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A

2014 ZHAO

IR STUDIO

GROUP 10

MENGJIA JOWETT 582241

JOURNAL


Figure 1: Site Model 1:200. Photograhpy by Justine Lenkiewicz

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CONTENT Part A. Conceptualisation 7 8 14 18 22 24

A.1. Design Futuring A.2. Design Computation A.3. Composition / Generation A.4. Conslusion A.5. Learning outcomes

Part B. Criteria Design 28 30 40 50 56 60 66 68

B.1. Research Field B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique: development B.5. Technique: Prototype B.6. Technique: Proposal B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes B.8. Appendix- Algorithmic Sketches

Part C. Detailed Design 72 92 96 112 130

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C.1. Design Concept C.2. Tectonic Elements C.3. Final Model C.4. Adiitional LAGI Brief Requirements C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Reference

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About Me My name is Mengjia (Jowett) Zhao, I am a third year student in Bachelor of Environments, major in Architecture. I want to be an architect is because I thought this is a cool job when I was in my high school. During that I was doing fashion design, but I feel disappointed when I fail to make my dream dress. Hence, I transfer my aim to architecture. When I looking at master’s work, I feel so impressive and thus I want to a part of them. Personally, I like Japanese architecture since I really love wood construction. I thought it’s really natural and clean. Moreover, it provides a sense of peace and harmony.


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Part A. Conceptualisation


Rainbow Cloud Artist Team: Chie Fuyuki, Lichao Qin Artist Location: Beijing, China

2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) competition entry.This design mainly uses solar technique to generate energy and brings lights in the nightg. It also provids the visitors a unique opportunity to become aware of the ecological system of the park. Rainbow cloud is mainly a solar energy project, it can produce 52,963kw of electric energy and supply power to approximately 7,615 homes in city. The aim of the design is going to transform the site (Fresh Kills) into a splendid ecosystem. This project shows that solar energy is not only for energy collection and restoration but also for human amenity. From energy collecting, users can see different free lighting show. By see the show, user will get a chance to visit the park; relax themselves and also help them to know the ecological system in the park. The initial purpose for this project is to generate energy in a creative way. Moreover, designers put more attention on its ecological system in the park, they want to guide user to explore this park by using their creative energy station. This park is not only a place for play but also a site for its flora and fauna. This design was inspired by cloud since designer thought cloudâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dynamic formation and behavior is similar to its ecological feature. Since cloud is dynamic and ubiquitous mass of particles, designers follow the structure of the clouds and its movements to create the clouds pattern on the site. The key idea of this design is the 'rainbow cloud'. The clouds are no longer being white, instead these clouds are colourful. The collocation of the balloons refers to 'clouds' characteristic, which are flexibility, impermanency, aesthetic and informative. Colourful lighting area consists of these lights. This design build a good connection between users and site, designers try to engage people to come to the park and explore park. Energy station can a play site; producing both electrical energy and happy energy. 8 1.â&#x20AC;&#x153;Landartgeneror.org 2012, Rainbow Cloud, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/TSYNS220/>.


A1

DESIGN FUTURING

Figure 1: Rainbow cloud LAGI competition entry 2012


Energy Scraper Artist Team: Minyu Yin Artist Location: Philadelphia, USA

This is a competition entry for 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI). This project aims to build a cool â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;energy scraperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to produce energy for the city of New York. Since the design brief is going to design a creative power station. The designer explore future possibilities about renewable energy. This project is doing both solar and wind power. Since New York is a city fill of skyscrapers, the designer wants to create a different type of skyscraper. The building is not consuming energy, instead is creating energy. The project consists of 3 dimensional sculptures. The rising poles connect these sculptures as a high building. The solar energy-generating machine installed inside the poles. Since the special site condition, wind power is another choice for energy generating. Designer chooses to use windbelt to produce energy and it is installed in the poles as well. There is also a space for human activity, since the different scale of the poles; the first level is open for users. This can be a rest room for them. In this project, energy generating is very efficiency whereas if there is more human activities in this site will be more interesting and attract more people to come. Future architecture design is more rely on sustainability since energy saving will be the most important for the building. To understand different types renewable energy is quite useful for future design. Hence, we can add some advance techniques in the building to save energy consuming. As two precedents showed, design appears in everything, even a simple solar light. It is vital to know how to make the building sustainable.

10 1. Landartgeneror.org 2012, Energy Scarper, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/TSYNS220/>.


A1

DESIGN FUTURING

Figure 2:Sky scraper LAGI competition entry 2012


Wind Power Different type of wind generators

1) Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT onshore and offshore) -Need a large gap between two wind turbines -Better in a large open area to install Energy occur in the wind turbine is equal to 0.5pAv^3 where P=air density, A=swept area of the rotor, and V=velocity of the wind.

2) Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) -Can be located in closer to each other (compare to HAWT) -Dense configuration increase efficiency -Lower cut-in speeds and lower to ground Energy occur in VAWT is equal to energy output/energy input

3) Concentrate wind -Uses a cone to concrete wind, increase the velocity of wind -Require more material -Limited their application to utility-scale installations Energy occurs is equal to energy output/energy input

4) Blade tip power system -Low cut-in speed -The concentrator ring generate energy Energy occurs is equal to energy output/energy input

5) High altitude wind power (HAWP) and airborne wind turbine (AWT)

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-Conversion of energy is done at the ground level by harnessing the movement of the tether cable -Generate energy at a high attitude and wind at high attitude is much stronger and more consistent compare to low attitude - This technique is quite challenging currently Energy occurs is equal to energy output/energy input 1. Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71


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DESIGN FUTURING

Figure 3: Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT)


Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre Architect: Zaha Hadid Project location: Island of Saadiyat, Abu Dhabi

Zaha Hadid' s Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Center is a distinct computational design. It locates in the island of Saadiyat. The concept for this design is ‘club of waterfront venues’, and thus the design looks like floating on the coast. Most Zaha's design follows nature's footprint, and this is the one of her nature work. This design has lot of organic themes as it consists of different geometries. The soft and fluent curve lines bring a different sense of architecture and produce a unique symbol for organic architecture. This performing arts center consists of five theaters, music hall, concert hall and opera house. The whole building looks like a sculpture, that emerging nature and construction together. The use of computer produces a good rendering picture and site photo. Computer also assists the complex glass pattern; it is hard to make such complex pattern by hand drawing. Parametric design takes much hand drawing work, and also produces a good quality work. Nowadays, computation design becomes an important part for architects. Computers produce a good ability to manipulate surface material. As mentioned in Architecture’s new media, ‘They will never tire, never make silly arithmetical mistakes, and will gladly search through and correlate facets buried in the endless heaps of information they can store. They will do all that quickly and repeatedly, by following a set of instruction called a program.’ However, computer is only a tool for designer to explore their ideas and gives them variety shapes and patterns to compare. The initial idea is still produce by the designer. During computing, some designer will lose their initial purpose when they get a surprise outcome. Computer can always surprise people when they change a small number in their program. After they get some crazy and cool model, they may abandon their initial idea. Obviously, it happens on much people. But it is hard to judge whether it is a wrong thing or right thing. On the other hand, computing helps designer to get more outcomes for their design and inspire them to achieve better result. 14

In construction industries, insuit concrete is not the most popular method to build a building. Instead, precast concrete board is more popular since it can satisfy the design. Precast board can be made in different shapes and colour. This method is more flexible construction.


