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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019

Contents Y. Çağatay Seçkin • Editor Editorial İlker Karadağ, Nuri Serteser Estimation of airflow characteristics of indoor environments in the early design stage

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1-9

Saadet Zeynep Bacınoğlu, Luka Piskorec, Toni Kotnik CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process

11-27

Burçin Başyazıcı, Belkıs Uluoğlu Architecture: Distinguished or ordinary network agents in the field of its representation

29-42

Mojtaba Valibeigi, Ali Akbar Taghipour, Majid Feshari Housing price estimation in order to sustainable housing: Niyavaran area,Tehran, Iran

43-52

Hande Türkoğlu, Serengül Seçmen Urban waterfront parks as part of quality of life in İstanbul

53-66

Nawal Benslimane, Ratiba Wided Biara Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara

67-81

Melih Bozkurt Triangulation study of water play in urban open spaces in Sheffield: Children’s experiences, parental and professional understanding and control

83-96

Koray Güler, Yegân Kâhya Developing an approach for conservation of abandoned rural settlements in Turkey

97-115

Duygu Turgut An analysis of the plan typology of vernacular Talas Houses

117-125

Elmira Ayşe Gür, Nasim Heidari Challenge of identity in the urban transformation process: The case of Celiktepe, Istanbul

127-144


Contributors Saadet Zeynep BACINOĞLU

Saadet Zeynep Bacınoğlu holds an M.Sc. in Architectural Design Computing Graduate Program; B.Sc. in Architecture from ITU. She had been a visiting doctoral researcher at Aalto University, between 2017-2018; a visiting student at TU Vienna in 20102011; a research & teaching assistant at ITU from 2011 to 2018.

Nawal BENSLIMANE

Benslimane Nawal has a architect’s diploma and master in architecture specializing in the Saharan context. Doctor student in architecture, Temporary teacher in the university since 2015 and architect (since 2010 in the local direction of the city).

Ratiba Wided BIARA

Trained as an architect, Ratiba Wided BIARA is passionate about architecture and urban planning in the Saharan context. Doctor of architecture, she devotes her professional life to teaching, and her research work to the study of the architectural/urban space in the Sahara. She has been teaching at the University of Bechar in Algeria since 2007.

Melih BOZKURT

chitecture (2010) from Dokuz Eylul University. Earned his M.Sc. (2012) and PhD. (2016) degrees from Restoration Programme at Istanbul Technical University. He works at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture. Major research interests include vernacular heritage, rural architecture, traditional construction techniques, urban and rural conservation.

Elmira Ayşe GÜR

Associate Professor Dr Elmira Ayşe Gür has participated in several international workshops, conferences, and competitions where she was awarded for her architectural design projects. Her research works and writings have been published nationally and internationally. Dr Gür’s research interests lie within a wide spectrum of areas from architecture to urban development. She has published and edited several papers and books on affordable housing, squatter settlements, housing development and typology in Istanbul, design studio’s physical environment, design education, child development centers, post-disaster temporary shelters and urban transformation.

Nasim HEIDARI

Studied landscape architecture in Ankara University and followed by MA and PhD degrees in Sheffield University, Department of Landscape Architecture. I am currently working at Istanbul Technical University, Department of Landscape Architecture as a lecturer. My research interest focuses on children’s experiences of urban environment and open space design.

Nasim Heidari’s bachelor degree is from IAUT in Iran. After bachelor degree she went to Turkey to academic studies. Now she is Ph.D candidate in construction science at ITU. She has participated in conferences and workshops related to the architectural and environmental subjects. Also working in market for implementing the academic knowledge in real life.

Majid FESHARİ

Yegân KÂHYA

I am Majid Feshari Ph.D of International and Industrial Economics at University of Tabriz and assistant professor of economics department in Kharazmi University. I have 7 Years experience in the context of academic activities in Kharazmi University. My research Interests are international studies, tourism analysis, industrial organization, econometrics and other related fields.

Koray GÜLER

Receieved his bachelor’s degree in ar-

Receieved her bachelor’s degree in architecture (1982) from Istanbul Technical University. Earned her M.Sc. (1984) and PhD. (1992) degrees from Restoration Programme at Istanbul Technical University. She was president of ICOMOS Turkey between 2011-2014. Major research interests include conservation of Byzantine monuments, restoration, theory of conservation, conservation techniques and methods, traditional construction techniques, architectural documen-


tation and inventory, urban and rural conservation.

İlker KARADAĞ

İlker is a teaching & research assistant at Istanbul Technical University. His research interests concern architectural aerodynamics and software development. Ilker pursuing his PhD on “Development of an architectural aerodynamics algorithm for early design stage”. In addition, İlker is the developer of Archidynamics Software, an architectural design, and analysis software.

Toni KOTNIK

Toni Kotnik is Professor of Design of Structures at Aalto University. He studied architecture and mathematics. His research is focused on integrative design methods at the intersection of architecture and engineering. Toni Kotnik was teaching and conducting research at the AA London, ETH Zurich, University of Innsbruck, SUDT in Singapore.

Luka PIŠKOREC

Luka Piškorec studied architecture at the University of Zagreb in Croatia. He continued his studies at the ETH Zürich in Switzerland. In 2011, he started working as a research assistant at Gramazio Kohler Research. Since 2017, he works as Lecturer in Design of Structures at Aalto University in Finland.

Serengül SEÇMEN

Serengül Seçmen is a PhD Candidate at the Istanbul Technical University and, an Architect-Urban Designer. She gives lectures in universities. Her research interests lie on new public experiences, urban waterfronts and large-scale project developments. She is author of 3 international proceedings and 2 book chapters. She has been working in urban design and architectural projects since 2003.

Nuri SERTESER

Completed his post-doctoral research at the University of Maryland Fire Protection Engineering Department. He has been studying on researches and

experimental studies on wind control in building design, wind effects on the façade, building aerodynamics and prevention of the wind discomfort in urban areas in the Faculty of Architecture, ITU.

Ali Akbar TAGHIPOUR

I am Ali Akbar Taghipour Ph.D of geography and urban planning at University of Tabriz and faculty member of Damghan University. I have 4 Years experience in the context of academic activities in Damghan University. My research Interests are regional development, tourism development, urban development, spatial geography and sustainable development.

Duygu TURGUT

Duygu Turgut is a research assistant at Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Architecture. She received her master degree at Mimar Sinan University Architecture Department and doctoral degree from Department of Architecture at Istanbul Technical University. Her researches focus on vernacular architecture, traditional houses, plan and facade analysis of Turkish house.

Handan TÜRKOĞLU

Handan Turkoglu is a professor of Urban and Regional Planning Department at Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture. She is author and co-author of 3 books, 16 book chapters and 131 scientific papers published internationally and nationally. Her areas of interest include GIS and urban planning, disaster mitigation, urban open spaces, housing and quality of life. She is a member of European Housing Research Network (ENHR).

Mojtaba VALIBEIGI

I am Mojtaba Valibeigi Ph.D of geography and urban planning at University of Tabriz and faculty member of Buen Zahra Technical University. I have 5 Years experience in the context of academic activities in Buen Zahra Technical University. My research Interests are regional development, tourism development, urban development and econometrics.


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Editorial Y. Çağatay SEÇKİN • Editor With temperatures barely grazing 15°C, it’s almost feeling a little bit like spring. If you’re an experienced professor or an upperclassman, you’re experienced about when it comes to spring on college campuses means. College residents tend to welcome warm weather in a collection of ways that you can’t find elsewhere. Once the sun starts staying out extra couple hours each night, it means outdoor season is approaching. It’s warm enough to go for a nice jog or bike tour around the campuses and enjoy the warmer weather and daily festive activities that make this time of year remarkable. Lush, green grasses are finally beginning to emerge from the formerly desolate areas between the campus buildings and also around dorms, gymnasiums, cafeterias, the main library or the ITU Lake, making for a perfect playing field of any sports that require little to no equipment just as an excuse to get outside, Professors decide to hold classes either at the courtyard of Taşkışla or at the Great Lawn in front of the MED in Ayazağa Campus. You know those people who used to nap in the library or in random couches around campus? Now they’ve migrated to outdoor seating areas, or they just set up camp right on the grass. Springtime means infinitely more places to sit and rest!

Beyond all these, Spring strongly reminds us our responsibilities about environment. ITU students and faculty are environmentally conscious in their personal lives, and the University’s focus on maintaining the environment reflects this. ITU follows several initiatives geared towards keeping the earth clean while still paving the road towards progress and success. ITU promotes sustainable practices in its daily and long-term operations by focusing energy towards specific sustainable practices. By continuing these efforts, the University will help to lay the foundation for a positively enhanced environment and a happy and healthy student body and build a greener ITU. After sharing my excitement and happiness about spring coming to ITU campuses, as it always has been, I would like to thank all our readers for the support they provide to the Journal. We really look forward your comments, contributions, suggestions and criticisms. Please do not hesitate to share with us your feelings and especially, let us know if you have ideas or topics that we could be focusing on. Let us not forget another symbol of warmer weather: hot coffee cups get swapped out for the frozen ones. Never mind the fact that they’re bunch of calories and totally cancel out that jog you went on earlier, it’s spring time and nothing is going to come between you and your frozen coffee beverage. Enjoy your reading and meet with us again in next issue on July 2019. I look forward to seeing you around ITU campuses this spring!


ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • 1-9

Estimation of airflow characteristics of indoor environments in the early design stage İlker KARADAĞ1, Nuri SERTESER2 1 karadagi@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 serteser@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.13007

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Estimating indoor airflow characteristics of natural ventilation systems is very significant in the early design stage. It’s clear that for the early steps of design, existing numerical and experimental analysis methods are very time consuming and they require in depth knowledge of Fluid Dynamics. These methods are not efficient especially in the case that the building form changes dynamically. Besides, both wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are not efficient when it comes to taking output in real-time. Due to all of these reasons, a need for a fast and robust method occurs. Particle-based algorithms are efficient methods for this type of analyses however they have not been used in architectural aerodynamics. At this point, a very powerful method which doesn’t require mesh (control volume) is developed. In this study, the details of the developed algorithm and the output of it are given. The algorithm was assessed in three case studies of natural ventilation systems. As a result, it is seen that the developed algorithm can be a guide in building-wind interaction analysis for architects in the early design stage. However, in our paper, we do not only present case studies, but also an analysis methodology from architectural and engineering perspectives. This is significant because the methodology and the results of this paper constitute a guide for further researches on natural ventilation with a new method and consequently contribute to improved wind quality of indoor spaces. Keywords Wind efficient design, Architectural aerodynamics, Computational fluid dynamics, Particle based simulation, Natural ventilation.


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1. Introduction The significance of considering sustainability in the early design stage meets the need for finding long-term solutions and reducing energy consumption. If an architectural project is well planned and sustainable criteria are included in its early approach, the possibility to reduce negative impacts is greater and the cost of criteria implementation is greatly reduced. Enhancement of the building’s sustainability performance should start already in the early design phase since the potential of optimisation in this phase is higher and the influence of changes of the building and the construction costs are lower (Bragança & Andrade, 2014). There are several environmental parameters in building physics. One of the most important of them is the wind which has an important impact on the indoor comfort of buildings. The building-wind interaction can be estimated with one of three approaches or a combination of these: (1) in-situ measurements, (2) experimental analysis through wind tunnel, or (3) numerical analysis with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Since each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is not always easy to decide which approach is the most appropriate for a given problem. A significant disadvantage of in-situ measurements and wind tunnel measurements is usually to get data only for specific points. In principle, techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) make it possible to obtain all the data in planar or even three dimensions, but the cost of such technologies is seriously high and application for complicated geometries can be hampered through laser-light shielding by the obstructions constituting the model, e.g. in case of an urban model consisting of many buildings (Blocken & Carmeliet, 2004). In addition, recent studies of comparative studies of different wind tunnel laboratory studies have shown that in many cases there are large differences of up to 50% (NIST Technical Report, 2009). Despite these unfavourable conditions, a wind tunnel

can be very reliable if compliance with international standards such as NIST TN1655 and ASCE / SEI 49-12 and ASCE 7 is provided. These standards define the minimum requirements for conducting and interpreting wind tunnel tests to assess wind loads on buildings and other structures. It is useful for those who are preparing, conducting and commenting on wind tunnel tests for buildings, including civil engineers, architects and wind engineers (ASCE/SEI 49-12, 2012). Wind flow characteristics can also be determined by CFD simulations. With these numerical simulations, it is possible to obtain high-resolution wind data in a very wide area around the building. In particular, precise results can be obtained with numerical analyses in which meteorological data are taken as velocity input and logarithmic wind profile is used, a suitable turbulence model is determined and a sufficient number of iterations are performed. However, the main problem with the finite element approach is the necessity of calculating a mesh that divides the simulation area. Typically, the meshing phase takes more than 80% of the time of a fluid dynamic simulation (Liu, 2002). In addition, mesh quality is a critical factor in determining the accuracy of the solution. Besides, for such technical software, the geometry must be prepared again to comply with the input requirements. But in architectural practice, complicated models are very common and to re-create these models needs too much effort. It is known that in the preliminary design phase, existing conventional methods are very time consuming and require a deeper knowledge of fluid dynamics. These methods are not efficient, especially if the building form changes dynamically. In addition, CFD simulations are impractical in terms of evaluating the preliminary design phase when data is taken in real time. For all these reasons, a fast and reliable method is needed. At this point, it is envisaged to write an algorithm that can work in real time, does not have limitations on geometry, and most importantly does not need mesh.

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ponents that are not necessary for the simulation to be executed are removed. At this stage it is of the utmost importance to make the original system optimal for the analysis to be done, not copying the individual (Hensen, 2003). In the case of building-wind interaction, it is also necessary to simulate air as a fluid. For this purpose, the airflow is reduced to particle level in this study. In order to be able to analyse a very large field flow, the number of particles is increased.

Figure 1. Flowchart.

2. Development of a particlebased algorithm Three different steps have been followed in order to write an algorithm in which the wind-interaction can be solved (Figure 1). In the first step, a simulation model was decided; the second step was how to integrate physical equations; in the third and last stage, the solver (solvent) in which the solution of the equations can be carried out was determined. In the study, the wind current was reduced to particle scale. The next position and speed were estimated according to the initial position and speed of each particle. During the estimations, the self-interaction between particles and the collision between particles and geometries were also integrated into the solution. 2.1. Simulation model To simulate a system, it is often necessary to try to match it as much as possible with the actual system. It should be noted that all parameters that should be taken from the actual system are selected carefully and all the com-

2.2. Integrating the equations of motion The air current has been reduced to the particle level but it is necessary to define the equations for the interaction of the particles with each other and with the geometry. There are two methods for mathematically describing the flow in fluid dynamics. The first is to take the velocity as a function of time for each fluid particle (in other words, for each small mass in the fluid). It can be considered that a very small drop of paint is left on a stream of water and the direction and speed at which the paint moves at any time are also monitored. This corresponds to define the stream by using Lagrangian coordinates. Another approach is to define fixed coordinates in this area by specifying a limited measurement area. Then the velocity of each particle passing through the predefined points determined in this coordinate system is examined. This time, as the small paint droplet moves, the motion is defined separately at each point, which continues in succession at each point. The instantaneous position of the paint droplet is determined on a fixed grid with reference to the coordinate system of the previously defined measuring field, not according to its local coordinate system as in the Lagrangian method. This corresponds to defining the stream using Eulerian coordinates. To achieve realistic results in the Lagrangian integration, a large number of particles must be monitored (Figure 2). The Eulerian integration, in which the flow is defined as an area and each particle is not tracked individually, but rather the velocities of the velocities

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when passing through the spots in a grid system, seems more practical, but a fixed grid system will restrict the flow and will still need to define the mesh as in traditional CFD software. In the Eulerian integration, the location, mass, and velocity of the particles must be known. At the same time, since the real world is different in terms of the environment in which the simulation is run, it is necessary to refer to each frame that is refreshed on the screen and to find the speed and position of the particles for the next frame. The greater the number of frames, the shorter the time between frames, and the estimates made converge much more to the truth. The particles move at a speed that is initially defined, which is the wind speed in the case of wind –building interaction. In wind analyses, the velocities of 10 m above the ground level obtained by long-time measurements carried out in meteorological stations are referred to. Considering the wind speed as a force that accelerates particles instead of directly describing it as fixed particle speed leads to closer results. It is necessary to integrate basic physical equations for particle position and velocity estimation. The equations to be used are equations of motion and equations of motion known as Newton’s Second Law and give precisely how much an object will be accelerated under a net force. If the time is represented by “t”, it can be indicated by dt (time difference -delta time) between both frames during the simulation. Thus, the following known physics equations are written; acceleration=force / mass

change in position=velocity * dt

(1)

Table 1. Integrating the equations of motion.

Table 2. Outputs of Table 1 when dt = 1 s.

Table 3. The last lines of the outputs of Table 1 when dt = 1/100 s.

(2)

change in velocity=acceleration * dt

(3) These equations should be integrated into a code. At this point, with a simple example, it can be seen how the algorithm integrates the physical equations at the basic level. The output is given in Table 1 when a fixed force of 10 Newton is applied to a stationary object weighing 1 kilogram and the iteration is performed forward with a ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • I. Karadağ, N. Serteser


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Figure 2. Eulerian integration (I) - Lagrangian integration (II).

time interval of one second (Table 1). As seen in Table 2, at each step, both the position and the speed of the object are known. This digital integration is known as Euler Integration and is the most basic digital integration technique. Only when the rate of change is constant over the time rate (time rate) is 100% correct. If the acceleration is constant in the given example, the integration of speed is error-free. But on the other hand, the position must also be found and for this, the speed is integrated, but the speed is not constant due to acceleration and it is increasing. For this reason, it may be predicted that position integration will be not accurate. In order to be able to see the size of this error, a formula that tells how an object is moving under constant acceleration can be used, so that exact values are reached for the position: position = velocity * time + ½ * acceleration * t^2 (4)

When the values are substituted in Equation 4, it seems that the object should be moved to 500 meters after 10 seconds, but with Euler Integration, a result of 450 meters is obtained. This means that within a 10-second period, there will be a 50-meter faulty position difference. But dt = 1 second is not an ordinary time interval. Especially in game engines, physical simulations take place at a much lower time frame than the screen frame rate (the number of frames refreshed at the moment). Because in an average shot, each frame is 1/200 of the time that is left for physical simulations. If the time interval had been taken as dt = 1/100 seconds, i.e. if the object’s position was calculated 100 times in synchronous intervals every 1 second, the results would be much closer to reality (Table 3).

Figure 3. Impulse-based collision resolution (p: collision point, COM: centre of mass, j: impulse force) (House & Keyser, 2017)

2.3. Solver It has been shown how to integrate the position and velocity of a single object up to this section, but it is known that particles must interact with each other and solid geometry in a building - wind interaction case. At this point, a force can be calculated at the contact point that occurs when the particles overlap each other and can be applied as an impulse to the particles. This force will make both particles no longer overlap with each other at the beginning of the next frame (House & Keyser, 2017). This is attempted to be performed only briefly for a single frame and is known in the literature as “impulse-based collision resolution” (Figure 3). In architectural aerodynamics, thousands of particles are required to get high-resolution data. Until now, attempts have been made to estimate the velocity and position of a single object, and also the collision state of two different particles have been investigated. In the next step, there is a need for a solution method which should also be sufficient for many particles. For this, it can be assumed that there are two particles called A and B, each of these two particles may be thought to coincide with a particle named C. These two constraints are the two equations that need to be solved: A - C and B - C (Figure 4). First, if the A-C interaction is supposed to be solved, this will cause both A and C to move and completely separate from each other. But this time C starts to overlap with B since the interaction between C and B is not yet calculated. (Figure 5). This time, the interaction between B and C should be resolved. This solution allows B and C to no longer overlap

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and to take their new position, but this time B and A start to overlap slightly (Figure 6). In the previous step, since A and B were positioned separately for C, there was a collision again. But as resolution continues, it is likely that better results will be obtained (Figure 7). Now that the solution is too close to converging and it can continue to iterate again. When the number of iterations is reached, the particles will no longer overlap each other and the interactions between the particles will be solved. The error (amount of overlap) for each pair will hopefully be reduced after each iteration, and eventually, both equations will be simultaneously satisfied. Although it seems very difficult to solve all interactions independently and sequentially, it is actually an effective method and is known as the Gauss-Seidel method. In summary, if we find a method that can reach a solution by iterating only 5 times instead of 10, we would say a faster converging algorithm is obtained. In the Gauss-Seidel method, the sequential solution is applied and each equation is solved independently of each other. The output from the previous step is used as input in the next step. However, both equations can be solved simultaneously with the same inputs and the output averages can be taken. The method emerging at this point is known as the Jacobi method (Figure 8). Although Jacobi leads to more iterative results than the Gauss-Seidel method, both equations use the same output, so they can be solved concurrently so that the need to wait for the previous step is removed. This means that the solution can be executed in parallel. For example, a system consisting of 25 equations can be solved by 25 people independently, which means 25 times faster results than Gauss-Seidel. Moreover, there is no point in which order the equations are solved, which leads to different results that can be obtained by moving in a certain order while solving the equations. In summary, as the number of iterations increases, the solution converges more, but if a real-time solution is targeted, the optimal number of iterations must be determined. Less iteration

Figure 4. The position of C according to A and B (white lines correspond to the constraints).

Figure 5. Step 1:Interaction between A and C.

Figure 6. Step 1:Interaction between B and C.

Figure 7. Step 2:Interaction between A and C.

Figure 8. Steps of interaction resolved with Jacobi Method - I, II and III.

means faster results, but this time the accuracy is reduced. 3. Methodology: Validation of the algorithm When the wind-building interaction is analysed, the flow characteristics around the basic geometries should be known. Since the algorithm gives results in a 2D plane, a similar experimental setup is needed. Hele-Shaw flow permits visualization of this kind of flow in two dimensions. The experimental setup created for Hele-Shaw flow can be seen in Figure 9.

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Figure 9. Experimental setup created for Hele-Shaw flow.

Hele-Shaw flow is defined as Stokes Flow between two parallel flat plates separated by an infinitesimally small gap. Various problems in fluid mechanics can be approximated to Hele-Shaw flows and thus the research of these flows is of importance. An approximation to Hele-Shaw flow is specifically important to micro-flows. This is due to manufacturing techniques, which creates shallow planar configurations, and the typically low Reynolds numbers of micro-flows. The governing equation of Hele-Shaw flows is identical to that of the inviscid potential flow and to the flow of fluid through a porous medium. 4. Selected cases for experimental validation Flat-faced and sharp-edged geometries are often referred to as “bluff bodies” and appear in many building forms. Streamlines around these geometries do not follow the surface of the geometry continuously throughout the flow, from the windward region to the leeward region. Instead, the flow separates from the building surface at sharp corners, where the momentum of the fluid passes through the weak cohesive viscous forces holding the fluid together. Along the separation line, a shear layer is formed and a turbulent wake area is developed in the leeward region, which is surrounded by the diverging stream from both sides. The predictable separation state of the stream always has similar characteristics at sharp edges and corners when the bluff bodies are concerned, and similar flow

characteristics are observed even at very different wind speeds (Stathopoulos & Blocken, 2016). Natural ventilation systems, which are known for reducing the dependence on mechanical ventilation and reduce energy consumption, are effective strategies to achieve sustainable performance. The ventilation principle indicates how the exterior and interior airflows are linked, and hence how the natural driving forces are utilised to ventilate a building. Furthermore, the ventilation principle gives an indication of how the air is introduced into the building, and how it is exhausted out of it. Cross-ventilation is the case when air flows between two sides of a building envelope by means of wind-induced pressure differentials between the two sides. The ventilation air enters and leaves commonly through windows, hatches or grills integrated into the façades. The ventilation air moves from the windward side to the leeward side. A typical example is an openplan office landscape where the space stretches across the whole depth of the building. The airflow can also pass through several rooms through open doors or overflow grills. The term cross ventilation is also referred to when considering a single space where air enters one side of the space and leaves from the opposite side. In this case, the ventilation principle on the system level can be either cross- or stack ventilation. As the air moves across an occupied space, it picks up heat and pollutants. Consequently, there is a limit to the depth of a space that can be effectively cross-ventilated. In this context, a room with exactly the same apertures on both windward and leeward side walls was analysed and it was seen that the flow accelerated by the Venturi effect as expected. The Venturi effect is defined as the reduction in fluid pressure that occurs when a fluid flows through a constricted section. This effect is clearly visible in both streamline view (algorithm) and the Hele-Shaw experiment (Figure 10). As a further alternative, a simple living space was addressed and the openings with different sizes were arranged on windward and leeward

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sides. The expected state of cross ventilation during the analysis was clearly observed. Flow development stages are given in Figure 11. In particular, it has been observed that the areas where the flow is separated and the wakes in the leeward region can be caught in a significant accuracy. The direction of the airflow passing through the openings and the acceleration of flow also show the accuracy of the results to estimate the flow characteristics. As in the case of experimental verification, it was observed that the algorithm could produce sufficient output for the preliminary design stage. As another case, a simple room was addressed and the openings of the same sizes were arranged on windward and along sides. The expected state of cross ventilation during the analysis was clearly observed. Flow characteristics are given in Figure 12. In particular, it has been observed that the areas where the flow is separated and the wakes in the leeward region can be caught in a significant accuracy. The direction of the airflow passing through the openings and the acceleration of flow also show the accuracy of the results to estimate the flow characteristics. As in the case of experimental verification, it was observed that the algorithm could produce sufficient output for the early design stage. 4. Conclusion Details of a new algorithm for the assessment of indoor airflow characteristics at early design stage were explained. This algorithm works in real-time and does not require meshing (finite control volume). Three different steps have been taken in the algorithm development process: the design of the simulation model, the integration of physical equations and the design of the solver. Architectural aerodynamics analysis mostly consist of external and internal cases, so the context of this study was limited with internal cases. In the scope of the study, three common natural ventilation cases have been analysed by both the developed algorithm and the experimental setup. As a result of validation studies, it was seen that the developed algorithm can be a guide

Figure 10. A simple cross ventilation case tested with both the algorithm (I) and the Hele-Shaw setup (2).

Figure 11. A simple cross ventilation case of converging flow tested with both the algorithm (left) and the Hele-Shaw experiment (right).

Figure 12. A simple cross ventilation case tested with both the algorithm (left) and the Hele-Shaw setup (right).

for the building-wind interaction analysis for architects in the early design phase. In particular, real-time analyses will enable architects to get real-time data. So that architects will be able to change the building form according to the results. The real-time output of the algorithm provides a guide for them to determine the optimum building form regarding the wind - building interaction. Besides, this particle-based algorithm, in which the parameters having limited effect to the results are determined in advance, is developed considering architectural practice. The algorithm needs to be verified numerically by computational fluid dynamics software and in the wind tunnel experimentally as well. Furthermore, the algorithm will be improved to simulate small details in the building envelope by means of allowing simulation with a more significant number of particles. References ASCE/SEI 49-12. (2012). Wind tunnel testing for buildings and other

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structures: Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. Blocken, B., & Carmeliet, J. (2004). Pedestrian Wind Environment around Buildings: Literature Review and Practical Examples. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, 28(2), 107159. doi:10.1177/1097196304044396. Bragança, L., Vieira, S. M., & Andrade, J. B. (2014). Early Stage Design Decisions: The Way to Achieve Sustainable Buildings at Lower Costs. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2014/365364. Hensen, J.L.M. (2003). Simulating building performance: just how useful is it? REHVA Journal, nr. 4, Federation of European Heating, Ventilating and

Air-conditioning Associations - REHVA, Brussels. House, D., & Keyser, J. C. (2017). Foundations of physically based modelling and animation. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Liu, G. (2002). Mesh Free Methods. doi:10.1201/9781420040586. NIST Technical Report. (2009). “Toward a standard on the wind tunnel method”. Stathopoulos, T., & Blocken, B. (2016). Pedestrian Wind Environment Around Tall Buildings. Advanced Environmental Wind Engineering, 101127. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-559122_6.

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • 11-27

CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process

Saadet Zeynep BACINOĞLU1, Luka PISKOREC2 , Toni KOTNIK3 1 bacinoglu@itu.edu.tr • Graduate Program of Architectural Design Computing, Institute of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 luka.piskorec@aalto.fi • Department of Architecture, School of Arts, Design, and Architecture, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland 3 toni.kotnik@aalto.fi • Department of Architecture, School of Arts, Design, and Architecture, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.44712

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract The act of changing the direction of a sheet surface along a non-straight curve is a specific case of curved folding. From an architectural point of view, curved folding is an exciting operation. One or a couple of operation can generate highly complex shell-like spatial enclosure. From a digital design perspective, the implementation of curved folding with the built-in toolsets of available computer-aided design softwares is a challenging problem. The equilibrium state of curved folded geometry is needed to be found with a computational form-finding strategy. To use curved folding as a digital design operation, we introduce a new tool through developing a digital procedure for form-finding. The tool we develop can enable the experimentation with curved folding in the early stage of design process and facilitate the subsequent design development. In this article, we briefly present the literature focusing on curved folding in computational geometry, as well as the scope and description of a subclass of curved folding operation. Then, we introduce a digital tool, CURVED.IT through a design manual for its implementation and an algorithmic framework for its extension. Lastly, we discuss the design examples generated by CURVED.IT, and the potentials of the tool. Keywords Computational form finding, Curved folding technique, Digital design tools, Dynamic relaxation method, Surface resistant structures.


