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Architecture as Discourse Precedent: Centre Pompidou Precedent: The Hinging Tower

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A.2. A.3.

Computational Architecture Precedent: Wood Pavllion - Wing Hui & Lap Min Wong Precedent: Differentiated Wood Lattice Shell - Jian Huang & Minhwan Park Parametric Modelling Precedent: AA/ETH Pavillion Precedent: Urban Adapter - Rocker Lange Architecture

A.4. Grasshopper Exploration

A.5. Learning Outcomes and Conclusion B.1. B.2.

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PART B. EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH Design Focus Material Performance Material Testing: Veneer Matrix Exploration

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Case Study 1.0






B.3. B.4.

Case Study 2.0 Technique: Development

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Prototypes B5.1 Prototype I B5.2 Prototyope II

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Technique Proposal



Learning Objectives and Outcomes



Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches



C.1. C.2.

Gateway Project: Design Concept Design Approach Site Plan Fabrication Process

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Gateway Project: Tectonic Model Detail Connection



Gateway Project: Final Model Prototype Real Life

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C.4. Learning Objectives & Outcomes


C.5. Appendix





Hi, my name is Jovita and I come from Indonesia. I have been staying in Melbourne since 2010. I am doing my third year first semester now, as I got in the middle of the year intake. For computational program, I don’t really have a lot of experience using grasshopper, though I have used Rhino software for Visual Communication in my first year. Sometimes, using software can limit my design when I do not understand it well. I will try harder for this subject and I am hoping that I can use the computational program to create such a design I wanted.

The last project in Virtual Communication, using digital computation for the design. The idea come from morning glory that were transform into 3 words abstraction, which is focal point, modular and sensitive as the main ideas. After i finalised the idea, I started to explore the design using Rhino to do the main shape, loft, patterning, mesh and unroll. It is quite hard and challenging for me





“The architect is a special kind of artist who works in three dimensions, but unlike the sculpture, he … works to enclose space as well as simply making objects in space.” Richards William


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A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE Architecture is hard to define, it can be said a profession that relates art to building, urbanism and town planning (William 2005). It is not a quick process to be an architect, in which experiences, technique and training are needed to achieve. For some case, Architecture is more philosophical, and engages with visual culture. As an architect, critical thinking is needed to be able to evaluate previous projects for improvement. Architecture as a discourse is important to push to the next level. In the discourse of architects, the new meaning of design is drawing appliances., in which architecture is not only about building, but about drawing, text and concept that brings harmony and balance. It also being influenced by the client, preference, site and another variables.This ‘new architecture’ explore of a new geometric and amorphous shapes, concepts, color, lighting and technological aspects such as computation (Sebestyen, G. & Pollington, C. 2003). One of the trend of architecture which is ‘Blob’ concept, as an example using technology and digitation to create a form of spaces in tectonic discussions. It also suggests another strategies of structural organization and construction to provide a new way to relate the homogenous or general to heterogeneous or particular (Greg, L. 1998). Blob concept is used in film making, but the concept and systems can be applied for architectural.

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It was designed by Shigeru Ban from Japan and Jean de Gastine from France. Shigeru was trying to use tectonics form to create space under the roof. To find the form Shigeru and Jean used computational form-finding software to find the appropriate and suitable design. They chose wood as the strcutural elements because it is an inexhaustible and easily recycled material. They tried to meet the environmental quality and sustainable development criteria. From the picture 2, it can be seen that the design looks quite similar with University of Melbourne Union House North Court, using synthetic material, it directs the water to flow down. I think it is a good solution to manage the water for tectonic shape, so that the water in the lowest position can flow away from the building.

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Picture 3. The undulating laminated timber roof

Picture 4. The roof structure was construct by in-

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THE HINGING TOWER - ANA MARIA FLOR ORTIZ From ‘The Hinging Tower’ project in Singapore, Ana Maria Flor Ortiz and Rodia Valladares Sanchez adopted mathematical approach for the design as mechanics to control the form and possibilities of random and not predicted influences. Computational generates and explores the potential form or pattern for the design faster and more accurate and reduce the uncertain key by finding the formula. I think there are another variables, such as site, function and program used contributes to the final form of the design. These variables need to consider the program required, type and function of the building suitable in the specific character in the site. As Singapore is a modern city, Ana and Rodia started the challenge to build a skyscraper by extrude and stack the floors. The project start, with a loop, twist diagram consist of combination of sinusoidal, continuous and periodic functions.