A2

D E S I G N COMPUTATION

Figure 4: Zaha Hadid , Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre


Digital Pavilion Korea Architect team: Kas Oosterhuis and Ilona Lenard (ONL) Project location: Soul, Korea

This project is a digital computational pavilion. By using the advanced technology, architects create an interactive architecture. As mentioned in the AD Architecture, ‘Interactive architecture is not simply responsive or adaptive to changing circumstances. On the contrary it is based on the concept of bidirectional communication, which requires two active parts.’ This unique architecture is not only about communication about people, but also the relationship between built components and building itself. The use of adaptive robotic system changes the interior space; every wall and beam will change by digital technique. This kind of dynamic structure is more interesting and fresh for users. 3D Voronoi diagram algorithm changes the spatial division of the pavilion interior. Voronoi diagram is ‘the partitioning of a plane with n points into convex polygons such that each polygon contains exactly one generating point and every point in a given polygon is closer to its generation point than to any other.’ 3D Voronoi cell structure intersected with the digital technology build different material type and structure for the pavilion, this is a dynamic parametric design. The cell structure can be materialized in different way, which rely on the demand of purpose. ‘The sides can be constructed by structural beams and faces can become walls, floors or ceilings.’

‘When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concept, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.’

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This digital pavilion in soul is an example show the combination between technologies, parametric and computational design. It builds a good communication between users, building and building components. This project also is an attempt by the South Korean government that they want to produce a set of building to show their advanced technology and the future of country’s new media. The dynamic structure and spatial division are features of future architecture. 1. “2006 Digital Pavilion | Seoul,” ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd], last modified 27 March 2014, <http:// www.oosterhuis.nl/quickstart/index.php?id=digital-pavilion>.


A2

D E S I G N COMPUTATION

Figure 5: Digital PavilionKorea, Soul


Membrane Arrays Architect team: Pavlos Siders Project location: London, United Kingdom

Membrane arrays are a research program about spatial arrangement. From structure aspect, designers transmit only tensile forces to its model, and shapes inside are according to ‘the applied forces into minimal surfaces, and more specifically double-curved anticlastic or saddle-shape surface.’ Hence, shapes will change due to its applied force. The new method to control this shape is computer software. By changing the number in program, designers can get varieties possibilities. Computer is not only a tool for designer to draw their ideas, but also provide many possibilities for designers. Just like the reading states that ‘We are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software. From this research, designer tries different algorithm and get different result. They also can test shapes’ varieties possibilities It is hard to say computer a positive or negative tool for designers. But in fact, computer helps designers a lot. At first, computer is a tool for designers to draw graph and virtual models. These programs like CAD and Sketchup really help designer to get their design quickly and easier. However, in this era, many designers prefer to use parametric design and change shape and surface. Sometimes, these method will control or limit designer’s idea since they will be sink into unexpected outcomes and lose their way at the end. On the other hand, many designers will use algorithm to explore and develop their design, not only have a cool surface and shape but also provide some functional roles.

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1. Membrane arrays,” achimmenges. net, last modeified 27 March 2004, <http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=4385>.


A3

Composition

http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=4385

Figure 6: Research program, Membrane arrays, London


New Czech National Library Architect team: Ocean North and Scheffler + Partner Czech Project location: Prague, Czech Republic

Prague library, as a competition entry, it aims to ‘explore the possibilities of gradually eroding exclusive programmatic and hard threshold alignments in favour of heterogeneous spatial arrangements and environmental gradients within the constraints.’ Since this is a project to represent a country, designers seek to provide a unique cultural recognition and a continuous spatial experience of the building. The pattern design of the surface is a computational process. Designer use computer explore and understand model and express as an algorithm. This method provides variety possibilities of the building and increase capability to solve complex problems. As a computational design, it is hard to control the final result. However, this design shows a good ability of controlling computer programs. From the photos, the surface’s ‘branches’ pattern is design by computer. This special surface design is not only for aesthetic purpose but also ‘serves the modulation of thermal, airflow and range of spatial and microclimate situation.’ AD architecture mentions that ‘A network of merging branches is derived according to this structural information, combined with other parameters such as angles of incident of sunlight, view axes and spatial characteristics.’ In order to achieve a remarkable and sustainable building, designers use parametric design to develop the building surface. Not just making it looks interesting, but also use this interesting surface to get some functional purpose。 The idea of computational design is to integrate art and architecture, make them work together as one thing. Some architects see architecture as a piece of art and in this era, computational design is the way to help architects to achieve this ambition.

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1. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25


A3

G e n e r a t i o n

Figure 7: New Czech National Library, Prague


A4

Conclusion

Figure 8: Parametric deisgn in grasshopper

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'Deisgn is the epitome of intelligent behavior; it is the single most important ability that distinguishes humans from other animals.' In conclusion, computational design a design trend for architecture. It provides lots of conveniences and future possibilities for designer. By using computer program, there are lots of surprising and amazing project come out. This is a good aspect of using computational design. However, some people argue that computer limit design. Sometimes, computer really guide designer to the different ways and lose their initial design. From pervious precedent, computer obviously is a good tool for designer since it helps designer to explore and develop their design and increase capability to solve problem. Algorithm is a technique to produce infinite sets of shapes. It is like a virtual machine to produce different designs. For renewable energy, there are many creative ways o produce energy. Nowadays, there is many-advanced technology of the generating energy, and thus design a power station is only to install equipment in a standard way, but also have some interesting design. From LEGI, there are many unimaginable designs, which creates a new way to users that renewable energy can have another characters, that is amenity.

