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Assessment of/for/as Learning Prof. Alben P. Sagpang


Key Features of Assessment of Learning 

Accompanied by a number or letter grade (summative) Compares one student’s achievement with standards Results can be communicated to the student and parents Occurs at the end of the learning unit


Key Feautures of Assessment for Learning 

Two phases – diagnostic and formative assessments Based on a variety of information sources (e.g., portfolios, works in progress, teacher observation, conversation, oral recitations) verbal or written feedback to the student is primarily descriptive and emphasizes strengths, identifies challenges, and points to next steps


Key Feautures of Assessment for Learning 

As teachers check on understanding they adjust their instruction to keep students on track No grades or scores are given - recordkeeping is primarily anecdotal and descriptive Occurs throughout the learning process, from the outset of the course of study to the time of summative assessment


Key Feautures of Assessment as Learning 

Begins as students become aware of the goals of instruction, monitor, evaluate, reflect on their own learning

Implies student ownership and responsibility for moving his or her thinking forward

Occurs throughout the learning process


Key Feautures of Assessment as Learning    

Hence, students become aware of: what they learn how they learn what helps them learn One possible technique: Reflective Journal Writing, Graphic Organizers (e.g. KWL Chart)


Meaning of Assessment


Meaning of Assessment


Meaning of Measurement


Meaning of Evaluation


Assessment Process


Purposes of Assessment 

 

To help teachers/educators determine the strengths, weaknesses, and overall academic progress of students; To determine what students already know and what they need to learn; To diagnose learning problems; To determine student progress, remediation, promotion, and retention;


Purposes of Assessment 

To provide documented results that teachers need to explain their actions (due to accountability demands on the national and local levels as well as from individual parents); To improve instruction and overall educational experiences; To provide accurate reports to students, parents, and school officials.


General Principles of Assessment Clearly specif ying what to be assessed has priority in the assessment process. ďƒź

Clearly specifying the intended learning goals before selecting the assessment procedures to use.


General Principles of Assessment An assessment procedure should be selected because of its relevance to the characteristics or performance to be measured. ďƒź Is the procedure the most effective method for measuring the learning or development to be assessed? ďƒź In assessing student achievement, we need a close match between the intended learning goals and the types of assessment tasks used.


General Principles of Assessment Comprehensive assessment requires a variety of procedures.  Multiple-choice test and short test – assess knowledge, comprehension, and application outcomes  Essay test and other written projects – assess the ability to organize and express ideas


General Principles of Assessment 

Projects – assess students’ skills on or output from formulating problems, accumulating information thru library research or data collection (e.g., thru experimental observations or interviews)


General Principles of Assessment Observational techniques – assess performance skills and various aspects of student behaviour  Self-report techniques – assess interests and attitudes 


General Principles of Assessment Proper use of assessment procedures requires awareness of their limitations. ďƒź Assessment instruments yield results that are subject to various types of measurement error caused by chance factors: o guessing on objective tests, o subjective scoring on essay test, o inconsistent response on self-report instruments


General Principles of Assessment Assessment is a means to an end, not an end in itself. ďƒź Information obtained from assessment is used for educational decisions


Types of Assessments in Terms of their Use in Classroom Instruction


Characteristics Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessments Diagnostic

Function To determine of the what needs to assessment be learned When given Purpose of the assessment

Before instruction To plan instruction

Formative

To determine what is being learned

Summative

To determine what has been learned as the result of the instruction During After completion instruction of instruction To monitor To evaluate final progress toward student objectives and performance in plan additional relation to the instruction objectives


Characteristics Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessments Diagnostic

Techniques Tests, of questioning, assessment formal and informal observation Structure Either formal of the or informal assessment

Formative

Summative

Informal Papers, tests, observation, projects, reports questioning, inclass work, homework Generally Generally formal informal


Traditional Assessment Instruments


Multiple-Choice Test Advantages  Samples a broad array of knowledge

Limitations  May not be the best method to assess recall knowledge

 Scores easily and objectively

 Provide students with examples of what they will see on standardized tests

It takes longer to answer than other types of objective items  It is relatively difficult to design well-written multiplechoice questions


True-False Test Advantages  Students can answer a large number of these test items in a short time

Limitations  Susceptible to guessing, particularly if test items are poorly constructed

Most students are familiar with the format

 May lack meaningfulness and fail to reflect the complex environments in which learning occurs