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Picture 6. The application of Fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) reduces the discontinuity of the complex three-dimensional geometries develop surfaces simply.

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Along the same lines, the integrity of the square plan gives efficiency and simplicity. In mathematical terms, square is equivalent to a ‘coarse’ circle plotted within 4 points (Ana & Rodia 2011).

Catalogue of distinctive spaces, qualitatively and quantitatively being provided, through the simple repetition of the square plan, the diagram of the tower aims to generate new organizational potentialities capable of producing difference. The connected areas of the ‘towers’ form critical spatial diversity, by using the program, it automatically generates the most suitable spot for the connection. This tower is not being built in real, as the circulation is very poor. The inclination of the building makes the lift cannot connect all the levels within one line. Though the design looks amusing, it still needs to considerate some basic principle of design. The forces flow, the arrangement of material in space, the pattern of distribution, directly influences the efficiency of the flow of forces and direction of flow and the intensity give some effects to the design formation (Kotnik, T. & Weinstock, M. 2012)

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A.2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE COMPUTERIZATION VS COMPUTATION Most of architects are using computer as a visual board and it can be easily being edited in the process of designing called computerization (Peter, B. 2013). For example, software for rendering being used to create a 3D drawing, some improvements to the design can be add or eliminated, by using computation, in which we do not need to redo all the drawing, just need to edit some of the parts. It makes the design produced better and faster. According to Menges, A. (2012), computational provides a strong relation between informing the design process through material behaviour and characteristics, in different scales based on feedback with the environment. Computation means using computer to process information that can be expressed as alogarithm. Wilson, Robert and Frank (1999) said that algorithm is a recipe, method or technique made up by a number of operations set systematically that is clear, precise and simple to follow. Algorithms being used as the language of inputs and outputs functions, mathematical system to be the tool that allows the generation of the ‘proto-power’ diagram of the project. As the development in technology, computation helps architect to generate the form of the design by decreasing the number of failure and time needed. Computation allows us to represent the detail and complexity of design properties in visual representations within design model or algorithms. The last few years, digital design has been popularly used with information manipulation of NURBS-geometry in a computational environment without considering much to material aspects. However, in design process, form cannot be treated separately with material. The properties and characteristics of material can influence the ability of the material to create the shape.

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Wing Hui and Lap Ming Won are trying to find the equilibrium of precise control and natural response of the intrinsic wood capacities and aims to transform an everyday life material and methodology. This wood pavilion is made up of several laminated strips of wood that have been bent in the middle and joined together, forming a diamond-shaped lattice-work. By understanding the characteristic of material, that is wood veneer, they tried to cover the disadvantages by maximize the advantages. Picture 9

They tried to perform its intrinsic properties, innovative and suistanable methodology of architectural production to be emerged as a natural response. Wood can be deformed due to moisture they used to create such a shape they desired. Using the digital computation can help to imagine and explore the pattern and shape that suitable with the function. However the performance of the material will gives some varying effect. “The computational tool predicted the approximate dimensions, global geometry and compositional curvature while physical tests are carried out to combine the material performance with computer-generated data for further evaluations (Hui & Wong 2010).

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Adding moisture to the thin wooden elements resulted in them curving across the grain, this increasing their structural capacity. Further research has been done on the hygroscopic performance and anisotropic behavior of wood that influence the surface moisture result in curving across grain and increases the structural capacity of a flat piece of wood. The using of veneer give a huge distribution for the success of this project, using another type of wood or material will be hard to bend and create that shape. A special treatment also need to be tested and researched to achieve a significant moisture the wood needed. It gives attribution to the development of swelling significant when moisturizing the veneer.

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DIFFERENTIATED WOOD LATTICE SHELL BY JIAN HUANG & MINHWAN PARK This project tried to explore the extend possibility of lattice geometries based on the bending behavior of oversized sheets of plywood with varying cross sectional dimension along their length.

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It is starting by exploring the sheet material and surfaces and manipulated its bending properties by controlling the number of layers of ply and the fibre direction. Creating layers that the fibre being laid in paralel to the bending can create stronger systems, as the fibres in plywood is quite easy to crack , so the direction of cutting need to be noted.

I think by using machine to cut the wood it will produce an accurate size and shape wanted. It also reduces the cross section without damage the perimeter fibres, and the risk of splitting during the subsequent bending process. The type of the timber used has different level of elasticity and stiffness, which influence the shape or form of the timber. I think the exploration of the type of timber need to be done to achieve the possible form that we would like.