1. Definition of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Algorithmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12


A5

L e a r n i n g O u t c o m e

Figure 8: Parametric deisgn for water

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At the beginning, I was not familiar with algorithm design and how does it work. During the research of 6 precedents, I found that parametric design is a very important part in architecture. It produces many ways to solve problems and increase the possibilities of communication. The introduced theory is about future possibilities and teaches me the way of computational design. In Part A, it also discusses the relationship between human and computer, whether computer is a barrier for designer. By finding precedents, I start to realize the role of computer. In my point of view, I think parametric design do help designer, but it limits some new designersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to create building because they will attract in algorithm. Since they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a good ability to create shape and form, and thus when they touching parametric design, they will be more interested in material changing. I have a new expression of renewable energy after I read LAGI entries. They provide new ideas about how energy works together as a design work. There are many different techniques about renewable energy. I am looking forward to design a parametric renewable energy power station.


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Part B. Criteria Design


Image 1

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B1

Researching F i e l d

Fishing School (wind) John Dabiri From the aspect of biology, any group of fish that gather together are said to be shoaling. All the fishes take in the same direction in a coordinated manner and this is the idea of fish schooling. The fish schooling theory shows that the group of fish will save energy when they swimming together. Professor Dabiri (California institute of technology) and his team take inspiration from fish schooling to develop the wind farms. they states that “demonstrate an demonstrate an alternative approach to wind farming that has the potential to concurrently reduce the cost, size, and environmental impacts of wind farms”.1 The idea of “innovation inspired by nature” is often used architectural design. Form the nature world, we can see many animals has already solved problems that we grappling with. Afterthat, we can use this method to solve and improve our design. In biomimicry, we look at nature as model, measure and mentor. By studying nature’s models and then emulates these forms, process, systems and strategies to solve human problems, which is more sustainably. Biomimicry also can be use as an ecological standard to judge the sustainability of our innovations. As a mentor, biomimicry brings a new way for human to thinking and valuing nature.

1. “Learning from fish schools.” Biomimicry KTH, last modified 5 May 2014, http://biomimicrykth.blogspot.com. au/2012/05/learning-from-fish-schools.html.


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Image 4


B1

Researching F i e l d

TOKYO AIRSPACE Faulders Studio Faulders studio's facade design of Tokyo Airspace is an example how nature helps designer to solve the problem. The aims of this design are to invent an architectural system that performs with similar attributes to the demolished green strip and create a new atmospheric space of protection. The artificial vegetation provides the idea of the screen design. Rather than destroy the nature, designer uses nature pattern as a beginning point to explore the building. They show the idea of learning from nature. The facade also provides a special connection between indoor and outdoor. "The articulated densities of the porous and open-celled meshwork are layered in response to the inner working of the building's program."1 Metallic surface are artificial blends with nature since "sunlight is refracted along the surfaces; rainwater is channeled away from exterior walkways via capillary action; and interior views are shielded behind its variegated and foliage-like cover." Tokyo Airspace is an example shows how nature inspired designer and affects the design, that build a bridge in nature and architecture.

1.â&#x20AC;&#x153;AIRSPACE TOKYO.â&#x20AC;? FAULDER STUDIO, last modified 5 May 2014, http://faulders-studio.com/AIRSPACETOKYO.


B2

Case Study 1.0

Image 5

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THE MORNING LINE Matthwe Ritchie The morning line is an experimental project by Matthew Ritchie and it is displayed in Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary (T-B A21), the Vienna based foundation for contemporary art founded by Francesca von Habsburg on June 7, 2011. This public art project featuring 27sound artists and nine new compositions. 1 As an interdisciplinary pavilion project, the morning line combines artists, architects, engineers, physicists, sound designer and musicians’ own specialized information to create a new form. The use of parametric design creates a crystalline structure, fractal construction unit and a three-dimensional sound space. Under a 3- year research about challenging architectural convention, Matthew’s team explores a non-linear architectural language that is based on fractal geometry and parametric design. The morning line owns a sonic identity since it is equipped with 50 speakers and it was controlled by an advanced multispatial audio system. 2 The morning line’s definition helps us to understand the project’s structure. In grasshopper, ‘slider’s number change will create many different iteration. But it is not all random possibilities. All the iterations based on a mathematic formula, the relationship and ratio between x, y, z creates the basic formula. By setting a triangle and changing its x, y, z value, we get different outcomes (as showed in next page). After the satisfied form comes out, use this small triangle shape apply to a large form, and thus the large form will consists a group of small

1. “ZAVOLOKA at THE MORNING LINE in Vienna in June 2011.” Kvitnu, last modified 5 May 2014, http://kvitnu.com/zavoloka-at-the-morning-line-in-vienna-in-june-2011/. 2. “The morning line by matthew ritchie with aranda\lasch and arup.” Designboom, last modified 5 May 2014, http://www.designboom.com/art/the-morning-line-by-matthew-ritchie-with-aranda-lasch-and-arup/.


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Increasing UV number

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Increasing UV number

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4 successful iterations

1. This iteration divides into small triangle pieces and forms as a pyramid, it is quite unique since this is the only iteration that has no connection between small parts, which means all small components are floating. This idea can be used in my design to express the motion of wind. The brief wants to create a nature and special sculpture, this iteration can satisfy this need due to its interesting position and connection (we can use line to link small pieces).

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2. Compare to the first iteration, the second one looks rigid and inflexible. The whole structure provides a heavy and stable feeling. However, this sense can be a feature of the design; by using basic principle and shape to create an interesting form. The Centro symmetry highlights the axis, and leads the form become rational and geometrical.


3. This iteration has five points locate at the end of the angle and one in the center, this look like a simplified version of iteration 2. The center space is extended and took lines instead of geometry. However, it still has a small heavy point at the end. This iteration look interesting to me because it combines different shape and shows a good space division.

4. The end extrude line looks out of control, but this kind of crazy line may brings unexpected outcomes. Sometimes, crazy forms and lines is a key for a good design because we have to break the tradition and find a new way, especially in this design, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;grasshopperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; will always lead us to get some unexpected result.