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1. Introduction This research is derived from the exciting potential of a particular technique, curved folding, for architecture and structures. A specific case of curved folding technique is the action of changing the direction of a surface along a non-straight curve on the sheet surface (Figure 1). When the sheet is folded along a non-straight curve, the three-dimensional configuration of the sheet comes to a resting state through a combination of folding and bending. While the pure folding transfigures the sheet to a polyhedral surface with an abrupt change in the surface direction, the act of bending forms the sheet to a smoothly curved surface with a gradual slight change in the surface direction. The interesting point of curved folding is the complex three-dimensional form that is generated by this hybrid surface deformation. In this form, the slender sheet gains strength and become more resistant to buckling (Figure 1). In an architectural context, curved folding technique can be used as a design operation. The smooth and abrupt surface deformations that are generated with curved folding can provide architects with the generation of complex geometries that host different spatial situations and performative capacities. A simple example by Patkau Architects (2017) demonstrates the spatial and structural potential of the 304x731 cm folded sheet with one single fold. The folded surface is self-standing by solely touching the ground from two points (Figure 2). In the problem of curved folding, the challenge is to understand and measure the resultant three-dimensional configuration of the curved folded sheet when it is manually modeled. The resultant three-dimensional form is “a resting state of the deformed two-dimensional sheet which goes beyond the mathematics of developable surfaces to a question of physics: equilibria of an unstrechable surface with uncreased and creased portions folding elastically toward desired angles” (Koschitz et al., 2008). Therefore, the computational form-finding strategies provide an appropriate method to find the equilibrium state of the curved folded geometry in the digital environment.

Figure 1. Curved folded geometry.

Figure 2. Free-standing units of One Fold by Patkau Architects (2017).

In this study, we transferred curved folding to the computer environment through developing a computational form-finding strategy in Python language within Rhinoceros environment. The main goal of this study is to introduce a design tool that allows a specific technique, curved folding, as a design operation in the computational process to explore spatial forms. The essential contribution of this study is a proposed digital form-finding tool for the architects and the designers. The proposed tool can be easily used in the early stage of the computational design process to generate curved folded geometries. This article presents the literature focusing on curved folding in architecture and computational geometry, as well as the scope and the description of the curved folding technique. Then, the article introduces a design tool, CURVED.IT, by explaining how the proposed algorithmic framework integrates curved folding into the early stage of the computational design pro-

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Figure 3. Applications of curved folding in architecture.

cess. Moreover, it presents the design manual for the architects by explaining the steps to be taken for the form generation. Lastly, it discusses the shortcomings and the potentials of the tool. 2. Studies on curved folding in architecture and mathematics There are many applications of curved folding as computational models in the digital environment and as architectural scale installations in the physical environment. In the field of architecture, there have been increasing design researches that developed various kinds of experimentally conceptualized installations, pavilions, or building elements using the advantages of curved folding. Most of the researches have used curved folding as tessellated, small-scale surface panels. The tessellation is either applied to a predefined global geometry with a topdown manner (Lalvani, 2003; Scott and Iwamoto, 2008; Epps and Verma,

2013; Brancart et al., 2015; Chandra et al., 2015; Bhooshan et al., 2015; Eversmann et al., 2017) or the tessellated macro-architectural form is generated in an additive bottom-up process by adding a new sheet element subsequently (Lamere and Gunadi, 2011; Braun and Smith, 2016). The surface tessellations mostly function as surface strengthening, ornamenting or fabricating method. The approach of using folds on the surface of predefined forms is not distinct from previous architectural applications dating back to the 1950s. In earlier applications, many architects and engineers, such as Freyssinet, Nervi, Zehrfuss, Musmecci, and Ando, used folds mainly on the surface of predefined global forms by employing a top-down approach. Today, the same approach has been revived with digital technologies and the availability of sheet materials, replacing the laborious concrete casting and form-work applications. The increasing availability of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) reflects architecture as a phenomenon for enhancing the affordance of the surfaces through discretized surface functions such as the methods for subdividing, tessellating, or patterning. The celebrity architect, Frank Gehry, is the pioneer of this phenomenon. His office developed the software, Digital Project, to provide a set of post-rationalization tools for making the free-form geometries constructable. In the case of curved folded sheet, ARUM installation is one of the recent example (Bhooshan et al. in Figure 3, Figure 4). Before its constructions, the subdivision of the global form through curved folded pieces was calculated by Zaha Hadid’s computational design research group. Due to the difficulty of understanding the three-dimensional state of the curved folded sheet, a wide range of computational studies have developed different methods to model curved folding. We investigated the related studies across three main topics in order to gain a comprehensive understanding. Those topics are named as early mathematical descriptions, constructive geometric methods, and discrete differential geometric meth-

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Figure 4. Geometric approaches to represent curved folding with a computer.

ods (Figure 4). The early mathematical studies attempted to understand and describe the behavior of the paper sheet along the non-straight curve. In mathematics, the sheet of paper is represented by a specific class of a mathematical surface, which is known as a developable surface (Pottmann, 2007). Not only the paper but also any inextensible sheet material that can elastically deform without stretching and tearing, is called a developable surface in mathematics. To describe curved folding, early studies used the characteristics of developable surfaces: the surface consists of straight lines that are either par-

allel to each other, intersect in a point, or tangent along a surface; the lines that generate surfaces have constant lengths; each point on the surface has a zero Gaussian curvature. These studies set mathematical equations to describe the relationship between the properties of the points on a non-straight curve, the properties of the generator lines of the paper surfaces, and the relationship between them. Resch (1974) was one of the first computer scientists who described the curved folded surface using lines along the curve edges utilizing early computer graphics in the 1970s. In

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the same decade, an MIT professor, Huffman (1976), published an article on the behavior of a paper sheet near the non-straight curve. He described the interrelationship among angles and orientation of associated surfaces along a non-straight folding axis for computer-aided design and computer graphics applications. Huffman’s (1976) understanding of the behavior of paper geometry was furthered by Duncan and Duncan (1982) and Fuchs and Tabachnikov (1999). The descriptions of Huffman (1976), Duncan and Duncan (1982), and Fuchs and Tabachnikov (1999) are constituted as the fundamental mathematical rules to represent the geometry of curved folded paper in computer graphics. However, Koschitz (2014) said that “there is still no real mathematical representation that can tell us where the curved creases really are in their folding states.” These mathematical rules were recited by Vergauwen et al. (2014), who pointed out that “they have contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of the generator lines of the surface along a folded crease. However, they do not provide a general method to describe the folding process.” Recent works from 2008 to the present, in Figure 4, have been partly built on Hufmann, Duncan and Duncan, and Fuchs and Tabachnikov’s descriptions on developable surfaces. The properties of developable surfaces have been used as geometric constraints for analytical design operations and mathematical functions in the following studies (Figure 4). The following mathematical studies mainly approached the problem of modeling curved folding by adopting two main methods: using constructive geometry or discrete differential geometry. The constructive geometric method is based on modeling curved folded geometry by applying constructive geometric transformations, such as mirror reflection and rotation operations along a curved section on the predefined developable surfaces (Mitani and Igarashi, 2011; Geretschlager, 2011; Lee et al., 2018). This method is a pre-rationalization approach to the design and modeling of curved folded geometries because it generates curved folded geometries by applying con-

structive geometric transformations on pre-rationalized surfaces. The discrete differential method to attain the properties of curved folded geometry is based on the application of the mathematical functions (mostly vectors for the displacement) to the vertices or edges of a discretized (subdivided) geometry. The discrete differential approach mainly optimizes, rationalizes, or approximates the pre-defined folded state of a three-dimensional geometry with a differential operation based on geometric constraints, which mostly stem from a priori knowledge of developable surfaces such as “the sum of the angle between edges around a point must be 360 degree” (Kilian et al., 2008; Taschi and Epps, 2011; Dias and Dudte, 2012; Epps and Verma, 2013; Chandra et al., 2015; Bhooshan et al., 2015). From a design perspective, we evaluated these two methods as pre-rationalization and post-rationalization approaches to digital modeling of curved folding. While post-rationalization approaches exclude the conceptual design phase of geometric spaces, pre-rationalization approaches include the exploratory design phase of the three-dimensional geometries. Because pre-rationalization approaches construct curved folded geometry on mathematical developable surfaces, post-rationalization approaches optimize the discretized free-form surface with developability constraints to generate curved folded geometry. Furthermore, the end user needs to have specific a priori knowledge to apply these methods to their design process. While post-rationalization methods require a pre-knowledge of mesh generation procedures in the digital modeling environment, pre-rationalization methods require a technical knowledge on generating appropriated topology for mathematical developable surfaces as a user input. Thus, the level of complexity of the current methods presents difficulties for user interaction. In this brief survey on the applications of curved folding in architecture and computational geometry, the following problems were observed within the scope of this article: 1) Curved folding has been merely used as a sur-

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face enhancer in the later stage of design, rather than as a generator of the architectural space in the conceptual phase of design. 2) Curved folding has tended to be modeled precisely as a top-down method for simulation and fabrication. 3) There is a lack of CAD software to use curved folding as a design operation for architectural design exploration. 4) The proposed precise models of simulation require to have a priori knowledge of fabrication and material constraints, as well as mathematical developable surfaces or mesh generation procedures for user implementation. 5) The proposed computational frameworks require to have an expert technical background understanding of differential geometry for the development. As distinct from previous architectural applications, this article achieves the following steps: 1) The study approaches curved folding as a form-finding (bottom-up) method to connect space and structural making in architecture. 2) The study does not intend to make a precise mathematical model of simulation. 3) The proposed design tool, CURVED.IT, integrates curved folding as a design operation in the early stage of computational design. 4) The tool offers a simple approach for user implementation. 5) The algorithmic framework of CURVED.IT was developed with a design research approach by translating the direct exploration of the phenomenon of curved folding in physics to digital design without requiring a priori specialist technical knowledge. 3. CURVED.IT: a computational design tool 3.1. Aim and Scope The main goal of developing CURVED.IT is to allow the architects and the designers the easy use and extension of curved folding in the digital medium. The proposed digital design tool, CURVED.IT, is developed through formulating an algorithmic schema of curved folding in Python language and embedding the formulated algorithm into a Rhinoceros as a tool button. The algorithm schema of CURVED.IT is developed based on preliminary observations with paper

sheets which cannot stretch or shrink (Section 3.2). The inextensible characteristics of the paper, which is translated as a geometric constraint of constant local distances, form the basic idea of CURVED.IT algorithm (Section 3.3). The constraint of constant local distances on the surface is integrated into a dynamic relaxation framework (Day, 1965) using Python programming language within Rhinoceros. 3.2. The geometrical assumptions of curved folding Before the development of CURVED.IT, the preliminary observations are made with a paper model in the physical environment and a digital model in Rhinoceros modeling environment (Figure 5). To understand the displacement of the flat sheet surface, the digital model is discretized (subdivided) into pieces of the surfaces (d). The non-straight curve on the sheet surface is used as a folding axis. The digital surface pieces (d) are folded along the non-straight curve with rotation operation in Rhinoceros. It is observed that the pieces of surfaces (d) orient based on the direction (N) of the associated part of the curved folding axis (Figure 5-2A). In the case of straight line folding, the folding axis has a single tangent vector direction. That means that all pieces of a surface orient in one parallel direction along a straight folding axis. In the case of curved folding, the orientation of each piece along the curved axis (N) differs in a non-parallel fashion. As a result, the pieces of surfaces (d) tend to separate or converge (Figure 5-2B). The distance between pieces gets larger or shorter as distinct from an inextensible sheet deformation (Figure 5-1B). To keep the distance stable as an inextensible sheet, the opposite tension and compression forces are needed to be applied on each surface pieces. In this study, we calculated these tension and compression forces by measuring the distance between the adjacent pieces. We used these forces to guide the displacement of each interrelated piece step by step towards an equilibrium configuration of an inextensible sheet. We used the basic concept of Dynamic Relaxation to develop our

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Figure 5. Curved folding of single sheet surface and pieces of the surface.

algorithmic framework. The numerical technique of displacing the objects towards a goal state by dividing the interval to small steps is called Dynamic Relaxation.

3.3 Algorithmic framework of CURVED.IT: A dialog with a computer To integrate curved folding into the computational design process, we developed CURVED.IT with the algorithmic framework of dynamic relaxation which is built on the preservation of the distances between pieces after they are folded along the non-straight curve. For a more exact measurement, we defined the inextensible sheet material is as a point network. The point network is abstracted as a particle-spring system. Particle-spring system is a discrete differential procedures. In this system, particles are point objects that have properties of mass, position, and velocity. Particles can be made to exhibit a wide range of interesting behaviors.

Springs are the connections between particles. As vector objects, springs basically define the behaviors of the particles. In our case, we programmed spring vectors to generate additional vectoral forces to move each particle towards an equilibrium position. The particles arrive an equilibrium position when the distance between each point in the deformed state became same as the distance value in their flat state. As we mentioned in the previous section 3.2, the distance between each neighbor particle shrinks or stretches when the particle-spring system is deformed along a non-straight curve with an applied rotation operation. With spring vector function, we measure the residual force (length defect=D-d) at each vertex. Subsequently, we multiply the residual force with the damping factor to displace each particle (deformed point) incrementally towards the initial length values (Figure 6). We repeat the previous operation until the distance between each connected point arrives at the initial length (d) where the point network finds the equilibrium solution. This step-by-step small displacement of points with an iterative calculation to find the equilibrium position of each point in the network is called as Dynamic Relaxation (Day, 1965). This numerical form finding technique has been widely used by structural engineers to find the equilibrium state of structures (Sutherland, 1963; Barnes, 1977; Williams, 2001; Kilian and Ochsendorf, 2005) We developed CURVED.IT using the Python object-oriented programming language within a Rhinoceros three-dimensional modeling environment. The algorithmic process of CURVED.IT is described schematically in Figure 7. The algorithm includes six main steps. The steps are as follows:

Figure 6. The diagram of the behavior of one particle with its one neighbor in the CURVED.IT algorithm. CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process


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Figure 7. Steps of the dynamic relaxation (DR) algorithm.

3.3.1. Obtain objects (Curves) First, the two-dimensional curves are input from Rhinoceros modeling environment into Python.

orthogonal and diagonal neighbors of each point become accessible by checking each point’s position in rows (v) and columns (u).

3.3.2. Generate a particle network Secondly, the two-dimensional curves that the user input are subdivided with a nested function and subsequently a two-dimensional point array (matrix) which consists of rows (v) and columns (u) is generated. With this two-dimensional hierarchy, the

3.3.3. Calculate the distances (d) Thirdly, the distance between each point and its orthogonal and diagonal neighbors (d) in this array is measured by subtracting the coordinates of the point from each of its neighbors. The distances in the flat state of the sheet (d) are stored in a matrix table.

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Figure 8. The access to CURVE.IT in Rhinoceros environment.

3.3.4. Fold the particle network (Rotate) Fourthly, the point array along the non-straight curve is rotated with Fold function. To create Fold, the closest point of each point on a curved axis and the tangent vector are defined as the rotation center point and rotation axis to rotate each point a variable (60) degree along the curve. 3.3.5. Calculate the residual force (D-d) with an iterative measuring process Later, the distance between each point and its neighbors is calculated (D). To keep the distance constant, the difference between the deformed state and the initial state (D-d) is calculated using the vector subtraction operation. The difference between the length between the two points in the initial state and the length in the deformed state gives the residual force vectors. 3.3.6. Relax with an iterative displacement process Lastly, the residual forces (D-d) guide the relaxation process. The residual force is decreased by multiplying it with a damping factor to create small changes in the displacement between successive iterations (to prevent big jumps). In each iteration, the algorithm recalculates the distance between points and their neighbors, and the resulting residual force vector displaces the points towards the expected solution. The expected solution is to arrive at the initial distance value between points. The iteration continues until the solution reaches an equilibrium state, where the net residual force on each node equal to zero. 3.4. The steps to be taken with CURVED.IT: The design manual Rhinoceros software allows its user to extend the software through us-

er-defined specific procedures. These custom procedures can be brought to the software’s toolbar as a button. We embed the developed algorithm that is described in the previous section 3.3 in Rhinoceros toolbar (Figure 8). After the user installs CURVED.IT code, he/ she can access the tool with one click to the customized button in Rhinoceros toolbar. The customized tool, CURVED.IT, allows the use of the specific case of curved folding as a design operation in the early stage of the computational design process. The design tool virtually folds the user-defined surface along the user-defined non-straight curve. By clicking CURVED.IT button, the user can follow the instructions from the command line. The user of the tool can easily create a curved folded surface following three main instructions (Figure 9). The instructions are as follows: 1) Determine the boundary edge curves and the fold curve (The user draws two-dimensional edge curve (curve1), fold curve (curve2), edge curve (curve3) in a sequence by using the three-dimensional modeling software Rhinoceros’s in-built curve commands. When the user hit enter, the curves input to Python module. Then the user reselects the fold curve and press enter to input the curves to Python module). 2) Determine the density of the point network (The user inputs a number value to the command line as a curve division parameter). 3) Determine the fold angle (The user inputs a number value to the command line for the fold angle). After inputting data by selection and insertion into the command line, the folded geometry is calculated and drawn as curves between points in 3d Rhinoceros environment. The simplicity of the tool allows the user to explore diverse spatial configurations by playing with two or more

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Figure 9. Generation of a curved folded space with three instructions of CURVED.IT.

curves on the flat surface. The user can adjust the properties of the free-form curve, the relationships between the curves, the density of the point network, and the degree of the fold angle to generate three-dimensional curved spaces. The properties such as curvature of a curve, the length of a curve, and the shape of a curve can be altered by changing the position and the number of control points of the NURBS curve or changing the degree of curve. The in-built command of Rhinoceros turns on the control points and the curvature graph of the curve to edit control points and the degree number.

The simple variations of input curves and the resultant form can be seen in Figure 10. In this process, CURVED.IT aids the user by quickly calculating the three-dimensional folded configuration of the user determined curves. Moreover, the resultant form can be considered as a feedback to a designer. The designer can further the design process or repeat the same operation with a different input configuration. The designer can use CURVED.IT iteratively as a design operation through an ongoing process. To continue the iterative process with CURVED.IT.,

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Figure 10. A simple demonstration of variations by changing the combination of three simple curves.

the user selects one folded edge of the curved form (c3’) as a new fold curve and draw a new curve (c4) as a new edge of the surface. After input the new curves to CURVED.IT., the new folded surface is added to the previous form. If the user does not be satisfied with the 3-D resultant form that is generated by CURVED.IT, he/she can step back and edit the curve (c4= boundary curve) and fold it again as in Figure 11. The user can complete the process when she arrives a satisfied state.

4. Potentials of the tool The proposed design tool, CURVED. IT, integrates curved folding to the Rhinoceros three-dimensional modeling environment as a form-giving design operation. The simplicity of the tool can provide the novice designer an easy acquaintance with the digital design process, as well as with the technique of curved folding. The user can explore the diverse spatial configurations by playing with the two-dimensional curves. The resultant spatial configuration that is generated with CURVED.

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Figure 11. Demonstration of the addition of new folds step by step.

IT is consists of lines between points. The abstract configuration of lines can be furthered by the designer according to his/her design intentions. Such as the lines can be transformed to pipes or the surface panels can be created in between the lines. Figure 12 demonstrates the furthered geometry (E) which was shown in Figure 10. Similarly, Figure 13 shows the interpretation of geometry (H) as an architectural shell structure. One of the advantages of generating the form that is consist of multiple standard elements is the ease

of application of the same operation to many elements with one click. As seen in Figure 14, the numerous joint geometry was produced with one operation. Currently, CURVED.IT allows the easy use of parallel curved folds as seen in previous figures. However, the algorithm has not extended for the simultaneous folding of multiple non-parallel curved pieces. An example in Figure 15 shows a spatial configuration of four curved folded space and the connection in between. In this example, we input the two-dimensional curves

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Figure 12. The applied pipe and surface functions in Rhinoceros to CURVED.IT form.

Figure 13. The process of transforming the resultant set of lines to the solid geometries.to CURVED.IT form.

Figure 14. The generation of a joint detail by applying the in-built Rhinoceros pipe function to the one-tenth of each line segment.

(c1.f, c1.b; c2.f, c2.b, c3.f, c3.b, c4.f, c4.b) to CURVED.IT. The tool found the equilibrium state of curved folded pieces separately. Then, we connected the folded pieced in Rhinoceros. In the future, the algorithm can be extended through grouping the point array for the calculation of multiple folds simultaneously. In the algorithm of CURVED.IT, the inextensibility of the sheet is abstracted as a geometric constraint which guides the interaction between particles and eventually, it relaxes the particle system as curved folded form. In this case, the tool is limited to the generation of curved folded surfaces. However, an expert user with programming skills can change the algorithm schema to generate different behaviors by altering the interactions between particles. For example, programming the net spring force target (vector sum) on each particle as a zero value can produce minimal surfaces, which initially gained the attention of architects courtesy of Frei Otto’s soap film experiments. Thus, the same algorithm can be edited to find diverse topologies which have different levels of structural com-

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Figure 15. The experiment with multiple non-parallel curved folds.

plexities. The specificity and technicality of programming-based design require an advanced logical and mathematical a priori knowledge. However, such digital tools, which attract the attention of the user, potentially improve his/her knowledge. The user, who is engaged in a tool and its open code, can explore the underlying structure and rules. With the integration of the designer’s conceptual design thinking, the algorithm can be extended or reformulated to capture and gener-

ate a different phenomenon. As Burry (2011) points out, many architects who use digital tools are becoming tool makers today. 5. Discussion of future applications Today, one of the contemporary problems with digital technologies in the architectural field is the post-rationalization processes of the free-form architectures for the structural and constructional requirements (Scheurer, 2005; Pottmann et al., 2007). One

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of the solutions to this problem as Bollinger and Grohman (2004) points out that “to shift architectural design from pure modeling to the understanding of organizational principles and systems with a specific behavior. Solutions derived from this process do not necessarily match conventional structural systems, but they gain performance by self-organization of its members”. The proposed design tool in this article is based on an organizational principle which self-organize its members to generate curved folded geometries. Since this organizational principle is defined by a computational logic, it has the potential to allow for a better link between conceptual, structural, and constructional levels of architecture. The use of curved folding itself in the computational design process has already overlay conceptual and structural levels of architecture. The resultant bended and folded surface not only embraces a space after it is folded, but also it transforms the slender sheets into more resistant structures concurrently. Namely, it creates a shell structure. A shell is, according to Williams (2014), “a rigid structure defined by a curved surface. It is thin in the direction perpendicular to the surface. The minimal cross-section of a shell allows for material efficiency. “ In summary, the action of curved folding overlays space and structure by generating the geometry of shell using minimal cross-section. In the architectural design process, curved folding presents us a geometric design method for finding lightweight architectural shell geometries. American Concrete Institute (2008) defined common types of thin shells as domes, cylindrical shells, conoids, elliptical paraboloids, hyperbolic paraboloids, and groin vaults. However, the operation of curved folding allows us to go beyond specific archetypes to complex irregular formations. Thus, the deformation generated by the operation of curved folding can actively be used in the architectural design process to explore complex spatial structures. In this study, we developed CURVED.IT as a tool for design idea generation. Neither CURVED.IT is a tool for simulation nor the digital-

ly-found form created with CURVED. IT is a precise model for the construction. In precise models, the accessive amount of information can slow down the early exploration processes. However, the existence of a computational model can ease the link between conception and later phases such as construction. Due to the explicit structure of the computational design, the conceptual model can be easily connected to other specialist knowledge later. For architectural scale applications, the proposed tool can be fed material information by extending the current algorithm of CURVED.IT with the code blocks on geometrical constraints between the neighbor nodes, as well as integrating the model with the available commercial finite element modeling (FEM) simulation software. Acknowledgments This study is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) under the 2214/A- International Research Fellowship Programme. References ACI Committee, American Concrete Institute, & International Organization for Standardization. (2008). Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-08) and commentary. American Concrete Institute. Architects, P. (2017). Patkau Architects: Material Operations. Princeton Architectural Press. Barnes, M. R. (1977). Form finding and analysis of tension space structures by dynamic relaxation (Doctoral dissertation, City University London). Brancart, S., Vergauwen, A., Roovers, K., Van Den Bremt, D., De Laet, L., & De Temmerman, N. (2015). UNDULATUS: design and fabrication of a self-interlocking modular shell structure based on curved-line folding. In Future visions; Proc. intern. symp., Amsterdam, 17-20 August 2015. Bhooshan, S., Bhooshan, V., ElSayed, M., Chandra, S., Richens, P., & Shepherd, P. (2015). Applying dynamic relaxation techniques to form-find and manufacture curve-crease folded panels. Simulation, 91(9), 773-786.

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tional association for shell and spatial structures, 46(2), 77-84. Koschitz, D., Demaine, E. D., & Demaine, M. L. (2008). Curved Crease Origami, Proceedings of the Advances in Architectural Geometry, Vienna, Austria, Sept, 29-32. Lalvani Haresh, 2003. URL: http://www.metropolismag. com/uncategorized/bend-the-rulesof-structure/ Lamere, J., Gunadi, C. (2011). Overliner. URL: http://www.gldarch.com/ projects/show?utf8=✓&tag=16&project=3 Lee, T. U., You, Z., & Gattas, J. M. (2018). Elastica surface generation of curved-crease origami. International Journal of Solids and Structures. Mitani, J and Igarashi T. (2011). Interactive Design of Planar Curved Folding by Reflection. In: the 19th Pacific conference on computer graphics and applications. Kaohsiung, Taiwan: Pacific Graphics. Pottmann, H. (2007). Architectural geometry (Vol. 10). Bentley Institute Press. Resch, R. D. (1974). The Space Curve as a Folded Edge. In Computer Aided Geometric Design (pp. 255-258). Scheurer, F., Schindler, C., & Braach, M. (2005). From design to production: Three complex structures materialised in wood. In 6th International Conference Generative Art. Scott, C., & Iwamoto, L. (2012). Voussoir Cloud. In Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production (pp. 68-80). Routledge. Sutherland, I. (1963). SKETCHPAD-a man-machine graphical interface (Doctoral dissertation, PhD thesis, MIT). Tachi, T., & Epps, G. (2011, March). Designing One-DOF mechanisms for architecture by rationalizing curved folding. In International Symposium on Algorithmic Design for Architecture and Urban Design (ALGODE-AIJ). Tokyo. Vergauwen, A., De Temmerman, N., & De Laet, L. (2014). Digital modelling of deployable structures based on curved-line folding. In Proceedings of the IASS-SLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints.

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CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process


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Architecture: Distinguished or ordinary network agents in the field of its representation

Burçin BAŞYAZICI¹, Belkıs ULUOĞLU² ¹ basyazici@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey ² uluoglub@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.28190

Received: March 2018 • Final Acceptance: October 2018

Abstract This study will focus on the representation of Architecture with a capital A by questioning the phenomenon of ordinariness, starting with the question of where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness? The paper goes on to disclose the paradoxical relationship between distinguishedness and ordinariness. Bourdieus concepts of habitus and field are specified as methodological tools to analyze this paradox within the following two themes (i) the representation of architecture and architects as related to the social classes to which they belong (habitus) and (ii) the influence of architectural institutions and their network agents on architecture as they are socially represented (field). The concept of habitus, will help us to understand the social mechanisms of architecture and architects as distinguished and/or ordinary phenomena, while the concept of field will help us to analyze the operative principles of representational mechanisms. The field of architectural institutions (as understood of Bourdieusian term) descriptive phrases stated by the institutional actors will be taken as major data to examine this paradoxical mechanism. They will be represented by network maps to discuss which mechanisms structure the representational field of Architecture with a capital A whether as a distinguished and/or ordinary phenomenon. Keywords Architecture with a capital A, Representational mechanisms of architecture, Habitus, Field, Ordinariness.