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This project needs to do lot of research and prototype to find the suitable and appropriate size, length and thickness that can maintain dead and live load and the bent in order to achieve the design idea. I do believe by using computational it helps in the design process, so the process will be much faster and easier, and the designer or architect can think out of their limitations. The connection they used for the system needs to be consider, so that the ply able to be bent as the design concept. Computation and algorithm contribute a lot in architecture world. By using computation, it is possible for architect to made more variety and interesting design. • 32

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A.3. PARAMETRIC MODEL“Post modernism and deconstructivism were mere traditional episodes” and parametricism will be “the great new style after modernism” Schumacher 2010 Architectural projects are being criticized and assessed by comparing to other projects. The idea of unified style, in which constituency, ambitions and value are used to create a constructively competition rather than battle over fundamentals (Schumacher, P. 2010). Based on Zaha Hadid prediction the trend style in 21st century will be parametricm. Parametricism is a new style after modernism and still able to manage classical, modernist, post-modernist, deconstructivist and minimalist. Parametricism indicate the transformation of classical and modern geometrical fugures to be more dynamics system like ‘hair’, ‘cloth’, blobs’ and ‘meatballs’ that reacted to attractors and resonate with each other with the formula (Schumacher, P. 2010). Parametric is a new type of aesthetic expression that is made possible using computer modeling software (Mayer, A. N. 2012). It uses variables and algorithm to generate a hierarchy of mathematical and geometric relations that we can generate a certain design and explore the whole possible solutions. I do believe that using parametric in computation helps people designing and undertand the problem and issues raises from the design, in which they will be ablen to solve and overcome from the issues to create the best design solution. Using parametric software is one term of programing language universally, in which everyone able to understand.

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“No material is without form and no form exists without materialisation”. Kotnik & Weinstock

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AA/ETH PAVILION, ZURICH Lightweight structures are associated with membrane and pneumatic construction. EmTech Programme (AA School) and the DARCH (ETH Zurich) explored the use of lightweight to work as structural design. The exploration of plywood sheet and the manipulation of its bending properties by controlling the number of layers of fibre direction of these layers were the starting point of the design process. Cutting within the sheets influence the bending resistance of the sheets, enable a larger spatial enclosure and reduced wind load acting upon the structure, and additionally produces a shadow pattern on the stairs that are used as seating area during summer time (Kotnik, T. & Weinstock, M. 2012). I think by locating one edge in higher level helps to reduce the tension in bending before it deforms.

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Based on the characteristics of plywood, it is the best to explore by scoring, cutting and bending to create a creative interested design. They used computation to define the shape and the pattern to play with the lighting created why the light pass it. Computation helps them to stimulate the design performance, material performances, tectonics and fabrication process of the design. Doing prototypes can help to see the strength and bend ability of the wood. I like the idea how they tried to attract people pass the pavillion, as it is built in open space and creating a ‘guide’’ path for people to walk pass under it and can work as a shelter as well.

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URBAN ADAPTER - ROCKER-LANGE ARCHITECTURE This project used a holistic design problem and is based on a digital parametric model (Evolo 2011). The core of the model to utilize the explicit site information and programmatic data to react and interact with its environment. That way the model’s DNA structure is capable of producing a variety of unique furniture results. Using parametric design help to explore the shape by dig up all the pattern. Sometimes I do feel stuck when I tried to find some inspiration, by using parametric, it can help architect to get some inspiration or general idea for the design. It also makes the process faster, rather than drawing by hand or calculating one by one using mathematics formula, using parametric design we can put the algorithm in the computation. Parametric algorithm and computational is not only can be used for an architect to design a building but to create a furniture as well.

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In this project, by simply change the types such as cylinder, cube, pipe or specific pattern that applied to the surface help to achieve different design. By trial all the pattern, we can decide the prefference pattern. Thinking about the material also need to be consider, I think using another material will suite this furniture as well, but the engagement of the nature and balance that is going to achieve by Rocker Lange Architecture was delivered using wood.

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Chair From the challenge in the tutorial class to reproduce the furniture using parametric algorithms. Using Grasshopper to recreate furniture from Urban Adapter - Rocker - Langer Architecture. By using loft, divide surface, section and pipe in grasshopper (the first attempt) the pipe cannot cover the whole surface. By playing with slider (second picture), it can create change the number of density of the pipe.

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Creting a surface, using contour, projecting, loft and unroll all the plane using reference plane and set the points with x and y grid.

Using Contour, Divide Curves, Plane and Orient.