B3

Case Study 2.0 Precedent Study

Catasetum Project Philip H Wilck This project is a design for music pavilion at the Stadpark in Vienna (Austria). The biological shell geometries follow the shape of the ear and human's mussel (biomimicry). The separate elements provide spaces and areas for a fully self-sufficient energy supply regarding ecological thinking, host interaction and active materials. This is a new discipline that studies nature's best ideas and then imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems. 1 Philip H Wilck wants to use different geometrical and material configuration to create a complex music experience, intent users to comprehend the inherent laws of nature. Wilck also wants this music concrete as a unique and special building to show the aesthetic of music, such as the romanticism of music. It is a very good project for music concrete since it achieves its intention that shows a complex music experience. From the overall appearance, the floating shapes and lines provide a sense of soft and complex. This project will surprise users at glance since this is a very special design for music concrete. However, in my own opinion, this design is too biomimicry, it doesn't looks like music concert, it is more like a machine that can produce music or an walking object, it doesn't produce a sense of romanticism for me. This is a very cool project due to its unique shape; this is a generative design by using computer software and provides a creavtive expression of music concert. This deisgn also embracks on rethinking traditional architectural concepts. 40 1.â&#x20AC;&#x153;THE CATASETUM PROJECT//musicpavilion.â&#x20AC;? suckerPUNCH, last modified 5 May 2014, http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/01/11/the-catasetum-project-musicpavilion/.


Image 6


B3

Case Study 2.0-Reverse Engineering

We aim to create the precedentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s soft, gentle and unrestrained curves. The wave pattern that we generate has a good respond to a musical composition. The complexity of geometry shows a number of different components running simultaneously. Hence, we decide to follow its structure and pattern. From catasetum project, we take the major line of the shape and then set the circle on the each different point. By diving the point of the surface, line charges will expand to different directions and form in random line works.

line charge based on the curve

42 Drawing circles in Photoshop and then export to grasshopper. Using image sample to generate lines and dots of the shape (different dense)


Reducing spin force strength

Changing radius parameter of the circles

Extrude line to form a 3D mesh surface and start to generate surface


B3

Case Study 2.0-Reverse Engineering mapper line work to genreate various movements of the curves (height depend on Z vector)

Parabolic graph

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X^u graph


Sine summation


B3

Case Study 2.0-Reverse Engineering Since it is hard to get the surface that precedent generate, we start looking at the Kangaroo physics. We took the base surface from previous line work and set points at the center of the circles. By setting several points, the surface will atomically grow up by physic logic (WaveBird). The position of the points is changeable, and thus various outcomes come out. Since we choose wind energy, the floating idea is quite suitable for the movement of the wind and close to the catasum project's soft and gentle curve.

01 01. There is a mesh come out from the WaveBird, we can directly apply a WaveBird Transform to create the pattern. If we want to apply other patter, we need to make the mesh to a continuous surface. 46


Biomimicry

Force and vector driven geometry

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03 These three forms all follow the shape of the precedent, since the method is different, we generate various options and select three best outcome. The reason for three options is because we not sure which is the best appropriate form of the precedent and provide more space to develop the form in B4.


Generating surfaces (from Kangaroo)

Apply pattern on surface (start with curves and form as a surface)

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B3

Case Study 2.0-Reverse Engineering

Since our precedent is a generative design, it is hard to get exactly form as the designer did. Hence, we start to trace precedentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s form and try to get a similar form. Although the outcome still far from the original shape, we did similar curve shape from the precedent. By creating a kangaroo script, we start to generate different surface and this is a good start to generate more interesting iteration in B4.


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Method to get different iertations: Trace the bsae of three forms, using Kangaroo to get the form. By setting and changing position of the points in the forms, we can get different forms.


{Hexagon shape}

{Triangular surface}

{Pipe structure}

{floating Curve structure}

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B4

Technique: Development 50 iterations

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Honeycomb is a distinct example of biomimicry and this shape has been used in many architecture designs. We choose to use this shape in our design to echo the idea of biomimicry. This shape is also a symbol of nature, when users see this pattern, they will think about nature environment. The space between the frame can be use to install energy collector, such as piezoelectric pads and turbines. Fabrication is not too hard in this iteration, but the curve will create some problem between connections. Hence, we still need to think about material and connections for this iteration.

The light fram organic form brin â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;environmental f different density of height of the highes combination betwee biomimcry. This fram provide a nice shad the second iteration spare space is la more energy coll install. The conne each rail can be a design, we will ex B5 and try to get a


me structure ngs an idea of friendlyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The f the frame and st point brings a en geometry and me structure will dow. Compare to n, this iterationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s arger, and thus lectors can be ection between a feature of the xplore more in a nice outcome.

B4

Technique: Development 3 successful iterations

The floating pieces give a sense of wind, which represents its gentle characteristic. The small curve can guide users enter the sculpture, after that, users will found a large space after the small curve entry, this will surprising people, and lead them to see the river view. Since the floating pieces have no connection, it is hard to make the iteration. But we should try using transparent to support the floating panels. And thus will create a gentle and soft feeling. This form does has not much space to install piezoelectric pads to generate energy.


B5

Te c h n i q u e : Prototype

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Prototype 1

To start test the iteration, we unroll the shape from rhino and hand cut the balsa wood. This time, we didn’t work too much on joinery since it is too hard to apply on the small wood. In the process of model making, we found that it is hard to make a curve structure. The whole structure is fragile, but it is stable when they glue together. The large gap can produce large space of energy collectors, and wood is a good nature material to represent the ‘green city’.This prototype close to our conceptual idea due to its organic structure and nature material.


B5

Te c h n i q u e : Prototype

Prototype 2

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Cotton swabs-fibre glass Malleable and lightweight Good tensile and compressive strength Connection ensure robustree This prototype is a structure example for us, we can use this connection is wood and steel of other material, the way of not using nails is very eco-friendly and this is the connection that we looking for.

Prototype 3


Semi-transparent polypropylene plastic sheet This prototype exhibits potential for â&#x20AC;&#x153;vibro-windâ&#x20AC;? technology, which harness energy from the wind via piezoelectric material. However, it is hard to make the connection between the plastic sheet and top handing sheet. The way of floating id quite interesting for us, we should apply this technique to other prototype, put these plastic sheets hang in the framing structure.

Prototype 4

Steel is solid and hard material; it has a good tensile and compressive strength; use this as a structure will bring a stable frame. The various connections for steel could help us to generate many forms. But the high sun exposure will increase steelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s temperature; we may need to add some material on steel to avoid high temperature


B5

Te c h n i q u e : Prototype Thermal bimetal cladding systems. We used reflective cardboard to represent a thermo bimetal material which is an alloy which mimic the biological physics. The material will deflect as it is contacted with a stimulus This would allow the cladding to function as a ventilation device and sun shading system to ensure a human environment and probably increase the efficiency of our energy producing agent.

piezoelectric material We then explore polypropelene plastic sheet as another form of cladding which is connected with delicate joint to allows swaying and flapping responding to wind movement. We proposed to attach piezoelectric material that allow the panels to exploit the movement of wind and its swaying and flapping qualities to collect a considerable amount of energy from it.

