless steel flue lengths Flue Lengths 650mm, 153 diameter (650mm, 0153) Wood stove

Wood Stove

Airvent Vent Air Platform & wood Platform & storage (strocks)

Wood Storage (Strocks)

Flue System

Material Cultures


Prototyping: Woodburning stove

H.G. Matthew bricks for use as wood burner platform

115


Material Cultures

Process & testing

Roof Detail Diagrams (2 Options) Roof detail diagrams (2 options)

Steelenvelope Steel Envelope

Rain Cap

Roof cap

Stormcollar Collar Storm

Silicone Silicone pipePipe bootBoot

5cm Clearance 5mm clearance from from combustibles combustibles Interior Trim Plate Interior trim plate Singletotodouble Double Adapter Single adapter Locking Bond &+locking bond Section 1:50

Elevation 1:50

Section and details showing chimney and roof connection


Prototyping: Woodburning stove

117

Plan 1 1:50

Plan view

Wood storage Wood Stroage

Strock (300 (300 xx150 Strock 150xx95mm.): 0.5mm) Density: 1350kg/m 3 1350kg/cubic metre Density: Thermal conductivity: Conductivity: 0.2 0.2(W/mK) (W/mK) Thermal Compressive strength: 2.6N/mm²2 Compressive strength: 2.6N/mm (standard) 4.6N/mm 2 (high strength) 4.6N/ mm² (high strength)

The platform consists of 57 stacking strocks which allows the occupants to organise their own arrangement by simply stacking. It also includes a sink area for wood storage.

The platform consists of 57 stacking strocks which allows the custom could organise their own space by simply stacking. It also includes a sink area for wood stroage.

Elevation & axo of brick platform plinth for stove


Material Cultures

Process & testing

Wanting to create something more bespoke than off the shelf products, we tested a number of different worktop finish options to find the most durable and aesthetically suitable solution. The prototypes were useful is testing the following:

proved unsuccessful, and ruling out of ceramic tiles due to cost price, we settled on using treated, sanded and hand-stained timber offcuts to create the island worktop. The benefits of using this finish are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Resistance to moisture absorption & wear Resistance to cracking Natural-looking aesthetic Cost Application time

Following a number of tests using clay which

1. Inexpensive: timber sourced from salvaged/leftover material from CSM degree show build. 2. Strong and robust with long life-span 3. Unique finish due to differences in wood grain 4. Easy to treat with mineral oils and waterbased wax.

Sample from H.G. Matthews: Red pigment clay, treated with natural beeswax sealant, applied to hempcrete board. This was the desired effect the team were hoping to achieve.

Sample from H.G. Matthews: Untreated clay applied to hempcrete board.

Material prototype test exploring the use of clay as a worktop finish. We used four types of clay by adding more water each time to each solution, ranging from rougher finishes to smoother ones. We preferred the smoother option, which dried successfully without cracking.

After consulting the casting workshop about treatment options, they raised concern over the amount of beeswax required to maintain this type of finish, and advised us to use an epoxy resin instead. Due to the small toxicity of resin, and the fact that its properties negated the aesthetic and process we wanted to achieve, this idea was not carried forward.


Prototyping: Worktop finishes

119

Timber off cut worktop: We started by cutting 45 x 45 x 45mm pieces on the band-saw. All edges and sides are then sanded down to achieve a smoother finish

Using a mould, the offcuts are then arranged and glued in groups of four to enable a quicker application time later

The offcuts are then arranged and glued to an 18mm plyboard worktop, which has been marked with the locations of any appliances used - stove top, sink for example. Additional sanding was then carried out to achieve a consistently smooth finish.

Location of stove top on countertop. This area on the plyboard will then be sawed through when installing the appliance.

Dying techniques exploring the use of natural wood stains: Turmeric was mixed in a solution of hard wax oil and water, and spread in varying shades of intensity over the prototype.

Turmeric wood stain prototype. Beetroot and coffee solutions were also tested. Due to application time, we decided to make a judgement about the stain of the timber worktop later on in the process, once the whole ensemble of the build has come together.


Material Cultures

Process & testing

The team were able to source over 80m of Spruce construction timber leftover or salvaged from the CSM degree show. Despite dramatically bringing down our provisional material cost down to ÂŁ0, the majority of the timber was in a relatively scruffy condition, and required careful treating and sanding to alleviate their appearance. In the spirit of up-cycling, we decided to customise the timber battens used for the kitchen unit frames by hand dip-dying their bases. The following details the process:

Each timber batten is cut to the same required size of 800mm. These were then sanded down using an electrical orbital sander to achieve a consistently smooth finish

Using tape to mask-off the area of the batten to be painted and to achieve a consistent datum, the battens are then hand painted with a satin red paint.

The battens are then treated with a protective wood-based oil


Process: Painted leg finishes

Drying process: battens suspended using a basic frame system and series of clamps. After leaving these to dry thoroughly, the next batch could be started.

121


Material Cultures

Process & testing

The assembly of the kitchen island and worktop units required a methodical process of cutting, screwing and clamping to achieve maximum uniformity and rigidity. To construct each module unit, both for the fixed counter and island worktop, a series of vertical frames were made first, which were then affixed to longer horizontal spans of timber battens. Temporary 600mm battens were used to brace and secure the units when assembling the them together.