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Using ‘Divide Sur-

Using ‘Divide Surface’, ‘Plane Normal’, ‘Surface Curvature’ and Cylinder’.

Using Brep Component

Trying to create a lgorithm with sphere

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CONCLUSION & LEARNING OUTCOMES Become an architect is not easy, it needs a lot of experiences, read a lot to open the mind, creative and critical thinking. Analyse the past projects and thinking critically can help architect to improve their design. Through this process, I understand the system and important of computerization and computation. Back there, I missunderstood computation as computerization and vice versa. It is become clear now. Through the first part, I also realise that digital computation has been used a lot in architecture. Using digital computation and algorithm can helps architecture to pour the ideas into the computer and make it easy to be edited. In this subject the mainly focus is using Rhino and plug in Grasshopper, I realise that without practise and trial i will not be able to create a design I want. Beside computation, other thing such as material need to be researched and noted, it can influences the design shape. In this case I am interested with wood. Wood, has its own unique pattern that is naturally grow. However, it need time for a tree to grow as big as the size we want. Doing prototypes can be a good way to test the material.

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“Architetcure is really well-being. I think that people want to feel good in a space… On one hand it’s about shelter, but it’s also about pleasure.” Zaha Hadid

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B.1. DESIGN FOCUS After forming a group of two, we tried to understand and experiment with the material we chose in Part A, which is timber. Exploring and applying some interesting concepts have been used from the precedent, we found out that the bending system of the timber is very interesting. It makes us focusing on the ‘‘Material Performance”. Using the timber advantages to minimize the disadvantages in order to generate the pattern and whole design. In the post modernism, ornament transmits affect and sensation, that is being emerged from the material substrate, the expression of embedded forces through processes of construction, assembly and growth (Moussavi, F. 2006). Peter Eisenman (Kolaveric, B. 2008) said “affect is the concious subjective aspect of an emotion considered apart from bodily changes” that gives physical environment a sensation. Material performance is being a new architect discourse, in which it becomes the fundamental in order to form the shape.

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MATERIAL PERFORMANCE: VENEER Veneer refers to thin slices of wood, it has different thickness between 1-3mm. It has a range of colour, from light brown to dark brown depends on the type of the trees. The natural apperance of the grain of the wood depends on the angle and area of the growth rings of the tree being sliced. This thin material usually being used to layer plywood, glued thicker layers of wood or veneer that is much stronger. Veneer is being used to layer furniture as it hard to find suitable and proper solid wood into the size needed. Using veneer to layer will give another extra point for the final appearance. This material can be get and has its stock of supply, however veneer is not something can be produced automatically as it is growth from trees and take time to be the right size before cutting. The old preceptions of space was influenced by the expectations of how the familiar material (concrete, metal, wood) should behave. Build with the material their familiar with is something applied in the old architecture. By understanding the material characteristics, maximise the advantages and minimise the disadvantages of the veneer, we can create better design.

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From my previous precedents in differentiated wood lattice shell by Jian Huang & Minhwan Park. They mention about the direction of the grain or fibre in the wood influences the strength and ability to bending. We think that same direction with bending will make the veneer more elastic, however it makes the veneer crack easiliy. Bending perpendicular to the fibre makes the veneer stronger.


We tested it using different size of width and length and narrower the width and longer the length improve the elasticity and decrease the wood from crack or broken.

The ability of the veneer to bend is being influenced by the thickness, width and length of the venner. Veneer is more elastic compare to plywood.

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The picture on the left with light colour are dry veneers and the darker one is the veneer that has been steamed. Steam or soak in water will increase the moisture and elasticity for the veneer to be bended. However for some case such as plywood in which they use glue to stick the pieces, the heat get rid the glue that make the pieces apart. The right pictures, right side of venner is the steamed one and has the ability to bend more than the normal dry veneer.


Soak the veneer takes more time rather than cook it. By giving moisture to veneer, that is mentioned in my previous precedent in part A, wood pavilion by Wing Hui and Lap Ming Won. Adding moisture to the thin wooden elements resulted in them curving across the grain that increase their structural capacity. Shaping the wet veneer can hold the shape after it is dry. In our experiment we put in a marker, and using masking tape to hold in the drying process and the shape being kept when it is fully dry. However, it is becoming harder to control bigger size. • 44



Trying to twirl the veneer in bigger size, the length influences the number of twirls, in which the width of the veneer make it harder to be twirl, the wider the less twirl can be made.

Wider size more difficult to be bent as it needs more point to hold. By cut the middle shape to decrease the wide of the veneer it reduces the compression in middle part and decreases the possibility to crack.