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overlapping, create a floatinf cladding.a sculptural structure which is heavily inspired by biomimic principal of becoming a living and breathing organism in itself.


B6

Te c h n i q u e : P r o p o s a l

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According the design brief, our project needs to aim to produce a green and creative sculptural, which own the ideas of ecological systems, human habitation and energy. We choose to use balsa wood as the major construction material since this is a nature material and will reflect the design idea of ‘green city’. Wood is carbon neutral and environmental friendly. The surroundind environments are all factories, which are full of steel and concrete. Hence, wood construction will become an special material in that area. The combination of water and wood is a good example of nature world, when users enter the site, we will feel they are involve in the beautiful ‘forest’, especially compare to the surrounding factories. Parametric design brings an amazing pattern and shape for us. The curve form represents the motion of the wind, and the timber batten framing looks like the structure of the wind. Since the wind is transparent, people can only feel it and cant not see it. In our design, we should show users how wind moves and its appearance as well. We choose piezoelectric pad to generate energy from wind vibration, and thus this user can see wind’s movement through piezoelectric pads. Our conceptual design is nature and gentle since this is the expression from nature world, especially from the characteristic of the wind. Since this is a framing structure, the size of the hollow parts is different because we want to make the energy more efficiency. According the first precedent (fish schooling – John Dabiri’s wind mills), Pr Dabiri’s team found that the group of fish swimming would save more energy, which shows that dense cells working together will produce more energy. Hence, we change the size of the frame; piezoelectric pad will be placed in different density and produce different energy volume. Compare to other prototypes in B5, this design own more characteristic of nature and renewable energy is easier to install in. rhombus’s shape provide a sense of basic and clean, but the overall appearance bring a complex feeling. The ides of using basic shape to create complex shape reflect the history of the city that Copenhagen starts from a small town to a big city. This tells users that small basic thing can produce amazing work. The project is next to the sea, and thus the microenvironment will be wet and windy, this is not a good condition for wood because wood will shrink and collapse due to wet weather. To solve this problem, we can add steel protection at the joins to reinforce the strength of the wood.


B6

Te c h n i q u e : P r o p o s a l generate energy

Wind Energy collector pathway

64


Piezoelectric pad Image 9

Piezoelectric pad panel Image 10

Energy Tra

nsfer

Energy produced Image 11


B7

L e a r n i n g Objective and Outcomes

66


Part B is a starting point of the design, techniques and material testing. Computation design as a generative design provides many opportunities for design work. Most iterations surprise us because we never image this form will be created in that way. On the other hand, Grasshopper is not only can produce unexpected outcome to designer, it also has it own logical method to produce work. At first, I was not familiar with grasshopper and thus I think parametric design all depend on random trying, however, when I start trying build a model in grasshopper, I realize that everything in this software need to calculate and think, even when you changing the number slider, it may have a mathematic formula inside. In order to meet the requirement of the brief, we need test more material and connection method, so that we can get the best outcome for the proposal. we also need to explore more computation knowledge to help us to get the expected result. The use of kangaroo helps me to understand the relationship between physic force and gravity. Since brief wants a green and cool sculpture design, grasshopper can be a good assistant for us to generate ideas and development them. The feedback from the presentation points out the missing points that we forget to look at. Connections and renewable energy collector are two major missing areas. We did some research after the presentation, I realize connection is really important for a design work because it controls the strength of whole structure and also shows the beauty of the design. Since the brief is aiming at energy and resource generation, and therefore, the installation of energy collector is also vital for this design. The bad connection between the energy collector and prototype will create lot of problems. We have to satisfy the basic requirement, and then start to create interesting forms. From this section, I have some knowledge about grasshopper. I start to understand how does each component works together. In B4, I applied pattern on it, and this is so difficult for me at first. By researching online resources and watching tutorial videos, I start to understand how does the patternâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s works. We have to calculate the point of the pattern and make it into surface. If we using kangaroo to generate the form, we need to take the edge surface of the mesh (kangaroo-Wavebird will produce mesh at the en) and then form a continuous surface to apply pattern. Overall, this section is really helpful because it force me to get lots of knowledge of grasshopper and let me really know the idea of parametric design. I will use software to develop our proposal and start thinking the best structure connections.


B8

Appendix Algorithmic S k t c h e s

68


Start with grid of points, and set deconstruction, make it random to anthoer points, and then use voronoi. make three different layers and combine them together, thatis tokyo space

Use voronoi to create the pattern and then use a grahpy curve to control the density of the pattern.

the use of Kangaroo, but set random points, when point move, the suface to go different.


70


Part C. Detailed Design


C1

Design Concept

Design Concept Feedback & technology

From feedback of the interim presentation, we realized that we still need to put much effort on our design proposals. There are 5 proposals in part B, but we didn’t choose one of this to future develop. Hence, at this stage, it is really important for us to choose a form and technology to develop our final design. We chose wind technology in our design in part B, however we found this technology is not very efficiency in our proposal and thus we decide to find more interesting technologies which can be the most effective technology and can be properly applied on our design as well. Doris Kim Sung’s ‘Breathing Metal’ brings a new idea of renewable technology and we feel the thermo bimetal is a good starting point to develop the design and provide a range of opportunities for us. Therefore, we changed our technology from wind to solar. As the figure 1 shows, energy generated from two metals’ motion. ‘Two different metals laminated together (usually steel and copper) and when they are heated one reacts more quickly and bends in one direction, then when they cool down they go back to their original position.’ Since thermo biometal technology requires a curling form, we need to redevelop our form and surface pattern. We like the form of ‘Hex Sphere’ (figure 2) which is designed by Doris Sung and try to follow forms and its technology. The shape of flower really fit for the idea of green garden and therefore we decide to make different flowers as the platform for energy generators. 72


Figure 01

Figure 02


C1

Design Concept site analysis

74


From the site analysis diagram, we determine that maximum sun exposure starts from south-western.