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1. Introduction Representation of architecture as a mechanism is a vast topic to be discussed that includes architectural design, architectural object, architectural concept and even architects. In time, these mechanisms have been operated by intermediary firms, actors, institutions, the media, architects and in some cases the architectural object itself. Whenever the definition of architecture has changed, its representation has also extended its limits. However, one phrase is used exceptionally that differentiated from all. It is called “Architecture with a capital A”, Architecture for the purposes and remainder of this article. This phrase seeks to structure an architectural field where Architecture and architecture are separated from each other. It is a contemporary phrase that refers both to distinguished buildings and revolutionary definitions of profession, while architecture (with small a) is left to refer merely to ordinary buildings in which most of the population live and work. We find Architecture in the historiography of architecture, in books on the subject and in architectural magazines but generally not in everyday life. This binary statement in which Architecture is simultaneously defined and circumscribed, inevitably determines the knowledge and the epistemology of the field. Therefore, the representation mechanisms of Architecture become inherently different from the representation of architecture which is placed outside the field of interest, and therefore from its knowledge. Hence, so-called distinguished buildings and architects have become separated from ordinary buildings and architects. This study starts with the question of “where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness?” It may be thought that the phenomenon of ordinariness can only appear in the absence of representation mechanisms, and therefore ‘the representation of ordinariness’ is an oxymoronic phrase. Here, however, it is useful to recall the example of the avant-garde movement which criticized the aesthetic taste of elites and the noble representation of art and ar-

gued that the ordinariness of an everyday object could raze the image of art as a distinguished phenomenon to the ground. Duchamp’s urinal (Fountain) is accepted as the major example of this protest with, as Baudrillard states, Duchamp turning ordinariness into a special occasion by exhibiting the urinal as an art object (Nouvel, Baudrillard, 2011). The question provoked by Duchamp’s work is then, can the urinal remain ordinary once it has caused a revolution in art? A similar question can be asked concerning architecture; even the phenomenon of ordinariness, when defamiliarized, could act as a discourse to gentrify the representation of Architecture. This is what we mean by the paradox of Architecture which we explore in this study. It is proposed that the operative and marketing principles of representational mechanisms in architecture have caused that paradox and turned ordinariness into a distinguished phenomenon. To analyze the operative principles of representation mechanisms and their actors, it is important to understand who creates these mechanisms and how they operate in Architecture. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field help us to understand the underlying motivation behind the process by referring to cultural capital, institutional representation, and to their actors as network agents. To discuss these concepts, the structure of the article is constructed as (i) the representation of architecture and architects as related to the social classes to which they belong, by referring to the concept of habitus, and (ii) the influence of architectural institutions and their network agents on architecture as they are socially represented, by referring to the concept of field. 2. Habitus, field and their network agents Habitus and field are core concepts of Bourdieu and applicable to many professions related to social representation, including architecture. These concepts are also founding ideas within the field of Cultural Studies and, are frequently used to isolate and analyze cultural tendencies and the consumption features of social classes. Accord-

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ing to Bourdieu, class conflict and the dynamics of power are based on the relationships between social classes, which are conditioned by the relative distribution of capital (Bourdieu, 1986). The concept of capital includes economic capital, social capital and cultural capital in Bourdieu’s theory. This study mainly focuses on cultural capital which Bourdieu identifies as including educational qualifications, informal interpersonal relationships and abilities, lifestyles and cultural tastes. When cultural capital cooperates with economic and social capital, it frequently comes in three forms, as embodied, objectified, and institutionalized (Bourdieu, 1986). The institutionalized form of cultural capital which is taken as the major theoretical case for this study, refers to hierarchically institutionalized forms of educational and cultural institutions. Habitus refers to basic cultural tendencies of individuals and or social agents which help to guide their behaviors in society. It is not an innate ability; it is a structure and structured structure (Bourdieu, 1977) that is largely inherited from the social class to which the individual belongs (Swartz, 2011). The concept of taste is representative of this “structuring structure”, and inherited trace revealing the social pattern of classes rather than an idiosyncratic pattern emerging from the individual actor, and its effectiveness conditions the symbolic values between classes (Lury, 2011; Bourdieu, 1985). Bourdieu mostly emphasized the role of education in structuring a habitus when understanding the relation between cultural capital, social classes and cultural tastes. According to him, education systems tend to promote the children of high classes and lead them on to success, as a cyclical mechanism which works to reinforce existing class structures. Thus, educational institutions formalize class distinction, cultural capital and habitus (Grennfell, 2008; Bourdieu, 1986). Moving on to professions, not only educational institutions but also all types of institutionalization help to identify the field of a profession, and DiMaggio, who also refers to Bourdieu’s concepts, has argued that the re-

lationship between institutionalization and cultural capital is at its most visible within the art industry. DiMaggio determines the effects of institutionalization on art by focusing on museum institutions, and calling out the most significant of them as ‘field-wide professional organizations’. This type of organization, according to DiMaggio shapes the cultural taste of the habitus they focalize and sets the institutions and their actors as the referees of the field (DiMaggio, 1991). In Bourdieusian terms, field corresponds to unique and distinct arenas upon which all forms of practices play out. Each field has its particular set of rules, epistemology and forms of capital according to its genre. Field structures the habitus while habitus structures the field. Habitus helps to connect fields to each other and the enterprisers of habitus regulate the continuity of fields. Hence, the cultural capital of habitus constitutes the borders of the field and the network agents develop their individual strategies to the benefit of the class to which they belong. Practice is the whole of the relations between habitus, field and forms of capital (Swartz, 2011) as Bourdieu (1986: s.101) equated as; [(habitus) (capital)] + field = practice From this point of view, architecture has its own field(s) and a particular habitus structures that field. By referring to Bourdieu’s discourse on education and institutional form of cultural capital, and DiMaggio’s field-wide professional organization, the gentrifying architectural mechanisms are determined as architectural schools, institutions and their award mechanisms, architectural biennials and their representation in media platforms. To discuss the paradoxical relationship between the phenomenon of distinctiveness and ordinariness in the field of Architecture, we must first understand how institutions and field-wide professional organizations effect and/or construct this paradox. Institutionalization has a kind of paradoxical relationship in itself. According to institutional critique theories, cultural institutions have the power to exploit every antagonist concept against themselves. Daniel Buren

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argues that, if institutional critique plays a part in institutions, this dilutes the power of critique and destroys the effects of antagonist concepts (Graw, 2016). David Harvey also elaborated on this paradox, stating that these institutions deliberately create a dilemma concerning the uniqueness of the cultural object. Upper-class individuals and their habitus tend to expect uniqueness and aesthetic pleasure from a cultural event and/or object; however, institutions are much more interested in an object’s market value while representing them as an elite occasion. The more institutions commercialize culture, the more the culture is deteriorated, but at the same time, institutions increase culture’s visibility and access. Therefore, cultural institutions need some discursive moves to deal with cultural capital, economic capital and symbolic capital simultaneously (Harvey, 2013). When the topic is Architecture and its representational field, operative principles and marketing strategies of architectural institutions could be the starting points, and we can follow a similar pattern to that of Bourdieu and DiMaggio. Thus, architectural institutions, their representative principles and (st)architects as related to the social classes to which they belong, will all be interpreted as allies of the field. 3. Habitus of architects and field of architecture To follow Bourdieu’s methodology, firstly it is important to discuss the habitus of architects. The reputable definition of architects’ dates back to the origin of architecture. From the iconic edifices of Ancient Egypt up until today, architecture has been established as one of the most honorable professions and architects publicly accepted as influential persons (Kostof, 1977). According to Jean Nouvel, architects have perceived themselves a God-like figure for centuries and only recently they have dreaded only losing that power (Nouvel, Baudrillard, 2011). Even as the roles of architects have changed throughout the ages, their representation as distinguished identities has not. Once, they were second only to the King of Egypt, then

they were honored as eminent persons building for nobles in the Renaissance, and later they became the saviors and the founders of the new world in Modernism (Kostof, 1977; Karatani 1995). However, Modernism could be interpreted as the first breaking point in the field. As the related habitus of architecture has changed, borders of the field have also widened. Architects as actors in the field, started to design for the everyday population. However, it is important to emphasize that even as the related habitus of architecture changed, the habitus of architects was still covered by the high class of society. The image of the profession was still prestigious and the cost of an architectural education was still expensive. For this reason, architects have historically been and continued to be the children of elites, graduating from highly ranked architectural schools (Johnson, 1994). Before Modernism, the field of architecture matched up with the habitus. In Modernism, the field of architecture collided with the new habitus of the society. According to Modernist architects, architectural products should be involved in mass production and this was the only possible way that architecture could help create a new world which served for all social classes. As a consequence, with Modernism the representation of architecture attained a greater prestige, and architects attained a greater sense of social duty than at any other time in the field’s history. The field of architecture represented itself as emanating from the habitus of the middle and lower social classes while its actors and products remained distinguished. This can be interpreted as the first paradox of distinguished and/ or ordinary representation of architecture and representational field of it. Between Modernism and the contemporary world of architecture, the field of Architecture has evolved. As Harvey argues, capitalist and post capitalist production systems and media institutions have consolidated the marketing strategies of cultural objects. A cultural event or object has turned to a sign of high culture and the habitus of high culture demands to have it registered in a distinguished and unique

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way. Hence, the product is represented and commercialized by elite events such as festivals, certification programs, etc. with the help of institutions that have sponsored them (Harvey, 2013). The representational mechanism of Architecture which has also been accepted as one of cultural occasions, has also widened. A complex network of relations including institutions, media, PR agencies, the advertising sector, the fashion sector etc. have all contributed to the representational field of it. Today, the distinguished representation of Architecture generally relates to distinguished representation of architects who are supported by architectural institutions. Indeed, some of the contemporary architects have even a unique denotation as Starchitects. While the Starchitects and their architectural works do not correspond to the most sizeable part of the profession, however, we can argue that the phenomenon of Architecture is represented most cogently by them. Further, it is possible to suggest that a new epistemology of architecture is also being generated, in part by the representation of Starchitects (Basyazici, Uluoğlu, 2017). According to Sklair, Starchitects are also a kind of by-product of institutionalization and marketing mechanisms (Sklair, 2005). If some architectural institutions constitute the main mechanism of representational field of Architecture, Starchitects are the main actors in that field. They are the agents of these networks and determine the borders of the field. Their position in representation mechanisms also makes them pioneer actors in discussing the paradoxical portrayal of architecture as a distinguished and/or ordinary phenomenon. However, it is important to locate wherein and how they act as network agents in the field of Architecture. Are they the agents of architectural institutions or only skillful architects? More importantly, how do they represent Architecture and how do they deal with the phenomenon of ordinariness? To understand these questions, and drawing on Bourdieu, DiMaggio and Harvey; the concept of the institutionalization mechanism should be understood as the cornerstone of the field.

4. The field of architectural institutions and their operative principles Architectural institutions could be grouped in many different ways according to the scope of the research. Here, we have grouped them according to their gentrifying mechanisms of architecture and their effects on the field of Architecture. Architectural schools are related to this field through their effective discourses on architectural epistemology and their prestigious images in terms of academic ranking. They help us only to understand the habitus of network agents (architects in this case) and their representations while other institutional mechanisms help us to interpret the operative principles in the field. Complementing the effect of education and educational institutions on architecture, one of the main actors in the field is the award-giving mechanisms. There are many world institutions that award architectural prizes, however, for the purpose of this study, the reputation, prominence and the fame of an award was considered crucial to understanding the effect fieldwide. Therefore, the most prestigious award in architecture, the Pritzker Architecture Prize, awarded by the Hyatt Foundation is determined as one case of the study. 4.1. The pritzker architecture prize The Pritzker Architecture Prize is bestowed by the Hyatt Foundation and is accepted as the “the Nobel Prize in architecture” (Britannica, 2018). It was inaugurated by Jay Pritzker, the founder of the Hyatt Foundation, and his wife, in order to compensate for the absence of architecture within the Nobel Prize categories (Mun-Delsalle, 2017). Since 1979, the foundation has annually honored an architect “whose works demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision, and commitment, for his/her contribution to the profession” (Pritzker Architecture Prize, 2017). Pritzker laureates are understood to have received the highest honor in the profession. To analyze the influence of the Pritzker Architecture Prize on architecture as it is socially represented, it is im-

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portant firstly to rethink the habitus and practices of the Hyatt Foundation. According to Forbes Magazine, the Pritzker family is one of the richest families in the USA (Britannica, 2017). In addition to creating the Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Hyatt Foundation, they have supported many civil society initiatives and founded several educational and cultural institutions. The jury of the Pritzker Architecture Prize includes architects, experts and businessmen form a variety of fields including art, education and technology. However, the social standing of the jury is striking in terms of its cultural habitus. Architect jury members are generally one of the Starchitects and previous or future laureates of the prize, while the experts and/or businessmen occupy to a similarly highbrowed habitus. For example, the directors of the National Gallery of Art and the National Gallery of Great Britain, the chairman of the IBM Corporation, Lord Rothschild, the deans of Harvard University Department of Architecture have at various time participated in and chaired the jury. Another matter of debate is the laureates; are they already a Starchitect when they are given the Pritzker Architecture Prize or does the prize itself help to establish them as Starchitect? It is an open question and there is not a certain answer. However, it is significant that today all Pritzker laureates are known as Starchitects. The presentation of the medal is another representational mechanism of the prize. The ceremony is always held in a significant global landmark in order to “reinforce the importance of the built environment” (The Pritzker Architecture Prize, 2018). It is an invitation-only ceremony and attended by jury members, mayors of the chosen cities, members of the international press, businessmen, academics, chairs of art galleries and museums, members of the Hyatt Foundation, the Pritzker Family and on occasion, the President and Prime Minister of the host country. The chairman of the Hyatt Foundation announces the winner and the recipient gives an acceptance speech. The ceremony is one of the most eminent and newsworthy events of the architectural calendar, and recently

has been broadcast live on the Internet and on TV. This prestige and attention awarded to the prize ceremony itself suggests that not merely architects and Architecture but also the Pritzker Architecture Prize is celebrated and consecrated via the event. Another institutional mechanism that works to consecrate the representation of architecture, and which also intersects with the Pritzker Architecture Prize is the Venice Architecture Biennale, our second case study. 4.2. Venice Architecture Biennale As with award mechanisms, cultural institutions could also be grouped in many different ways according to the scope of the research. The Venice Architecture Biennale, here, is determined as the second case that gentrifies the field of Architecture, due to its public recognition and focus on contentious topics in the world of architecture. The Venice Biennale is self-declared as “one of the most prestigious cultural institutions in the world for over 120 years” by the biennale foundation (La Biennale di Venezia, 2018). And Paolo Baratta, its current president, having served between 2000-2004 and subsequently again since 2008, recently called the Venice Architecture Biennale “the most important event in the world for Architecture” (OMA, 2017). The Venice Architecture Biennale has been part of the Venice Biennale since 1980. It has been successively curated by architects chosen by the president of the architecture biennial and by the biennial foundation. Since its inception, it has been accepted as the major architectural event for contemporary discussion in the world. However, the architecture or Architecture, which has been represented there is also one of the major questions considered in this article. The institutional history of the Biennale is significant. In the beginning, the Venice Biennale was a state-run event financially supported by Italian government. All the curators and pavilions were also Italian. In 2004, the Biennale transformed into a foundation and has been supported by both private investors and the government ever since (La

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Figure 1. Habitus of Starchitects in the field of architecture.

Biennale di Venezia, 2017). Although the existence of financial supporters has liberated the scope of the Biennale, it is believed that they also exercise influence over the design and representation of the national pavilions and even the curators. Nevertheless, it can be interpreted as a win-win situation; while the marketing strategies match with the cultural representation of the private corporations, the curators and participants also enrich their pavilions with their financial support (Stallabrass, 2016). The Venice Architecture Biennale has a parallel historiography in terms of institutional background. First five biennales were curated by Italian architects and they were also only staterun events. The sixth biennale, which was curated by Hans Hollein, was the first biennale curated by a non-Italian architect. The curators of the National Pavilions are generally selected by a national jury of the relevant country, but curators have the right to invite independent architects themselves. Notably, the majority of these independent architects are recognized Starchitects, most of whom have already received

the Pritzker award. This prompts a further question; is the Venice Architecture Biennale monopolized by Starchitects, or does the institution seek to use those architects for its own purpose? This brings us again the field of architectural institutions and their relation with the habitus of high culture. The diagram below displays the field of intersection between The Pritzker Architecture Prize and Venice Architecture Biennale as two main institutional arenas, and their network agents as Starchitects. Following Bourdieu, and examining the habitus and the field of Architecture, architectural schools (as another gentrifying institution) and the professional relations between Starchitects are also attached to the diagram. This diagram shows both the field and habitus of architects as they operate within the most prestigious representation mechanisms of Architecture. It is seen that the Venice Architecture Biennale and Pritzker Architecture Prize are cross-populated with familiar architects. They are the network agents of these two institutions. While those architects are generally in contact with

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Figure 2. Groups of themes in the Venice Architectural Biennale and Starchitects as participants.

most prestigious architectural schools of the world, they are also related with each other as partners, mentors or employers-employees. To be more precise, the habitus of architects who represent Architecture is structured by high-ranking architectural schools and the professional relationships of network agents. Their social class background here is unimportant; rather, in terms of the field of architecture, their social and cultural habitus refers to a high-level representation. The arenas where they work their “magic” and represent their architecture – the Venice Architecture Biennale and the Pritzker Architecture Prize in this case– is the field of Architecture. This field also prompts questions surrounding power, such as; Who represents Who? Is this a mutual relationship wherein both field and network agents represent themselves reciprocally? Or are those architects in fact by-products of these two architectural institutions? Finally, what do they represent and what does it take to affect change in architecture? To deepen these questions, the architectural discussions initiated by the Venice Architecture Biennale should be taken into consideration. The themes of the biennales could be taken as focal points of architectural problems, and also as related to how the curators define architecture and architectural problems in the world and what they represent as architecture. In order to approach these issues, this study groups the themes into three main headings; architecture as a contemporary event that also evolves with its history (Group 1); architecture as a dominant and leading event in contemporary life (Group 2); and, archi-

tecture as an interdisciplinary event that is related to social problems and everyday man (Group 3). 5. The paradoxical nature of the field of architecture The third group of themes in the Venice Architecture Biennale can help us discuss the paradoxical nature of the field of Architecture. We will focus on 12th biennale; “People meet in Architecture”, 14th biennale; “Fundamentals” and 15th biennale “Reporting from the Front”, which were curated by Kazuyo Sejima, Rem Koolhaas and Alejandro Aravena respectively, in order to understand this paradox. The common focal point of these biennales is that architecture is defined as a mundane event rather than a spectacle occasion within a different context. While Sejima emphasized the relation between architecture and common people, Koolhaas criticized the spectacle image of architecture and proposed a rethinking of its fundamental elements. Finally, Aravena “pitched activism against starchitecture” as The Guardian mentioned, and viewed architecture as a tool to contribute to the life of the lower classes, as he emphasized in Pritzker Architecture Prize acceptance speech. These themes caused some unconventional discussions for the Venice Architecture Biennale and sparked debates in architectural world by igniting the fuse of the paradox. While all three curators are Pritzker Architecture Prize awarded architects, they foregrounded the architecture of the mundane in the most spectacular architectural showcase in the world. It is important to highlight that what it is called architectural world here also contains the distinguished field of Ar-

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Figure 3. Discussions on architecture; spectacle or ordinary.

chitecture. Discussions concerning other fields of architecture generally don’t take place in architectural media and therefore cannot reach large masses. For this reason, architectural media as a further formation is also implicated in the network of the field of Architecture. Architectural media acts as a legal entity, rather than a natural entity like Starchitects and does not have an organizational structure like architectural institutions. Nevertheless, as a legal entity, it acts to make other entities visible and contributes to the structure of the field. The network map of the phenomenal paradox for the field of Architecture that is represented by the Pritzker Architecture Prize and Venice Architecture Biennale is illustrated above; The diagram focuses on 12th, 14th and th 15 Venice Architecture Biennales as these are the events that have provoked fundamental discussions on what the explicit aim of architecture should be, be it a spectacle or a mundane occasion. Some critiques also mentioned that some curators have been awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize. While Patrik Schumacher, who took over the Zaha Hadid Architects, questioned the

political correctness of Rem Koolhaas and Alejandro Aravena (Schumacher, 2014; 2016), Peter Eisenman (2014) declared the Koolhaas curated biennale as the end of Koolhaas’ architectural career and declared Koolhaas as an archistar who are going to be the single curator star. Paolo Baratta, the president of 14th Venice Architecture Biennale, discussed Koolhaas curated biennale in the following terms: “architects are called upon prevalently awe-inspiring buildings and the ordinary is going to astray” (OMA, 2017). Indeed, Koolhaas occupies a controversial position in this debate, as at the same time as celebrating ordinariness he has a history of spectacular buildings in third world countries, designed for Prada and proposed that buildings ought to be visited as museums. In the same year as the 14th biennale, a debate on architecture as spectacle or mundane occasion also taking place among Aaron Betsky (the curator of 11th Venice Architecture Biennale), Steven Bingler and Martin C. Pedersen in the columns of Architect Magazine and the New York Times. While Bingler and Pedersen (2014) proposed ordinariness in architecture to communicate

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with common people, Betsky (2014) argued against them and claimed that architecture has always been a spectacle event rather than a building, which is why it is called architecture. Sejima curated biennale has been generally honored in discussions for its modest approaches. However, Kurt Forster issued a cautionary note, arguing that while the “People Meet in Architecture” biennale was gracious in intent, target group of the Venice Architecture Biennale, meant that it registered rather like “architects meet in architecture” (Forster, 2010). Aravena curated biennale occupies a more significant position in this field, however, as his definition and suggestions for architecture are still being argued out in the architectural media. Schumacher (2016) criticized Aravena to be ringing in the changes for Architecture by promoting a humanitarian architecture with both the Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Venice Architecture Biennale. Nevertheless, his intent was met with criticism from some commentators who questioned whether Aravena’s definition of architecture had been unduly influenced by interested developers and politicians, Rowen Moore (2016) said. Similarly, the journalist Mimi Zeiger (2016) asked “Is architecture as guileless as Aravena’s biennale suggests?” Betsky (2016), however, considered the debate from a different angle, arguing that Aravena’s biennale showed that the beauty and pleasure of architecture can only be possible to construct for the wealthy. In case of Aravena, it seems that he doesn’t have a kind of paradoxical relationship between his theoretical approaches and practical career like Koolhas. Yet Aravena is also a Pritzker award winner, has been chosen as a member of the Pritzker Architecture Prize jury for eight years and is an instructor at Harvard’s Faculty of Architecture. These are leading opinions of architects and/or architecture critics who are depicted in this network map. Following opinions for the 14th and 15th biennales and curators’ Pritzker award in many articles or reader columns abound in the architectural media. This platform shows that the phenomenon of ordinariness could be interpreted

as apprehending a loss of power for the distinguished representation of Architecture, which has historically been taken for granted by some architects (Baudrillard, 2011). Rather, it also suggests that even being mundane and/or ordinary can be a representation tool in the field of Architecture. It presents a kind of network for the phenomenon of ordinariness that shows who represents ordinariness, with whom and where. 6. Conclusion This study discusses the representational mechanisms of Architecture by referring to Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field. In order to define the field of Architecture, it is important to discuss the representational field of architectural institutions and the habitus of those architects who participate in these institutions. While every architectural institution has its own mechanism to represent architecture, some undoubtedly hold greater sway over the field than others. The Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Venice Architecture Biennale have been studied as major cases representing Architecture due to their significance and influence on the field. Although these two cases share neither a common aim nor scope, intentionally or not both cases are instrumental in the construction of the field of Architecture. As we have seen, the Pritzker family has created the most prestigious medal in the profession in order to honor the achievements of living architects in a spectacular ceremony. In case the of the Venice Architecture Biennale, it cannot be proposed that Venice Architecture Biennale acts as a gentrifying agent for the representation of architecture in prima facie; however, as we have seen before, due to its esteemed standing in the world of architecture, may have undertaken every theme and curator involved in the biennale as part of a gentrifying process. At this juncture, the distinguished field of these organizations in their definitive context is also important as it leads us to the habitus of architects. The Pritzker family and Hyatt Foundation are firmly located in the field of wealthy institutions while habitus of

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the family also belongs to high culture. Hence, even if they are not an architectural institution, the high-cultured habitus of family and the jury members that they choose also define the field of the Pritzker Architecture Prize as one of high status and prestige. This is borne out by the fact that despite there being many institutional awards, none of them are named as the most respected medal in the profession except the Pritzker Architecture Prize. The Venice Architectural Biennale could be interpreted in two ways: the field of the sponsorship networks and the field and habitus of the biennale’s curators. The financial support of the Italian government, which is itself an institution of major kind, helps to define the Biennale as an Italian occasion: Being the sole funder at its founding, it meant that the Biennale has always been seen as part of an act celebrating the Italian artistic culture. However, with the participation of private investors, the biennale also became a part of the marketing arena for those companies and other cultural institutions that have gone on to help build the cultural capital the Venice Architecture Biennale has today. At the same time, those companies and institutions undoubtedly capitalize their association with the Venice Architecture Biennale for their corporate image. As for the biennale’s curators, they have always been selected from among the most notable architects in the world, whose reputation and contribution to the profession is globally recognized. They are the provokers of the most important discussions that determine the key topics of the architectural discourse as they are the leaders in the field of Architecture. Hence, if we ask the question “is it architecture or Architecture that is exhibited in Venice”, the answer to be expected must be Architecture, despite contrary claims implied by themes of the recent biennales. This study overlaps these two distinguished representation mechanisms to understand the field of Architecture via two network maps. These network maps show that some architects take place in both events, or that those events use those architects in their own self-representation. Following Bour-

dieu and Di Maggio, the architects at the intersection point of the two events are understood as network agents, as they are present at both occasions and thus help form the social context in which the field operates. We have shown that they are representative of a high-cultured habitus in architecture with their educational background and professional relations with each other. Upon these grounds, then, we would expect the phenomenon of ordinariness to have no representative place within Architecture. However, the 12th, 14th and 15th biennales did attempt to problematize Architecture’s privileged positioning. Their limited success in terms of critical reception suggested that “the war” against Starchitecture. Our intention is not to argue that ordinariness is not possible because architecture gentrifies every phenomenon as such. Ordinary and functional buildings can be seen everywhere and contain an aesthetic value in themselves. Rather, the fact that we entitle these buildings as ordinary, mundane or common demonstrates that they do not belong to the field of Architecture. These are the buildings not mentioned in architectural books or magazines, not known all around the world and they are not designed by Starchitects. Koolhaas and Aravena’s attempt to provoke a critical conversation about ordinariness in architecture, however, perhaps suggests that Architecture’s privileged position is ripe for its destabilization. Koolhaas and Aravena share common and unique positions in this field. First and foremost, both architects demonstrate paradoxes inherent within their relative positions and their artistic approaches; and, both turned ordinariness into a cause celebre via their association with the Venice Architecture Biennale. Can their attempts be likened to Duchamp’s urinal as he attempted to unmask this paradox at the heart of the art industry? Perhaps, but our study suggests rather that the two share more in common with Walter Benjamin’s assessment of Baudelaire as a secret agent of his social class, criticism of the class to which he belonged (Benjamin, 2006). Koolhaas and Aravena could also be interpreted as secret

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agents of their habitus in the field of Architecture. Recalling David Harvey’s argument, cultural institutions function by turning ordinary things and events into distinguished ones by attributing noble meanings to them, even if economic interests are absent and the process is not intentional (Harvey, 2013). Thus, in raising the question of ordinariness, the Venice Architecture Biennale initiates structuring of a field, following Harvey, regarding whether the ordinary can exist in Architecture. In this way, since those biennales which have brought the ordinary on stage, and with the intervention of the Pritzker awarded Starchitects, the phenomenon of ordinariness has become a discussion topic worldwide. Returning to our original question, “where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness?”, our study has suggested that the answer we must expect is, within distinguished architectural institutions. However, the notion of ordinariness as a mindset, which takes place in representations of Architecture within its present field, cannot be identified as the ordinary in ontological terms. Ordinariness itself becomes a distinguished ordinariness once all the eyes are on it. While the ordinary is in essence still located in the field of architecture (with a small a), ordinary becomes extra-ordinary when it is found located within the field of Architecture. The epistemological tendencies of high-cultured habitus in the field of Architecture turns the unconventional nature of ordinariness to a cause celebre via conventional methodologies. While its inclusion is expected to deconstruct and problematize the distinguished field of Architecture, ordinariness in fact lies to incorporate into the field and thus turns out to be another of Architecture’s lodestars. Leading approaches with leading actors turn epistemology of architecture into a vicious circle and inevitably construct a paradoxical field. This study shows that the phenomenon of ordinariness has a potential power of resistance when included within the field of Architecture. It needs another habitus of actors and structural mechanisms of field to do

this. Within its present position, it is not possible to represent ordinariness thru the representation tools of Architecture and it cannot be conceptualized within the field of Architectural discourse. It needs a different methodology which is expected to have the potential of creating an alternative theory. This study is intended to be a first step towards seeking an alternative methodology to deal with phenomena which are outside of the conventional in Architecture; or rather, outside of conventions of Architecture. We believe that this will open the way to a fertile ground to explore and re-problematize the profession and its episteme. References Aravena, A. (2016). “Rationale” in Reporting from the Front: 15th International Architecture Exhibition Catalogue. Marsilio; Slp Edition, 21-30. Başyazıcı B., Uluoğlu, B. (2017). The Phenomenon of Being Distinguished in Architecture; a Study on Pritzker Prize. Paper presented at the meeting of ATINER 7th Annual International Conference on Architecture, Athens. Baudrillard, J., Nouvel, J. (2011). Tekil Nesneler. Yem Yayın, İstanbul. Benjamin, W. (2006). The Writer of Modern Life: Essays on Charles Baudelaire, Harvard University Press. Betsky, A. (2014). The New York Times Versus Architecture. Architect Magazine. Retrieved from http://www. architectmagazine.com/design/thenew-york-times-versus-architecture_o Betsky, A. (2016). Reporting from the Front: Postcard from the Venice Biennale. Retrieved from http://www. architectmagazine.com/design/exhibits-books-etc/reporting-from-thefront-postcard-from-the-venice-biennale_o Bingler S., Pedersen, M. C. (2014). How to Rebuild Architecture. The New York Times. Retrieved from https:// www.nytimes.com/2014/12/16/opinion/how-to-rebuild-architecture.html Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, New York. Bourdieu, P., (1985). Distinction; A Social Critique of Judgement of Taste. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts.

