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10 latestdiscoveries of the Universe


Table of contents Page 1: First interstellar object in our solar system

Page 2: Hubble telescope spots supermassive black hole

Page 3: David Charbonneau Discovery

Page 4: Planet 9?

Page 5: Water reserves on Mars

Page 6: Juno Spacecraft

Page 7: Gravitational Waves

Page 8: Space X

Page 9: The Enceladus Ocean

Page 10: Runaway Stars


1. First interstellar object detected in our solar system

Researchers may have made the first-ever detection of an object in Earth’s solar system, that originated somewhere outside the system.The space rock is named Oumuamua.There are many ways a space rock could have flung out of the solar system. Scientists assume that space rocks from far away can occasionally wander toward Earth’s sun,but identifying those rocks as alien visitors is difficult. In this case, the researchers modeled the path that the object will take based on its current trajectory, and found out that it is headed out of the solar system that means it wasn’t born in an orbit around the sun. Many space rocks get ejected from the solar system by the gravity of other objects, but Oumuamua doesn’t seem to have undergone any such interactions. Additional observations are being carried out to try and confirm this preliminary conclusion.


2. Hubble telescope spots supermassive black hole

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captured a photo of a distant galaxy that’s home to one of the most massive black holes astronomers have ever seen. According to Nasa a region of space having a gravitational field, so intense that nothing can escape it. When matter is pulled into a black hole, it creates energy. By blowing outward in all directions, black holes play a part in regulating what's around them. This black hole is located 300 million light years away in the center of the Coma Cluster of the galaxy NGC 4889, which is the brightest galaxy discovered at the moment. The “supermassive” black hole is 21 billion times the mass of the sun. To put that in perspective, the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy has a mass four million times that of the Sun, according to Hubble Space Telescope scientists.


3. David Charbonneau Discovery

Astronomers discovered a system of seven earth-sized planets that could host life and maybe even aliens. A red dwarf star orbits the planet named LHS 1140b, the astronomers did not have to look if the planet has life because they can study its atmosphere to find the chemical fingerprints of life or what molecules are present. Knowing the mass and temperature of the planet means that it is possible to have an atmosphere. These news are very important, because they found a potentially habitable planet in the nearby part of the galaxy. This planet maybe will be very important in the future because some day humans will need another planet to live on , because earth will not be habitable, so this could be our salvation.


4. Planet 9?

In a published paper some astronomers predicted the existence of a new planet far beyond Neptune, and this changed the direction of modern astronomy, yet it defines the exact orbit and behavior of the new planet, Batygin the coauthor of the originally paper says: “I’ve always tried to be explicit about the fact that what we are proposing it is not just the existence of a planet. Rather, it is the existence of a planet, that sculpts a specific orbital pattern through a rather distinct physical mechanism�. Batygin and Mike were searching some nights in Hawaii for signs of Plant Nine but they still do not know if the planet exists, but these astronomers will continue investigating to know if their studies are true.


5. Water reserves on Mars

Scientists have long theorized that reserves of water ice are locked underground on Mars. In 2002, the NASA Odyssey mission scanned the planet from orbit and detected signs of shallow ground ice at high latitudes. Later in 2008, the NASA Phoenix mission dug up water ice at its landing site near the Martian north pole and in late 2016, scientists using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found a buried ice sheet at Mars’s midlatitudes that holds about as much water as Lake Superior. But until Dundas’s study, published today in Science, Human missions to Mars would likely rely on extracting water from the local environment, either baking it out of hydrated minerals or mining it from ice deposits. As a 2016 NASA study makes clear, ice may yield more water per scoop than minerals, but if accessing this ice requires digging through 30 feet of rock, then ice mining ends up being too inefficient. That picture changes, however, if ice sheets lie within only a few feet of the surface.


6. Juno Spacecraft

NASA's Juno spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on July 4 2016. The plan was to have Juno make a close approach of Jupiter every two weeks, but a thruster problem forced the probe to stay in a longer orbit and instead make a close approach of Jupiter every 53 days. Even though no major science results have been produced by the Juno science team yet, the JunoCam instrument has been sending back stunning images of the Jovian giant. Juno principal investigator Scott Bolton said the images are already providing tantalizing hints about the science that Juno will produce.