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Practise, learn and explore the Grasshopper to help our group understand to be able to create the shape and design we want to approach. By playing with the attract point, line, arch, curve. Change the number in slider, putting different pattern, setting the input and output, using attract point, using graft, component function will create varieties of possible outcomes.




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SG2012 Gridshell by Herzog DeMeuron is focused on digital tectonic and construction of wooden gridshell, by using straight wood that is bended along geodesic lines on arelaxed surface. Using parametric tools in digital computation, they tried to develop and analyse to minimise material waste, as well as maximise the architectural presence in the space (Matsys 2012). He also applied a functional approach to ornamentation by understand the physical material and material performance. Reverse Engineering. From this Gridshell, we tried to re-diagramming the sentences from the definition provided. Discovering the technological principles, systems, structure and operations being applied in the algorithm definition. By understanding the decisions made in order to create that shape, it is able us to understand grasshopper and applying the concept needed for the next stage design process.


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The best outcomes that I think can be built and it has a suitable density to present the space and engage with the material performance.

Using 2 curves that being divide from the definition we get, we applied different type of geometric such as line, pipe and box to get different outcomes. By playing the slider we can control the number of point in the curve, the density of the line that can give a different variety of possible range of design . Using parametric tool, it helps to adjust the design easily and fastly.

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B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 Differentiated Lattice Shell Pavillion by Jian Huang & Min Hwang Park

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From my last precedent in Part A, Jian Huang & Min Hwang Park tried to explore the extend possibility of lattice geometries based on the bending behavior of oversized sheets of plywood with varying the cross sectional dimension along their length. After further exploration and experiment with veneer we made, this precedent has the best inspiration, outcomes and concept for our design idea. Furthermore, we tried to recreate the definition using grasshopper. Picture 34

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The initial proposal using square for the panel, in which we considered that it will maximise the bending and reduce the number of crack by using triangle shape. We choose triangle to deliver the shape we wanted.

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In Grasshopper definition. Firstly, we made the single panel before it being applied into a surface. By setting the line and create the list component to set the output point, it is being connected with slider that has the negatif and positif value to control the opening up and down. In which in the case study, they provide a bolt that can adjust the distance between the bending opening. Putting the algorithm in Grasshopper, it helps us to adjust and control the opening easily.

Applying the panel into the surface is shown by the pictures above. • 15


From the case study 1.0, understanding the principle they used, able us to apply the concept and proces As our main focus is the material performance which is bending. It is better to create a grid for the pann sign process and construction fabrication. Inspired from the ICD Pavillion in Stuttgart, I thought that it grid that paralel with each other, in which in Gridshell by Herzog DeMeuron, it was perpendicular grid put graft to set the output list that helps us to control the grid easily. We made a triangular planar grid, a the best shape that can be used to achieve our concept. Triangle also the basic shape for all geometric th achieve complex design. Furthermore, using the case study 2.0 that being applied into the surface that w and integrate with the surrounding landscapes and Wyndham City. • 25

ss in order to get the design. nel that will help in the det has similar concept of the d, using x and y axis. Then, we as we think triangle will be hat is quite simple but able to would be the best to enhance

After the exploration and development we made, we decided to choose this as the best outcome that will enhance and suitable as a installation for Wyndham City.

These showing different views from the final prototype

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FORMING Generates the form by physical behaviour and material characteristics

DIGITIZATION Computerization and computation in parametric through Grasshopper and Rhinoceros


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B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES PROTOTYPE I We struggled a bit for the connection joint. Using a strip with a few squares that being cut in the middle for the opening and bending cannot be done, it will lead the grain to crack and the force working in the edge will be very big. So, creating each panel will be the best solution to achieve the concept we are going. After some experiments, adding a circle tab in every edge that using pin to joint them become the first prototype being made here. We also put a small hole using offset and cull command to create a hole for the pin connection. Applying this type of joint connection will not disturb the bending ability of the panel, and hold and join the panel with other panels. We also need to create a precise size of the hole, to strengthened the pression and compression work in the panel.

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Using a hand cutting makes the precisition of the shape change and it is very easy to crack. The fabrication of the model with the help of laser cuter is very helpful, after unrolling the surfaces in grasshopper. This prototype we are using the same size and shape, able us to control the tension and compression on the bending. It has a curve in one side of the triangle that make an overlap in the bending side. Using water to add the moisture to the veneer to increase the elasticity of veneer, so that it can be bent easily and using a same size of helping stick in the overlap position to hold the shape until it is dry. By doing this prototype we understand that the position and arrangement of each pieces should be placed in order, depends on the direction of the bending. As the connection being overlap with another pieces to joint them together.