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Bourdieu, P. (1986). “The Forms of Capital” in Richardson, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, Greenwood, 241-258. Britannica. (2017). Pritzker Family American Business Family. Retrieved from http://global.britannica.com/topic/Pritzker-Prize Britannica. (2018). Pritzker Prize International Architectural Award. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/ Pritzker-Prize Dimaggio, P. (1991). “Constructing an Organizational Field as a Professional Project: U.S. Art Museums, 1920-1940” In Dimaggio, P., Powell W. (ed.) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. The University of Chicago Press, 267-297. Eisenman, P. (2014). Interview with peter Eisenman. Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen. com/2014/06/09/rem-koolhaas-at-theend-of-career-says-peter-eisenman/ Forster, K. (2010). “Interview with Kurt Foster”, in Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012) Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Graw, I. (2006). “Beyond Institutional Critique”, in John C. Welchman (ed.), Institutional Critique and After. JRP Ringier, Zurich, 7-146. Grenfell, M., (2008). Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts. Routledge, London. Harvey, D. (2013). Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. Verso, USA. Johnson, P., A. (1994). The Theory of Architecture: Concepts Themes and Practices. John Willey & Sons, USA. Karatani, K. (1995). Architecture as Metaphor. MIT Press, USA. Koolhaas, R. (2014). “Architecture not Architects” in Fundamentals: 14th International Architecture Exhibition Catalogue, Marsilio, 17-20. Kostof, S. (1977). The Architect. University of California Press, USA. La Biennale di Venezia. (2017). History of Venice Biennale. Retrieved from http://www.labiennale.org/en/ history La Biennale di Venezia. (2018). His-

tory. Retrieved from http://www.labiennale.org/en/history Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012). Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Los Angeles Times. (2016). A Grassroots, Handmade Venice Architecture Biennale from Alejandro Aravena. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/ entertainment/arts/la-et-cm-venicebiennale-review-20160530-snap-story. html Lury, C. (2011). “Capital, Class and Consumer Culture”, in Consumer Culture. Polity Press, USA. Moore, R. (2016). Venice Architecture Biennale 2016 – ideas for real world problems. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/may/29/ venice-architecture-biennale-2016-review-norman-foster OMA. (2017). Rem Koolhaas Announces Title for Venice Architecture Biennale. Retrieved from http://oma. eu/news/rem-koolhaas-announces-themes-for-2014-venice-architecture-biennale Pritzker Architecture Prize. (2017). About The Prize. Retrieved from https://www.pritzkerprize.com/about Pritzker Architecture Prize. (2018). Ceremony. Retrieved from https:// www.pritzkerprize.com/about Portoghesi, P. (2010). “Interview with Paolo Portoghesi”, in Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012) Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Schumacher, P. (2014). Facebook Post. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/patrik.schumacher.10/ posts/10202631928712343 Schumacher, P. (2016). Facebook Post. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/patrik.schumacher.10/ posts/10207222111024032 Schumacher, P. (2018). Interview with the Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/ cities/2018/jan/17/architect-patrik-schumacher-depicted-fascist-zaha-hadid Sklair, L. (2005). “The Transnational Capitalist Class and Contemporary Architecture in Globalizing Cities”, Inter-

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national Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 29, Issue 3, 485–500. Stallabrass, J. (2016). Sanat A.Ş. Çağdaş Sanat ve Bienaller, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul. Sudjic, D. (2014). Interview with Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www. dezeen.com/2014/06/05/critics-giveverdicts-on-rems-biennale-withoutany-architecture-in-sight/ Swartz, D. (2011). Kültür ve İktidar; Pierre Bourdieu’nün Sosyolojisi. İletişim Yayıncılık, İstanbul. The Architects Journal. (2010). Venice Architecture Biennale 2010. Retrieved from https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/venice-architecture-biennale-2010/8605444.article

The Guardian (2010). This Year’s Venice Architecture Biennale is about People, not Plans. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/aug/31/venice-architecture-biennale The Guardian. (2016). Alejandro Aravena’s Venice Architecture Biennale. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/may/26/ venice-architecture-biennale-alejandro-aravena Zeiger, M, (2016). Is Architecture Really as Guileless as Aravena’s Biennale Suggests? Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/06/01/ opinion-mimi-zeiger-venice-architecture-biennale-2016-honest-fronting/

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Housing price estimation in order to sustainable housing: Niyavaran area,Tehran, Iran

Mojtaba VALIBEIGI1, Ali Akbar TAGHIPOUR2, Majid FESHARI3 1 m.valibeigi@bzte.ac.ir • Urban Planning and Architecture Department, Industrial & Mechanical Faculty, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Iran 2 a.taghipour@du.ac.ir • Department of Geography and Urban Planning , Faculty of Earth Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran 3 m.feshari@khu.ac.ir • Department of General Economics, Faculty of Economics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.40326

Received: July 2017 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Housing composite commodity as a one of the most important property of households, has been interesting for researchers and planners in last years. Hedonic pricing, estimating the value of housing characteristics through the use of transactions data. For this purpose, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors affect housing prices in the Niyavaran region of Tehran, Iran. Nowadays, the housing planning tries to meet the needs of users, which this subject is one of the important factors in sustainable housing scheduling. To achieve this objective, first of all the variables influence the housing price have been determined and then, data was collected via the survey and was analyzed, using the Hedonic price model. The empirical results of this paper showed that variables: the building age, number of rooms, house view side, Interior decoration, lighting and distance to school are significant and positive and Parking, education and road traffic were significant and negative in this study. By applying these results in urban projects eventually can lead to the better life quality and sustainability in urban life. Keywords Hedonic price model, Housing, Physical variables, Environmental variables, Tehran.


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1. Introduction People choose where to live and which house to buy by considering a bundle of housing characteristics, and housing space is one of the most important contributors to the total willingness to pay for the unit. From the demand side, adequate housing space is a critical screening factor used in narrowing a property search. Space constraint is also a key determinant when consumers decide to upgrade their residence. From the supply point view, the size of a housing unit is a key parameter that developers adjust to maximize profits. Since housing space plays a pivotal role in determining the bid and offer functions that underlie the hedonic price equation, it is important to have a good understanding of the hedonic price of housing space. However, estimates obtained from a standard hedonic regression could suffer from potential functional form misspecifications and endogeneity arising from omitted variables (Collen & Hoekstra, 2001; Johansson, 2012; Scheiner & Holz-Rau, 2007) Changes in supply and demand, which determine the competitive conditions of real estate, are directly reflected in real estate values and especially changes in supply and demand of housing seriously affect economic growth. The controlling of these changes in real estate values and the determination of economic factors that cause them are possible through objective valuation studies. However, the fact that each property has different and unique characteristics makes valuation a time consuming and costly process. Due to the fact that real estate valuation has not been in line with scientific principles and international standards, it is necessary to facilitate value appreciation processes in both academic and commercial studies as well as to develop certain statistical models such as the hedonic valuation model. The hedonic valuation process consists of the steps of converting the characteristics of properties into massive data in a collective sense and relating these properties to the (sales) price. With the hedonic method developed, it is expected that sales price valuations will be performed in a standardized

manner. In overall, the hedonic model examines the impact of a product’s characteristics on its price. When considered within the context of real estate, the hedonic valuation model enables a statistical association between the characteristics of properties and sales prices(Adair, Berry, & McGreal, 1996; Ali, Bashir, & Ali, 2015; Czembrowski & Kronenberg, 2016). An evolution was occurred in pattern and settlement system, in consequence of industrial revolution improvement and urbanization growth and house supply was become to one of the most urban district difficulties (Mirkatouli, Samadi, & Hosseini, 2018; Muhallab Taha, 2001, 12). Other parameters, on the other hand, such as population growth, new household formation, immigration from the rural areas, Destruction and renovation of places because of the old building amortization, and getting residential units smaller and so on, have duplicated the housing supply problem. Technical and scientific advances, sustainable development theories and plans, made the main humankind demands and stable housing construction achievements, more complicated (Chiu, 2004; Zimmermann, Althaus, & Haas, 2005). Housing problem has been raised all around the world but it has been turned to a critical problem in developing countries due to fast population and urbanization growth, internal migrations, lack of financial sources, problems in land and building material supply and shortage of the manpower beside the lack of policy and proper plans about the land and housing (Malpezzi & Mayo, 1987; Pjanic, 1967; Sinclair, 2017) The growing up role of housing, especially in sustainable development of mankind living, has made the governors, put the house planning on their main priorities. The plans such as new city construction, improvement and renovation of worn tissues and etc. are the attempts for this problem solving. The price of land and housing is an important factor for wrapping up the private and governmental plans and projects; while the price is a function of various time dependent, situations and

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factors (Dieleman, 2017). Recognition of effective factors in housing price, therefore, can be utilized as a powerful tool for housing policymakers and planners. This concept which is commonly referred to in review of literature as the “hedonic pricing model” instead of “hedonic valuation” (Bozkurt, 2016; Hayrullahoğlu, Aliefendioğlu, Tanrıvermiş, & Hayrullahoğlu, 2017, 2018; Kara, Gültekin, Aliefendioğlu, & Tanrıvermiş, 2016) is widely used for the creation of a price index for goods, estimating their values, and performing prosperity analysis of public goods. The hedonic pricing model emerged with a new approach in consumer theory by Lancaster (1966), and is called the Lancaster Preference Theory (Adams & Crawford, 2015; de Oliveira Santos, 2016). In his essay (1966), Lancaster emphasized that a product is heterogeneous and offers no benefit to consumers alone, and that the benefits stem from the characteristics it possesses. Hedonic models, which are basically regression equations, are estimated with the help of regression analysis. The model is based on the assumption that goods are heterogeneous, and each property is described as the sum of its individual properties (Hayrullahoğlu et al., 2018). At the forefront of addressing the need for shelter in urban spaces, which has been shaped in our days through large population movements, houses have changed form in line with social behavior, economic status and demands of individuals over time, have started to carry different qualitative and quantitative features, and even regarded as important investment and financing tools. This situation necessitated the examination of factors affecting the housing market in all types of real estate. Just like any other heterogeneous property, houses also contain more than one feature, and are sold as a collection of the features they have. Since it is very difficult to specify the price of goods with multiple features at a single total price and to analyze the market, the price of the goods is identified by determining the price of each feature of the good, and it is called hedonic pricing (Hayrullahoğlu et al., 2018; Hülagü, Kızılkaya,

Özbekler, & Tunar, 2016; Selim, 2008; Hidano, 2002). Many of studies have been done in housing domain and its effective factors, that some of them will be mentioned henceforward: Farzanegan, Gholipour, and Nguyen (2016) is an example of the association between housing prices and income inequality in Iran over the last three decades. In the recent period, Iran has had the highest average Gini coefficient in the Middle East, a region where inequality has triggered social tension, political instability, and armed conflict. Gholipour and Farzanegan (2015) in “marriage crisis and housing costs: empirical evidence from provinces of Iran” examines the link between housing costs and the marriage rate in Iran, controlling for other relevant economic determinants of marriage. their results reveal that there is a negative relationship between housing costs and the marriage rate. Pour Mohammadi, Ghorbani, and Taghipour (2014) investigated factors affecting the price of housing in the city of Tabriz using hedonic model. The results have shown that some variables including the area of land, building view side, salary and education, access to the radiator, the width of alley or street and the traffic of the alley or street have the positive effect on price while the building view, the number of rooms, distance from the downtown, the age of building and the kind of ownership document have the negative effect. Mohammadi (2017) aims to identify and prioritize effective factors on willingness to pre-purchase demand of housing in the city of Ilam in Iran and to present a conceptual model. The results indicated that economic, financial, fiscal-behavioral, motivational, and social factors influence on housing pre-purchase and economic factors including poverty, economic efficiency and economic crisis. Also, Varesi and Musavi (2010) did a study, entitled: “effective factor survey on housing price, using the Hedonic model”. Their findings showed that the land area, infrastructure area and the number of floors are the most important parameters on housing price in

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Yazd. As the housing price has changed to 0.49 and 0.38 due to one percent increasing in land and infrastructure area, respectively. Some variables, also, had the negative sign. Results show that housing price will reduce 0.22 % in consequence of one unit change in building age. The housing price, in addition, will decrease 0.25 percent due to one unit change in building distance from the downtown. Nijënstein, Haans, Kemperman, and Borgers (2015) With the use of a mixed logit model, the importance and influence of the housing characteristics and taste heterogeneity have measured. Individual differences were explained with the use of socio-demographics and human values. The results show that heterogeneity is present in the housing preferences of students. These differences can be explained partly by socio-demographics and human values. Human values are thought to give additional understanding of differences in students’ housing preferences on top of socio-demographics. Within this experiment, hypothetical student houses were defined by systematically varying nine housing characteristics: price, size, kitchen sharing, bathroom sharing, cycling time to city center, cycling time to campus, outdoor space, walking time to supermarket, and walking time to park. Liao and Wang (2012) have estimated the housing price in some areas of China during the 2009. In this study the effective parameters on housing price, have been recognized in economic-social variables framework and physical-environmental properties. Empirical results of this study showed that the per capita income and population density are the most significant variables on housing price in these areas. Results also reveal that some variables including the distance from the downtown, the area of each floor, distance from the urban park and the number of rooms were meaningful and effective on housing price. Kim, Park, Lee, and Xue (2015) estimated house price determinants in the Korean housing market, focusing on Seoul and employing the method of a quantile regression of a hedonic price model. The hedonic variables em-

ployed in this research include building age, size, floor height, and floor level, proximity to metro station and high school and scenic view. The empirical analysis finds that school proximity has the largest effect on the prices among dummy variables and that the level of the effect is larger in lower quantiles (lower-priced houses). Lehner (2011), estimated the housing price in Singapore, using the Hedonic model. Results have showed that the area of each floor, access to urban services and the type of ownership have the positive effect, while the building age, the distance from the downtown, the distance from the nearest public transportation station, distance from the shopping centers and educational centers in addition to dealing season have the negative effect on housing price. Vichiensan and Miyamato (2010) evaluated the effect of urban rail transport lines on housing price in Bangkok, Thailand, using the Hedonic model. In this study the house selling price, land area, the number of bath in each residential unit, the building age, infrastructure of each residential unit, the spent average time, reaching to the city center and the nearest railway station, have been utilized. Results show that the land area, the number of bath in each residential unit and infrastructure of each residential unit have the positive effectiveness, whereas, the variables including the building age, the spent average time, reaching to the city center and the nearest railway station have the negative effect on housing price. Xiaolu and Yasushi (2005) studied the various parameters effect on housing price in Japan. In this study the consequence of different variables on housing price have been assessed; the findings reveal that the area and infrastructure have the positive correlation with land price, while the population density, the land use and road cover ratio in Seijo area have had the positive and meaningful effect on land price. 2. Materials and methods Heterogeneity and diversity is one of the most important properties of housing composite commodity, as it can

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life quality, then, should be considered, buying a home (Gouriéroux and Laferrère, 2009: 207; Sadeqi et al., 2008). Hedonic method states that the economic target of goods and services production should be the customer satisfaction. Hedonic method is applicable when the higher satisfactory is desired Figure 1. Hedonic (Rosen,1974., 39).

price

function

be claimed that any two house are not same as each other. Heterogeneity is searchable in many ways such as physical properties from the geographic and environmental aspects (King, 2017). In physical properties viewpoint, houses have different ages. It is possible for a house to be usable after many years old whereas another new house can be destroyed after few years; this state depends on the house quality and its materials. Houses, also, are different in number of rooms, having a good ventilation and hygiene in physical standard aspects beside the geographic viewpoint. Only building and its plan has similarity in mass production and houses always are different from each other in location, neighboring, light, sound and landscape factors. Also, houses are different in accessibility to urban services such as schools, parks, hospitals, cultural centers and etc. and their distance to downtown. In housing price study, thus, the hedonic model is used generally for the assessment. In Hedonic studies, supposed that the housing price is a reflect of inhabitants’ desire to pay for the facilities accessibility, in and out of the building (Xiao, 2017). In other words, it supposed that the differences of property prices are because of the differences in housing properties. Considering the abovementioned definitions, the housing price shows the maximum money, which people desire to pay for the better life quality, a certain amount of internal equipment and building situation and its accessibility to urban services(Abidoye & Chan, 2017). The Hedonic price concept has been founded on Lancaster (1966), Griliches (1971) and Rosen (1974) theories. Most of specialties affect the

than the general one (Rosen, 1974: 34). The housing Hedonic model, then, is a function of various consumer goods (X), Environmental prosperity features (z), a vector of physical properties such as number of rooms, used materials, view and infrastructure and etc. (S) and a vector of accessibility and neighboring (N) (Freeman, 1993 & Batalhone and etal 2002). Rosen (1974) considers the distinct goods Z with different properties z1, z2, …, zn as below: If the price of each stuff properties shown as p(z), then the p(z) reveals the distinct properties price changes due to changes of each variable. On the other hand, the utility function can be displayed as below: In Utility function, x is the compound goods rather than housing and is a parameter identifier that maximize the consumer desirability. The bud-

get limitation should be considered in consumer utility maximization. The budget limitation function supposed as below: Budget limitation function, y, shows the consumer income and supposed that x equals to one. The final rate of displacing between the certain goods properties and compound goods other than housing will be as below: Equation 3 shows that changing in z goods properties will cause the price changing and it affects the final utility ratio towards the goods x. The consumer final utility, therefore, could be in relation with housing properties and its price (Xiao, 2017). Figure 1 shows the Hedonic function concept.

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In figure one, the residential unit properties have been shown in horizontal axis with Z and r is the desirability of costumers for residential units. The Hedonic price curve then, shows the different prices and costumers various pays. In other words, each vendee pays different price for residential unit based on his satisfaction or desirability of residential unit properties. This function, thus, is expressed as a curve. Considerable point in this graph is that desirability price is different person to person (Xiao, 2017; Ham, 2011). 3. Study area recognition and variables of model Nyavaran is one of the northern parts of Tehran in southern slopes of the Alborz mountains. At the moment, Nyavaran is located in district four area one. It limited to Jamalabad- Bahonar campsite from the north, to Shahid Bahonar Street from the south, to Pour Ebtehaj from east and to Jamshidieh from the west. This district has about 1699379 m2 area and its population was 8979 people upon to 2006 census. There is an especial architecture in this area due to region slope. Also its height is about 1700 m, caused the cooler weather than the other districts in Tehran. In present study the first part related to the literature review and theoretical bases and has been gathered from the library documents and various texts; residential units’ data has been earned, using the questionnaire and field surveys. Real estate consultants were subjected to the questionnaire in addition to residential units’ inhabitants, determining the market value of residential units. Eventually the SPSS 16 and EVies 7 were used for the questionnaire data analysis and model estimation. Utilized variables will be as below, considering the Hedonic model: 1. Dependent variable (the housing price (LPRICE)): in present study the housing price was expressed in Iranian Rial. The various properties of housing affect the price in addition to supply and demand law. 2. Independent variables, categorized in 3 group: A. Physical variables B. Accessibility variables C. Environmental variables

Figure 2. Nyavaran District, Tehran, Iran. Table 1. Independent variables of the study.

Table 1 introduces the independent variables of present study. 4. Empirical results 4.1. Model estimation and results analysis The overall model was designed first, for the Hedonic model estimation and finding of each variable’s coefficient and some variables were omitted for the best result achieving. In present study the log-log model could not be used because some variables were virtual and select the zero or one; therefore, a linear-logarithmic form was applied for the model estimation. The initial form of model is as below and the related results of model estimation have been shown in table 2.

Based on table 2, it can be said that applied variables have different effect coefficient whereas all variables could

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Table 2. Results of housing price function estimation in Nyavaran].

not be referenced in price estimation analysis. On the other words, only the meaningful variables have interpretation capability. The meaningful variables can be interpreted as below: The age and building antiquity is meaningful and positive, The shorter the life of the building, the housing price increases by 0.86%. Level of Literacy is a meaningful and negative variable. In other words, the lower the level of education will decrease the housing price by 0.37%; it can be deducing as the low purchasing power with lower education level. The lack of parking in residential unit is negative meaningful variable and reduces the price by -16.156%. The number of rooms is positive, so that one extra room can increase the price by 1.37%. the building view side on the other hand is positive and meaningful and rises the building price by 0.13 %. Interior architecture and elements such as stucco, flooring, walls and decorations are effective factors in price, the higher the quality of the interior architecture, the more expensive the housing by 1.3%. The better lighting of building can raise the price, this variable is positive here and has a coefficient equal to 48.83%. The traffic situation on alley or street for the house, located there is a nega-

tive variable. The residential units located in dead-end alleys or streets are cheaper than the others. The coefficient amount is -0.31%. The distance from schools is a positive variable, in other word, people prefer to pay more money to be farther away from schools due to their noise. Results show that the price will increase by 0.1 % per unit farther away from school. 5. Conclusion One of the most important subjects in housing sustainable planning, is the willingness to pay from the residential units’ buyers. In other word, each buyer likes to pay more money for one or more especial properties of housing that will cause the rising of customer satisfaction which is the final goal of sustainable housing planning. Present study which has been done in Nyavaran-Tehran, tries to find the most important variables that consumers ready to pay more for them. The variables were categorized in three classes including physical, accessibility and environmental indicators. The building age, parking, the number of rooms and interior architecture were the meaningful variables and interpretable among the physical indicators. It can be found that present study is in accordance to the other studies, for example the building age variable

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has been a meaningful and interpretable variable in all studies such as Pour Mohammadi et al. (2014), Gholipour and Farzanegan (2015). The price of the building decreases, in consequence of building age increasing. Also the number of rooms was meaningful in all studies. The accessibility indicator also has the effect on housing price. Only the distance from school has been meaningful and reveals that the housing price will be more in consequence of more distance from school. This variable has not been considered in other studies; in Varesi and Musavi (2010) this variable has become meaningless. In environmental indicator and its variables, model results show that street traffic and the level of education can be effective on housing price in Nyavaran. It seems that in previous studies only Pour Mohammadi et al. (2014) considered the street traffic and the level of education, upon to their studies these variables were meaningful and increase the housing price. Present study tries to estimate the price, using the housing Hedonic price function for Nyavaran district, Tehran, Iran and move towards the final target that finds the consumer priorities in house selection and move on the way to housing sustainable planning. Custodians want to determine either consumers prefer a house with more rooms, interior furniture, land area and etc. or the accessibility is their priority. The satisfactory level of the city will be grow, satisfying the demands and consumers’ priorities; satisfactory rising, therefore, is one of the city sustainable parameters. For this aim a questionnaire was made which effective variables on housing price in it, have been divided in 3 group including Physical, Accessibility and Environmental variables. data was gathered, asking the families and the housing price was obtained asking the real estate consultants. Then the intended Linear- Logarithmic function was estimated by SPSS and EViews 7 software. Results show that all variables are not meaningful and cannot be interpreted. Some of them were positive and the others were negative. Positive effect means that housing price will be increased due to variable rising and vice versa.

Positive meaningful variables include building age, the number of rooms, building view side, interior architecture of building, lighting, distance from school, while the negative variables are lack of parking, low level of education and street traffic. Obtained results can be applied in civil and technical projects; also mass producers and custodians should pay attention to consumer desires to buyers feel more satisfaction due to their purchase and subsequently this satisfactory will rise the life quality and sustainability in urban environments. References Abidoye, R. B., & Chan, A. P. (2017). Critical review of hedonic pricing model application in property price appraisal: A case of Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(1), 250-259. Adair, A. S., Berry, J. N., & McGreal, W. S. (1996). Hedonic modelling, housing submarkets and residential valuation. Journal of property Research, 13(1), 67-83. Adams, A., & Crawford, I. (2015). Models of Revealed Preference. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource, 1-15. Ali, G., Bashir, M. K., & Ali, H. (2015). Housing valuation of different towns using the hedonic model: A case of Faisalabad city, Pakistan. Habitat International, 50, 240-249. Batalhone, S., Nogueira, J., Mueller B. (2002). Economics of Air Pollution: Hedonic Price Model and Smell Consequences of Sewage Treatment Plants in Urban Areas. University of Brasilia, working paper. Bozkurt, Ö. (2016). Denizli’de gayrimenkul değerini etkileyen fiziksel unsurların tespitine yönelik bir araştırma. Chiu, R. L. (2004). Socio‐cultural sustainability of housing: a conceptual exploration. Housing, theory and society, 21(2), 65-76. Collen, H., & Hoekstra, J. (2001). Values as determinants of preferences for housing attributes. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 16(3-4), 285-306. Czembrowski, P., & Kronenberg, J. (2016). Hedonic pricing and different

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urban green space types and sizes: Insights into the discussion on valuing ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 146, 11-19. de Oliveira Santos, G. E. (2016). Worldwide hedonic prices of subjective characteristics of hostels. Tourism Management, 52, 451-454. Dieleman, F. (2017). Households and housing: Choice and outcomes in the housing market: Routledge. Farzanegan, M. R., Gholipour, H. F., & Nguyen, J. (2016). Housing costs and inequality in post-revolutionary Iran. Economic Welfare and Inequality in Iran (pp. 111-128): Springer. Freeman, A.M. (1993). The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values Theory and Methods. Washington D. C: Resources for the Future. Gholipour, H. F., & Farzanegan, M. R. (2015). Marriage crisis and housing costs: Empirical evidence from provinces of Iran. Journal of Policy Modeling, 37(1), 107-123. Gouriéroux C., Laferrère A. (2009). Managing hedonic housing price indexes: The French experience. Journal of Housing Economics, 18(3), 206213. Griliches, Zvi. Hedonic Price Indexes of Automobiles: An Econometric Analysis of Quality Change, in Zvi Griliches (ed.), Price Indexes and Quality Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971. Ham, C. (2011). Using the Hedonic Property Method to Value Federal Lands Proximate to Urban: Case Study of Colorado Springs. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado. Hayrullahoğlu, G., Aliefendioğlu, Y., Tanrıvermiş, H., & Hayrullahoğlu, A. C. (2017). Konut Piyasalarında Hedonik Değerleme Modeli Tahmini: Ankara İli Çankaya İlçesi Çukurambar Bölgesi Örneği. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 2 nd International Conference on Scientific Cooperation for the Future in the Economics and Administrative Sciences. Hayrullahoğlu, G., Aliefendioğlu, Y., Tanrıvermiş, H., & Hayrullahoğlu, A. C. (2018). Estimation of the hedonic

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Mohammadi, E. (2017). Identification and prioritization of effective factorson willingness to pre-purchase demand of housing. Muhallab Taha, M. (2001). The Potential Role of GIS in the Development and Applications of Urban Indicators: The Case of Housing in Khartoum, Sudan. Master of Science Thesis of Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Nijënstein, S., Haans, A., Kemperman, A. D., & Borgers, A. W. (2015). Beyond demographics: human value orientation as a predictor of heterogeneity in student housing preferences. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 30(2), 199-217. Pjanic, L. (1967). Housing Problems In Developing Countries The Economic Problems Of Housing (pp. 189-199): Springer. Pour Mohammadi, M., Ghorbani, R., & Taghipour, A. (2014). Factors affecting the price of housing in the city of Tabriz using hedonic model. Geographical Planning of Space Quarterly Journal, 3(9), 83-104. Rosen, Sherwin. Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 82, Jan./Feb. 1974, pp. 34-55. Scheiner, J., & Holz-Rau, C. (2007). Travel mode choice: affected by objective or subjective determinants? Trans-

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Urban waterfront parks as part of quality of life in İstanbul

Hande TÜRKOĞLU1, Serengül SEÇMEN2 1 turkoglu@itu.edu.tr • Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 serenguls@gmail.com • Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.23600

Received: March 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Waterfronts or other natural resources contribute in a positive way to the quality of urban life. Parks located on the urban waterfronts can be defined as being both valuable and unique as they combine the natural settings of water source and green spaces to meet the physical and social needs of urban inhabitants. The aim of this research to emphasize the importance of natural areas for the life quality by focusing on the user preferences of the parks on urban waterfronts in Istanbul. The evaluation of the urban waterfront parks in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area is presented by empirical data on quality of life. A face-to-face interview was conducted within the scope of the data set consisting of 1635 residential units selected by a random sampling method. As a result, the reasons that shape the preferences for urban waterfront parks will be discussed and various suggestions will be presented to increase the use of waterfront parks in order to improve the quality of life in Istanbul. Keywords Waterfront parks, Recreation, Quality of life, İstanbul


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1.Introduction It is commonly agreed that parks and green spaces are of importance when attempting to provide a better quality of life for an urbanized society. Individuals tend to relax mentally and physically when they are in contact with natural elements, and this can occur in various ways such as through recreational, social, cultural and physical activities in open spaces (Barton et al., 2000; Ritter, 1966; Carr et al., 1992; Czinki et al.,1966). By the time of the Industrial Revolution, according to Ritter (1966) urbanization had further raised the already high working populations of cities, and due to the destructive effects of longer working hours these cities were not able to provide any means of relaxation for their rapidly expanding urban societies. Therefore, parks and green spaces may be considered essential to relaxation and mental restoration. A study by Kuo and Sullivan (2001) presents the empirical evidence of the positive functions of green areas that shows the residents living in “greener” surroundings reported lower levels of fear and demonstrate less aggressive and less violent behavior. Additionally, the visual quality of urban parks and green spaces is a critical issue to support the positive impacts of these environment that even highly urbanized areas with a better visual quality may reduce stress and provide a sense of peace and tranquility for their users (Ulrich, 1981; Kaplan, 1983). Within this framework, parks located on the urban waterfronts may be defined as being both valuable and unique as they combine the natural settings of water source and green spaces to meet the physical and social needs of urban inhabitants. Water is a natural asset, and an urban waterfront is the open space located along a water source such as a sea, river, canal or lake. Azeo Torre in Urban Waterfronts (1989) points out that: ‘It is at the edge that man is at his best, that life is most vibrant. It is the lure of water, its spell, its reflection, its endless movement and change, that best captures man’s imagination and provides a variety of applications from business to recreation, from calm to passive activities, the water’s edge is where life is

most diverse and unique’ (Falk, 2003). Since water itself provides a variety of opportunities, it caused the development of various uses and activities on the urban waterfronts. There are distinct approaches to classify the uses and activities carried out on waterfront areas, including parks and green spaces. Smith and Fagence (1995) distinguish waterfront parks as having water-independent uses, which are those neither dependent on, nor directly related to their water edge locations. Breen and Rigby (2003), in their pioneering work ‘The New Waterfront’, established a system of classification depending on the main functions of waterfronts. It includes recreational, residential, commercial, historical, cultural, service and environmental areas that recreational uses comprise parks, walkways and open gathering spaces along the water. In this case, waterfront parks are distinctive combinations of natural elements, built works, physical, social and cultural activities. Their positive image and visual attraction of water can contribute to the spatial quality of a given area, while providing places to improve socialization and health by promoting a better quality of life. This study aims to demonstrate the contribution of urban waterfront parks to the quality of life considering the resident’s preference ratio of waterfront parks in Istanbul. Specifically, the relation between the socio-economic characteristics of waterfront park users and their preferences are going to be asset by the following research questions: Are the waterfront parks highly visited among whole parks all across the city? Which waterfront parks are preferred more than the others? Which waterfront parks are preferred by residents of which parts of the city? 2. Contribution of urban waterfront parks to quality of life The negative effects of urban life such as weak space quality, pollution, traffic congestion, lack of access to services and lack of social cohesion had to be balanced, and the class of activity used to achieve this was termed “recreation”. Czinki et al. (1966) defines it as; time spent to regain a “human” psychological and physical condition.