 Relatively quick to write and easy to grade


Matching Test Advantages Measures effectively and efficiently the extent to which students know related facts, associations, and relationships  Ease of construction  Its compact form making it possible to measure large amount of related factual material in a relatively short time

Limitations  Restricted to measurement of factual information based on rote learning  Difficulty of finding homogenous material that is significant from the viewpoint of our objectives or learning outcomes Susceptible to the presence of irrelevant clues


Short-Answer Test Advantages  Relatively easy to write  Reduces the tendency of students to guess

Limitations  Unsuitable for measuring complex learning outcomes Difficult to score because of varying degrees of correctness


Essay Test Advantages Limitations  Excellent way to measure  Takes more time to grade understanding and mastery of complex information  Can produce different results from different graders Enhances HOTS  Can fail to provide a good  Takes less time to construct sampling of content knowledge  Can motivate better study habits


Guidelines in Constructing MultipleChoice Test 

The stem of the item should be meaningful by itself and should present a definite problem; The item stem should include as much of the item as possible and should be free of irrelevant material; Use a negatively stated stem only when significant learning outcomes require it;


Guidelines in Constructing MultipleChoice Test 

All of the alternatives should be grammatically consistent with the stem of the item; An item should contain only once correct or clearly best answer; Items used to measure understanding should contain some novelty, but beware of too much;


Guidelines in Constructing MultipleChoice Test ď Ž

ď Ž

All distracters should be plausible. The purpose of a distracter is to distract the uninformed from the correct answer; The relative length of the alternatives should not provide a clue to the answer;


Guidelines in Constructing MultipleChoice Test 

Use sparingly special alternatives such as “none of the above” or “all of the above;” Do not use multiple-choice items when other item types are more appropriate; Break any of these rules when you have a good reason for doing so.


Guidelines in Constructing MultipleChoice Test 

Include the best or most correct alternative as well as those that could be feasible responses to a student who is not prepared for the test; Use the correct grammar and punctuation between each stem and the corresponding alternatives; Keep the alternatives of MCT item of equal length, sequenced in a random order, and free from statements such as “none of the above” or “all of the above”.


Checklist for Reviewing MultipleChoice Test Items


Checklist for Reviewing MultipleChoice Test Items


Checklist for Reviewing MultipleChoice Test Items


Guidelines in Constructing True-False Test 

Reflect only one major concept or idea in every item, unless cause-effect relationships are being measured; Write test items with a positive rather than a negative focus; Avoid trick or trivial statements, double negatives, and determiners such as all, never, entirely, absolutely, and only; Use approximately the same number of words in all test items;


Guidelines in Constructing True-False Test 

 

Write test items that are totally true or false without qualification; Avoid long, complex sentences; The number of true statements and false statements should be approximately equal; If opinion is used, attribute it to some source, unless the ability to identify opinion is being specifically measured.


Checklist for Reviewing True-False Test Items


Checklist for Reviewing True-False Test Items


Guidelines in Constructing Matching Test 

Use only homogenous material in a single matching exercise. Include an unequal number of responses and premises, and instruct the student that responses may be used once, more than once, or not all. Keep the list of items to be matched brief, and place the shorter responses on the right.


Guidelines in Constructing Matching Test 

Arrange the list of responses in logical order. Place words in alphabetical order and numbers in sequence. Indicate in the directions the basis for matching the responses and premises. Place all of the items for one matching exercise on the same page.


Checklist for Reviewing Matching Test Items


Checklist for Reviewing Matching Test Items


Guidelines in Constructing ShortAnswer Test 

Word the item so that the required answer is both brief and specific; Do not take statements directly from textbooks to use as basis for short-answer items; A direct question is generally more desirable than an incomplete statement;


Guidelines in Constructing ShortAnswer Test 

If the answer is to be expressed in numerical units, indicate the type of answer wanted; Blanks for answers should be equal in length and in a column to the right of the question; When completion items are used, do not include too many blanks.


Checklist for Reviewing ShortAnswer Test Items


Checklist for Reviewing ShortAnswer Test Items


Guidelines in Constructing Essay Test 

Construct essay questions that require HOTS rather than simple recall of factual information and highlight creative thought and problemsolving skills; Construct essay questions that cover the key concepts of the subject content; Construct essay questions that require information from the student that is sufficiently specific for common agreement by teachers on what constitutes an acceptable answer;


Guidelines in Constructing Essay Test 

Have a suggested amount of time to be spent on each question; Provide a checklist of informational points and ideas that are important to include a satisfactory response; Avoid optional questions or opinion questions that can detract from the overall mission of the test and can detract from your ability to evaluate students in the same content areas.