C1

Design Concept

01 > create a circle > copy another from x-axis > DeBrep to create a single petal

04 > deconstruction breps

76

02 > find center point of the flower > create a large circle > divide curve to conctrol the number of petals

05 > make it into a mesh to do Kangaroo

03 > orient petals

06 > us Kangarooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Uforce an Spring to make flower stand up


Diagram grasshopper difinition

The idea of flower guides us to rethink the design and thermal bimetals’ motion leads us to develop the motion of flower. We plan to flower’s petals’ remain enclosed at night and open in the day, so that it will generate solar energy from the sun. We also want these flowers can follow the Sun’s movement in order to generate maximum sunlight. At first, we need to create a paramedic script of flowers so that we can control flower’s size and number of petals. We start from a circle as a single petal and then using vector lines to orient and array circles as a shape of flower. Afterthat, we deconstructed the shape into mesh and connect to the Uforce (reversed direction) and Spring to make the plan surface to into a 3d shape. Finally, using Kangaroo to build a 3d flower.

circle unit X copy

mesh

item

Uforce spring

circle

divide curve

orient

deconstruction brep

Kangaroo


C1

Design Concept

01 trial

02 trial

78


Trials reconsider technology

The first trial shows we can successfully control flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s size and number of petals. However, the problem is the flower only operates in the reverse direction. We can only close up the flower simultaneously. The second trial, we set end points at the each petals in order to achieve the curling up appearance of thermo bimetalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s example. Unfortunately, the effect is quite similar to the first trial. From 2 trials, we found it is hard to get thermo biometalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effect. Therefore, we decided to refine our design and technology. To do this, we need to rethink the materiality and technology.Since the flower is a Mesh and the nature of mesh consists of different triangulated surface, it seem that it is better to put solar panel in each surface and make a structural frame system to cover these panels.


C1

Design Concept Flower iterations

Increasing size of petals

80

Increasing num


mbers of petals


C1

Design Concept Solar Analysis Radiation Analysis COPENIAGEN DNK 1 JAN 1.00- 7 DEC 24.00

kWh/m2 1079.02<=

kWh/m2 1080.44<=

539.36

552.91

<=0.69

<=25.98

05

kWh 1075

kWh/m2 1115.60<=

kWh/m2 1101.35<=

557.80

550.67

537.6

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=0

07

82

kWh/m2 1118.12<=

kWh/m2 1119.36<=

kWh/m2 1125.39<=

kWh/m2 1119.51<=

559.06

559.68

562.69

559.76

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=0.00

06 p


kWh/m2 1118.15<=

kWh/m2 1101.53<=

kWh/m2 1095.77<=

559.08

555.26

850.77

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=605.77

petals

h/m2 5.25<=

kWh/m2 1121.39<=

kWh/m2 1108.09<=

kWh/m2 1105.46<=

63

569.69

554.04

552.73

0.00

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=0.00

petals

petals

kWh/m2 1081.79<=

kWh/m2 1083.27<=

kWh/m2 1076.30<=

541.63

538.15

540.89

<=0.00

<=0.00

<=0.00

kWh/m2 1085.41<=

917.13

<=748.85


C1

Design Concept Best Flower Outcomes kWh/m2 1101.53<=

555.26

<=0.00

kWh/m2 1119.51<=

559.76

<=0.00

kWh/m2 1105.46<=

552.73

<=0.00

84


Best outcomes sun analysis (ladyBud) flower arrangment

Under The LadyBug plug-in component’ s help, we can determine different flower’s efficiency in term of generating solar energy from the Sun. form the diagrams, we found that the more opened form, the more sun exposure and result in more energy generation potential. Therefore, we choose three most effective flower forms to future develop. In order to refer to the idea of Copenhagen is a green garden city, we decide to create a flower garden by combining different flowers. Based on aesthetic purpose, we choose three iterations and arrange them in different sizes and heights. To determine the site arrangement, we need to consider the sun oath of the site and thus our design can generate the most effective solar energy. According the site analysis, southern side get the highest sun exposure, but it doesn’t the key point to influence the arrangement since we can change the arrangement follow the sun path. We took some vector line from part B to arrangement the flowers (in following two pages) and did some shadow analysis to ensure the arrangement’s efficiency. Grasshoppper’s point charger helps us to arrangement flowers follow the curve lines and different flowers’ sizes and height. In order to create a movement line of the site, we put large flowers concreted on the curve line and small flowers future apart form centerline. This will guide visitor the walking path. In site arrangement, there are few overlapped flowers(large flowers over towering small one); this will influence the energy generation. Hence, we conduct a second solar analysis (shadow analysis) to see the capacity to generate energy. By setting Copenhagen’s time and sunpath in Lumion, fortunately, most flower can received sunlight and can produce energy. Some small flowers we decide to make it as benches or picnic table for amenity purpose.


C1

Design Concept S i t e arrangement

Pick curve lines from previous form 86

Rotate curves in order to fit the land


Using PointCharge to arrange the position of the flowers by following the curve

Final outcomes


C1

Design Concept s h a d o w A n a l y s i s

88

2 PM


5 PM

8 AM


90


C1

Design Concept F i n a l site Arrangment


C2

T e c t o n i c E l e m e n t s

Core construction element- Aluminum

Since out design is a framing system, and thus we need to have a light and strong material, aluminum is a good option for our structure and it owns a good character to transfer electricity through solar energy. The most important part is how petals connect to the pole, we did some test and drawing to make sure the frame can be built.

92


Option 01

weld connection

Since petals are very large, it canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ensure the weld connection can support the petals. Another porblem is some poles are very high, if we want to weld the connection, it will take much labour and time.

Option 02

extra line support

In this construction design, we set an extra line to support the petals. As showed in the base, line can provide a force to make the petal open up. The center cross aluminum structure is to hold petals. The problem for this one is petals will still overlap.

Option 03

pentagon inner sturecture

Since there are 5 petals (different flower use different shapes, method are the same), pentagon becomes the inner shape. The method is setting one rectangular piece to hold one petal and then combine them together. The petals classify into 3 height levels in order to avoid overlapping. There is a flashing at the middle the rectangular to avoid water leak into center pentagon. The center pentagon is a space for energy collectors; all energy will pass through this area. This pentagon will through base to underneath. This will reinforce the whole flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stability (if possible, we may use pile footing for some flower which are higher than 4m)


C2

T e c t o n i c E l e m e n t s

Zinc Aluminium frame

Since Zine owns a high electrical conductivity properities and protection against corrosion, hence we choose this material as our frame system structure.

Dye Sensitised Solar Cells

emedded with coloured dye that has a photonabsorption response to soalr radiation, causing electrons to enter an excited state, giving the solar cell a coloured appearance

We plan to use aluminum to hold the solar panel like a sandwich panel. This is a rigid connection wiith frame and slao has an ability to against corrosion.