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PROTOTYPE II After the first prototype, we were thinking to develop the design, not using the same size and shape that able us to create such a surface we want. It also let the pattern and bending being shaped because of the material performance. Using the compression and tension from the joint to hold the pattern without adding moisture into the veneer. It has different elasticity compare to the first prototype. We applied a surface we designed from the final design in parametric diagram. Using black card for this prototype, the triangle has different size that creating the bend by itself. It is consist of straight flatten triangle without any overlapping. This structure should be able to stand, that in this prototype, we have not really thought about the structural stand. The shadow created by the lighting go through the model can be clearly seen that will be one of consideration for the next exploration.

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B.6. TECHNICAL PROPOSAL Wyndham City tries to achieve the environment and sustainability, in which using timber that exploring the material performance to generate the form will produce a natural and culture form that can represents Wyndham City. Using the ‘bending” and ëlasticity”of timber that usually been used for a plywood and thicker timber, try to approach a fresh technique for the bending and conenction panel. The development and modernisation that is growing in this city will be represent by the computation and technology being used in the process and fabrication of the installation. This installation enhances the physical environment that has visual art component will represent the identity of Wyndham City. This proposal is meant to be placed in Site B. It tries to deliver a transition from Wyndham City to Melbourne CBD. The installation shows a sign as it will enter the Melbourne CBD area. As Mark says, “The installation will enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual art component.” The longevity of the installation will appeal, encourage, give interest in the Western Interchange by encouraging further reflection about the installation beyond a first glance.

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The size might be bigger to enhance the people so they can be viewed from car ath 100km/h. The elongated shape able the drivers that passed the area to aware and see the installation. The bending will create opennings in the facade that will create a good lighting pattern, it will have different effects in different daytime. By adding lighting inside the area can work for the installation in night time, that the cars passed by will be able to see the installation. The fabrication panel should be made using robotic machine or another technology to be more precise and reduce the material waste caused by cracking. In-situ installation can be done on site.

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B.7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Understanding the material characteristics are very important, so that I can understand the advantages and disadvantages that will influence in design shape, pattern and fabrication. I cannot get the same outcomes using another material, I might can but it takes another different approaches to create the model. I think timber is the best material for this concept. Reverse Engineering is a good system that really helps me to learn Grasshopper. Understanding the principle and system of Grasshopper helps me to create and try as many design possibilty.Now, I enjoy using Grasshopper. I am able to create, manipulate and design using parametric design. However, some problems I still faced for some specific functions that have not been used before. Watching the video and recreate the definiton helped me to understand Grasshopper. Grasshopper really helps me in the unrolling steps and makes the tabs, I do not need to select one by one in Rhino. Learnt from my previous experience in Virtual Communication, in which my model should be unrolled in strips. I need to select one by one and it takes so much time to unrol the surfaces. Digital technologies helps me to pour my design idea into 3D form. Doing the prototype really helps to understanding is the model is abele to be fabricate. We tried to applied different joint and connections after we decide to use the circle tab on every edge. For the last stage of this project, we will have a look in active bending as the guest jury recommend that might be applied in order to get more flexible joint. Further analysis, experiment and prototype will be needed to achieve the best outcomes.

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B.8. APPENDIX - ALGORITHM SKETCHES Other exploration in Grasshopper by using Polygon and playing the slider can set the number of sides of the polygon. I really like this outcomes, eventhough it is just using simple triangle that can be used for patterning as well. Through setting the next output point and distance using component function.






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Wyndham City located between Melbourne and regional city of Geelong. The local government area tried to show their existence by developing this area by specified their focus in 3C, which are “City. Coast. Country.” Wyndham City tries to achieve the sustainability in the environment, in which I believe that using timber for this gateway project will provide the best solution. Using the material performance to generate the form will produce a natural and cultural form represents Wyndham City. The development and modernisation growing in this city will be showed by the computation and technology used in the process and fabrication of the installation. This installation enhances the physical environment that has visual art component will represent the identity of Wyndham City.

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The boundary of the site B from the Prince Highway and Caltex Service Station

The final shape from plan and position of the installation

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Disclose the boundary from Caltex Service Station for the human interactions

Moving the installation to the position

“Form follow functions” - Louis Sullivan

ed to understand the material performance and function of the design to finalise and reshape the final form.