1. Timber pre-treatment, including sanding, waxing, dip-dying and cutting to size. 2. Rotational process of drilling at pre-marked locations on battens to form frames: countersink, drill & screwing 3. Temporary bracing affixed and units clamped together 4. Workshop assembled and secured to unit base structure 5. Drawers installed and shelves fixed.

The construction technique and process of fixing these units together were as follows:

Pre-made jigs made for drilling, cutting and screwing the various components of the kitchen units. This proved to be a useful technique for consistent placement of screws and accurate clamping.

The units were put together in the CSM 3D large workshop, using all tools, machinery and technicians available in the facility.


Process: Worktop unit assembly

123

Screwing the horizontal timber battens to the vertical frames

Clamping assembly with pre-made jig to ensure horizontal base bracing is affixed in the appropriate location

Clamping of the worktop units together

Fixing of the brick mould palettes / shelves to base of unit using a series of hidden dowels. Before installation, these palettes were each washed & scrubbed to remove brick debris and polished with an angle grinder. Three palettes are welded together to form each shelf.

Joinery details: wooden screw caps indivdually cut to diameter of countersink hole and inserted over head to screw.

Wooden screw caps hammered into place, flush with timber frame. A rotary sander was then used to achieve a polished finish.


8

Kitchen arrangement plan

Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square London N1C 4AA

8

1260

400

8

Prototype A

Project:

Proposed - Kitchen Plan

Drawing Title:

1792

1980

Client: H. G. Matthews

1564

1260

8

-

-

-

-

-

Date -

Note

-

-

-

-

Rev.

1260

1563

1980

8

First Issue

1925

1077

2590

660 1200 900

06 / 08 / 2019 Scale: 1:20 @ A3 Drawing No: ProtoA_P_110_PLAN(Kitchen)

Check by: S.I.

Date:

Central Saint Martins MArch

8 400

Material Cultures Plan


Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square London N1C 4AA

Internal rear elevation: fixed kitchen unit

Drawing Title:

Prototype A

Project:

Proposed - Elevation A Client: H. G. Matthews

-

-

-

-

-

-

Date -

Note First Issue

-

-

-

-

Rev.

Scale: 1:20 @ A3 Drawing No: ProtoA_P_211_ELE(A)

Check by: S.I.

125

10 / 07 / 2019

Central Saint Martins MArch Date:

Elevation: Rear fixed counter


Material Cultures

Elevations: Worktop island

1. The island worktop unit is of a modular, repetitive structure: units can be removed or added provided newly sized countertops are installed 2. A set of drawers features on each long side of the counter, apart from the middle section, which has been left open to accommodate a fridge and oven.

North elevation: kitchen island

South elevation: kitchen island with integrated stove top

Drawing Title:

Note

Proposed - Elevation B,C,D,E

First Issue -


ssue

East elevation: kitchen island

West elevation: kitchen island

Date

Rev.

-

-

-

-

Central Saint Martins MArch Date:

06 / 08 / 2019


Material Cultures

Exploded axo: typical island unit assembly

45x45x

18mm

15mm

5 x 70 mm 5mm x 70 mm woodscrew woodscrew

12mm

Oak plug

entral Saint Martins Granary Building Granary Square ondon 1C 4AA

45x22.

Oak plug

45x45

Reclai

Red di

Drawing Title:

Note

Proposed - Kitchen Island Detail

First Issue

Project: Prototype A

Client: H. G. Matthews

-


45 x 45 x 45 mm timber battens glued together, sanded and oiled.

18mm plywood

15mm plywood 12mm plywood 45 x 22.5 mm timber batten, sanded and oiled

45 x 45 x 45 mm timber batten, sanded and oiled

Reclaimed metal brick trays from H.G. Matthews brick factory Red dipped painted legs


Material Cultures

Exploded axo: typical fixed counter assembly

plug OakOak plug 5mm x 70 mm woodscrew

5 x 70 mm woodscrew

Central Saint Martins Granary Building 1 Granary Square London N1C 4AA

Space for white goods Space for white goods

Drawing Title:

Note

Proposed - Kitchen Counter Detail

First Issue

Project: Prototype A

Client: H. G. Matthews

-


Reclaimed stainless steel worktop

18mm plywood

45 x 45 x 45 timber batten. Removable when white goods installed

45 x 45 x 45 timber batten. Sanded and oiled

Red dipped painted legs


Material Cultures

Maintenance

When installed, the kitchen units will need to be lovingly looked after. Our construction processes have taken longevity into account but they will need continued maintenance. The units all have feet which have been dipped in a hard wearing acrylic eggshell paint, which will protect the most vulnerable part of the structure. Elsewhere, all the timber has been oiled using Osmo Polyx. The island worktop has been coated with the same oil, as well as turmeric powder, which tints it a yellow colour. Turmeric dyes fade over time, so part of the process of upkeep will include regular turmeric application (or other natural dyes could also be rotated in). On top of this, the oil to be topped up regularly. The other counters are still being decided on but the most likely candidate at the moment is a formica / or a stainless steel worktop, which should require minimal maintenance. The back units of the kitchen have been designed to accept white goods, but it’s understood that they might not all arrive at the same time. Bracing has been built into the rear of these units, which can be sawn out as the white goods are dropped in, maintaining its structural integrity. In the meantime, gaps can be filled with shelves, plate racks and so on.