94


pile footing support the high pole make it stable

flower pole access 4m will need to constructure a pile footing


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 0 0 Site Model

View 03

The second one is we decide to do 3d print for our site model (1:500), but some flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s size is too small to print out, and the support pole is too weak to support the petals. Hence, we have to give up the idea of 3d print and change our site model to 1:200 (do only a corner of our site). Due the complexity of our flower, it is impossible to build a detail flower in our site, and thus we decide use paper to make the flower, but it really cost time to do handcraft and determine the way of flower making. We trace the shape of flowers, and follow the shape to cut the thick paper and use knife to make a score line make the flower in 3d, and stick the overlap part to form a flower shape. We also set flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s number to arrangement the proper flower in their proper position. At the end, the 1:200 modelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flowers not very consistency due to handcraft, but we get a right nice model. 96


View 01

View 02 View 03

View 01

View 02


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 5 Prototype

unroll polysurface

We met some problems during the fabrication. The first one is one flower have approximate 300 separate surfaces, and we have 150 flowers in our site. It is impossible to do the laser cut to make the flower. Some small flowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unrolled surface is less than 2mm in 1:200 model. Therefore, we decide to make one flower as our prototype to see the shape of the flower and whether it can make or not. The framing system is less than 2mm in 1:20 model, which means this can not be cut in laser cut. In order to make the flower can be cut, we increate the weight of the framing structure. 98


unroll frame structure 01

unroll frame structure 02


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 5 Prototype

100

01

02

03

07

08

09


04

05

06

10

11

12

During the model making process, we realize we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t consider the connections between petals to the main pole. Since we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t add thickness for the petals, this becomes difficult for us to connect; the only method is to use a wire to connect them. As showed in step 07 and 09, we used a wire fix the connection problem and set a nail to hold and support wires.


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 0 Detail Model

Fablab file

paper test model

102

Since the 1:200 site model and 1:25 prototype doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t achieve an exhibition quality and thus we decide to make a high quality detailed model. We plan to build a detail inside mainly force on the connection between petals and pole. We use rotation method to build the petals to avoid overlapping. At first, we make the paper model to if this method works or not and then print. We plan to set moveable joint we control petalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; position. Unfortunately, we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t consider the thickness of the material and cause the error in real model making. In the first try, we also discover some wrong dimensions on small connection components. Therefore, we decided to cut another model with accurate dimensions.


successed connection

failedconnection


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 0 Detail Model

The second try is successful; we use balsa wood as nail to connect the Perspex component. The center pentagon connects well to the rectangular pieces. The only problem is the glue. We use double sided tape to stick the pieces because it remain clean surface, but it does strong enough to stick them together. Hence, we use super glue at the end but this glue make the clear Perspex looks o little bit dirty. Another mistake is the transparent pole supposes to go through the base. Since we forget the consider materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thickness, this kind of error occur again.

104


C3

Final Model 1 : 2 0 Detail Model

Construction process

106

01

02

03

07

08

09


04

10

05

11

06

12


108


Final model


110


Final model


C4

Additional LAGI Brief Re qui reme nt s

112


PROJECT DESCRIPTION WHAT IS LAGI? In order for Copenhagen to achieve the first carbon neutral capital in the world by 2025, the Danish Government has bring upon various initiatives that focuses on reducing the overall emission of green house gases in Denmark. The LAGI competition, founded in 2008, which satisfy the goal of the Danish Government, set out a platform in Copenhagen this year for the construction and design of public art with the addition of clean energy production. To address ecological and environmental issues across disciplines and increase the sustainability by stimulating local economic development, the brief consist of a production of a site specific artwork that functions as a power plant.

114


KO-BEN-HA-VEN

[KON-PUHUN-HEY-VUHNI] WHAT IS OUR KOBEN-HAVEN? Refshaleøen currently serves as an empty and vacant island with little purpose besides providing a site for temporary creative entrepreneurship. However, the cultural and recreational aspect of it is experiencing a downfall as it is not given emphasis upon. Therefore, Køben-haven wishes to reintroduce life and function into the existing barren site by transforming this empty space into a garden of solar energy generating ‘flowers’. The ‘flowers’ will be a direct interpretation of photosynthesis which will provide an expression of energy generating beings. Aside from the generation of energy, it serves as a park which allows visitors to roam around these monumental structures and interact with the diversity of ‘flowers’.


SITE-GARDEN We developed three flower species to populate our garden with and varied them in scale across the site based on their proximity to the central path. The garden arrangment is heliotropic; the bigger flowers with the greatest surface area of solar panels are located towards the west where they are most exposed to the sun. The dye within the panels has been optimised to function as an expression of the sun energy generated on site. Colours with lower visible wavelengths were chosen due to their capacity to absorb higher amounts of photon energy.

116


KO-BEN-HA-VEN

[KON-PUHUN-HEY-VUHNI]

8 am

5 pm

2 pm


118


120


122


TECHNOLOGY The structure will generate energy through the use of Dye Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC) built into the zinc structural frame. The main component of a DSSC is the light-absorbing dye embedded within the cell. As sunlight enters through the transparent surface, photons cause the dye to enter an excited state (01), causing an electric current to be carried across to a metal-oxide surface (02). Positively charged electrons located in the TiO2 band are then diffused amongst TiO2 molecules along an electron concentration gradient, where they form the anode layer on top (03). The oxidised photosensitiser (S+) accepts electrons from the electrolyte liquid substance (I-), regenerating the ground state (S) to an oxidised state (I3-) (04):

/01 S + hv -> S*â&#x20AC;¨ /02 S* -> S+ + e- (TiO2) /03 S*+ e- -> Sâ&#x20AC;¨ /04 I3- + 2e- -> 3I-

124


DYE SENSITISED SOLAR CELLS

glass substrate anode compact TiO2 layer electrolyte cathode dye covered TiO2 molecules


M AT E R I A L Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Structural Aluminium Axix (Receptacle)

- typical rigid connection are used to transfer the loads from the petals to the footing

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Structural Aluminium Axix (strem) pentagon shape in centre

126

- main structural element with upholds the flowers petals - clad in a 100 nanometres thin ITO film allowing it is to function as a transparent electrical conductor


FRAMING STRUCTURE+ POLE

Zinc Aluminium frame

Since Zine owns a high electrical conductivity properities and protection against corrosion, hence we choose this material as our frame system structure.