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Figure 1-2. Brooklyn waterfront. (Photo: Ümit Yılmaz)

Therefore, it is important to provide open areas in the city that people can use for short-term purposes, such as eating lunch or resting, and which can also be used in the long-term for activities such as exercising (Carr et al., 1992). A survey of visitors to Vondelpark, one of the most popular parks in Amsterdam, was conducted to collect data regarding the motives of its visitors. These were given as: to play sport, to meet others, to play with children, to walk the dog, to listen and observe nature, to contemplate and meditate, and to get artistic inspiration, as well as other undefined responses. The analysis of people’s motives to visit nature shows that “to relax” is most frequently mentioned (Chiesura, 2003). The results emphasize the importance of parks regarding interrelated physiological and psychological needs of people. Specifically, natural areas on the waterfronts such as parks provide a distinctive ground for relaxation where the water source and green elements meet. Additionally, these spaces support the water-related recreational

activities such as watching the water view, walking along water, swimming, canoeing or fishing. However, the waterfronts serve to the recreational purposes, they have been far more commonly used for transportation, production and economic activities throughout the history. During the 19th century, waterfronts became vast infrastructures of large-scale developments for industrial production that destroyed the relationship between the city and the water. Following the post-industrialization period, these areas were abandoned and turned into brownfields. Starting in the 1980s they became urban development areas with efforts to integrate them into the city (Marshall, 2001; Bruttomesso, 1999; Hoyle, 1992; Meyer, 1999). Today, cities across the world are striving to achieve similar objectives by utilizing their waterfronts to create better quality of life through their economic, social and spatial aspects. Smith and Fagence (1995) state that in an era of increased leisure time, recreational participation, environmental concern and tourism, many waterfront cities have attempted redevelopment and restoration projects. The scope of waterfront development has already expanded not only economically, but also recreationally and environmentally, providing new recreational and social opportunities (Carr, 1992; Breen and Rigby, 1996; Moughtin, 1992; Meyer, 1999; Gastil, 2002) regarding the social benefits by encouraging the use of outdoor spaces and increasing social integration (Coley et al., 1997). Open space and recreational uses, the inseparable components of waterfronts, are most commonly created as waterfront parks, recreation grounds, sports fields and the like. Even the tradition of waterside parks in example riverside gardens is an old one, dating at least as far back as ancient Babylon (Hudson 1996). Today, one of the influential cases is the ‘Madrid Rio’ project, which is realized on the banks of the Manzanares River running through Madrid in 2011. This area used to be surrounded by a vehicular road system, which has been replaced by an underground, and the available space has been re-designed as a large-scale

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system of green spaces. Also, in New York, the city has opened large portions of the waterfront to the public in recent decades through the creation of new parks and esplanades (New York City Vision 2020, 2011). According to one of the planning strategies, public open spaces on the waterfront can be used to transform neighborhoods and turn previously inaccessible lands into vibrant community gathering areas. This is demonstrated by the Hudson River Park which turned the once-derelict shoreline on the west side of Manhattan into a world-class destination with a greenway, views across the water, a range of recreational opportunities, public piers, a waterfront esplanade, and a limited number of commercial uses. Likewise, the new Brooklyn Bridge Park (Figure 1 and Figure 2), which opened in 2010, became Brooklyn’s most significant new park in more than 100 years. Not only has it benefited those who live nearby but it has also become a draw for tourists (New York City Vision 2020, 2011). Besides, the integration of water source as part of the park design is a critical issue to expand the positive impact of the environment on users that may vary from one place to another, and may be perceived in different ways. A study comparing the usage of urban parks in Turkey and Netherlands found that although water is an important element in all parks, it is used as a decorative rather than a natural element in parks in Turkey whereas in the Netherlands, water is seen as a native element of urban parks (Ak, M., K., Eroğlu, E., Özdede, S. & Kaya, S., 2014). Be the artificial or natural waterfront of a source, should be better to be considered as a part of visual quality, which has strong relation with the quality of urban life. Another issue is design quality to provide a calm and peaceful environment. In terms of design, the Charleston Waterfront Park in South Carolina, which is one of the initial examples of its time, has a wide green barrier reduces any noise which may interrupt the calmness of the park, especially as it is used by residents for relaxing, running or fishing. As Frej (2004) mentions, before implementation the

Figure 3-4. Charleston waterfront park. (Photo: Ümit Yılmaz)

relationship between the park and the water was not clearly defined and the designers decided to build the park up to a level above the water to create a defined edge and visual access to water. The objective was to inject new life to the waterfront and provide a safe and attractive environment that would bring people to the historic downtown area where the park became a part of a wider system for public use. Also, spatial continuity and integration was achieved through the implementation of a master plan for the whole urban area of the Charleston Peninsula (www. sasaki.com/projects). Since waterfronts shape the natural and artificial boundaries of a city, they may also have disadvantages depending on their distance from central urban areas. In such cases, to ensure the livability of the waterfront parks, it is important that accessibility is provided through the public activities and various public transportation modes. In the case of Charleston Waterfront Park (Figure 3 and Figure 4) comprising five-hectare green space that serves as a transition between the Cooper River and the historic downtown of Charleston that the main design decision was

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to ensure accessibility by establishing the strong physical connections between waterfronts and the city (Frej, 2004). 2.1. Problems about design, planning and management of waterfront parks Green areas and parks have an important public role. They act as binders between a variety of urban spaces, and continuous greenways and strong connections may be considered as indispensable items for accessible waterfronts within a rapidly-growing city. According to the New York City Vision Plan (2011), the greenways along the water are defined as connectors to the water’s edge. They also provide recreational movement along the shore by the use of a pathway for non-motorized transportation between the natural and the built spaces. However, it is possible that due to the problems of accessibility, such as insufficient transportation nodes, interrupted physical access and lack of spatial quality, such waterfront parks may become dull spaces with low user density. According to the Project for Public Spaces (2000), waterfront development mistakes are classified as; single-use developments, domination by automobiles, too much passive space or too much space given to recreation activities, private control rather than public access, lack of destinations, a process driven not by community, and design statements such as stand-alone buildings. When a waterfront is limited to natural areas, recreational activities that use up a large amount of space, such as playing fields, are especially difficult to integrate. Similarly, a lack of crosswalks, poorly-marked entrances and walkways pass along private properties should also be avoided. During the 90s, the waterfront played an important role in the Boston city center redevelopment strategy. This focused on the development of a system of public facilities and areas connected to the waterfront through a network supported by Olmsted’s park system (Meyer, 1999). The strategy was called ‘walk to the sea’, and consisted of four projects: a civic center; the renovation of several old market halls; an underpass beneath the expressway;

and a new waterfront park which Meyer calls the “coping stone” that meets the water as the final layer of the public space system. According to Carr et al. (1992) however the Waterfront Park is the only large space on the Boston waterfront, the location of the park presented a number of obstacles against a strong sense of connection between the park and the city. These are the vehicular roads, which make a physical and visual barrier between the city and the waterfront site. Also, the New Waterfront Hotel, which creates a wall along the south side of the park is another physical and visual barrier. The design of the park also includes separate, not integrated activity areas. In the case of Boston, given the limited amount of public open space on the waterfront, and the obvious appeal of the water itself, building a physical and symbolic connection to the water was critical. Meyer (1999) criticizes how the design failed to take advantage of the only opportunity to powerfully reconnect the city to the sea. So, waterfront spaces and parks require a specialist approach to their design and management. There might be particular or various reasons behind lack of usage, and these should be carefully studied and evaluated within the framework of the natural, built and socio-cultural dimensions of the city. Before defining the principles that may be employed to draw people back to waterfront parks, issues including continuity, connectivity, variety and environmental quality must be considered in terms of their planning, design and management. 3. The urban characteristics of Istanbul as a waterfront city Istanbul is an ancient city with a history that goes back over one thousand five-hundred centuries. Straddling two continents and two seas, this historical waterfront settlement is a highly urbanized metropolitan city, which has been rapidly growing both in the eastwest and north-south directions since the 19th century. Today, with its variety of city centers, Istanbul is a steadily growing metropolis. The first settlement area was the historical peninsula (Map 1). This is locat-

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ed at the intersection of three distinctive water spaces, the Marmara Sea, the natural canal of the ‘Bosphorus’ which connects the Marmara Sea to the Black Sea, and the natural creek of the ‘Halic’ (Golden Horn). The Bosphorus is an international waterway and an active local transportation corridor, while the Halic is a calm inner harbor. Unlike the limited space and narrow interaction areas along the Bosphorus and Halic waterfronts, the Marmara Seafront, which consists of settlement areas developed during the 80s, is mostly built on vast tracts of reclaimed land. Throughout history, water has always been the intersection of busy transportation routes, and the waterfronts have always had a great diversity of industrial, commercial, residential and recreational functions. In the 16th century, the historical peninsula became the commercial center due to the ports of the Halic and Galata districts. Wiener (1998) describes the 18th and 19th century waterfronts with shipyards, the arsenal and the harbors around Galata and Halic, the boat repair and small ship maintenance facilities of the villages along the Bosphorus, and the charcoal warehouses and carpenters along the Marmara seafronts. Bilgin (1998) assets the village houses on the north coast of the Bosphorus, the private summer-houses, beaches and sea baths on the Marmara seafronts and their associated neighborhood parks, restaurants and tea gardens as the centers of popular culture and society during the first half of the 20th century. Unlike the natural coasts to the north, the waterfronts to the south are built up (Map 1,2, 3, 4, 5). The waterfronts were the first areas from which the city was developed and activities such as transportation, production and trade caused these areas to be urbanized. Since the beginning of the 20th century, uncontrolled urbanization has stemmed from unplanned socio-physical developments. These include immigration, unregistered construction activities, privatization, large-scale infrastructure projects, peripheral developments, and rapid growth in the east-west direction. The destruction of natural areas as a result of the spread

of built areas to the north, high-speed vehicular roads, insufficient connection nodes or public transportation networks, have brought problems and reduced the quality of urban life. According to Özbay et al. (2014) Istanbul is becoming an enormous heap of structures, and within this fragmentation, working class districts developed on the peripheries, thereby contrasting

Map 1-2-3-4-5: Periodical development of urbanization in Istanbul (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2014).

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Map 6: Major land use of Istanbul waterfronts.

with the hotels, residences and shopping malls at their centers. One of the most important determinants of the uncontrolled urbanization in Istanbul is the inward migration that occurred in parallel with its modernization. Continuous inward migration still brings mostly young people from all over the country who are seeking work. As a result of that, income level rates have accumulated at medium and low levels. Starting in late 80s, the existing industry in the city was removed to the peripheries, forming a new urban context. After de-industrialization, the city specialized in the service industry and a white-collar work force was established (Güvenç et al., 2012). The growth in population has brought an accelerated increase in residential areas, shopping malls, hospitals, universities, social facilities and recreational areas which caused the city to spread to the east, west and north. Today, the Istanbul waterfronts are built up with low rates of natural green areas and parks. According to Özbay and Akbulut (2014), the relationship Istanbul has with nature is the destruction of the natural environment by huge investment projects that have been planned or made recently. Although in recent years, the waterfronts have been losing their natural characteristics more rapidly than in the past, they began to lose their green areas centuries ago, and the most common solution was to use reclaimed land for parks. This can be seen in the major land use map (Map 6) with; • A series of recreational areas on the waterfronts of the inner parts of the Black sea, • Recreational functions on the European side of the Marmara seafronts and active green areas on the Asian

side, including marinas, industrial docks, waterborne transportation facilities and commercial ports, • The Bosphorus waterfronts with a number of recreational areas, smallscale natural green areas and fragmented active green areas of parks, • Small-scale green areas among the dominant commercial functions on the historical peninsula and small-scale maritime uses among the dominant active green areas of parks on the Golden Horn (Halic) waterfronts. The inaccessibility of green areas to different social groups is an important issue in Istanbul. According to Güvenç et al. (2012), residential areas became isolated due to the middle and upper class decomposition after the 1980s. Gated communities are located close to forests, green areas, lakes and seas, promising a life close to nature and far from the city’s crowds, thereby increasing the value of these living spaces. However, the social housing projects built for low and middle income groups are surrounded by limited green areas, which are fenced off, making them inaccessible. Accessibility is also another problem regarding weak connections by public transportation. Over time, the main connection vehicular roads of the highway bridges were transformed into development axis. Although the city served as a natural harbor with its waterways used for transportation for centuries, the Bosphorus bridges gave priority to private vehicles over public transportation. According to Özbay (2014), rather than the bridges there is a lack of connections between the eastern and western directions in the city wide, and similarly poor connectivity between the Asian and European Marmara seafronts with the dense urban growth and the northern regions where urban growth is underway. This situation is defined by Ozbay as “the immobilization of Istanbul”, is a network of streets and railways that do not intersect with each other. Even, the waterborne public transportation of this waterfront city has developed only at specific centers, and is being used only where there are limited transfer connections nearby. (Özbay, 2014).

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3. Istanbul waterfront parks Istanbul has a collection of green areas that includes urban forests, historical woods and gardens, city parks and waterfront parks. These green areas are mostly concentrated in inner-city, rather than on waterfronts (Map 7), which cover 38.760,000 m2 in total (including playgrounds, botanical and recreational areas, historical woods and gardens, city parks and waterfront parks), and waterfront parks account for only 11.475,000 m2. In comparison with the whole green areas, the ratio of %30 for waterfront parks is relatively a considerable high rate but on the other hand a low rate for a city surrounded by water. The Marmara waterfronts are the longest and widest, covering 7.475,000 m2 of green area, and have the highest rates of reclaimed land. In comparison, the Bosphorus waterfront parks occupy 2.850,000 m2 and the Halic waterfront parks occupy 1.150,000 m2. The waterfront parks along the edges of the Bosphorus, Halic and Marmara Sea can be categorized as; reclaimed land for large green areas and parks, walkways and small green parks with playgrounds. The waterfront parks are used for various recreational activities. The research of Koramaz and Turkoglu (2010) on user satisfaction for Istanbul parks found that rates are highest for the Marmara seafronts, and that the lowest are for the Bosphorus waterfront settlements. In addition, satisfaction rates are gradually decreasing in the inner-city areas, which are further away from the water. These findings demonstrate the positive impact of water on user satisfaction and supports the importance of the city’s waterfront parks. Although most of the city parks on the Istanbul waterfronts were established during the 20th century as symbols of modernization, most of the active green areas (historical woods and gardens, city parks, waterfront parks, etc.) date back to 19th century. The 1930s saw a rise in the number of beaches and the development of waterfront ‘city parks’, the most famous being Fenerbahçe and Bebek (Figure 5 and Figure 6). In relation to unplanned urban sprawl, rapid population growth is re-

Map 7: Green areas and parks in Istanbul (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2017).

Figure 5-6: Aerial view of Marmara seafront and bosphorus waterfront. (Photo: Handan Türkoğlu)

garded as a negative environmental impact because of an inability to provide enough green space per capita and the overwhelming of health services, education opportunities and public

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ed relation between open spaces along the waterfront (Figure 7 and Figure 8).

Figure 7-8: Lack of user density at waterfront parks in Istanbul. (Photo: Tunca Güzeloğlu)

transportation (Özbay, 2014). During the 80s and 90s, due to declining urban life quality, establishment of new parks and recreational green areas on the Halic and Marmara waterfronts became important tools by which to improve life quality in Istanbul. On the other hand, the development of vehicular roads parallel to the waterfront parks was totally opposing to the positive impacts of these relaxation areas. Kuban (1998) states that the negative impacts of spatial changes are related to the destruction of green spaces, the construction of vehicular bridges over Bosphorus, the development of summer-houses along the waterfronts and the collapse of residential structures on the ridge overlooking the Bosphorus. Additionally, Bilgin (1998) assets that the reclaimed lands of horizontal vehicular roads that run parallel to the Bosphorus, the busy maritime transit circulation, and the unhealthy quality of the water has spoiled specifically the Bosphorus waterfronts for public use. On the Marmara waterfront, reclaimed land has been used to make parks that have become huge passive green areas due to their difficult access. Besides their poor design quality, usage rates of waterfront parks may be negatively affected by the lack of a strong relationship between the parks and the water, insufficient green elements, the presence of nearby vehicular roads, weak public transportation and poor pedestrian connections, and interrupt-

4. Case study: A research on Istanbul waterfront parks 4.1. Methodology The purpose of the research is first, to contribute to the Strategic Plan and to determine the development strategy of residential areas in both physical (objective) and perceptive (subjective) terms, and second, to determine the spatial criteria for residential areas. The database was designed for two different research studies: one measures physical quality of neighborhoods, and the other measures the quality of life of residents (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). To identify the appropriate neighborhoods and select the clusters, a formula for density and land value was implemented (Map 8 and Map 9). Initially, a total of 740 neighborhoods were identified across Istanbul. These neighborhoods were then divided into 9 sub categories and analyzed according to the number of housing units and the number of buildings containing housing units. Within each category, 100 points were identified, totaling 900 points. The 900 points were then used in two areas of research: A physical survey and a QoL survey. The physical survey utilized the whole 900 points whereas the QoL survey used 423 points (Map 4). A minimum of 25 households were identified and registered for the 423 points, and were grouped into clusters. From these 25 households, 6 were randomly selected for interview (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). The survey was carried out in the autumn of 2005. 1635 households out of the 423 clusters with adult respondents (18 years of age and older) who were permanently resident in Istanbul were selected for face-to-face questionnaire interviews. The response rate was 65%. The information that was gathered included housing and demographic characteristics, land use characteristics, and other characteristics of the community. The questions consisted of different subjects such as public services and transportation, recreation areas and park usage, the neighborhood

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and neighbors, safety, work and shopping, educational and health facilities (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). The indicators for recreation and parks determined in the research were: • Overall satisfaction with parks and recreational facilities • How often parks were visited • Usage of park space • Importance of access to parks • User characteristics The respondents were asked to choose from a list of parks that they had already visited. These were then examined according to three categories: historical woods and gardens, waterfront parks, and city parks. The results of this paper are based on the given data of this research for the indicators for recreation and parks. 4.2. Results and discussion The results demonstrate that waterfront parks are preferred less than other types. The most preferred were urban parks and historical woods and gardens with the ratio of %61, while waterfront parks were preferred by 37%. As seen in Table 1, the most preferred waterfront parks are those on the Marmara and the Bophorus waterfronts with the ratio of 26%. Although the high preference rates for the historical woods and gardens demonstrate a balanced ratio among the choices, the same situation is not valid for the waterfront parks. For instance, Fenerbahçe Park, which is one of the most significant ones on the Marmara waterfront, is easily the most preferred. This research is intended to investigate the relationship between the preferences and the characteristics of Istanbul waterfront park users according to their residential location, income level, age and family status. The 64% of the waterfront park users live on the European Side and the 36% of them live on the Anatolian Side. For all respondents, the Marmara waterfront parks are the most preferred (55%), and the least preferred are the Bosphorus parks (19%) (Table 2). Supporting this result user locations along the Bosphorus are decreasing in relation to preference rates (Map 10). The respondents living on the European Side prefer the Mar-

Map 8: Density and land value categories according to neighborhood (mahalle) groups.

Map 9: Location of clusters.

mara waterfront parks with the ratio of 50%, followed by the Halic parks by 33%. Bosphorus parks have the lowest ratio of 18%. Respondents living on the Anatolian Side prefer the Marmara waterfront parks with the ratio of 66%, followed by Bosphorus parks by 23% and Halic parks by 12% (Map 10 and Map 11). In summary; • For respondents living on the European Side of Istanbul, the first preference is for Marmara waterfront parks (the biggest park area) and the second preference is for those on the Halic (the smallest park area). • For respondents living on the Anatolian Side of Istanbul, the first preference is for Marmara waterfront parks and the second preference is for those on the Bosphorus.

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Table 1. Ratio of park visits and categories (percentage distribution) **Historical woods and gardens are mostly belongs to Ottoman period, in the past these semi-public areas partially covered with trees and the area consists of different types of gardens.

Map 10: Spatial distribution of waterfront parks’ user locations in Istanbul metropolitan area

Table 2. Ratio of waterfront parks preference-users living on the european and the anatolian side (percentage distribution). Map 11: Marmara waterfront parks’ user locations.

A spatial analysis of the results is shown as a distribution of user locations in Map 10. It is a critical finding that the distribution of user locations is random, rather than accumulated on specific spaces, and that the highest rates of preferences are for the Marmara waterfront parks, which covers the biggest amount of green area on the waterfronts. This information shows that the users visit the parks, who reside among various parts of Istanbul, but mostly the respondents from inner-city areas prefer the Marmara waterfront parks. Maps 11, 12 and 13 show the distribution of Marmara, Halic and Bosphorus user locations separately. The users of the Marmara seafront parks are concentrated all over Istanbul, while Halic users are spread more over inner-city areas and Bosphorus parks user locations are spread over its inland areas. It is clear that in contrast with the users of the Marmara seafront parks who comes from all over the city, Bosphorus

Map 12: Bosphorus waterfront parks’ user locations.

Map 13: Halic waterfrontparks’ user locations.

parks preferred more by its residents. Maps 14 and Map 15 also highlight the life cycle and income rates of the waterfront park users at the given locations. In map 14, most of the locations in black are married couples younger than 45 years old with young children,

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Map 14: Spatial distribution of life cycling of users.

Map 15: Spatial distribution of user income

which projects a random distribution among user locations in Istanbul. Elderly (65 and older) users are the least common. Since waterfront parks are preferred by young families, this result assets that the parks are inaccessible for the elderly. As seen in map 15, user locations demonstrate a density of medium-income and low-income levels more than high-income, which demonstrates that the waterfront parks users are from various income levels. However, it is a critical finding that users with medium-income prefer waterfront parks the most and the users with high-income prefer them the least. Apart from the preference rates of socio-economic profiles, inevitably all users are facing accessibility difficulties for waterfront parks. 5. Conclusion The waterfronts are valuable urban spaces and parks are essential to urban waterfronts to enhance the quality of life. Opening large portions of waterfront to the public use with parks and providing communal areas for a range of recreational activities may transform urban life in a positive way. A strong visual and physical connection between water, park and the city contribute also to the urban image. In

this case, the waterfront parks should be handled with a sensitive approach in terms of their planning, design and relation with the rest of the city. Istanbul is an historical water edge city where urbanization has developed from its waterfronts. Although the waterfront parks of this water edge city count for a reasonable amount of area, they are the least preferred in comparison with the green areas and parks all over the city. This demonstrates that they don’t reach to the expected user density. Although the most preferred waterfront parks are located on the Marmara waterfronts, they are not accessible to various demographic groups. Considering the low preference rates in terms of user density and profiles, it might be assumed that this is a result of the weak physical connections and public transportation, unattractive spatial and visual quality of design, insufficient green and natural elements, lack of visual connections with water and physical connections between the waterfront open spaces, lack of surprising water-related recreational activities, existence of barriers such as vehicular roads and inaccessibility, vast passive green areas without activities and gathering spaces for communal life, bad water quality, lack of maintenance for parks and its elements. Consequently, several recommendations to attract people to waterfront parks and provide a better quality of life are given below: • A citywide project regarding the Istanbul waterfronts is needed for a sustainable development of its public spaces and parks, where participation is an important issue during the whole process in order to allow the consideration of a variety of user requirements. • Poor public transportation connections should be reconsidered in relation to the citywide planning of Istanbul. This, together with pedestrian movement and waterborne transportation, should be increased as a part of a wider network. • The Marmara, Bosphorus and Halic waterfront parks should be developed, both in relation to their unique socio-economical context, their geographical characteristics

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and their role in quality of life. • Physical and visual barriers such as vehicular roads running nearby parks should be avoided. This is especially important for the Halic and Bosphorus waterfronts, which are less preferred. • Design quality and management should aim to provide both visual and physical comfort through landscape design and its relation to the water source. • Attractive spatial and functional solutions are essential. These should consider introducing water-related activities, providing strong visual relation with water, supporting commercial-leisure functions, enabling a variety of recreational activities and also calmer environments. References Ak, M. K., Eroğlu, E., Özdede, S., & Kaya, S. (2014). Comparing Urban parks between Turkey and Netherlands: A case study of seğmenler park-frankendael Park and Göksu park-bijlmerpark. Selected Paper of 2nd Global Conference on Environmental Studies (CENVISU-2014), 0910 April 2014, Quality Hotel Rouge et Noir Conference Center, Rome, Italy. Barton, H., Tsourou, C., (2000). Healthy City Planning. World Health Organization, Kopenhagen. Bilgin, İ., (2012). Why and which world cities? Wanings, Flourishings Harbour Cities: Amsterdam, Barcelona, Hamburg. Harbour Cities, Metropolis and Architecture Series No: 3, İstanbul Bilgi University, 7-27. Breen, A., and Rigby, D., (1996). The new waterfront: A worldwide urban success story. London: Thames and Hudson. Bruttomesso, R., (1993). d’Acqua, Venedig Centro Internazionale Città., 1991. Waterfronts: A new frontier for cities on water. Eds. Rinio Bruttomesso. na. Venice: Grafiche Veneziane. Carr, S., et al., (1992). Public space (Environment and behavior). Nowy Jork, Cambridge. Chiesura, A., (2003). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning 68 (2004) 129–138 Elsevier Coley, R. L., Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan,

W.C. (1997). Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior, 29, 468-492. Craig-Smith, S. J., Fagence, M., (eds) (1995). Recreation and tourism as a catalyst for urban waterfront redevelopment: An international survey. California: Greenwood Publishing Group. Czrnki, L., Zühlke, W., (1995). Erholung und Regionalplanung. Hannover: Raumforschung und Raum. Falk, N., (2002). Turning the tide: British experience in regenerating urban docklands, England and Wales, URBED Archive. Frei, A., (2004). Charleston Waterfront Park. Remaking The Urban Waterfront, Urban Land Institute, Washington, 142-147. Gastil, R., (2002). Beyond the edge: New York’s new waterfront. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Güvenç, M., et al., (2012). Azman sanayi kentinden kentsel bölgeye. Istanbul’un Yüzyılı Sergisi. İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi. Hoyle, B., Stewart, B., Pinder, D., (1992). European port cities in transition. London: Belhaven Press. Kaplan, R., (1983). The role of nature in the urban context. In: I.Altman and J.F.Wohlwill (eds.). Behavior and The Natural Environment. New York: Plenim Press. Koramaz, E., Turkoglu, H., (2014). İstanbul’da Kentsel Yeşil Alan Kullanımı ve Kentsel Yeşil Alanlardan Memnuniyet. 24(1) 26-34 İstanbul Planlama Dergisi. Kuban, D., (1998). Kent ve Mimarlık Üzerine Istanbul Yazıları. İstanbul: Yapı Endüstri Merkezi. Kuo, F.E., Sullivan, W.C., (2001). Environment and crime in the inner city: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime?. Environment and Behavior Vol. 33 No. 3, May 2001 343-367 Sage. Meyer, H., (1999). City and port: urban planning as a cultural venture in London, Barcelona, New York, and Rotterdam: changing relations between public urban space and largescale infrastructure. Utrecht: International Books. Moughtin, C., 2003. Urban design: street and square, London: Routledge. Müller-Wiener, W., (1998). Istanbul

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Limanı, Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yayınları. New York City Planning Department (2011). New York City Vision 2020. New York: New York City Planning Department Archive. Özbay, C., Candan, B. A., (2014). Yeni İstanbul Çalışmaları (Sunuş), İstanbul: Metis Yayıncılık. Özbay, C, (2014). Yeni İstanbul Çalışmaları (Yirmi Milyonluk Turizm Başkenti: İstanbul’da Hareketliliklerin Politik Ekonomisi), İstanbul: Metis Yayıncılık. Project for Public Spaces (2018). Retrieved from www.pps.org/article/ waterfrontsgonewrong. Ritter, W., Fremdenwertkehr in Europa in Craig-Smith, S. J., Fagence, M. (eds) (1995). Recreation and tourism as a catalyst for urban waterfront redevelopment: An international survey. California: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Sasaki Projects, Charleston Waterfront Park, (1999). Retrieved from website: www.sasaki.com/projects, 18.08.2017. Torre, A. Urban Waterfronts in Falk, N., (2002). Turning the tide: British experience in regenerating urban docklands. England and Wales: URBED Archive. Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., (2011). Measuring Quality of Urban Life in Istanbul in Isvestigating Quality of Urban Life: Theory, Methods and Empirical Research, Chapter 9, Robert W Marans and Stimson Robert J. Stimson (Eds). Dordecht: Springer, 209-232. Ulrich, R.S., (1981). Natural versus urban scenes: some psychophysiological effects. Environmental behavior 13:523-556. Hudson, Brian James, (1996). Cities on the shore. London: Pinter.