Kitchen unit mock-up


Material Cultures

Scheduling Lead role - Abby Bird

The initial schedule programmed for the building to begin on site assembly at The Story Garden before being deconstructed and re-constructed at HG Matthews. When the scope of works for the initial period were reduced and erection in The Story Garden was removed from the programme, the schedule was revised to suit this.


Scheduling

135

Week 3 22 23 Roof & Floor: Floor cassette assembly Roof cassette cutting Floor casette assembly Roof cassette assembly Sheet order I joists order Walls: Long cassette wall cutting Bracing order Make and fix bracing Long wall cassette assembly I joists order Short wall cassette cutting Short wall cassette assembly Infill: Hemp blocks fabrication Hemp block delivery Openings: Final details for glazing Timber order Timber delivery Openings fabrication Cladding: Cladding wall testing Timber cladding fabrication for mock up Clay plaster panels fabrication for mock up Kitchen: Final details kitchen Kitchen fabrication Order taps/sink?

Mock up assembly Truck 1 from CSM to HG Matthews Truck 2 from CSM to HG Matthews

Revised schedule

24

25

26

27

28

Week 4 29 30

31

1

2

3

4

Week 5 5 6

7


Original schedule

Completion of Indicative Material Quantities to Material Schedule Order glass Order Acoya Order Ironmongery

Openings:

Completion of Indicative Material Quantities to Material Schedule Collation of material quantities across groups Contact HG Matthews re indicative material order/lead times, prefabrication Order Steico wood fibre Final order with HG Matthews Prefabricating Hempcrete at HG Matthews? Hempcrete/ to be delivered to site Installation of floor insulation Installation of wall insulation

Infill:

Prefabrication of timber shingle cladding Delivery of cladding/roof to site Installation of floor finish Installation of timber shingles Installation of clay plaster Installation of lime plaster Clear up on site

Contact HG Matthews re indicative material order/lead times Collation of material quantities across groups Final order with HG Matthews Order of plastering tools Order Roof sheet material Order roof battens Deivery from HG Matthews to CSM

Completion of Indicative Material Quantities to Material Schedule

Cladding:

Wall and roof cassettes to be installed on site by crane Clear up on site

Wall and roof cassettes moved from street to loading bay

Scaffolding installed on top of floor substructure and around external walls

Delivery of roof materials to site

Floor boarded to receive scaffolding

Delivery of LVL to site Floor joists to be cut Wall and roof cassettes to be assembled Timber subframe to be assembled Floor joists to be delivered to site Floor cassettes to be assembled on site Floor cassettes to be fixed to timber subframe

Meeting with Structural Engineers GA Drawing Set Deadline Production of Drawings Construction/Bregs Package Deadline Final feedback from Structural Engineers Construction/Bregs Package Deadline Send model/drawings to engineer Order LVL Order Ply / Timber studs / etc Order Pads

Megastructures:

*

* *

8

*

*

*

9

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

?

15

*

*

16

?

*

* *

*

Week 2 17 18 19 20 21

Ord Date/Duration Unkown atm

Week 1 10 11 12 13 14

Pre-site On-site Deadline

22

23

Week 3 24 25 26 27 28 29

30

Week 4 31 1 2 3

4

Week 5 5 6 7

Material Cultures Scheduling


Wall and roof cassettes to be installed on site by crane

Potential forklift to get LVL off Contact Estates about loading bay stuff Site map access route sent Transport to be booked / Library to be notified Floor joists to be delivered to site

Transport:

Order PPE Kinda need PPE Deadline Definitely need PPE Deadline

Health & Safety:

Production of tool list Order of tools Tools to be delivered Foundation to be laid Hardcore delivered to site Hardcore spread and compacted

Site Establishment:

Building Control: Make contact with building control Gather building control set, engineers calcs F10 to be issued deadline pre site work Building Control sign off

Final feedback

Structural Engineers:

GA Drawing Set Deadline Production of Construction/Bregs Package Construction/Bregs Package Deadline

Drawing Packages:

Preparation of budget across all groups Budget to be signed off

Budget:

Contact HG Matthews re indicative material order/lead times Final order with HG Matthews Prefabrication of kitchen Delivery of kitchen to site Installation of kitchen Plumber to connect kitchen

Completion of Indicative Material Quantities to Material Schedule

Kitchen:

Completion of Indicative Material Quantities to Material Schedule Order glass Order Acoya Order Ironmongery Acoya to arrive Glass to arrive Prefabrication of windows and doors Delivery of windows and doors to site Installation of windows and doors Clean up on site

Openings:

prefabrication Order Steico wood fibre Final order with HG Matthews Prefabricating Hempcrete at HG Matthews? Hempcrete/ to be delivered to site Installation of floor insulation Installation of wall insulation

*

*

*

* *

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

?