People come to Caltex Service Station from Melbourne CBD (pink) by shorten the boundary. In which the other side is going to Melbourne CBD (blue), there is no access to the installation, in which people can feel the installation approachment to the car passed the south of the site

Rotate the position to approach the car passing it needs more adjustment for the

Getting the shape wanted that is going to be applied in the installation

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SITE PLAN After the feedback from the presentation crit, we thought that the position of the installation should be push closer to the Caltex Service Station. It can bring more engangement and interactions with people to visit the site. The distance also helps for the in-site fabrication process and transport.

As it is quite rare to find a walking path in highway, the installation is creating a “safe and secure” feeling for the people walking in the installation area. • 27

From 2D surface that is worked like a wall and boundary in the site. Applying the definition of the panel to create the bending opening, creating a “3D” model. Inspired from the dynamic waves from seismograph, the size of each panel is different that will make the outlook more interesting and dynamic. Playing with the angle, direction and size of the opening in order to achieve the “approach” look from the car passed by. The pictures show how the opening by the bending looks like. From our last prototype, we only made 3 columns and 12 rows, that the total only 72 pieces. However, to attract and giving more emphasize in approaching people we increase the number into 5 columns and 15 rows, in which the total of panels are 150.

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FABRICATION PROCESS From the prototype we have made in part B, we used different size and shape of the triangle. The joint of the screw will be hold and give the compression and tension that build the bending itself, comparing with the previous prototype that we used another stick to hold the shape until the steam bending process finish and dry.

Laser cut the veneer to get the panel pieces, with total 150 pieces. We decided to unroll the each of the pieces one by one rather than a long strip, in which we can arrange the direction of the grain of the veneer for the bending ability. Unroll pieces rather than strip also reduce the ability of the strip to crack, as one long strip need to be scorched and the scorch part is very brittle. We used pin for the joint connection before but we realised that pin makes the veneer moving and by used blue-tac does not provide a good appearance for the model. Thinking about another type of bolt for the joint, we checked Chicago Bolt and after trial we decided to use Bolt nut screw and washer, in which we can adjust the thickness, to hold the edge of the panels. Using the screw and washer we can hold the panel and the compression and pression made will create their own bending, . This concept leads to our final solution for our model, in which we do not to do steam bending system or adding moisture, that is hard to be done for the real fabrication with the scale 1:1.

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We tried to arrange the strip and putting the bolt, in which we did not really consider of the other strip position, that makes the veneer crack when it is in bending position. Put it in and out a few times also increase the possibility of the veneer to crack.

It is better to arrange the position and the strip of all the panel, so we can arrange the position of upper and bottom panel before being installed with screw and washer. Screw and washer can be adjust depends on the thickness and number of panel need to be jointed. After we arranged all the panel and Without considering the load bearing and the weight from the screw, washer and the veneer itself. We realised that another support should be made in order to mantain the installation stand in the shape we wanted. We think that by using the plywood or steel can be used to hold the structure standing.

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C.2. GATEWAY PROJECT: TECTONIC ELEMENTS DETAIL CONNECTION In real life, the usage of plywood instead of veneer will be more appropriate and suitable, in which it will not easily crack and can mantain the load from dead and live load, such as the material itself, gravity, wind, screw and washer. Bigger size and appropriate size should be scaled bigger to adjust with the real connection.

Screw and Washer It should be able to be adjusted, as there will be different number of panels need to be joint depend on the position.

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The plywood panels.

Solid wood or steel with the specific position of the hole depends on the panel joint position.


The position and order to place the joint. The placing of the panels also need to be placed in the order, so that the panels are able to bend out and in without blocking each other.

How the position and joint connection will be looked like.

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DETAIL CONNECTION TO GROUND For the ground connection, we are thinking to use another support to mantain the load of the installation from dead and live load. Using solid wood or steel will not change the message trying to be delivered by the installation. We can use steel instead of solid timber to reduce the size of the supporting elements. Steel has more strength compare to timber. More calculation of the support can be done by engineering for the precise size of the structural support. Bury some part of the structural to make to make it stronger and will not fall down or lean to one side. Using concrete to be pour into the ground also help to support the main stuctural stand, and use plate with bolts will strengthened the support rather than just using bolts. SOLID TIMBER OR STEEL SOLID TIMBER OR STEEL CONCRETE PLATES WITH BOLTS

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DAY TIME Lighting from natural sunlight through the installation, will create a different shape and size depends on the time and position of the sun.

Different time, day and night time without any additional lighting.