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Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara Nawal BENSLIMANE1, Ratiba Wided BIARA2 1 benslimanenawel@yahoo.fr • Department of Architecture Archipel Laboratory, Faculty of Architecture, Tahri Mohammed University of Bechar, Bechar, Algeria 2 townscape11@yahoo.fr • Department of Architecture Archipel Laboratory, Faculty of Architecture, Tahri Mohammed University of Bechar, Bechar, Algeria

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.99705

Received: May 2018 • Final Acceptance: January 2019

Abstract As everywhere in the world, every traditional masterpiece emanates from a system in which the natural and cultural environment intersect, and are superimposed on a set of local know-how. It is these ancestral techniques and practices transmitted from generation to generation which, Achieving harmony between habitat and the environment, even a symbiosis between techniques, us, customs, and socio-cultural values, allow building architectures and landscapes with obvious universal value. However, traditional know-how including innovative solutions appropriate to each environment, are at risk of lapse or total disappearance leading to the disappearance of an entire culture. Typically, the popular house in Bechar (city located at the gates of the Algerian Sahara), this collective production has proved its worth for centuries, in a severe environment with arid climate. The objective of this work is to show the ingenuity of this construction deflecting the cold, the wind and the sun with passive means able to face undeniable challenges in the face of current production with artificial means (without any adaptation to climate and local context). Keywords Popular home, Know-how, Sahara, Ingenious construction, Climate.


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1. Introduction In ancient times, the architecture of “inhabiting” allowed “living together” and let the «temples and tombs” the task of hosting the “die-alone.”. Today, the situation seems reversed; the sustainable housing is rather based on the facts of the environment than those of social. Sustainable architecture is therefore in matter and in the social fact as well. It also organizes our relationships in the environment inside according to the dual axis to take advantage of the environment (benefit, protection, enjoyment).To extend the service life of a building and reduce environmental impacts, its design must anticipate changes in the current and the future user needs. But, many countries in hot climates remain devoid to this evolution, and the problems related to the degradation of the environment are of increasing concern. In terms of architecture and urbanism, designers must have answers to the problematic of the uncontrollable inhabiting, more related to climate damage. Throughout human history, man has had to satisfy such important needs as protection, shelter and preservation in order to survive in both natural and artificial environments (Arcan et all, 1999; Guliz Ozorhon et all, 2014). To achieve this, people organized the areas they chose within the natural environment and used bordering and encircling applications to modify these areas into new and safe artificial spaces (İzgi et all, 2003; Guliz Ozorhon et all, 2014) 2. Vernacular architecture Before being an economical, ecological construction, vernacular architecture is a response to social needs (Asquith et all,2006; Farajallah et all 2017) . Renowned for its simplistic techniques and materials shaped by local culture, it tries to adapt to the climate and geographical situation (Aziz and Shawket, 2011; Toe et all, 2015; Farajallah et all 2017). Among these materials, we mention adobe (clay or mud) used all over the world for thousands of years (Farajallah et all 2017;Bodach et all,2014; Priya et all,2012; Yorulmaz,1981;Saljoughinejad et all,2015).

Figure 1. Photos show the results of transformations: the search for an artificial internal comfort: the air conditioning and heating. Source: Authors.

For example, adobe is used in some modern buildings in different countries where climatic conditions are different. (Farajallah et all 2017;Loaiza et all, 2002; Hall et all, 2012;Kumar, 2002). Just as a multiplicity of passive vernacular techniques (interior courtyards, wind towers, sensors,...) are similarly applied in modern buildings (Farajallah et all 2017;Hyde, 2008). However, there are some vernacular techniques that have been developed for the hot climates of the Sahara to benefit from cooling and natural lighting. These are courtyards, wind towers, domes, air vents, planting, water walls, solar chimneys, and mushrabiyah (Farajallah et all 2017;Alp, 1991). 2.1. Vernacular architecture in arab world From desert Bedouinism to modern urban planning, from tents to housing, vernacular architecture is changing, affecting its techniques and performance. (Farajallah et all 2017;Alp, 1991). The vernacular dwellings were built using locally produced materials, such as clay (adobe), limestone, stone and wood. Adobe made of clay, sand, silt and water, and used in the construction of walls, roofs has proven its worth in hot desert regions, and has stood the test of time (Farajallah et all 2017;Algifri et all, 1992) . Saleh showed that houses in Saudi Arabia (example of saharian geography) made of adobe have a better energy performance than buildings built of stone (Farajallah et all 2017;Saleh, 1990). Generally, the thickness of adobe walls is about 30 to 50 cm, whereas it should be at least 45 cm thick to obtain the total thermal mass, and typically, the roof is 30 to 40 cm thick (Farajallah et all 2017) Despite its supreme thermal properties, concrete

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and steel have nevertheless blurred the adobe (Farajallah et all 2017;Austin, 1984; Revuelta et all, 2010; Saleh, 1990;Heathcote, 2011). Researches show that, in traditional Arabian Muslim houses in some region, according to wind speed measurements (Figure 12),utilizing prevalent wind-ow in natural ventilation can provide a comfortable environment, a statement that is certiďŹ ed by the lack of electrical devices in the studied houses across the region(Sadra et all,2017). 2.2. Traditional shading elements: (iwan) evons, eyvans (porchs) and talars; the opening Eyvan and Talar are semi-open spaces (open on one side to the central courtyard) (Sadra et all, 2017;Pirnia, 2010; Foruzanmehr ,2015) they are combined with other techniques such as domes and wind sensors, water and vegetation use, contribute to the environment (Sadra et all, 2017;Mashhadi, 2012), (Figure 3), provides indoor spaces with favorable thermal comfort. (Farajallah et all 2017; Saljoughinejad, S et all. 2015). Iwan is a traditional element that provides shade for buildings, reducing incident solar radiation (Platzer, 2001, Hamid et all, 2018). Several shading system have been used in buildings to reduce energy consumption, especially in hot climates (Hamid et all, 2018; Mateus and Oliveira,2009. Baniyounes and all, 2012). and improve the energy performance of buildings, such as external and interior blinds (Hamid et all, 2018;Florides et all, 2000), overhangs (Hamid et all, 2018;Lee and Tavil, 2007), Venetian blinds (Hamid et all, 2018;Hans and Binder, 2008) and canopies (Hamid et

Figure 2. Photo of a patio in Ghardaia. Source: https://quintessences.u.q.f.unblog. fr/2014

all, 2018;Kenneth et all, 2010). While buildings require huge amounts of energy for cooling and heating, the cost of energy types is increasing (Hamid et all, 2018;Liddament, 2000. Kirimtat et all, 2016).The amount of energy required for comfort inside buildings depends on the climate inherent in this region (Hamid et all,2018;Anand et all, 2013;Susorova et all, 2013). Among the energy saving strategies in buildings, passive solar energy seems to be proving its worth (Hamid et all, 2018; Ralegaonkar and Gupta, 2010). Traditional Muslim architecture has always adhered to this solution (Hamid et all, 2018;Khalili and Amindeldar,2014). using wind sensors (Hamid et all, 2018;Saadatian et all, 2012),Shovadans (Hamid et all, 2018;Moradi and Eskandari,2012), yards (Hamid et all, 2018;Safarzadeh and Bahadori, 2005) and domed roofs (Hamid et all, 2018;Faghih and Bahadori,2011) as well as the tanks (Hamid et all, 2018;Ameri et all,2011) ice wells (Bahadori,1985); for cooling arid regions (Hamid et all, 2018;Bahadori,1978;Khoroshiltseva and all,2016; Datta,2001). Mehrotra has developed the thermal performance for the windows of a building with a shading model (Hamid et all, 2018; Mehrotra, 2005). (Hamid et all, 2018; Tzempelikos et all, 2010), found that insulating glass facades with low transmission coefficient create comfortable and stable conditions. The shading system made it possible to experimentally study the indoor thermal environment near a glass facade under variable climatic conditions in winter (Hamid et all, 2018;

Figure 3. Photo of a IWAN. Source: David J. David.

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Bessoudo et all, 2010). The shading system prevents solar radiation from entering the building in summer, while allowing solar radiation to increase in winter (Hamid et all, 2018;Haeri, 2010). Iwan as a passive shading system widely used in Middle East and North African architecture (Hamid et all, 2018;Florides et all,2002). 2.2.1. Courtyards or patio The inner courtyards of houses in the Arab Maghreb are generally small but deep, and less exposed to the winds (Figure 5). Their main role is to promote lighting and ventilation in dense urban areas (Carlos et all, 2015), In summer, they provide indoor freshness, as their characteristics they cool the air at night by wavelength radiation and ventilation (Carlos et all,2015;De Lama et all, 1991). During the day, they are covered with solar rays by canopies, cooling the surrounding rooms with air stored at night. Sometimes streams are equipped with water and vegetation that create a pleasant indoor microclimate (cooling is provided by evaporation). In winter, the courtyards provide heat gains, which are diffused into the surrounding rooms (Carlos et all,2015;Safarzadeh and Bahador, 2005). contrary to traditional houses rely on courtyards for energy savings, modern buildings consume 30 to 40% of the world’s total energy consumption, with a potential to reach 50% by 2050 (Sadra et all,2017;Marin and all, 2016). 2.2.2. Facade External facades are usually blocked by attached neighboring houses in order to reduce the area of external surfaces that face direct sunlight and hot winds. Openings are few, the only opening to the outside (Figure 4) is the houses’ entrance door (Sadra et all,2017;Khajehzadeh et all,2016).

3. Presentation of case study

Figure 5. The spatial composition of ksar: the statement. Source: Authors.

Figure 6. Plan of a typical popular house. Source: Authors.

4. Urbanism in the Sahara “The Sahara is a hot country where there is intense cold” (eim. E, 1966). The people of this hostile environment acted to the extreme of their knowledge and their know-how, on a semi-desert site, with fairly limited resources, to undertake institutions that meet both their pressing needs and their difficult living environment. At the urban level, two parameters are essential in the choices of implantation in hot, dry climates: The first is the presence of water and vegetation, being natural cooling fac-

Figure 4. Schema 1, 2 of climatique functioning of a ‘patio’. Source: https://quintessences.u.q.f.unblog.fr/2014 ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • N. Benslimane, R. W. Biara


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Figure 7. Representative photo of the urban morphology of vernacular fabric, wilaya of bechar.

Figure 8. House of an extended family in a traditional fabric. Source Fouzia M, K. T. Aoul, (2001), redrawn by the author. 1-entrance, 2-vestibule, 3-bedroom, 4-cuisine, 5-the middle of the house, 6-guest room, 7-storage room, 8-wc.

Figure 9. Arrangement of traditional houses in kenadsa. Source: Khizana Kenadsa.

Figure 10. Cylindrical jars buried to preserve dates (khbaya) in “el ksar” of the house “Béchar’s ksar source House of culture wilaya of Béchar, photo by M.A.Djeradi, 2013.

tors, humidifying the air and shading the soil. It absorbs less heat than the building materials. The evapotranspiration increases the relative humidity of the air and regulates the temperature. The second is the importance of the slope and its orientation, which determine the potential rate of ventilation of the site.Urban density is also favorable in hot climates because it limits the surfaces exposed to radiation. 4.1. The social role of the courtyard The compact urban fabric have a sociocultural interpretation which is considered determinant factor more than climatic factor, the insertion of the house in its neighborhood is essential in the traditional city: the neighborhood is an extension of the house. The neighborhoods are urban units that have their identities, traded from several streets and dead ends. Each neighborhood has its own basic amenities. The ksar is divided into several districts whose boundaries intersect in the central square where the great mosque is located. The concept of the courtyard was employed in saharian houses to seek privacy, natural ventilation and day lighting, The desire to preserve and protect woman by establishing limits that are impossible for any stranger to the family is the mark of his appropriation of the domestic space this is reflected in the separation of the feminine domain from which women practice space freely and the male domain. Cohabitation between several family cells forms of solidarity referring to a traditional social organization. 4.2. Techniques of popular architecture in the desert climate This climate is characterized by two seasons: a long hot season, when there is no rain, and a cold season of shorter duration, during which the rain showers are occasional. Throughout the year, the prevailing wind blows from the south, southeast. The comfort of the inhabitants does not require special air circulation, given the dry character of the climate. Thus, protection against sunshine prime on ventilation. It is suitable for all seasons to have homes

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Figure 11. Photo shows the compactness, an example of a lane in a Vernacular popular fabric overlapping floors for shade in the streets and protecting facades of solar rays. Source: https://www.google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar Figure 12. Photo shows the facade declined small drilled outside. Source: https://www.google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+ béchar Figure 13. A type of support very answered in the architecture of Ksour In the form of post called “elsouaries”. Source: Authors.

Figure 14. Type of traditional stake: in palm trucks supported by beams of the same material. Source: Authors. Figure 15-16. Building materials. Source: Authors.

in compact groups around courtyards and spread them in many narrow streets. (See figure 3 and 9). 4.2.1. Constructive building materials and systems The walls: boundary between the inside and the outside. The constitutive materials, thickness, color, coating and thermo physical property are the main factors in their ability to modify the thermal exchanges. In arid regions, it is necessary to achieve high thermal inertia walls having the capacity to store heat during the day and return at night to reduce the temperature fluctuations that are the basis of the discomfort.

4.2.3. The protection of exterior walls Protection of external walls has the objective of shutting down, to slow down and reflect solar flux. Several devices can be implemented: • The decline of the facade and roof overhangs • Wood and palm awnings protect vertical walls and procreate shading entry • Reflective materials; clay mortar in the same color • Local natural materials act as insulators • The foundation of the pillars and structural walls in natural stone

4.2.2. Massive Construction The massive construction provides shading spaces and facades.

Figure 16: Example of an old arch built according to the constructive tradition of the region: An arcade of the

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Ksar of KENADZA; Despite the deterioration of the roof and the degradation of the plaster and some stones constituting the arch, the work still resists due to the good disposition of the stones arch built without formwork by flat stones to note the way in which the arc is closed (source the culture house wilaya of Bechar) Figure 15, 17: cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades (source authors) 4.3. Internal distribution of spaces in the popular houses

Figure 18. Example of an old arch built according to the constructive tradition of the region: An arcade of the Ksar of KENADZA; Despite the deterioration of the roof and the degradation of the plaster and some stones constituting the arch, the work still resists due to the good disposition of the stones arch built without formwork by flat stones to note the way in which the arc is closed. Source: The culture house wilaya of Bechar.

Figure 19. Cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades. Source: Authors.

Figure 17. Cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades. Source: Authors.

4.4. Ingeniosity in construction’s technique The inhabitants use local building materials and resources. Bearing walls at a thickness of 50 to 60cm are erected with a large number of earth bricks made on site. - A sandy soil is used (50 to 70%) and clay (20%). Slightly moistened, land is put into molds and lightly compacted by hand. Once unmolded, it dries in the sun and gives birth to mud brick. Once dry, the bricks are mounted as cinder blocks with mortar made with the same land as bricks but screened to avoid the gravel. A coating of the same material with a thickness of about 2cm just covers the walls. This type of wall slowed the transfer of heat inside spac-

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Figure 20. Graphic appears a popular home with a court contain plant and patio covered with a dome containing from the top small windows for ventilation. Source: https://www. google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar Figure 21. Photo shows the shape of “moushrabiah”sun protection. Source: Author.

es. The Inner surface temperature of the wall facing the sun begins to take uncomfortable temperature values​​ at dusk.The flat roofs of a significant thickness 30 to 50cm are made from palm trunks of 3.00 to 3.50m of reach, put on bearing walls which support log, spaced at regular intervals of 50 70cm, tree branches are then placed perpendicular on the logs and support one or two layers of palms used to absorb water and serve as a formwork to put clay mortar above. However we can get a room climate or microclimate bearable during the hot period by carefully selecting the materials and design details. Unfortunately, the materials used in the actual construction such as concrete, cinder block and glass,are characterized by poor thermo physical against the intense sunlight that characterizes the region. The Wall today has become a mere boundary between outside and inside. The roofs have a low thermal inertia; do not have significant insulating properties constitute an absorption surface to solar radiation. (Liébard and De Herde, 2005). 5. The transformation of the know-how 5.1. Related to climate Like all cities of the sahara, Béchar experiencing excessive and uncontrolled development, the consequences have resulted architecturally by: The loss of identity and its bioclimatic qualities: efficient materials and appropriate techniques to integrate climate and environment. The applications of the vernacular construction techniques and materials have been demonstrated as a sustain-

Figure 22. Graphic shows the shape of a patio interior. Source: https://www.google. fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar

able option for buildings (Farajallah, 2017;Heal et all, 2006; Sayigh, 2014). However, these techniques and materials are not being employed anymore in the Arabian building industry (Farajallah, 2017). On the other hand, the modern houses have thinner walls and roofs and are made mostly from hollow blocks and reinforced concrete (see Figure 1). Indeed, the presence of an urban group profoundly modifies the structure of the lower layers of the atmosphere as the dynamic point of view or thermal one. The air flow is very disturbed by the numerous obstacles and of unequal heights that characterize urban areas. In addition, replacing the natural soil by large expanses of concrete, asphalt, stone, etc., and the concentration on a small space of combustion processes (heating, industry, transport) cause a significant change in the energy balance between soil and atmosphere. The air pollution that changes the composition of the atmosphere of the cities also causes a modification in radiative exchange and

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precipitation. Finally, the impermeability of the ground and lower evaporation transpiring surfaces disturb the water balance.(Sacré 1983).Contemporary home seems to break with the traditional popular building because extroverted composition of the inhabited space, the use of new materials (concrete block, cement, concrete, industrial brick) has become widespread, and gives an appearance similar to that of existing buildings throughout the country, despite the difference of climate context. The use of air conditioners producers of greenhouse gases, which increases pollution, lowers the environmental and climatic conditions. Because of the importance of conductivity and thermal diffusivity in the development of thermal balance (the thermo physical properties of new materials: thermal conductivity “λ” and thermal diffusivity “a”)The production of state housing is an important part of the total output of the city. It’s a massive production of open fabrics, consisting of bars without concern urbanity “with wide streets, exposed to violence sandstorms and heat of the sun. They are built in a repetitive alignment block of 4 and 5 floors, without relief or soul, cold in winter and hot in summer. This shows the inability of contemporary urbanism to adapt to the specificity of the Saharian environment. “ Therefore, if the environment is predominantly urban, an increase of the ascending heat radiation with big wavelength emitted by the environment. 5.2. The form is a social interpretation of a local culture 5.2.1. The social logic of spatial distribution and design The qâ’a expresses, (see figure 3) by a step and marking in the wall, a purely spatial distinction, but makes visible a symbolic hierarchy: the “low” part, durqa’a, is a distributor element, subordinate, it serves the circulation and the service, while the master (or mistress) of the place stands with his guests in the “high” part, noble, Iwan, where the places farthest from the threshold are the most honorable hierarchy noble space and daily space.

5.2.2. The popular home in arab-muslim world is a projection of a cultural image Culture has always been an essential dimension in the life of man who has manifested in the production of his living (Platzer, 2001). The ksar as a vernacular territory does not only express the environmental and landscape values, but it is also, the reflection of the local ethos (Hamid et all, 2018). Explain the choice of site and morphology of human settlements only by ecosystem constraints and / or technology is in our opinion, insufficient. Given the spiritual (sacred) seems at least as important, if not the most crucial (Hamid et all, 2018).Indeed, this architecture that is specific to a community characterized by its own representations is regarded as a reduced model of an Arab-Muslim city (Hamid et all, 2018). This is due to the organizational characteristics which it presents from the formal and functional point of view. On the contrary, other experts consider that these ancestral cities existed well before the arrival of Islam; they were confronted with several socio cultural and environmental factors, which engendered their morphology and their specific organization (Figure 7, 8, 9).In the Arab-Muslim, the religion has often been served as a landmark in the design of the dwelling and the urban landscape. As an example, we cite the choice of the orientation (even if this choice is irrational compared to other criteria), the requirement of a distinction between the sacred and profane spaces. THe issue of intimacy and the degree of openness to the outside are also determinant, by consecrating the inviolability of the private life (very rigorous ranking of spaces, by distinguishing the passage of places from the most public to the private ones, chicane entrance, introverted house, moucharabieh windows…). At the neighborhood level, it has led to sober uniform facades, allowing no distinction between the housing of the rich and one of the poor, despite the large difference of the interior. What strikes the observer, here is the general character unit.

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5.2.3. The expression of the material world in the Arab Muslim culture The landscape is considered as the cultural expression of the perception of the material world and its representation (Liddament, 2000). As the landscape can have diversified significances, since numerous cultural elements which are closely linked to a context, can intervene in the decryption of these deferent significations (Kirimtat et all,2016).The decoding of the landscape presumes a common language (Liddament, 2000). Thereby the study of the logic of the landscape construction requires the knowledge of the cultural specificities and conventions that are particular to the society concerned with the analysis. The example of the palm plantation (el-Jenna) in the construction and the conceptualization of the landscape oasis are particularly edifying. Te palm tree as a sacred tree of Islam and symbol of eternity is regarded as a crucial factor of the structure of the oasis land scape. In addition to the fact that the palm plantation is a work place, it is also a living being linked emotionally to the family. Thus, in several cases, each member of the family member owns a palm tree that holds his name. 5.3. Sociocultural factors: The transformations’ origin For a long time the work of the inhabitants, the design of contemporary houses by specialists has become the result of sedimentation of traces of exogenous and endogenous factors of transformation. No desire to have an originality of the traditional house that adapts to the physical and socio-cultural environment. The advertising discourse is analyzed as a set of cultural constructs, which, being market sensitive, reflect changing social structures, values and ideologies. Over this period the house structure has been transformed (Anand et all, 2013). Hence, the interpretation and appropriation of the modern society values, Which blur all previous simple principles, economic, ecological, based on cohabitation, social cohesion, and respect for the environment(Susorova et all,2013). Below is an illustration of the pro-

cess of the transformations through which the popular house passed, a typological variation accompanied by an evolution of the uses the fragmentation of the houses induces with the change dimensions of the yard. The transformation of the habitation is linked to the metamorphosis of the built object itself: to the successive modifications of the household, considered here as a unit of members linked by relations of solidarity and cohabitation and shared interests of production and consumption. The observations and the interpretation of the results of the questionnaire developed with the citizens show that the houses related to the town of Bechar passed during the second half of the twentieth century a multi-generational habitat, sheltering several generations and several parental families around resources, services and facilities pooled (sanitary, fire, but also products from oasis farms) and frequent use of collective services and / or public (sagia, fogara, washing, bath public ...), to a single-family dwelling. It would probably be wrong to say, however, that all these aspects of the house were determined by a single physic-architectural variable, socio-cultural factors affect (influence totaling 66%) the form (See figure 23). the plan, the facade, the technique, the volume, the appropriation of the space, the relation with the outside, and the accessibility to the site. Indeed, the different forms of housing, which the man conceived, refer to various factors (and often associated), having deter-

Figure 23. Histogram represents the degree of influence of the factors: socio-cultural, physical-architectural, environmental, economic on the popular house inherent to the ksar of Bechar. Source: Authors.

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Figure 24. Element of the sustainability in the saharian geography. Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara


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mined or modified them (site, climate, materials), these factors are all related to two entities: the man and his environment. Man, being the generator of this conception, referred in design to its social environment (the whole community in which it evolves itself, or on a smaller scale, his family, as well as the types of relationships he has with her). For Rapoport, the construction of a house is a cultural phenomenon, and its form and layout are strongly influenced by the cultural milieu to which it belongs. Through his analysis Rapoport refutes any classification of the forms of the house that would induce the physical aspects as a single causal factor. The physical aspects and the socio-cultural aspects must be taken into consideration, “but it is these that must first be emphasized. [...] The specific characteristics of a culture - the accepted way of doing things, the socially unacceptable acts and the implicit ideals - must be taken into consideration since they affect the shape of the house and the agglomeration» (Mateus and Oliveira,2009). 6. Conclusion The motivation of this study is related to the fact that the type of popular Saharan houses is being lost. Ignorance of inheritance “popular” causes the drift of the authenticity of local architecture that adapts to the environment and the rigor of warm climates. Concept which allows reproducing models “simple” typical in an era when climate change is needed. (See figure 24). Acknowledgments The authors thank the University and laboratory ARCHIPEL. References Algifri, A.H.; Gadhi, S.M.B.; Nijaguna, B.T. (1992).Thermal behaviour of adobe and concrete houses in Yemen. Renew Energy, 2, 597–602. [CrossRef]. Alp, A.V. (1992). Vernacular climate control in desert architecture. Energy Build. 1991, 16, 809–815. Ameri Siahoui, H.; Dehghani, A.; Razavi, M.; Khani, M.(2011). Investigation of thermal stratification in cisterns using analytical and Artificial Neural

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Triangulation study of water play in urban open spaces in Sheffield: Children’s experiences, parental and professional understanding and control Melih BOZKURT bozkurtmel@itu.edu.tr • Department of LandscapeArchitecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.24654

Received: May 2018 • Final Acceptance: February 2019

Abstract As a life source water is the reason why majority of world’s largest cities developed in the area where they are now and it is an aesthetic reason that influence many people and landscape architects. Although, how children experience many types of urban open spaces have been identified in the literature, evidence-based research knowledge was extremely limited about water experiences of children in urban open spaces. The purpose of this paper is to explore what makes water features in different urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience such environments. This research has adopted subject triangulation methodology and focuses on three research subjects; children, parents and professionals who designed and manages those spaces, which are three dimension of water play provision. Study suggest some striking results about children’s use of water features, parental controls and allowance, and professionals’ consideration. Keywords Children, Urban design, Urban open space, Water play.


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1. Introduction According to European Environment Agency (2010) world urban population was projected to become 70 percent of all inhabitants by 2050. However, in Europe the percentage of urban inhabitants has already passed those projections for the future. As was reported by World Bank (2016) 75 percent of European Union countries has already been living in urban areas in 2016. Furthermore, according to same data, urban living in the United Kingdom has increased to 83% of all inhabitants in 2016. It has been estimated that at least half of the world’s children live in urban areas (UNICEF, 2012) and projections illustrated that numbers are likely to increase in the future due to increasing popularity of urban living. These children need open spaces to spend time and energy and be active and fulfil their recreational needs. Children need at least 60-minute of physical activity to turn into healthy adults (WHO, 2015). Urban open spaces are the areas where children likely to play and undertake their daily physical activities. Therefore, it can be described that urban open spaces are the areas children need for the benefit of their physical and mental growth, improving their skills and extending their social barriers (NPFA, 2000; Broadhead, 2006). Understanding children’s experiences in urban open spaces is the first step towards providing better built-environment that meets children’s needs. There is significant literature developed since 1970’s about children’s experiences in urban environments (Ward, 1977; Lynch, 1977; Hart, 1979; Moore, 1986; Moore, 1989; Chawla, 2002). Urban open spaces are the areas where children from different backgrounds come together, which make them aware of differences among themselves and create self-awareness as well as helping creating shared identity and enhance the feeling of being citizens (Madanipour, 2003; Shaftoe, 2008; Gaffikin et al., 2010). Being with unknown children increases anonymity, which helps children to escape from their daily life (Woolley et al., 1997).