*

*

*

137


Material Cultures

Budget Lead budget roles: Budget Master - Lydia Hyde Megastructures - Joy Mulandi Infill & aitightness - Matteo Rossetti Cladding - James Bromley & Annie Dermawan Windows & doors - Ameeka Babra Kitchen & living - Mama AkyereSekyi-Djan

Each of the five teams (megastructures, infill & airtightness, cladding, windows and doors, and kitchen and living) had a team member who was responsible for each group’s budget. Each team’s budget coordinator would report back to the Budget Master - a role assumed by Lydia Hyde - who would oversee the finances for each group, and the overall project budget. The role of Budget Master typically involved liaising between the individual group budgeters and group quantity surveyors in order to meet the overall project budget, as well as negotiating where finances could be moved between teams. Constant communication between team budgeters was essential in order to keep on top of the overall project expenditure. A shared spreadsheet was used to collate and manage all of the teams expenditure, which was kept up to date when design changes were implemented and new material quotes received.


Budget

139


Material Cultures

Budget: Megastructures

Material

Dimensions

JJI

12000mm x 2

OSB (rim board)

1220mm x 24

Steel Subframe

12000mm x 3

OSB Board (topside)

2440mm x 12

OSB board (underside)

2400mm x 12

Steel Angle

210mm x 110

JJI

12000mm x 4

Timber Cross bracing

3600mm x 75

OSB (end wall headers)

2440mm x 1

OBS Board Header

2440mm x 1

OSB wall end plate

2440mm x 1

Timber connecting studs

3600mm x 12

JJI

12000mm x

LVL Ridge Beam

5100mm x 3

OSB (Rim board)

2440mm x 12

OSB Board (top & underside)

2400mm x 12

Timber studs

3600mm x 12

Bevelled support (for the ridge)

5100mm x 1

Megastructures: Floor and Foundations:

Walls:

The megastructures budget was managed by Joy Mulandi.

Roof:

The intended budget for megastructures was £14,000. This had to cover the material required for: 1. Foundations 2. Floor 3. Walls 4. Roof. The megastructures team required the largest sum which financed the main structural body of ‘Building X’. Throughout the design process we aimed to minimise the amount of JJI joists required, replacing them with OSB where possible, to reduce material costs.

Steel Bracket

Tradeline Flat Bracing Strip 2400mm x 70 Bulet Gold Wood Screw (for the bracing strip) Screws:

6x100 5x70 6x50

Already Spent: Total Cost:

JJI Joists (walls & roof/floor)


141

Dimensions (LxWxD)

Unit Price (-VAT) £

12000mm x 240mm x 60mm

rd)

me

opside)

underside)

bracing

ll headers)

Total Quantity

Total Cost (-VAT) £

VAT £

Total Cost (incl. VAT) £

16

1220mm x 2440mm x 11mm

11.21/ per board

4

114.12

22.824

136.944

12000mm x 300mm x 45mm

11.75/ per metre

21 (128 metres)

1,504.00

300.8

1,804.80

2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm

18.50/ per board

37

684.50

136.9

821.40

2400mm x 1200mm x 11mm 12.50/ per board

32

400.00

80

480.00

210mm x 110mm x 10mm

60 metres

12000mm x 400mm x 60mm

£6.55/ linear metre

38 (6)

471.60

94.32

565.92

3600mm x 75mm x 32mm

1.25/ per linear metre

(80 metres)

160

32

192

2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm 18.50/ per board

2

Header

2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm 18.50/ per board

6

74

14.8

88.8

d plate

2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm 18.50/ per board

2

37

7.4

44.4

ecting studs

3600mm x 128mm x 22mm

217.5

43.5

261

£1.50/ per linear metre 145 metres

12000mm x 240mm x 60mm £5.80/ linear metre

24 (7+2 for floor) 487.20

97.44

584.64

eam

5100mm x 300mm x 45mm

£11.75/ linear metre

9

539

107.8

647

ard)

2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm

18.50/ per board

6

111

22.2

133.2

2400mm x 1200mm x 11mm

£12.50/ per board

66 (57)

825.00

165

990.00

3600mm x 120mm x 22mm

£1.25/ per linear metre 38 (137m)

171.25

34.25

205.5

op &

port (for the 5100mm x 135mm x 55mm Bracing Strip 2400mm x 70mm x 0.6mm

ood Screw ng strip) 6x100

3 £4.1

3

12.29

2.458

14.748

9.45 (per item)

12

9.49

1.898

136.656

4.53 (200x screws)

1

4.53

0.906

5.436

£80.49/ 1000screws

3

241.47

48.294

289.764

5x70

£6.63/ 100 screws

8 packs

53.04

10.608

63.648

6x50

£8/ 100screws

40

320

64

384

lls & 7000 14849.886


Material Cultures

Budget: Infill and air tightness

Material

Dimensions

Block Infill:

Hempcrete (Custom size)

540x390x295

Infill (around JJI):

Wood Fibre Steico Therm

600x1350x20

Structural Infill:

Thermofloc Cellulose Insulation

12kg Bags

Infill (around JJI):

Thermofloc Cellulose Insulation

12kg Bags

Thermofloc Cellular Insulation

12kg Bags

OSB Board

2440 x 1220 x

Timber Battens (to take cladding)

5100mm x 94

Thermofloc Cellular Insulation

12kg Bags

Infill + Airtightness

The infill and airtightness budget was managed by Matteo Rossetti. The intended budget for infill and airtightness was £5,000. Matteo worked closely with the QS to find the most cost-effective solution, which was also environmentally friendly and achieved compliant u-values. The insulation for ‘Building X’ comprised of a mix of: 1. Hempcrete, which was provided by HG Matthews 2. A cheaper wood fibre insulation provided by Steico 3. Sheeps wool (kept to a minimum due to it’s high cost)

Walls:

Floor:

Roof: Structural Infill:

Infill (around JJI):

Even though the team went through a series of design iterations to achieve the cheapest build-up, infill and airtightness still required the second largest budget due to the expense of specifying sustainable products.