7. Gravitational Waves

In 2016 there has been another detection, made by the Ligo-Team, about what happens when two neutron stars merge. Neutron stars are the smallest and most dense a star can get and just a teaspoon of neutron star material is as heavy as the great pyramid of Giza. So when two of these stars come together, they produce gravitational waves, tiny ripples in space time. Not only did the Ligo-Team spotted three instances of gravitational waves coming from black holes merging, but also detect electromagnetic radiation coming from the event. �This kind of event is one that scientists working in this field have been hoping for - but it took nature to be pretty kind to give us one at just the right time with the LIGO and Virgo observatories operating together for the first time�, says Professor Sheila Rowan, director of the University of Glasgow’s Institute for Gravitational Research. Many hope to discover some more of these events, yet they open the perspectives for modern research and are huge opportunities to make major progress in many fields of physics and astrophysics.


8. Space X

In September, SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk delivered a longawaited speech after the successful launch of the falcon heavy, outlining the company's plans to eventually build human colonies on Mars. But before SpaceX starts sending humans to the Red Planet, it could help serve various science objectives, such as returning dirt samples collected by NASA's Mars 2020 rover In April, Musk announced on Twitter that the company plans to send unscrewed landers to the surface of Mars as early as 2018. Although NASA will offer technical support for SpaceX's first missions to the Red Planet, the agency announced this month that it will not send science equipment on the very first SpaceX missions. Instead, the agency will wait until Space X has proved out the technology.


9. The Enceladus Ocean In April, NASA scientists announced the detection of a possible energy

source for life in the liquid- water ocean on Saturn's icy moon Enceladus. Samples from the subsurface ocean were obtained by the Cassini spacecraft, which made multiple passes through plumes of water that erupt from Enceladus' icy crust. Once thought to be a solid chuck of ice orbiting the ringed planet, Enceladus is now considered one of the most potentially habitable environments in the solar system. Under the solid, icy surface of the moon lies an ocean of water, and on the floor of that subterranean sea, hot-water vents could support ecosystems like those found at the bottom of the ocean on Earth. The new study identified the presence of molecular hydrogen which can serve as an energy source for life. The molecular hydrogen could be forming through chemical reactions between hot water and rock, generating a food supply for potential life.


10. Runaway Stars

The theory of many physicists, that incredibly fast stars were being accelerated to such great speeds by the black holes has now been proven wrong. Over years there were speculations about where the stars named hypervelocity stars come from and now we finally know. Our galaxy is not the first one these stars have visited. A study shows, that these stars at the edge of the Milky Way, come from a dwarf galaxy in orbit around the Milky Way, named Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).”This also explains their position in the sky, because the fastest runaways are ejected along the orbit of the LMC towards the constellations of Leo and Sextansa”, says co-author Rob Izzard who is a Rutherford fellow at the Institute of Astronomy. Scientists also predict that there will be found many more runaway stars across the sky, which all travel between the galaxies. Moreover Izzard adds: “Many will end up falling into other galaxies, others might travel for billions of years through the space between galaxies.” At last, he reports that a lot of these hypervelocity stars will die even before they get to another galaxy, so there would be a mix of low-mass stars along with white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.


References

Dunbar, B.. (2017). Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists. (10/05/2018), from Nasa’s website: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/solar-system-s-first-interstellar-visitordazzles-scientists

Bowerman, Mary. (2016). Hubble telescope spots supermassive black hole. From USA Today. Website: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/nation-now/2016/02/18/hubbletelescope-spots-supermassive-black-hole/80545228/ Beall, A. (2017). All the biggest and best space discoveries of 2017. (16/05/2018), from Wired’s website: http://www.wired.co.uk/article/thebest-space-discoveries-of-2017-from-gravitational-waves-to-oumuamua N/A. (N/A). BANGABANDHU SATELLITE-1 MISSION. (16/05/2018), From Space X’s website: http://www.spacex.com/webcast De Grasse Tyson, N. Goldsmith, D.. (2005). Origins. United States: W. W. Norton & Company. Martin's Press. (2001). Stars: A Fully Illustrated, Authoritative and Easyto-Use Guide (A Golden Guide from St. Martin's Press). United States: Golden Guides. De Grasse Tyson, N.. (2017). Astrophysics for People in a Hurry . United States: W. W. Norton & Company.


DISCOVERIES OF THE UNIVERSE  

This is a project about ten of the latest discoveries of the universe, made in the past few years

DISCOVERIES OF THE UNIVERSE  

This is a project about ten of the latest discoveries of the universe, made in the past few years

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