During their play children replicate the adult world that one-day they will become (Noschis, 1992). While they are replicating, children learn from each other. However, there are several constraints that effects children’s ability to play in open spaces. First, professional attitude towards children’s play has not been changed in the last five decades with play provision through same structured fenced and carpeted playgrounds, although especially older children do not find them interesting (Veitch et al., 2007; Shaftoe, 2008; Woolley, 2008). Secondly, it was identified that children’s experiences in urban opens space are also limited due to social and physical limitations of urban context. Some of those limitations are physical controls, such as intentionally placed obstacles to prevent unwelcomed activities are common (Kilian, 1998; Woolley et al., 2011); physical boundaries, such as undermanaged and neglected environment, traffic and car domination, litter, and lack of maintenance are recurrent problems (Lennard & Lennard, 1992; Tibbalds, 2001); social controls such as police, ambassadors, and anti-social behaviour orders (Flint & Nixon, 2006; Nayak, 2003); social issues, such as fear of alcoholics and drug users, fear of security, stranger danger, traffic danger, child abduction and parental worries (Valentine, 1996; Woolley et al., 1999; Veitch et al., 2006). Third, not only professional attitude but also the budget issues have been affecting the provision of better urban open spaces for children. Parks and open spaces are most affected areas from budget cuts in USA after 2008 crisis (Walls, 2014; Katz, 2006). In the United Kingdom situation was not any better. According to a recent report, 86% of park managers in the United Kingdom have affected by budget cuts since 2010; and slightly less than a half of councils had discussed selling green spaces and open spaces at one point (Neal, 2014). According Neal (2014) the future of the parks and open spaces does not seem to be very bright and there might be rapid decline in the quality of urban open spaces, if urgent action is not taken. This reduction in ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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the quality was estimated to take place especially in the most deprived areas of the country (Woods, 2014). Forth, children’s play is effected by parental concerns such as stranger danger, kidnapping, rapists and drug users (Blakely, 1994, Larson et al., 2013). Due to fact that play provision is oriented around parental concerns and children’s wellbeing rather than child development. The outcome of this approach is sterile, over protective and uninteresting play supplies (Veitch et al., 2006). Children’s play in urban open spaces has not seen a way of play provision and play policy, although children prefer challenging and loose elements that can be changed such as water, and being in the area where adults are (Francis, 1988). 2. Children’s experiences of urban water features As a life source water is the reason why majority of world’s largest cities developed in the area where they are now. Furthermore, water is an aesthetic concern that influences many landscape architects (Nasar & Lin, 2003). It was evident that through the casual observation and personal experiences that children like water and water play. One of the early studies that explored the relationship between water and children has shown that presence of water is important for children (Zube et al., 1983). Woolley et al. (1997) found that majority of children prefer water features rather than sculptures and statutes. This was significant finding to understand how important the water in urban open spaces is for children. For instance, later research findings show that designed water features and a pond provided seasonal experiences of water to the children using library (Derr and Lance, 2012) while the existence of water in parks can increase the active recreation of girls (Hume et al., n.d). More recent research in Mexico City showed that children identify good park if it has fountains in which they can run and splash (Gulgonen and Corona, 2015). Although children like the presence of water, children’s access to the recreational water in their home settings likely to be limited apart from some families from advantaged

background. Therefore, majority of children’s access to recreational water and their water play limited with urban open spaces. However, there has been limited research exploring children’ experiences of water play in public settings. One of those rare researches has explored children’s perception of river and river restoration and found that children have fears and concerns around rivers (Tapsell, 1997). Later on, following research about children’s perception of two London rivers and their play in river environment has indicated that rivers have little importance to London’s children outdoor play (Tapsell et al., 2001). The research about children’s interaction with water in urban open spaces has been carried out by Tunstall et al. (2004) and they have identified that rivers are seen as polluted, littered and dangerous places, and most of play around rivers was non-river related. However, the recent research identified disaffected young people’s positive relationship with rivers when they experience angling as an intervention (Djohari et al., 2017) The literature about children’s experiences of water features, and facilitation and control of water features in urban open spaces is limited both for natural and artificial water play. Furthermore, it seems that parental understanding and control of water play in urban open spaces has never been research. Therefore, this research paper aims to brings all three different aspects of the spectrum with subject triangulation methodology and it explores children’s water play in urban open spaces via children’s experiences, parental and professional understanding and controls. Therefore the aim of this research is to explore what makes water features in urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience those water features. 3. Study sites Sheffield city set as boundary criteria for this research due to logistic convince of the location and historical evidence that Sheffield had many water features in the past and still have the

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ones children currently interreacting. The criteria also involved that study sites being different in terms of their design, location and children’s experiences, in order to compare how natural sites are different than designed water features for children’s experiences, or how sites designed for visual proposes different from sites specifically designed for children’s play. Three sites were selected using the above criteria. The first site was the Peace Gardens, which is one of the favourite water areas in Sheffield (figure 1 and 2). The Peace Gardens included many artificial water features such as water falls, canals and water jets. Although they were not designed for water play, it has been a big children attraction in the city centre. The second site was Endcliffe Park (figure 3), one of the largest public parks in Sheffield. The Park has a natural stream that was used to power water mills. In the beginning of 20th century the site was turned into park. Two water mill ponds became rowing ponds and they are currently used for their visual aesthetics. İn addition to stream and ponds park has very popular stepping stones, where majority of children’s interact with water happens. The park does not include any artificial water element, but and example of natural water interaction. The park acts as a connection and transition between the City and The Peak District National Park. The third study site had been selected was Millhouses Park, which was one of oldest parks in Sheffield. The Millhouses Park has always related with water activities since it was opened in 1909. Currently, Artificial water play area specifically designed for children’s water play is a one of the strongest points of this park(figure 4 and 5). It is a family day out location for many families in Sheffield. 4. Methodology In order to achieve research aims and objectives triangulation approach was chosen. Triangulation is an approach that uses advantages of both qualitative and quantitative methods and originally introduced by Denzin (1970). In terms of Denzin’s (1970)

Figure 1. Arial photograph of the Peace Gardens.

Figure 2. The Peace Garden in september (Taken by Melih Bozkurt).

Figure 3. Arial photograph of Endcliffe Park.

classification this research is methodological triangulation, which consist of using at least three different research methods. This study used three research methods in various different ways explore the phenomenon (Table 1). The first method used was surveys that have been undertaken with Children and parents. Surveys were proposed to be ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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Figure 4. Arial photograph of Millhouses Park.

Figure 5. Millhouses Park Water Splash Park (Taken by Melih Bozkurt).

undertaken in primary schools within a 1-mile radius of a study sites. Three primary schools, each from different study site, recruited and participated to this research. Children age between 8 and 11 (year 4,5 and 6) included in this research and covers most of the primary school age. Children younger than Y3’s were not included on purpose because of their limited ability to read and write. Year 7 students were also not included due to their busy schedule.

Table 1. The relationship between methods and target groups that they cover.

Boxes that included surveys, consent forms, A3 size photographs of the sites, and instructions for class teachers were delivered to schools on an arranged date. Moreover, children were given take home surveys for parents to complete. Parents’ surveys were designed to get an understanding of the parents’ point of view about water play in public open spaces. Furthermore, surveys were also conducted with parents of nursery age children. The same criteria used for primary schools also applied to nursery school selection. Three nurseries accepted to take part in this research and surveys were placed at the sites where parents could easily see them and pick them up. Researchers also placed return boxes directly next to the survey boxes and under the poster explaining the research. As this was not an obligatory survey, parents picked them up out of choice. The second method used in this study was behaviour mapping observations. A tool for observing children’s experiences of water (TOWEC) was developed to undertake observation as none of the previous tools seemed to be suitable for exploring the children’s play with water in urban open spaces. The TOWEC included activity codes, age codes, gender codes as well as time, day of the observation, area condition, temperature, and weather conditions such as sunny, part-cloudy, cloudy, light rain, and heavy rain. More details about TOWEC explained elsewhere (Bozkurt, et. al., 2018). Behaviour mapping observations had been undertaken for a year in school holidays to increase the chances of witnessing children interacting with water features. Collected data was analysed cross-sectional between activity and gender, age, temperature and weather condition variables. Furthermore, all data was mapped to show the spatial distribution of different activities undertaken by different age and gender groups, and different weather conditions. The third method was interviews, which are able to reproduce the internal realities of people’s life stories, experiences, beliefs, values, ambitions

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and perceptions (May, 2001; Silverman, 2005). Although observations helped to develop understanding about children’s water play and its internal realities, it was important to explore how children’s experiences of water facilitated and controlled. First of all, in order to explore parents’ perception of children’s water play and their control, parents who took their children to study sites for water play were interviewed. Thirty interviews were planned to be conducted in each study sites and 90 interviews in total. These were short interviews that would take 3 to 5 minutes long, and can easily be conducted on the go. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with designers and managers of the study sites. The manager of the Endcliffe Park and Millhouses Park (same person) was interviewed. Due to fact that the Endcliffe Park was one of the oldest heritage parks in Sheffield, it was not possible to interview the designer. Although Millhouses Park is another heritage park, the water splash park was designed and added to park a few years ago. Therefore, designer of the water splash was interviewed. Considering the city centre spaces, both designer and the manager of the Peace Gardens were interviewed. 5. Results and discussions 5.1. Number and diversity of participants In total 237 children and 104 parents were participated to the surveys. Almost equal percentages of males and females were undertaken children’s surveys. On the other hand, females undertook 83% of the parental surveys and 17% were males. A total 85 interviews were conducted and 69% of te participants were females, and 69% were females and 31% were males. During the observation period 5217 children were observed and recoded to the TOWEC, which was later analysed. Furthermore, 4 professional’s interviews were also included in the analyses. Interpretations were made using all of the information obtained

Table 2. Gender diversity of children going to the open spaces.

Table 3. Gender of children interacting and not interacting with water features.

Table 4. Age diversity of children going to the open spaces and water features in them.

and most important results are cited in the following part. 5.2. Children’s experiences of water in urban open spaces This study show that almost equal numbers of males and females visited the studied spaces (Table 2). However, from observations and surveys it was evident that greater numbers of female children interacted with water in all study sites (Table 3). Moreover, figure 6 shows the example of female domination in Eclesall Park as it was identified by behaviour maps. Each individual dot on the map represents a child recorded in the area during observation in specific time period and doing a special activity. In the previous study, it has been concluded that water features make urban open spaces more appealing for adolescent girls (Hume et al., n.d.). This current study provided some additional evidence with respect to girls’ interaction with water, namely that, although parks are male dominated environments (Hume et. at. nd; Karsten, 2003), water features are seen to be more appealing for older (adolescent). This study has illustrated that age diversity of children visiting parks were similar among all study sites (Table 4). Children aged 8 and 9 paid slightly more visits than children aged 10 and 11. However, children’s visits to ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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Figure 6. Example of female dominance in Endcliffe Park.

Figure 7. Study site locations and postcodes.

the water features were different than proportion of children visiting those parks. Furthermore, in the results there was an evidence that children’s independent mobility increases by age. Children age 8 and 9 have never came to the city centre alone but as they get older higher percentages of children visited alone. Moreover, there is almost three times more children from age 11, who came to city centre with friends (33%), compared to children age 8 (12%). Additionally, there was a sharp increase between age 10 and 11 (24%, 33% respectively). All these findings about older age groups seems to be related with gained independent mobility, due to the fact that previous studies have identified that independence is gained from age 10 (Hillman & Adams, 1992; Hillman et al., 1990; Veitch et al., 2008; Brockman et al., 2011; Foster et al., 2014). As their independent mobil-

ity increases, children are likely to visit longer distances such as; city centre spaces, rather than their local parks. This study also suggests that there is a strong relationship between proximity of living and children’s visits to urban open spaces. The majority of children living in distant areas accessed both parks by car. For instance, 68% of the children living in S2 postcode area (Approximately 3 miles) and 58% of children living in S11 postcode area (Approximately 2 miles) accessed Millhouses Park by car (figure 7). Therefore, children in these areas, who have no access to a car might not be able to visit the water features. Results suggested that children who have never visited both parks were from S2 postcode area, which is on the East side of the city by comparison all parks are on the SouthWest of the city (figure 7). Those children and their families may not have access to a car. This is supported by the UK Census 2011 data, which shows that the highest percentage of people with no car ownership live in S2 postcode area among other areas (Office for National Statistics, 2011). This study discussed the relationship between proximity of living and use of urban open space with several indicators. Those findings seemed to support relevant research knowledge that suggests human activity directly related to distance and nearby open spaces are more likely to be visited more frequently, if desired exist (Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002a; Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002b; Veitch et al., 2006; Shaftoe, 2008). Two types of water interaction have been identified: active and passive interaction. Active interaction involves activities that require physical contact, spending time and energy with water features. Therefore, activities such as: walking/running in the water, playing with equipment in water, jumping in the water, or playing chasing games (water fights), can be counted as active interaction. Passive interaction does not require physical contact or spending time and energy with water. These kinds of activities are generally distant activities. For instance, observing water, listening to water, sitting around water, or laying around water. This is one of the most important findings of

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this study because no previous research was able to identify this sort of interaction profile about children’s water play. Moreover, this study also suggests that younger children seemed to be more interested with active water interaction than older ones in all study areas. Older children mentioned in surveys that “active water play was nice for young children”, “my sisters enjoying it” or “I really enjoyed when I were younger”. Moreover, they also mentioned that they “like picnicking”, “listening to music” and “watching water features”, which are passive interactions. This shows how they transition to different personality and move away from active water interaction to passive interaction, and how age is related with this transition. In Millhouses Park 80% of children interacted with water features, which was related with having structured water play area. However, only a few older children were observed. This was evident in the observations and age diversity map of Millhouses Park which shows the major difference in the age groups that experiencing water (figure 8). Although very limited research seems to be published about children’s interaction with artificial structured water features in parks, play literature provide evidence that children become uninterested in structured equipment as they get older (Veitch et al., 2006; Veitch et al., 2007). This was also the case with structured water splash in Millhouses Park due to fact that it was designed for children younger than 7 years old. 5.3. Parental attitude towards water play in urban open spaces Another aspect of this study was to explore parents’ perception and control of children’s water play in urban open spaces. Parents’ attitudes towards children’s water play were coded into three categories: positive, negative and cautious. Majority of parents’ attitude was positive (84%) both in interviews and survey and significant amount of parent favoured structured artificial water features in Millhouses Park. There are several reasons behind Millhouses Park being parents favourite place such as; Millhouses Park being family day

Figure 8. Millhouses Park age diversity behaviour map.

Figure 9. The Peace Gardens in summer when water features turned down (taken by Melih Bozkurt).

out location, potential social interaction and play opportunities and lastly, structured water play is clearly seen as safe environment. Structure water play has never been discussed in the literature, hence the significance of this study. However, play literature has many similar findings where parents in favour of structured play spaces. Play space provision has never been changed in the last 5 decades, and only concerned on children’s wellbeing in which self-protection is undervalued (Valentine, 1997; Veitch et al., 2006; Shaftoe, 2008). However, for the same reason (children’s well being) parents have favour in structured play areas. This was also the case with structured water play. Furthermore, 78% of the parents involved in this study also have positive attitude towards children’s play with natural water resources such as; stream ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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flowing through Endcliffe Park. Furthermore, no negative attitude was detected about this space. Parents seemed to be rather cautious and recognized the importance of unstructured natural play mentioned by many academics (NPFA, 2000; Ginsburg, 2007; Kolb & Kolb, 2010). Their recognition was evident in both surveys and interviews. Evidence from this research suggests that only 14% of the parents have cautious attitude. Those parents were concerned with water quality, safety around water and visible dangers such as; broken glasses and sharp objects. However, majority of those parents did allow their children to experience water features despite their concerns. A minority of parents restricted their children’s experience to non-physical contact such as; playing on stepping-stones. It has also been previously identified that physical and social concerns likely to limit children’s experiences in urban open spaces (Blakely, 1994; Valentine, 1996; Valentine & McKendrick, 1997; Valentine, 1997; Karsten & Vliet, 2006). Parental controls due to concerns and worries seems to be limiting some children’s water play in urban open spaces. On the other hand, 11% of the parents had negative attitude in Sheffield City Centre where lowest percentage of positive attitude (70%) was also obtained. Majority of those parents were reluctant to go to city centre for just children’s water play, which also supports the argument that when proximity to open space increases, the frequency of use also increases. Some parents questioned whether city centre was an appropriate place for water interaction. They were prepared to drive their children some distance for the desired location such as swimming pools, or “Magna”, which is private science adventure centre with water feature. Driving children to other quality parks (Veitch et. al. 2006) or private play centres is not a new phenomenon but the tendency seems to be growing (McKendrick et al., 2000; Hart, 2002), which reduces the number of children playing freely in urban open spaces. This research seems to support these existing findings and revealed that negative

parental attitude and driving children to more appropriate places is also the case with the experience of water features. 5.4. Professionals understanding of water play Professionals seem to consider children’s water interaction in the design and management for at least some of those spaces. According to Moore (1989) controls of the spaces identified in two categories; physical and social controls. Manager of the Peace Gardens has admitted using physical controls in the site. When the Peace Garden gets quite crowded, the city centre management team lower the water features or completely turn it off until crowds reduce. However, arguably this approach limits children experiences of water in urban open spaces. This act makes children undesirables according to Tibbalds (2001) categorization because turning the water features off only eliminates the children interacting with water and rest of the public likely to continue their activities. Lowering the water features likely to limit age range playing in the water. Children older than age 5 or 6 are less likely to enjoy lowered water features. However, it can be argued that lowered water features might create opportunities of safer water play for toddlers and young children (Figure 9). This was also witnessed in the observations. There also seems to be social controls of managers via city centre ambassadors. Although no direct issue has been reported regarding them, during the observations it was witnessed that ambassadors limit some behaviours such as water fights, skate boarding and cycling. For instance, in one case ambassadors stopped children playing water fights and collected bottles to prevent them restarting their activity. Although the role of the ambassador and what they were trying achieve could be explained with preventing children tripping, slipping, or disturbing other people, ambassadors had still intruded children’s unstructured play. The biggest issue related to the professionals were budget. The manager of the Endcliffe and Millhouses Parks mentioned that he had just about the

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right number of staff in the team but on busy summer days the management and maintenance team struggled to keep up with demand due to lack of staff, adding that the management team probably will not have new staff available in the foreseeable future because of governmental cuts, which have affected almost every city councils across the country. Budget cuts affects the quality of not only water features but also whole park management strategy in Sheffield. A reasonable approach for tackling this issue could be using the findings of this research about where large numbers of children interact with water and introducing focused management regimes. As these tasks, will be concentrated on a few areas in the parks, it could be undertaken with the available workforce. Moreover, the budget issues also effect provision and sustainability of water features. Artificial water feature provision is expensive task as it includes many steps to provide quality water that is suitable to health and safety regulations. Additionally, electricity used in water jets, pumps and many other parts of the water feature, is expensive. Hence according to a designer of the structured water play area in Millhouses Park, Sheffield Local Authority could only afford one artificial water feature, the Peace Gardens, and now the rest of city parks are struggling to pay for Millhouses water play area, which is the second artificial water feature opened in the city. Future of the artificial water features is uncertain, due to running costs and budget cuts. In recent years, United Kingdom has confronted the largest budget cuts since 1980’s. City councils are struggling to manage public spaces. Sheffield has also affected from the situation and lost half of its local budget (Sheffield City Council, 2014). It should not be forgotten that many water features in the past were neglected and closed down due to lack of relevant budget, management and public interest in Sheffield, such as water features in Charter Square, Millhouses Lido and Millhouses Paddling Pools. The latter two places were both closed in 1989/90 when one of the largest budget cuts have happened (Urban Parks Forum, 2001). There is a risk of

Millhouses artificial water play would share the destiny with its antecedents, if urgent precautions will not places immediately. The last category that needs to be emphasized related to professionals’ non-consideration of water play in natural areas. Although unstructured water play has many potential benefits to children such as; developing their understanding, experiences about water and world, motor skills, improving observation, concentration and educational success (NPFA, 2000; Greater London Authority, 2003; Broadhead, 2006), the manager of Endcliffe Park has admitted that children’s interaction with natural water features has never been considered and nothing has been done towards water play in Endcliffe Park. This creates social and physical boundaries to children. One major drawback of this approach is that the boundaries children mentioned regarding Endcliffe Park are likely to be related to ignorance about water play in this area. Moreover, the managers added that water play in natural environment will not be in their agenda near future, although natural water play in urban open spaces is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative to artificial water play and it might replace artificial water play to save children’s water play during financial budget cuts. Therefore, promotion and management of natural water play should be places on the agenda as soon as possible. 6. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to explore what makes water features in different urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience those water features. Children’s interaction with water has hardly been researched. Hence, the significance of this study was the exploration of how children experience water features in different types of urban open spaces and the identification of parental and professional attitude towards children’s water play. This study was first of its kind to look at this issue in the three different dimensions. This research has ascertained many ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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emerging themes that support existing research knowledge such as: relationship between proximity of living to urban open spaces and frequency of use; as children get older their independent mobility increases and this increases children’s use of city centre open spaces; male children, especially older children, are less interested in with water related activities; and minority of children interested in water interaction with physical contact in river environments. This shows that how well this research findings fits on general context in the literature. However, majority of findings derived from qualitative methods specific to the time, date, location and ethnographic mix involved in this study. Therefore, there are some limitations on generalizability of the findings. Moreover, this research has also themes emerging that add to the body of knowledge: two types of water interaction have been identified (active and passive); female children were more attracted and more interacting with water features; structured water play provides limited opportunities; children loose interest about water features in urban open spaces, when they transition to adolescents; majority of parents have positive attitude towards water play in urban open spaces but their favourite water play is structured water play area in Millhouses Park, where children were deemed to safe in water. Some of those parents have concerns and negative attitude towards water play in city centre. Lastly, one of the important findings of this research is that professionals water play provision is likely to be affected by budget cuts in the near future and professionals have never considered natural water play in urban open spaces, which is more environmental friendly, and sustainable. However, when we consider number of run down water features due to budget cuts in the past, the natural water resources seem to be the future of water play in Sheffield. Professionals working in the council should develop policies to encourage communities, groups and children into natural water play through awaring them about pollution levels, flood risks and water quality. School trips might be good chance to educate children. Furthermore, in or-

der to increase the awareness and decreases the level of parental concerns, Sheffield parks and countryside management team should test the water quality and should publicized the results through Sheffield City Council web site, local new papers and even on the digital advertisement boards that placed in the areas natural water play might be possible. Moreover, budget cuts affected majority of councils in the country (Neal, 2014), adopting natural water play would be future for water play not only for Sheffield but also for all councils in the United Kingdom. This research was limited with number of age groups involved in this study. Therefore, this research has also provided scope for new research about children’s interaction with water features. Recruiting secondary school children will enhance our knowledge about how children’s interaction with water changes over time. In addition, parental surveys were proved to be successful method to explore parents understanding but future research might focus on the parents who have negative attitude about children’s water play with deep interviews to further investigate the reasons behind parental attitude. Lastly, this research has discovered professional’s understanding and control about water play that highly effected by budget cuts and does not seem to consider natural water play provision. Bibliography Blakely, K. S. (1994) ‘Parents’ Conceptions of Social Dangers to Children in the Urban Environment.’ Children’s Environments, 11(1). pp. pp. 16-25-25. Broadhead, P. (2006) ‘Developing an understanding of young children’s learning through play: the place of observation, interaction and reflection.’ British Educational Research Journal, 32(2). pp. 191-207. Brockman, R., Fox, K. R., Jago, R. (2011) ‘What is the meaning and nature of active play for today’s children in the UK?’ International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(15). Chawla, L. E. (2002) ‘Growing up in and Urbanizing World’ London: UNESCO/Earthscan.

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and Environments, 23(3). pp. 89-118. Lennard, H. L., Lennard, S. H. C. (1992) ‘Children in Public Places: Some Lessons from European Cities.’ Children’s Environments, 9(2). pp. 3747. Lynch, K. (1977) Growing up in Cities. Cambridge: MIT Press. Madanipour, A. (2003). Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge. May, T. (2001) Social Research: Issues, Methods and Research. 3rd ed.: Maidenhead, Open University Press. McKendrick, J., Bradford, M. G., Fielder, A. V. (2000) ‘Kid Customer? Commercialization of playspace and the commodification of childhood.’ Childhood, 7(3). p. 295. Moore, R. C. (1986) Childhood Domain: Play and Place in Child Development. London: Croom Helm. Moore, R. C. (1989) ‘Playgrounds at the crossroads.’ In Altman, I. and Zube, E. (ed.) Public places and spaces. New York: Plenum, pp. 83-120. Nasar, J., Lin, Y.-H. (2003) ‘Evaluative Responses to Five Kinds of Water Features.‘ Landscape Research, 28(4). pp. 441-450. Nayak, A. (2003) ‘Through children”s eyes”: childhood, place and the fear of crime.‘ Geoforum, 34. pp. 303315. Neal, P. (2014) ‘The State of UK Public Parks 2014’ June 2014. Herritage Lottery Funds. Noschis, K. (1992) ‘Child Development Theory and Planning for Neighbourhood Play.’ Children’s Environments, 9(2). pp. 3-9. NPFA (2000) ‘Best Play: What play provision should do for children’ London: National Playing Fields Association http://www.playengland.org.uk/ resources/best-play.aspx Office for National Statistics (2011) ‘Census: Aggregate data (England and Wales) ‘: UK Data Service Census Support, [Online]. Available at: http://infuse.mimas.ac.uk [Accessed on 1 October 2014]. Potwarka, L., Kaczynski, A., Flack, A. (2008) ‘Places to Play: Association of Park Space and Facilities with Healthy Weight Status among Children.’ Journal of Community Health, 33(5). 2008/10/01, pp. 344-350.

Shaftoe, H. (2008) Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Places. London: Earthscan Sheffield City Council (2014) News: Budget balanced but changes will be felt for years [Online] [Accessed on 06 May 2014] https://http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/whats-new/2014-news/ february/council-budget.html Silverman, D. (2005) Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. London, SAGE Publications Limited. Tapsell, S. M. (1997) ‘Rivers and river restoration: a child’s‐eye view.’ Landscape Research, 22(1). pp. 45-65. Tapsell, S. M., Tunstall, S., House, M., Whomsley, J., Macnaghten, P. (2001) ‘Growing up with rivers? Rivers in London Children’s Worlds.’ Area, 33(2). pp. 177-189. Tibbalds, F. (2001) Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the public environment in towns and cities. London, Spon Press. Tunstall, S., Tapsell, S., House, M. (2004) ‘Children’s perceptions of river landscapes and play: what children’s photographs reveal.’ Landscape Research, 29(2). pp. 181-204. UNICEF (2012) ‘State of The World’s Children 2012: Children in an Urban World’ New York: UNICEF. Urban Parks Forum (2001) ‘Public Park Assessment: A survey of local authority owned parks focusing on parks of historic interest’. Valentine, G. (1996) ‘Angels and devils: moral landscape of childhood.’ Environment and planning D: Society and Space, 14. pp. 581-599. Valentine, G. (1997) ‘”Oh Yes I Can.”“Oh No You Can’t”: Children and Parents’ Understandings of Kids’ Competence to Negotiate Public Space Safely.’ Antipode, 29(1). pp. 65-89. Valentine, G., McKendrick, J. (1997) ‘Children’s Outdoor Play: Exploring Parental Concerns About Children’s Safety and the Changing Nature of Childhood.’ Geoforum, 28(2). pp. 219235. Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Ball, K. (2007) ‘Children’s Perceptions of the Use of Public Open Spaces for Active Freeplay.’ Children’s Geographies, 5(4). pp. 409-422. Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Ball, K. (2008) ‘Children’s active free play in local

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neighborhoods: a behavioral mapping study.’ Health education research, 23(5). pp. 870-879. Veitch, J., Bagley, S., Ball, K., Salmon, J. (2006) ‘Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play.’ Health & Place, 12(4). 12//, pp. 383-393. Walls, M. (2014) ‘Private Funding of Public Parks’ Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Ward, C. (1977) The Child in the City. London: Architectural Press. Who (2017) Physical activity and young people: Recommended levels of physical activity for children aged 5 - 17 year. Available at: http://www. who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_ young_people/en/ [Accessed on 24 March 2017]. Woods, P. (2014) ‘To have and have not.’ Public Finance. 27 February 2014. Available at: http://www.publicfinance. co.uk/features/2014/03/to-have-andhave-not/ [Accessed on 25 Octorber 2014]. Woolley, H. (2008) ‘Watch This Space! Designing for Children’s Play in

Public Open Spaces.’ Geography Compass, 2(2). pp. 495-512. Woolley, H., Hazelwood, T., Simkins, I. (2011) ‘Don’t Skate Here: Exclusion of Skateboarders from Urban Civic Spaces in Three Northern Cities in England.’ Journal of Urban Design, 16(4). pp. 471-487. Woolley, H., Rowley, G., Spencer, C., Dunn, I. (1997) Young people and town centres. London, Association of town centre management. Woolley, H., Dunn, J., Spencer, C., Short, T., Rowley, G. (1999) ‘Children describe their experiences of the city centre: a qualitative study of the fears and concerns which may limit their full participation.’ Landscape Research, 24(3). pp. 287-301. World Bank (2016) Urban Population [Online] [Accessed on 24 April 2018] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS Zube, E. H., Pitt, D. G., Evans, G. W. (1983) ‘A Lifespan Developmental Study of Landscape Assesment.’ Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3. pp. 115-128.

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Editorial Y. Çağatay SEÇKİN • Editor With temperatures barely grazing 15°C, it’s almost feeling a little bit like spring. If you’re an experienced professor or an upperclassman, you’re experienced about when it comes to spring on college campuses means. College residents tend to welcome warm weather in a collection of ways that you can’t find elsewhere. Once the sun starts staying out extra couple hours each night, it means outdoor season is approaching. It’s warm enough to go for a nice jog or bike tour around the campuses and enjoy the warmer weather and daily festive activities that make this time of year remarkable. Lush, green grasses are finally beginning to emerge from the formerly desolate areas between the campus buildings and also around dorms, gymnasiums, cafeterias, the main library or the ITU Lake, making for a perfect playing field of any sports that require little to no equipment just as an excuse to get outside, Professors decide to hold classes either at the courtyard of Taşkışla or at the Great Lawn in front of the MED in Ayazağa Campus. You know those people who used to nap in the library or in random couches around campus? Now they’ve migrated to outdoor seating areas, or they just set up camp right on the grass. Springtime means infinitely more places to sit and rest!

Beyond all these, Spring strongly reminds us our responsibilities about environment. ITU students and faculty are environmentally conscious in their personal lives, and the University’s focus on maintaining the environment reflects this. ITU follows several initiatives geared towards keeping the earth clean while still paving the road towards progress and success. ITU promotes sustainable practices in its daily and long-term operations by focusing energy towards specific sustainable practices. By continuing these efforts, the University will help to lay the foundation for a positively enhanced environment and a happy and healthy student body and build a greener ITU. After sharing my excitement and happiness about spring coming to ITU campuses, as it always has been, I would like to thank all our readers for the support they provide to the Journal. We really look forward your comments, contributions, suggestions and criticisms. Please do not hesitate to share with us your feelings and especially, let us know if you have ideas or topics that we could be focusing on. Let us not forget another symbol of warmer weather: hot coffee cups get swapped out for the frozen ones. Never mind the fact that they’re bunch of calories and totally cancel out that jog you went on earlier, it’s spring time and nothing is going to come between you and your frozen coffee beverage. Enjoy your reading and meet with us again in next issue on July 2019. I look forward to seeing you around ITU campuses this spring!