Cork tape Total no of celluose bags Delivery Total Cost:

128


143

Dimensions (LxWxD)

Unit Price (-VAT) £

Total Quantity

Total Cost (-VAT) £

Custom size)

540x390x295

12

413 (blocks) actual

4956

Steico Therm

600x1350x20

2.1

170

440.3

VAT £

Total Cost (incl. VAT) £

10

Cellulose 12kg Bags

10.96 (per 12kg bag) / 61m2 (240mm) £9.86 (order of 40+) = 49 bags

473.94

12kg Bags

10.96 (per 12kg bag) / 61m2 (20mm) = £9.86 (order of 40+) 5 bags

48.3

12kg Bags

10.96 (per 12kg bag) / 85m2 (240mm) £9.86 (order of 40+) = 68 bags

656.88

2440 x 1220 x 9mm

10.95/per metre

39 sheets

427.05

85.41

5100mm x 94mm x 20mm

1.25/ per metre

137.7metres

172.13

34.426

12kg Bags

10.96 (per 12kg bag) / 80m2 (20mm) = £9.86 (order of 40+) 6 bags

Cellulose

Cellular

ns (to take

Cellular

elluose bags

128

57.96

0.99

10

£9.66

1237.08 450 7692.56


Material Cultures

Budget: Cladding

Material

Dimensions (

Pallet Timber Internal

1000 x 22 x 1

Pallet Timber External

1000 x 22 x 1

Pallet Timber Capping Pieces

1000 x 22 x 1

Timber Battens

4500 x 25 x 3

Screws

50mm

Nails

50mm

Box Profile Sheet 34/1000 RibSheet Box Profile

0.5mm - 3500

34/1000 RibSheet Box Profile 34/1000 Rib - 130 Ridge capping

0.5mm x 4500

Cladding: Timber Cladding:

Roof:

degree Barge board - 90 degree

0.5mm x 3600 3000mm 3000mm

Mastic Sealant Strip - 9mm n/a x 3mmSheet x 15mStitching Roll Metal n/a Screws - 22mm - Pack of n/a Wood Purlin Screws - 100 100 Pack - TF32mm Timber battens

25mm x 50mm

25mm x 50mm

Internal Render:

The cladding budget was managed by James Bromley and Annie Dermawan. The intended budget for cladding was ÂŁ2,000. The cladding team provided a series of design iterations intended to minimise the materials required, whilst also creating a well-crafted and considered aesthetic.

20L Tub

Lineseed Oil

1L bottle

External Render:

HGM Pre-mix Lime Mortar Newbuild 25kg bag

Floor:

Pallet Timber

1000 x 22 x 1

Nails

50mm

Delivery:

The use of pallet timber, recycled from HG Matthews, reduced material costs significantly.

Clay Plaster

Total Cost:

Palette Timber Delivery


145

Total Cost (-VAT) £

VAT £

Total Cost (incl. VAT) £

Dimensions (LxWxD)

Unit Price (-VAT) £

Total Quantity

Internal

1000 x 22 x 100

44p per 1m piece

434

190.96

External

1000 x 22 x 100

44p per 1m piece

674

296.56

1000 x 22 x 100

44p per 1m piece

82

36.08

4500 x 25 x 38

3.30 (inc VAT) /per 4.5 286m (= 70 x 4.5 m m battens)

231

50mm

7.19 for 200 (inc VAT)

14.38

50mm

5.09 for 1kg pack (roughly 575 per pack) (inc VAT) 2216

Capping

ns

400

20.36

heet -

0.5mm - 3500mm x 1000mm 6.71

7

184.52

44.28

221.42

heet -

0.5mm x 3600mm x 1000mm 6.71

14

379.54

91.09

455.45

heet -

0.5mm x 4500mm x 1000mm 6.71

7

237.23

56.94

284.68

g - 130

3000mm

12.60

12 no.

151.2

36.29

181.44

- 90 degree

3000mm

12.60

30 no.

377.55

90.61

453.06

3.40

7 no.

23.8

5.71

28.56

7.82

3 no.

23.46

5.63

28.15

15.51

5 no.