Dye Sensitised Solar Cells

Emedded with coloured dye that has a photonabsorption response to soalr radiation, causing electrons to enter an excited state, giving the solar cell a coloured appearance


``

ENERGY PRODUCE Assuming the sun consistently shines at its maximum during peak daylight hours, providing a high photon influx; coupled with our optimisation of the thickness of the conductive glass substrate and the dye colour coefficient to ensure a maximum absoprtion rate, we estimate the site to generate an approximate 40000kWh of clean solar energy per annum. According to census data from 2010, the average individual consumed 1340kWh in one year. While the current DSSC technology operates at a rate of 9-10% efficiency, ongoing research has seen the potential of the technology to develop to a rate of 15%. The cost effectiveness, the simplified, environmentally susitainable manufacturing process requiring low embodied carbon, and finally its aesthetical appeal, is quickly making these third generation solar cells the more popular altnerative to their silicon-based counterparts. As a leading city in green transition, Denmark presents a strong opportunity to promote the benefits of clean, renewable energy harvesting. We hope our proposal illustrates these benefits in a visual and tacticle experience, that shows the public renewable can be beautiful.

128


ENVIRONMENT


C5

L e a r n i n g Objectives and Outcomes

130


Design futuring Our design is based on a garden theme to create many different sizeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flowers, and these flowers can produce renewable energy. In our design, we also offer visitors an opportunity to take a relax and fet some knowledge about renewable energy, just like a recreational park. In future stage, we can explore more lighting design and water design on our site in order to make it more interesting to attract visitors. We also consider to ass kinetic renewable energy in small flower benches and tables, ao that our design can be very efficiency. The role of computation and architecture The point charge in grasshopper shows how software helps design. When we doing the site arrangement, we just draw a curve on the site and write the definition in grasshopper, afterthat, it will create lots of different outcomes. Some of arrangements are really surprise us. Computer software helps designer save lots of time on design and will provide lots of interesting and unexpected results. Material and pattern Since our design has a complex frame system, and thus the solar panel is very limited, in order to produce an interesting design, we choose coloured solar panel to make our design different. I found material is really important to a design since whole structure will change if we change the material. As a designer, we need to consider budget, material is a vital element that will influence the budget. Tectonic assemblies and fabrication For this design, the most difficult part is tectonic assemblies since there is a design problem in the connection between petals and poles. In order to fix this problem, we tried several test and then success. This process wastes los of time on it. For next time, we need to have a proper design and then doing fabrication and tectonic assemblies. This can avoid lots of mistakes. Thinking before making. Since this a group work, we have to make our data understandable and clear, and hence data record is really important in group work. But in individual work, it is better to have a ration data information, it will save much time in design.


Reference `

Written Reference:

A.1 Landartgeneror.org 2012, Rainbow Cloud, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/TSYNS220/>. Landartgeneror.org 2012, Energy Scarper, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/TSYNS220/>. Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71 A.2 “2006 Digital Pavilion | Seoul,” ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd], last modified 27 March 2014, <http://www.oosterhuis.nl/quickstart/index.php?id=digitalpavilion>. A.3 Membrane arrays,” achimmenges. net, last modeified 27 March 2004, <http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=4385>. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 A.4 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12

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Image Reference: A.1 Figure 1: Landartgeneror.org 2012, Rainbow Cloud, image, <http://landartgenerator.org/ LAGI-2012/TSYNS220/>. Figure 2: Landartgeneror.org 2012, Energy Scarper, image, <http://landartgenerator.org/ LAGI-2012/TSYNS220/>. Figure 3: Ganjie, John Mexico wind power sets new generation record, 2013, Mexico today, <http://mexicotoday.org/article/mexico- wind-power-sets-new-generationrecord>.(accessed Sep09,2008) A.2 Figure 4: Carlos Zeballos , “ZAHA HADID: PERFORMING ARTS CENTER, ABU DHABI,” My Architectural Moleskine(blog), Sep 12, 2012, image, <http:// architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/zaha-hadid-performing-arts-centerabu.html>. Figure 5: “2006 Digital Pavilion | Seoul,” ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd], last modified 27 March 2014, image, <http://www.oosterhuis.nl/quickstart/index.php?id=digitalpavilion>. A.3 Figure 6: ‘Membrane arrays,” achimmenges. net, last modeified 27 March 2004, image, <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4385.> Figure 7: “Prague library,” AION ARCHITECTURE, last modified 27 March 2014, image, <http://www.a-i-o-n.com/index.php?p=027&skip=0&img=image/prj/027/027_ NL-05.jpg>. A.4 Figure 8: Ismini Koronidi and Giorgos Machairas ,parametric pavilion [design + fabrication],2008,GMIK parametric design, image, <http://gmik.wordpress.com/ category/portfolio-ismini-koronidi/educational-projects-ik/projects-iaac/>.(accessed Sep09,2008) A.5 Figure 9: Ismini Koronidi and Giorgos Machairas ,parametric pavilion [design + fabrication],2008,GMIK parametric design, image, <http://gmik.wordpress.com/category/ portfolio-ismini-koronidi/educational-projects-ik/projects-iaac/>.(accessed Oct 08,2008)


Reference `

Written Reference: 1. “Learning from fish schools.” Biomimicry KTH, last modified 5 May 2014, http://biomimicrykth.blogspot.com.au/2012/05/learning-from-fish-schools.html. V 2. “ZAVOLOKA at THE MORNING LINE in Vienna in June 2011.” Kvitnu, last modified 5 May 2014, http://kvitnu.com/zavoloka-at-the-morning-line-in-vienna-in-june-2011/. 3. “The morning line by matthew ritchie with aranda\lasch and arup.” Designboom, last modified 5 May 2014, http://www.designboom.com/art/the-morning-line-by-matthew-ritchie-with-aranda-lasch-andarup/ . 4. “AIRSPACE TOKYO.” FAULDER STUDIO, last modified 5 May 2014, http://faulders-studio.com/AIRSPACE-TOKYO. 5. “THE CATASETUM PROJECT//musicpavilion.” suckerPUNCH, last modified 5 May 2014, http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/01/11/the-catasetum-project-musicpavilion/.

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Reference `

Written WrittenReference: Reference: 1. Land Art Generator Initiative, (2014) ‘design guidelines’ 2.City of Copenhagen (2012) ‘Copenhagener’s energy consumption’, accessed May 2014, < http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx>

Final rendered image (Clinton Oh) Energy research (Justine lenkiewicz)

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Image Reference: 1. ‘Blink’ (2013) by Dosu Architects, <http://www.dosu-arch.com/blink.html>(accessed 15 May 2014) 2. ‘HexSphere’ (2012) by Dosu Architects, <http://www.dosu-arch.com/geodesic.html >(accessed 15 May 2014) 3. Connection in truss, TATA Steel, 2012 <http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/teaching_resources/architectural_studio_reference/elements/connections/connections_in_trusses/> (access June 10, 2014)

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