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NIGHT VIEW Additional lighting from inside of the installation, in which produce pattern shadow.

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The final prototype in scale 1:20, we built the final prototype in quite big scale, in order to reduce the number of crack and increase the ability of the veneer to bend. A lot of trouble came and the bigger size has more load bearing that we do not really think before.

The shadow created in different angle.

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The prototype of model with scale 1:20 being photoshoped to the site. Build in real life, the pre-fabrication can be done for the pannels, and the structural support. • Veneer is a good choice for smaller size of prototype that can used steam bending system that is applied in the prototype to increase the bending ability and elasticity, in which in real life, the usage of plywood is more suitable to mantain the load and for a stronger structure. However, the pouring of the concrete should be done in-situ. This model is able to built in real life with appropriate size as it needs to consider the supply of the material in big size. The position of the model that is close to the street in front of Caltex Service Station reduces the cost for transportation and site works. The panels itself should be labelled to reduce the time of construction and the cutting should be done use machine to get precise size and shape.

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From the presentation feedback, we are moving the location of our installation considering the cost and the ability to reach the space. The engagement and interaction of the people to the installation being one of the consideration in locating the site. In place like highway, people will not want to walk around 500m to reach the installation, that makes us relocate the installation. Another issue raises by increasing the number of panel, it takes more time to fabricated the prototype, in which we cannot really focus into the presentation. In this journal, I explained all the process to get the best solution of this model.

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Architecture and engineering has been seperated for specialization in their own fields. However, being an architect does not only consider about the shape, size of the model and design something we like. Considering the possibility of the model to be built, the detail connection and fabrication process need to be considered to get the best possible outcomes. Prototype as a simple scale of fabrication can be done to understand problems and issues might raise in the real fabrication. I will not realise the type of the joint for the panels, joint connection and arrangement of the panels, and any other staff that can be the issues for this model. By doing the prototype, I am able to correcting or adjust some part using digital computation, Grasshopper easily. Doing prototype also helped me to understand about the material, time, cost of the fabrication process even in smaller scale, that able me to improve and get the best solution for the fabrication in real life. This design project makes me understand about digital computation, in which really helps in the design and fabrication process. In which in Virtual Communication, I did not use Grasshopper and it took more time for the design and unrolling process. After becoming more familiar with Rhino software, I am able to improve the layout and visual picture of the model by addding material, lighting to look more natural.

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C.5. APPENDIX Reference: Etherington, R. 2010. Centre Pampidou – metz by Shigeru Ban. De Zeen Magazine. Retrieve 14th Aug 2103 from Evolo. 2011. New Parametric Urban Street Furniture for Hong Kong. Retrieve 17th August 2013 from Greg, L. 1998. ‘Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy’, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn. Bruxelles: La Lettre volee. pp. 169-182. Kolaveric, B. 2008. Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture. Kevin R. Klinger, eds. New York; London: Routledge. pp. 6-24. Kotnik, T. & Weinstock, M. 2012, Material, Form and Force. Architectural Design. 82(2), 104-111. Matsys. 2012. SG2012 Gridshell. Retrieve 16 Sep 2013 from projects/sg2012-gridshell/ Mayer, A. N. 2010. Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’Architecture. Retrieve 8th August 2012 from Menges. 2009. Differented Wood Lattice Shell. Retrieve 14th Aug 2013 from Menges, A. 2012. Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design. 82(2). 1421 Moussavi, Farshid. 2006. The Function of Ornament. Michael Kubo, eds. Barcelona: Actar. pp. 5-14. Ortiz, A. M. F. & Sanchez R. V. 2011. The Hinging Tower. Architectural Design, 81(4), 112-117. Peter, B. 2013. Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83(2), 56-61.

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Schumacher, P. 2010. Patrik Schumacher on Parametricism – “Let the style wars begin’. Architects Journal. Retrieve 15th Aug 2013 from Sebestyen, G. & Pollington, C. 2003. New Architecture and Technology. Great Britain: Architectural Press. William, R. 2005. ‘‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Picture Reference: Picture 1. Picture 2-4. Picture 5-7. set/1277_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=hkc4czfk&s=91443b9ef9b3999ffe2f7e8d85c2c602b17c6e46 Picture 8. wong/ Picture 9-15. doc/5898/ Picture 16-19. Picture 20. Picture 21. Picture 22. Picture 23. Picture 24. Picture 25-27. kong/ Picture 28. Picture 29. Picture 30. Picture 31035.

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Project proposal jovita halim 551080