72.55

17.41

87.06

25mm x 50mm x 3900 mm

3.49

70

244.3

49

293.3

25mm x 50mm x 4800 mm

3.78

10

37.8

7.6

45.4

20L Tub

£20.00

65.9m2 (= 76 20L tubs)

1520

364.8

1824

1L bottle

8.99 (inc VAT)

65.9m2 (= 6 bottles)

25kg bag

£11.75

70m2 (= 122 bags)

1000 x 22 x 100

44p per 1m piece

835

50mm

5.09 for 1kg pack (roughly 575 per pack) (inc VAT) 1670

15.27

(£100 per 4-5 packs)

100

nt Strip - 9mm n/a mStitching Roll n/a mm - Pack of n/a Screws - 100 mm

ns

x Lime Mortar

er Delivery

53.94

1433.5

344.04

1720.2 367.4

6948.67


Material Cultures

Budget: Windows and doors

Material

Dimensions (

Casing & Frame:

Sapele Timber

Various

Glazing:

Toughened Double Glazed Panels 860x2017

Openings:

452x2292 992x1782 400x1686 992x1132 1086x882

Energy Surch addition) FInishes & Fixings:

Esmo Filler, Mahogony Counterbore drill bit Dominoes Long Reisser Cutter Woodscrew

6.0 x 80mm

Reisser Cutter Woodscrew 5.0 x 70mm Panel Pin, Sheradised Varnish - Sikkens Cetol Filter 7 Plus

The windows and doors budget was managed by Ameeka Babra and Lydia Hyde.

Window Ironmongery:

Shoot Bolt Extension Rod Flat Plate Shoot Bolt Keep Flat Plate Centre Keep

The intended budget for windows and doors was ÂŁ3,000. The windows and doors team contacted numerous suppliers in order to find the cheapest timber and glazing, that also had a lead time within the project duration.

Multi-point Claw Gear Box

Locking Espagnolette Window Handle

Door Ironmongery:

ERA High Security B.S. Night Latch (Front Door Yale Lock) Deadlock- Euro Profile Cylinder Deadlock - Key / Thumb-Turn Operated

As a result of cost and long lead times, the windows and doors team had to switch from the sustainable Accoya timber, to unsustainable and cheaper Sapele.

Hinges ( pair ) Handle High Performance 19mm Return To Door Lever Handles

Expenditure on the glazing was also minimised by reducing glazed areas to the maximum allowance of 4mm toughened glass panels, rather than 6mm.

Inward Threshold Outward Threshold Draft Excluder

Total Cost:

1.6 x 40mm


147

Dimensions (LxWxD)

er

Unit Price (-VAT) £

Total Quantity

Total Cost (-VAT) £

VAT £

Various

Total Cost (incl. VAT) £

2878

ouble Glazed 860x2017

225.56

452x2292

67.34

992x1782

114.92

400x1686

43.81

992x1132

73

1086x882

62.27

Energy Surcharge (supplier addition)

41.53

Mahogony

628.43

125.69

754.12

7.07

1 (250g)

7.07

29.75

1

29.75

14.83

100

14.83

10.85

1 (100 pack)

10.85

r Woodscrew 5.0 x 70mm

11.3

1 (200 pack)

11.3

eradised

4.35

1 (500g pack)

4.35

drill bit Cutter 6.0 x 80mm 1.6 x 40mm

kens Cetol 67.8

16.95

84.75

law Gear Box

10.67

1

10.67

2.13

12.8

xtension Rod

2.18

2

4.36

0.87

5.23

oot Bolt Keep

0.85

2

1.7

0.34

2.04

ntre Keep

2.92

1

2.92

0.58

3.5

agnolette dle

15

1

15

3

18

61.21

2

122.42

62.4

2

124.8

4.68

8

37.44

30

2

60

hold

41.5

1

41.5

eshold

53.5

1

53.5

4.75

3

14.25

curity B.S. Front Door

uro Profile dlock - Key / Operated

)

Performance n To Door s

4290.5


Material Cultures

Budget: Kitchens and living

Material

Dimensions (

Kitchen: Kitchen Counter / Island:

Timber

Section (4200

Section (45x 2 Ply Boards

12mm(1220 x

18mm(1220 x

The kitchen and living budget was managed by Mama Akyere Sekyi-Djan. The intended budget for kitchen and living was ÂŁ1,000.

Xpelair GXC9 9 Inch Axial Extractor Fan with Pullcord Fixings:

This original budget for kitchen and living was significantly reduced due the financial pressures of the other teams. However, the team managed to salvage a significant amount of waste materials - such as timber for the cabinets - and also managed to source some of the appliances and fixings for free or for a reduced amount.

Screws 1

45*50mm, pa

Screws 2

45*40mm, pa

Oak Tapered Tip Plugs Screwfix (finishings and fixings) Appliances:

Total Cost:

Sinks

595 x 460 x 2

Fridge

850 x 480 x 5

Stove

95 x 590 x 51


149

Dimensions (LxWxD)

Unit Price (-VAT) £

Total Quantity

Total Cost (-VAT) £

VAT £

Total Cost (incl. VAT) £

Section (4200 x 50 x 50)

0

75.7m

0

0

0

Section (45x 22.5)

0

6.12m

0

0

0

12mm(1220 x 2440)

0

3 boards

0

0

0

18mm(1220 x 2440)

0

2 boards

0

0

0

125.54

1

125.54

25.11

150.65

45*50mm, pack of 200

46.19

1

46.19

46.19

45*40mm, pack of 200

19.9

1

19.9

19.9

0

0

0

71

71

71

9 Inch Axial n with Pullcord

Tip Plugs

shings and

595 x 460 x 225

0

2

0

0

850 x 480 x 520

95

1

95

65

95 x 590 x 510

64.97

1

64.97

99.99 386.64


Material Cultures

Transport Lead role - Jessica Buss

The role of the Transport Master was to arrange the logistics of moving materials from CSM to the site, as well as to ensure the site was set up to be accessible for the hiab truck and to receive lorry deliveries. It included the responsibility of sourcing a hiab which would be suitable for our needs and arranging which materials needed to be moved when. The role also involved sourcing harris fencing to hoard off the site and sourcing a forklift for unloading materials from deliveries to the site. Due to changes in the overall schedule of the project, most of the transport related things that had been arranged didn’t go ahead.