Checklist for Reviewing Essay Questions


Checklist for Reviewing Essay Questions


Performance-Based Assessment 

Sometimes referred to as “authentic assessment” or “alternative assessment” Provides a basis for teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of: The process or procedure used (e.g., approach to data collection, manipulation of instruments) The product resulting from performance of a task (e.g., completed report of results, completed artwork)


Types of Performance-Based Assessment Tasks   

 

Restricted- response Performance Tasks Instructions – more generally focused Sometimes starts with a simple multiple-choice or short-answer questions. Those questions are then extended by asking for an explanation why the other answers were not selected Examples: Execute a sequence of dance steps Execute arms and shoulder exercises


Types of Performance-Based Assessment Tasks  

Extended Performance Tasks May require students to seek information from a variety of sources beyond those provided by the task itself Students may need to use the library, make observations, collect and analyze data in an experiment, conduct a survey, or use a computer or other types of equipment


Types of Performance-Based Assessment Tasks  

Examples of Extended Performance Tasks Prepare and deliver speech to persuade people to take actions to protect the environment Prepare a poster to inform the public of the health hazards caused by air pollution


Other Examples of Performance Tasks

Products • Web site • Bulletin board • Collage • Banner • Public service announcement • Sculpture • Photograph • Drawing picture • Videotape sequence or game • Designing a brochure or book • A portfolio of products

Process • Problem-solving an adventure-type tasks (group or individual) • Creating a game • Creating educational gymnastics/dance/creative movement sequence • Fitness tests • Officiating a game •Teaching the class a skill • Role playing


Advantages and Limitations of Performance Tasks

Advantages • Can clearly communicate instructional goals that involve complex understandings/performances/skills in natural settings in, and outside of school; Can measure complex learning outcomes that cannot be measured by other means •

Provides a means of assessing process or procedure, as well as the product that results from performing a task •

Implements approaches that conform to modern learning theory (e.g., constructivism) •


Advantages and Limitations of Performance Tasks

Limitations •Unreliability of performance ratings across teachers or across time for the same teacher •

Performance tasks may be time-consuming


Suggestions for Constructing Performance Tasks ď Ž

ď Ž

ď Ž

Focus on learning outcomes that require complex cognitive skills and performance; Select or develop tasks that represent both the content and the skills that are central to important learning outcomes; Minimize the dependence of task performance on skills that are irrelevant to the intended purpose of the assessment task;


Suggestions for Constructing Performance Tasks 

Provide the necessary scaffolding for students to be able to understand the task and what is expected; Construct task directions so that the student’s task is clearly indicated; Clearly communicate performance expectations in terms of the criteria by which the performances will be judged


Characteristics of Performance-based Assessment Tasks 

Are essential, “big ideas” rather than trivial microfacts or specialized skills; Are in-depth in that they lead to other problems and questions; Are feasible and can be done within or outside the school and classroom; Typically include interactions between the teacher and the student and among students;


Characteristics of Performance-based Assessment Tasks 

Provide multiple ways in which students can demonstrate they have met the criteria, allowing multiple points of view and multiple interpretations; Allow for individual learning styles, aptitudes, and interests; Involve cooperation, self-evaluation, and peerevaluation; Require scoring that focuses on the essence of the task and not what is easiest to score;


Characteristics of Performance-based Assessment Tasks 

Call on the professional judgment of the assessor, who is usually the teacher; May involve an audience of some kind in addition to the teacher; Call for different measurement techniques;


Characteristics of Performance-based Assessment Tasks   

Identify strengths as well as weaknesses; Minimize needless and unfair comparisons; Are designed to be truly representative of performance in the field; Encourage students to present their work publicly and orally.


References Darling-Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Falk, A. (1995). Authentic assessment in action. New York: Teachers College Press. Linn, R. L. & Gronlund, N. E. (1995). Measurement and assessment in teaching (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.     Manning, M. & Bucher, K. (2005). Teaching in the middle school. (2nd ed.). Columbus: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.   Oosterhof, A. (2001). Classroom applications of educational measurement. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall.   Taylor, C. & Nolen, S. (2005). Classroom assessment supporting teaching and learning in real classrooms. Columbus: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

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