Transport: schedule

Transport schedule

151


Material Cultures

Transport

Moving Materials to Site 1. The original plan was to move the floor cassettes to site a week before the other materials. 2. We looked at getting a hiab with no lifting plan as the cassettes were manhandlable, but the hiab truck was needed for the bed space. 3. Without a lifting plan we wouldn’t be able to use a crane and would be responsible for lifting the materials ourselves. We decided to postpone a week, using a hiab and a lifting plan. 4. This plan changed because the pouring of the foundations was postponed, giving us only one week to work on site. 5. We booked the same hiab to move the materials in two trips. 6. In order to have use of the crane we included a lift plan in our order. We provided the crane company with a site plan showing the access route for the hiab. 7. This was necessary as the ground surface was quite uneven and the hiab can only drive over hardcore ground. Telehandler Forklift 8. In the original plan we were to receive multiple deliveries of materials to site. 9. A telehandler forklift was required to offload materials from the delivery lorries and move them around the site. 10. A 4-5m 2T telehandler was sufficient for our needs. 11. We had to source a company that could provide a driver with a forklift license 12. Due to a change of schedule and site, we were no longer going to be receiving on-site deliveries, and so a hiring a forklift wasn’t necessary. Hoarding 1. We used basic Harris fencing to hoard off the site. 2. It was necessary to hoard it off as the rest of the story garden opened to the public shortly before we began construction. 3. The fencing included a vehicle gate to allow deliveries and the hiab to pass through.


153

Site Access Plan


Material Cultures

Data Lead role - Jake Johnson

A primary objective of the project is to design and build a structure that will test zero carbon technologies. To evaluate the extent to which these technologies contribute to improving the projects embodied carbon, a whole life carbon analysis has been carried out. The cradle to gate analysis seeks to quantify the carbon emissions associated with the production life cycle stages. In an attempt to further access the performance of the structure, a thermal performance analysis has been carried out. This seeks to evaluate the quantity of carbon required to heat the space throughout the year. It is also used to evaluate the heat loss through particular element of the building structure so that design decisions can be made to improve the overall thermal performance. In order to give context to the embodied carbon data, comparative data sets have been provided as a means to compare the extent to which using these zero carbon technologies improve the building emissions.


decarbonisation rates. Data

155

RICS PS structure

RICS PS follows the modular structure of BS EN 15978. The diagram below illustrates this structure, which covers both operational carbon emissions from energy and water use (modules B6 – B7) and embodied emissions (modules A1-A5, B1-B5, C1-C4, and D). WHOLE LIFE CARBON ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION BEYOND THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE INFORMATION

END OF LIFE stage

Benefits and loads beyond the system boundary

[C1]

[C2]

[C3]

[C4]

Disposal

[B1] [B2] [B3] [B4] [B5]

Refurbishment

[A5]

Replacement

[A4]

Repair

[A3]

Maintenance

[A2]

Use

[A1]

Waste processing for reuse, recovery or recycling

USE stage

Transport to disposal facility

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS stage

Deconstruction Demolition

PRODUCT stage

Construction & installation process

[D]

Transport to project site

[C1 - C4]

Manufacturing & fabrication

[B1 - B7]

Transport to manufacturing plant

[A4 - A5]

Raw material extraction & supply

[A1 - A3]

Reuse Recovery Recycling potential

[B6] Operational energy use [B7] Operational water use cradle to gate cradle to practical completion (handover) cradle to grave cradle to grave including benefits and loads beyond the system boundary

Whole life carbon analysis describes the embodied carbon emissions Modular reporting structure of BS EN 15978 as used in RICS PS througout a projects life time. It is divided into categories, akin to the RIBA Module A: Product andanalysis Construction stages; Module B: In use; Module C: End of Life; Module D: potential benefits through reuse or recycling. stages of work, to ease the and production of information. Source: Embodied and whole life carbon assessment for architects, RIBA

10


Material Cultures

Data

Thermal performance analysis determines the energy required to heat an inhabited space. By law, buildings are required to meet a u-value requirement to minimise the amount of thermal energy lost through buildings fabric. The tables below describe the thermal performance of the project. As we have used zero carbon technologies has meant that the structural width has increased to meet the u-value requirement. In addition, the hempcrete insulation has a higher thermal mass than conventional materials, typically Kingspan.

Diagram describing the u-value requirement for the differing building components.

Degree Days - Chesham

Building Data

October

168

Floor Width

5.9 m 2

November

237

Floor Length

12.3 m 2

December

275

Floor to ceiling height

3.0 m 2

January

376

Number of storeys

1.0

February

247

Air change rate -

8.0 m3 hr-1m -2

March

243

Long elevation

56.5 m 2

April

211

U-Value - Project structure

Essential Data

Wall

0.191 W/m 2K

Total floor area

72.3m 2

Glazing

1.600 W/m 2K

Exposed floor area

72.3 m 2

Roof

0.136 W/m 2K

Glazing area

8.0 m 2

Floor

0.132 W/m 2K

Gross wall area

133.5 m 2

Net wall area

125.5 m 2

Ceiling area

76.9 m 2

Volume

333.4 m 2

Total external surface area

282.7 m 2


Thermal performance

157

Heat Loss Values

Heating costs

Walls

24.0 W/K

January

854 W/K

Glazing

9.5 W/K

February

561 W/K

Roof

10.5 W/K

March

552 W/K

Floor

12.8 W/K

April

479 W/K

Specific Ventilation

37.9 W/K

October

382 W/K

Heat Loss Parameter

94.7 W/K

November

539 W/K

Total heat loss over a day

2272.2 Whrs/K

December

625 W/K

Heat loss per degree day

2.3 KWh

Total annual heat loss

3992 W/K

Cost of energy used

ÂŁ0.08

Total annual heating cost

ÂŁ319.39

1000

K/W

800 600 400 200 0

December

November

October

September

Roof 11%

August

Glazing 14%

July

Floor 10%

June

Specific Ventilation 40%

May

April

March

February

January

Walls 25%

Thermal performance analysis takes into consideration the heat loss of the fabric of the structure throughout the year and determines when heating is required to maintain a stable, habitable internal temperature. Degree days represent the number of degrees that require heating during the winter months. This then provides an estimation of the amount of heating that is then required to heat the space. It is proposed that a wood burning stove will be used within the structure and the respective fuel cost has been included above.


Material Cultures

Data

A carbon assessment of the structure has been carried out to determine the amount of carbon emissions associated with the production life cycle stages, known as ’Cradle to Gate’. The life cycle analysis is a standardised method which is reliable, transparent and can be used to evaluate and compare carbon emissions. As the structure is using zero carbon technologies, this exercise seeks to compare the benefit of using these technologies

Component

Diagram describing the building life cycle. Stages A1-3 are more commonly known as ’Cradle to Gate’ whereas stages A-C are known as ’Cradle to Grave’.

Quantity

Embodied Carbon Factor

Embodied Carbon

JJ I-joists

936 LM*

1.65 kgCO2 /LM*

1544 kgCO2

OSB

2441 kg

0.99 kgCO2 /kg

2417 kgCO2

Steel

13825 kg

1.42 kgCO2 /kg

19632 kgCO2

Timber cross bracing

69 kg

0.71kgCO2 /kg

49 kgCO2

Timber Studs

191 kg

0.71 kgCO2 /kg

136 kgCO2

LVL beams

304 kg

0.63 kgCO2 /kg

192 kgCO2

Steel bracing

10 kg

1.42 kgCO2 /kg

14 kgCO2

Fixings

121 kg

1.42 kgCO2 /kg

172 kgCO2

Megastructure

Total

24156 kgCO2

Cladding + Linings Pallet Timber

2010 kg

0.71 kgCO2 /kg

1427 kgCO2

Timber studs

146 kg

0.71 kgCO2 /kg

104 kgCO2

Linseed Oil

6 litres

5.35 kgCO2 /kg

32 kgCO2

Galvanised steel roof

570 kg

1.45 kgCO2 /kg

827 kgCO2

Timber battens

201 kg

0.71 kgCO2 /kg

143 kgCO2


Cradle-to-Gate: Embodied carbon analysis

159

Component

Quantity

Embodied Carbon

Embodied Carbon

Clay Plaster

1121 kg

0.13 kgCO2 /kg

146 kgCO2

Lime Mortar

1785 kg

0.78 kgCO2 /kg

1392 kgCO2

Fixings

12 kg

1.42 kgCO2 /kg

17 kgCO2

Total

4088 kgCO2

Infill + Airtightness Hempcrete

7185 kg

-0.3 kgCO2 /kg

-2156 kgCO2

Wood Fibre

1137 kg

0.98 kgCO2 /kg

1114 kgCO2

Cellulose

1536 kg

0.367 kgCO2 /kg

564 kgCO2

OSB

585 kg

0.99 kgCO2 /kg

580 kgCO2

Timber Battens

130 kg

0.71 kgCO2 /kg

92 kgCO2

Total

194 kgCO2

Openings Sapele Timber

422 kg

0.86 kgCO2 /kg

363 kgCO2

Glazing

233 kg

0.86 kgCO2 /kg

200 kgCO2

Total

563 kgCO2

Total embodied carbon

29001 kgCO2

Embodied carbon per m 3

401 kgCO2 /m 3

Building Type

Embodied Carbon / m 3

Villa

585 kgCO2 /m 3

Detached family home

550 kgCO2 /m 3

Community Hall

485 kgCO2 /m 3

In comparison with similar building types, the structure contains less embodied carbon per metre cubed. The primary reason for this reduced value results from the use of zero carbon technologies which have off setted against the total embodied carbon of the structure.

Live work

515 kgCO2 /m 3

*LM = Linear Metre