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Estimation of airflow characteristics of indoor environments in the early design stage İlker KARADAĞ1, Nuri SERTESER2 1 karadagi@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 serteser@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.13007

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Estimating indoor airflow characteristics of natural ventilation systems is very significant in the early design stage. It’s clear that for the early steps of design, existing numerical and experimental analysis methods are very time consuming and they require in depth knowledge of Fluid Dynamics. These methods are not efficient especially in the case that the building form changes dynamically. Besides, both wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are not efficient when it comes to taking output in real-time. Due to all of these reasons, a need for a fast and robust method occurs. Particle-based algorithms are efficient methods for this type of analyses however they have not been used in architectural aerodynamics. At this point, a very powerful method which doesn’t require mesh (control volume) is developed. In this study, the details of the developed algorithm and the output of it are given. The algorithm was assessed in three case studies of natural ventilation systems. As a result, it is seen that the developed algorithm can be a guide in building-wind interaction analysis for architects in the early design stage. However, in our paper, we do not only present case studies, but also an analysis methodology from architectural and engineering perspectives. This is significant because the methodology and the results of this paper constitute a guide for further researches on natural ventilation with a new method and consequently contribute to improved wind quality of indoor spaces. Keywords Wind efficient design, Architectural aerodynamics, Computational fluid dynamics, Particle based simulation, Natural ventilation.


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1. Introduction The significance of considering sustainability in the early design stage meets the need for finding long-term solutions and reducing energy consumption. If an architectural project is well planned and sustainable criteria are included in its early approach, the possibility to reduce negative impacts is greater and the cost of criteria implementation is greatly reduced. Enhancement of the building’s sustainability performance should start already in the early design phase since the potential of optimisation in this phase is higher and the influence of changes of the building and the construction costs are lower (Bragança & Andrade, 2014). There are several environmental parameters in building physics. One of the most important of them is the wind which has an important impact on the indoor comfort of buildings. The building-wind interaction can be estimated with one of three approaches or a combination of these: (1) in-situ measurements, (2) experimental analysis through wind tunnel, or (3) numerical analysis with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Since each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is not always easy to decide which approach is the most appropriate for a given problem. A significant disadvantage of in-situ measurements and wind tunnel measurements is usually to get data only for specific points. In principle, techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) make it possible to obtain all the data in planar or even three dimensions, but the cost of such technologies is seriously high and application for complicated geometries can be hampered through laser-light shielding by the obstructions constituting the model, e.g. in case of an urban model consisting of many buildings (Blocken & Carmeliet, 2004). In addition, recent studies of comparative studies of different wind tunnel laboratory studies have shown that in many cases there are large differences of up to 50% (NIST Technical Report, 2009). Despite these unfavourable conditions, a wind tunnel

can be very reliable if compliance with international standards such as NIST TN1655 and ASCE / SEI 49-12 and ASCE 7 is provided. These standards define the minimum requirements for conducting and interpreting wind tunnel tests to assess wind loads on buildings and other structures. It is useful for those who are preparing, conducting and commenting on wind tunnel tests for buildings, including civil engineers, architects and wind engineers (ASCE/SEI 49-12, 2012). Wind flow characteristics can also be determined by CFD simulations. With these numerical simulations, it is possible to obtain high-resolution wind data in a very wide area around the building. In particular, precise results can be obtained with numerical analyses in which meteorological data are taken as velocity input and logarithmic wind profile is used, a suitable turbulence model is determined and a sufficient number of iterations are performed. However, the main problem with the finite element approach is the necessity of calculating a mesh that divides the simulation area. Typically, the meshing phase takes more than 80% of the time of a fluid dynamic simulation (Liu, 2002). In addition, mesh quality is a critical factor in determining the accuracy of the solution. Besides, for such technical software, the geometry must be prepared again to comply with the input requirements. But in architectural practice, complicated models are very common and to re-create these models needs too much effort. It is known that in the preliminary design phase, existing conventional methods are very time consuming and require a deeper knowledge of fluid dynamics. These methods are not efficient, especially if the building form changes dynamically. In addition, CFD simulations are impractical in terms of evaluating the preliminary design phase when data is taken in real time. For all these reasons, a fast and reliable method is needed. At this point, it is envisaged to write an algorithm that can work in real time, does not have limitations on geometry, and most importantly does not need mesh.

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ponents that are not necessary for the simulation to be executed are removed. At this stage it is of the utmost importance to make the original system optimal for the analysis to be done, not copying the individual (Hensen, 2003). In the case of building-wind interaction, it is also necessary to simulate air as a fluid. For this purpose, the airflow is reduced to particle level in this study. In order to be able to analyse a very large field flow, the number of particles is increased.

Figure 1. Flowchart.

2. Development of a particlebased algorithm Three different steps have been followed in order to write an algorithm in which the wind-interaction can be solved (Figure 1). In the first step, a simulation model was decided; the second step was how to integrate physical equations; in the third and last stage, the solver (solvent) in which the solution of the equations can be carried out was determined. In the study, the wind current was reduced to particle scale. The next position and speed were estimated according to the initial position and speed of each particle. During the estimations, the self-interaction between particles and the collision between particles and geometries were also integrated into the solution. 2.1. Simulation model To simulate a system, it is often necessary to try to match it as much as possible with the actual system. It should be noted that all parameters that should be taken from the actual system are selected carefully and all the com-

2.2. Integrating the equations of motion The air current has been reduced to the particle level but it is necessary to define the equations for the interaction of the particles with each other and with the geometry. There are two methods for mathematically describing the flow in fluid dynamics. The first is to take the velocity as a function of time for each fluid particle (in other words, for each small mass in the fluid). It can be considered that a very small drop of paint is left on a stream of water and the direction and speed at which the paint moves at any time are also monitored. This corresponds to define the stream by using Lagrangian coordinates. Another approach is to define fixed coordinates in this area by specifying a limited measurement area. Then the velocity of each particle passing through the predefined points determined in this coordinate system is examined. This time, as the small paint droplet moves, the motion is defined separately at each point, which continues in succession at each point. The instantaneous position of the paint droplet is determined on a fixed grid with reference to the coordinate system of the previously defined measuring field, not according to its local coordinate system as in the Lagrangian method. This corresponds to defining the stream using Eulerian coordinates. To achieve realistic results in the Lagrangian integration, a large number of particles must be monitored (Figure 2). The Eulerian integration, in which the flow is defined as an area and each particle is not tracked individually, but rather the velocities of the velocities

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when passing through the spots in a grid system, seems more practical, but a fixed grid system will restrict the flow and will still need to define the mesh as in traditional CFD software. In the Eulerian integration, the location, mass, and velocity of the particles must be known. At the same time, since the real world is different in terms of the environment in which the simulation is run, it is necessary to refer to each frame that is refreshed on the screen and to find the speed and position of the particles for the next frame. The greater the number of frames, the shorter the time between frames, and the estimates made converge much more to the truth. The particles move at a speed that is initially defined, which is the wind speed in the case of wind –building interaction. In wind analyses, the velocities of 10 m above the ground level obtained by long-time measurements carried out in meteorological stations are referred to. Considering the wind speed as a force that accelerates particles instead of directly describing it as fixed particle speed leads to closer results. It is necessary to integrate basic physical equations for particle position and velocity estimation. The equations to be used are equations of motion and equations of motion known as Newton’s Second Law and give precisely how much an object will be accelerated under a net force. If the time is represented by “t”, it can be indicated by dt (time difference -delta time) between both frames during the simulation. Thus, the following known physics equations are written; acceleration=force / mass

change in position=velocity * dt

(1)

Table 1. Integrating the equations of motion.

Table 2. Outputs of Table 1 when dt = 1 s.

Table 3. The last lines of the outputs of Table 1 when dt = 1/100 s.

(2)

change in velocity=acceleration * dt

(3) These equations should be integrated into a code. At this point, with a simple example, it can be seen how the algorithm integrates the physical equations at the basic level. The output is given in Table 1 when a fixed force of 10 Newton is applied to a stationary object weighing 1 kilogram and the iteration is performed forward with a ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • I. Karadağ, N. Serteser


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Figure 2. Eulerian integration (I) - Lagrangian integration (II).

time interval of one second (Table 1). As seen in Table 2, at each step, both the position and the speed of the object are known. This digital integration is known as Euler Integration and is the most basic digital integration technique. Only when the rate of change is constant over the time rate (time rate) is 100% correct. If the acceleration is constant in the given example, the integration of speed is error-free. But on the other hand, the position must also be found and for this, the speed is integrated, but the speed is not constant due to acceleration and it is increasing. For this reason, it may be predicted that position integration will be not accurate. In order to be able to see the size of this error, a formula that tells how an object is moving under constant acceleration can be used, so that exact values are reached for the position: position = velocity * time + ½ * acceleration * t^2 (4)

When the values are substituted in Equation 4, it seems that the object should be moved to 500 meters after 10 seconds, but with Euler Integration, a result of 450 meters is obtained. This means that within a 10-second period, there will be a 50-meter faulty position difference. But dt = 1 second is not an ordinary time interval. Especially in game engines, physical simulations take place at a much lower time frame than the screen frame rate (the number of frames refreshed at the moment). Because in an average shot, each frame is 1/200 of the time that is left for physical simulations. If the time interval had been taken as dt = 1/100 seconds, i.e. if the object’s position was calculated 100 times in synchronous intervals every 1 second, the results would be much closer to reality (Table 3).

Figure 3. Impulse-based collision resolution (p: collision point, COM: centre of mass, j: impulse force) (House & Keyser, 2017)

2.3. Solver It has been shown how to integrate the position and velocity of a single object up to this section, but it is known that particles must interact with each other and solid geometry in a building - wind interaction case. At this point, a force can be calculated at the contact point that occurs when the particles overlap each other and can be applied as an impulse to the particles. This force will make both particles no longer overlap with each other at the beginning of the next frame (House & Keyser, 2017). This is attempted to be performed only briefly for a single frame and is known in the literature as “impulse-based collision resolution” (Figure 3). In architectural aerodynamics, thousands of particles are required to get high-resolution data. Until now, attempts have been made to estimate the velocity and position of a single object, and also the collision state of two different particles have been investigated. In the next step, there is a need for a solution method which should also be sufficient for many particles. For this, it can be assumed that there are two particles called A and B, each of these two particles may be thought to coincide with a particle named C. These two constraints are the two equations that need to be solved: A - C and B - C (Figure 4). First, if the A-C interaction is supposed to be solved, this will cause both A and C to move and completely separate from each other. But this time C starts to overlap with B since the interaction between C and B is not yet calculated. (Figure 5). This time, the interaction between B and C should be resolved. This solution allows B and C to no longer overlap

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and to take their new position, but this time B and A start to overlap slightly (Figure 6). In the previous step, since A and B were positioned separately for C, there was a collision again. But as resolution continues, it is likely that better results will be obtained (Figure 7). Now that the solution is too close to converging and it can continue to iterate again. When the number of iterations is reached, the particles will no longer overlap each other and the interactions between the particles will be solved. The error (amount of overlap) for each pair will hopefully be reduced after each iteration, and eventually, both equations will be simultaneously satisfied. Although it seems very difficult to solve all interactions independently and sequentially, it is actually an effective method and is known as the Gauss-Seidel method. In summary, if we find a method that can reach a solution by iterating only 5 times instead of 10, we would say a faster converging algorithm is obtained. In the Gauss-Seidel method, the sequential solution is applied and each equation is solved independently of each other. The output from the previous step is used as input in the next step. However, both equations can be solved simultaneously with the same inputs and the output averages can be taken. The method emerging at this point is known as the Jacobi method (Figure 8). Although Jacobi leads to more iterative results than the Gauss-Seidel method, both equations use the same output, so they can be solved concurrently so that the need to wait for the previous step is removed. This means that the solution can be executed in parallel. For example, a system consisting of 25 equations can be solved by 25 people independently, which means 25 times faster results than Gauss-Seidel. Moreover, there is no point in which order the equations are solved, which leads to different results that can be obtained by moving in a certain order while solving the equations. In summary, as the number of iterations increases, the solution converges more, but if a real-time solution is targeted, the optimal number of iterations must be determined. Less iteration

Figure 4. The position of C according to A and B (white lines correspond to the constraints).

Figure 5. Step 1:Interaction between A and C.

Figure 6. Step 1:Interaction between B and C.

Figure 7. Step 2:Interaction between A and C.

Figure 8. Steps of interaction resolved with Jacobi Method - I, II and III.

means faster results, but this time the accuracy is reduced. 3. Methodology: Validation of the algorithm When the wind-building interaction is analysed, the flow characteristics around the basic geometries should be known. Since the algorithm gives results in a 2D plane, a similar experimental setup is needed. Hele-Shaw flow permits visualization of this kind of flow in two dimensions. The experimental setup created for Hele-Shaw flow can be seen in Figure 9.

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Figure 9. Experimental setup created for Hele-Shaw flow.

Hele-Shaw flow is defined as Stokes Flow between two parallel flat plates separated by an infinitesimally small gap. Various problems in fluid mechanics can be approximated to Hele-Shaw flows and thus the research of these flows is of importance. An approximation to Hele-Shaw flow is specifically important to micro-flows. This is due to manufacturing techniques, which creates shallow planar configurations, and the typically low Reynolds numbers of micro-flows. The governing equation of Hele-Shaw flows is identical to that of the inviscid potential flow and to the flow of fluid through a porous medium. 4. Selected cases for experimental validation Flat-faced and sharp-edged geometries are often referred to as “bluff bodies” and appear in many building forms. Streamlines around these geometries do not follow the surface of the geometry continuously throughout the flow, from the windward region to the leeward region. Instead, the flow separates from the building surface at sharp corners, where the momentum of the fluid passes through the weak cohesive viscous forces holding the fluid together. Along the separation line, a shear layer is formed and a turbulent wake area is developed in the leeward region, which is surrounded by the diverging stream from both sides. The predictable separation state of the stream always has similar characteristics at sharp edges and corners when the bluff bodies are concerned, and similar flow

characteristics are observed even at very different wind speeds (Stathopoulos & Blocken, 2016). Natural ventilation systems, which are known for reducing the dependence on mechanical ventilation and reduce energy consumption, are effective strategies to achieve sustainable performance. The ventilation principle indicates how the exterior and interior airflows are linked, and hence how the natural driving forces are utilised to ventilate a building. Furthermore, the ventilation principle gives an indication of how the air is introduced into the building, and how it is exhausted out of it. Cross-ventilation is the case when air flows between two sides of a building envelope by means of wind-induced pressure differentials between the two sides. The ventilation air enters and leaves commonly through windows, hatches or grills integrated into the façades. The ventilation air moves from the windward side to the leeward side. A typical example is an openplan office landscape where the space stretches across the whole depth of the building. The airflow can also pass through several rooms through open doors or overflow grills. The term cross ventilation is also referred to when considering a single space where air enters one side of the space and leaves from the opposite side. In this case, the ventilation principle on the system level can be either cross- or stack ventilation. As the air moves across an occupied space, it picks up heat and pollutants. Consequently, there is a limit to the depth of a space that can be effectively cross-ventilated. In this context, a room with exactly the same apertures on both windward and leeward side walls was analysed and it was seen that the flow accelerated by the Venturi effect as expected. The Venturi effect is defined as the reduction in fluid pressure that occurs when a fluid flows through a constricted section. This effect is clearly visible in both streamline view (algorithm) and the Hele-Shaw experiment (Figure 10). As a further alternative, a simple living space was addressed and the openings with different sizes were arranged on windward and leeward

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sides. The expected state of cross ventilation during the analysis was clearly observed. Flow development stages are given in Figure 11. In particular, it has been observed that the areas where the flow is separated and the wakes in the leeward region can be caught in a significant accuracy. The direction of the airflow passing through the openings and the acceleration of flow also show the accuracy of the results to estimate the flow characteristics. As in the case of experimental verification, it was observed that the algorithm could produce sufficient output for the preliminary design stage. As another case, a simple room was addressed and the openings of the same sizes were arranged on windward and along sides. The expected state of cross ventilation during the analysis was clearly observed. Flow characteristics are given in Figure 12. In particular, it has been observed that the areas where the flow is separated and the wakes in the leeward region can be caught in a significant accuracy. The direction of the airflow passing through the openings and the acceleration of flow also show the accuracy of the results to estimate the flow characteristics. As in the case of experimental verification, it was observed that the algorithm could produce sufficient output for the early design stage. 4. Conclusion Details of a new algorithm for the assessment of indoor airflow characteristics at early design stage were explained. This algorithm works in real-time and does not require meshing (finite control volume). Three different steps have been taken in the algorithm development process: the design of the simulation model, the integration of physical equations and the design of the solver. Architectural aerodynamics analysis mostly consist of external and internal cases, so the context of this study was limited with internal cases. In the scope of the study, three common natural ventilation cases have been analysed by both the developed algorithm and the experimental setup. As a result of validation studies, it was seen that the developed algorithm can be a guide

Figure 10. A simple cross ventilation case tested with both the algorithm (I) and the Hele-Shaw setup (2).

Figure 11. A simple cross ventilation case of converging flow tested with both the algorithm (left) and the Hele-Shaw experiment (right).

Figure 12. A simple cross ventilation case tested with both the algorithm (left) and the Hele-Shaw setup (right).

for the building-wind interaction analysis for architects in the early design phase. In particular, real-time analyses will enable architects to get real-time data. So that architects will be able to change the building form according to the results. The real-time output of the algorithm provides a guide for them to determine the optimum building form regarding the wind - building interaction. Besides, this particle-based algorithm, in which the parameters having limited effect to the results are determined in advance, is developed considering architectural practice. The algorithm needs to be verified numerically by computational fluid dynamics software and in the wind tunnel experimentally as well. Furthermore, the algorithm will be improved to simulate small details in the building envelope by means of allowing simulation with a more significant number of particles. References ASCE/SEI 49-12. (2012). Wind tunnel testing for buildings and other

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structures: Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. Blocken, B., & Carmeliet, J. (2004). Pedestrian Wind Environment around Buildings: Literature Review and Practical Examples. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, 28(2), 107159. doi:10.1177/1097196304044396. Bragança, L., Vieira, S. M., & Andrade, J. B. (2014). Early Stage Design Decisions: The Way to Achieve Sustainable Buildings at Lower Costs. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2014/365364. Hensen, J.L.M. (2003). Simulating building performance: just how useful is it? REHVA Journal, nr. 4, Federation of European Heating, Ventilating and

Air-conditioning Associations - REHVA, Brussels. House, D., & Keyser, J. C. (2017). Foundations of physically based modelling and animation. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Liu, G. (2002). Mesh Free Methods. doi:10.1201/9781420040586. NIST Technical Report. (2009). “Toward a standard on the wind tunnel method”. Stathopoulos, T., & Blocken, B. (2016). Pedestrian Wind Environment Around Tall Buildings. Advanced Environmental Wind Engineering, 101127. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-559122_6.

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CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process

Saadet Zeynep BACINOĞLU1, Luka PISKOREC2 , Toni KOTNIK3 1 bacinoglu@itu.edu.tr • Graduate Program of Architectural Design Computing, Institute of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 luka.piskorec@aalto.fi • Department of Architecture, School of Arts, Design, and Architecture, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland 3 toni.kotnik@aalto.fi • Department of Architecture, School of Arts, Design, and Architecture, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.44712

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract The act of changing the direction of a sheet surface along a non-straight curve is a specific case of curved folding. From an architectural point of view, curved folding is an exciting operation. One or a couple of operation can generate highly complex shell-like spatial enclosure. From a digital design perspective, the implementation of curved folding with the built-in toolsets of available computer-aided design softwares is a challenging problem. The equilibrium state of curved folded geometry is needed to be found with a computational form-finding strategy. To use curved folding as a digital design operation, we introduce a new tool through developing a digital procedure for form-finding. The tool we develop can enable the experimentation with curved folding in the early stage of design process and facilitate the subsequent design development. In this article, we briefly present the literature focusing on curved folding in computational geometry, as well as the scope and description of a subclass of curved folding operation. Then, we introduce a digital tool, CURVED.IT through a design manual for its implementation and an algorithmic framework for its extension. Lastly, we discuss the design examples generated by CURVED.IT, and the potentials of the tool. Keywords Computational form finding, Curved folding technique, Digital design tools, Dynamic relaxation method, Surface resistant structures.


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1. Introduction This research is derived from the exciting potential of a particular technique, curved folding, for architecture and structures. A specific case of curved folding technique is the action of changing the direction of a surface along a non-straight curve on the sheet surface (Figure 1). When the sheet is folded along a non-straight curve, the three-dimensional configuration of the sheet comes to a resting state through a combination of folding and bending. While the pure folding transfigures the sheet to a polyhedral surface with an abrupt change in the surface direction, the act of bending forms the sheet to a smoothly curved surface with a gradual slight change in the surface direction. The interesting point of curved folding is the complex three-dimensional form that is generated by this hybrid surface deformation. In this form, the slender sheet gains strength and become more resistant to buckling (Figure 1). In an architectural context, curved folding technique can be used as a design operation. The smooth and abrupt surface deformations that are generated with curved folding can provide architects with the generation of complex geometries that host different spatial situations and performative capacities. A simple example by Patkau Architects (2017) demonstrates the spatial and structural potential of the 304x731 cm folded sheet with one single fold. The folded surface is self-standing by solely touching the ground from two points (Figure 2). In the problem of curved folding, the challenge is to understand and measure the resultant three-dimensional configuration of the curved folded sheet when it is manually modeled. The resultant three-dimensional form is “a resting state of the deformed two-dimensional sheet which goes beyond the mathematics of developable surfaces to a question of physics: equilibria of an unstrechable surface with uncreased and creased portions folding elastically toward desired angles” (Koschitz et al., 2008). Therefore, the computational form-finding strategies provide an appropriate method to find the equilibrium state of the curved folded geometry in the digital environment.

Figure 1. Curved folded geometry.

Figure 2. Free-standing units of One Fold by Patkau Architects (2017).

In this study, we transferred curved folding to the computer environment through developing a computational form-finding strategy in Python language within Rhinoceros environment. The main goal of this study is to introduce a design tool that allows a specific technique, curved folding, as a design operation in the computational process to explore spatial forms. The essential contribution of this study is a proposed digital form-finding tool for the architects and the designers. The proposed tool can be easily used in the early stage of the computational design process to generate curved folded geometries. This article presents the literature focusing on curved folding in architecture and computational geometry, as well as the scope and the description of the curved folding technique. Then, the article introduces a design tool, CURVED.IT, by explaining how the proposed algorithmic framework integrates curved folding into the early stage of the computational design pro-

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Figure 3. Applications of curved folding in architecture.

cess. Moreover, it presents the design manual for the architects by explaining the steps to be taken for the form generation. Lastly, it discusses the shortcomings and the potentials of the tool. 2. Studies on curved folding in architecture and mathematics There are many applications of curved folding as computational models in the digital environment and as architectural scale installations in the physical environment. In the field of architecture, there have been increasing design researches that developed various kinds of experimentally conceptualized installations, pavilions, or building elements using the advantages of curved folding. Most of the researches have used curved folding as tessellated, small-scale surface panels. The tessellation is either applied to a predefined global geometry with a topdown manner (Lalvani, 2003; Scott and Iwamoto, 2008; Epps and Verma,

2013; Brancart et al., 2015; Chandra et al., 2015; Bhooshan et al., 2015; Eversmann et al., 2017) or the tessellated macro-architectural form is generated in an additive bottom-up process by adding a new sheet element subsequently (Lamere and Gunadi, 2011; Braun and Smith, 2016). The surface tessellations mostly function as surface strengthening, ornamenting or fabricating method. The approach of using folds on the surface of predefined forms is not distinct from previous architectural applications dating back to the 1950s. In earlier applications, many architects and engineers, such as Freyssinet, Nervi, Zehrfuss, Musmecci, and Ando, used folds mainly on the surface of predefined global forms by employing a top-down approach. Today, the same approach has been revived with digital technologies and the availability of sheet materials, replacing the laborious concrete casting and form-work applications. The increasing availability of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) reflects architecture as a phenomenon for enhancing the affordance of the surfaces through discretized surface functions such as the methods for subdividing, tessellating, or patterning. The celebrity architect, Frank Gehry, is the pioneer of this phenomenon. His office developed the software, Digital Project, to provide a set of post-rationalization tools for making the free-form geometries constructable. In the case of curved folded sheet, ARUM installation is one of the recent example (Bhooshan et al. in Figure 3, Figure 4). Before its constructions, the subdivision of the global form through curved folded pieces was calculated by Zaha Hadid’s computational design research group. Due to the difficulty of understanding the three-dimensional state of the curved folded sheet, a wide range of computational studies have developed different methods to model curved folding. We investigated the related studies across three main topics in order to gain a comprehensive understanding. Those topics are named as early mathematical descriptions, constructive geometric methods, and discrete differential geometric meth-

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Figure 4. Geometric approaches to represent curved folding with a computer.

ods (Figure 4). The early mathematical studies attempted to understand and describe the behavior of the paper sheet along the non-straight curve. In mathematics, the sheet of paper is represented by a specific class of a mathematical surface, which is known as a developable surface (Pottmann, 2007). Not only the paper but also any inextensible sheet material that can elastically deform without stretching and tearing, is called a developable surface in mathematics. To describe curved folding, early studies used the characteristics of developable surfaces: the surface consists of straight lines that are either par-

allel to each other, intersect in a point, or tangent along a surface; the lines that generate surfaces have constant lengths; each point on the surface has a zero Gaussian curvature. These studies set mathematical equations to describe the relationship between the properties of the points on a non-straight curve, the properties of the generator lines of the paper surfaces, and the relationship between them. Resch (1974) was one of the first computer scientists who described the curved folded surface using lines along the curve edges utilizing early computer graphics in the 1970s. In

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the same decade, an MIT professor, Huffman (1976), published an article on the behavior of a paper sheet near the non-straight curve. He described the interrelationship among angles and orientation of associated surfaces along a non-straight folding axis for computer-aided design and computer graphics applications. Huffman’s (1976) understanding of the behavior of paper geometry was furthered by Duncan and Duncan (1982) and Fuchs and Tabachnikov (1999). The descriptions of Huffman (1976), Duncan and Duncan (1982), and Fuchs and Tabachnikov (1999) are constituted as the fundamental mathematical rules to represent the geometry of curved folded paper in computer graphics. However, Koschitz (2014) said that “there is still no real mathematical representation that can tell us where the curved creases really are in their folding states.” These mathematical rules were recited by Vergauwen et al. (2014), who pointed out that “they have contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of the generator lines of the surface along a folded crease. However, they do not provide a general method to describe the folding process.” Recent works from 2008 to the present, in Figure 4, have been partly built on Hufmann, Duncan and Duncan, and Fuchs and Tabachnikov’s descriptions on developable surfaces. The properties of developable surfaces have been used as geometric constraints for analytical design operations and mathematical functions in the following studies (Figure 4). The following mathematical studies mainly approached the problem of modeling curved folding by adopting two main methods: using constructive geometry or discrete differential geometry. The constructive geometric method is based on modeling curved folded geometry by applying constructive geometric transformations, such as mirror reflection and rotation operations along a curved section on the predefined developable surfaces (Mitani and Igarashi, 2011; Geretschlager, 2011; Lee et al., 2018). This method is a pre-rationalization approach to the design and modeling of curved folded geometries because it generates curved folded geometries by applying con-

structive geometric transformations on pre-rationalized surfaces. The discrete differential method to attain the properties of curved folded geometry is based on the application of the mathematical functions (mostly vectors for the displacement) to the vertices or edges of a discretized (subdivided) geometry. The discrete differential approach mainly optimizes, rationalizes, or approximates the pre-defined folded state of a three-dimensional geometry with a differential operation based on geometric constraints, which mostly stem from a priori knowledge of developable surfaces such as “the sum of the angle between edges around a point must be 360 degree” (Kilian et al., 2008; Taschi and Epps, 2011; Dias and Dudte, 2012; Epps and Verma, 2013; Chandra et al., 2015; Bhooshan et al., 2015). From a design perspective, we evaluated these two methods as pre-rationalization and post-rationalization approaches to digital modeling of curved folding. While post-rationalization approaches exclude the conceptual design phase of geometric spaces, pre-rationalization approaches include the exploratory design phase of the three-dimensional geometries. Because pre-rationalization approaches construct curved folded geometry on mathematical developable surfaces, post-rationalization approaches optimize the discretized free-form surface with developability constraints to generate curved folded geometry. Furthermore, the end user needs to have specific a priori knowledge to apply these methods to their design process. While post-rationalization methods require a pre-knowledge of mesh generation procedures in the digital modeling environment, pre-rationalization methods require a technical knowledge on generating appropriated topology for mathematical developable surfaces as a user input. Thus, the level of complexity of the current methods presents difficulties for user interaction. In this brief survey on the applications of curved folding in architecture and computational geometry, the following problems were observed within the scope of this article: 1) Curved folding has been merely used as a sur-

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face enhancer in the later stage of design, rather than as a generator of the architectural space in the conceptual phase of design. 2) Curved folding has tended to be modeled precisely as a top-down method for simulation and fabrication. 3) There is a lack of CAD software to use curved folding as a design operation for architectural design exploration. 4) The proposed precise models of simulation require to have a priori knowledge of fabrication and material constraints, as well as mathematical developable surfaces or mesh generation procedures for user implementation. 5) The proposed computational frameworks require to have an expert technical background understanding of differential geometry for the development. As distinct from previous architectural applications, this article achieves the following steps: 1) The study approaches curved folding as a form-finding (bottom-up) method to connect space and structural making in architecture. 2) The study does not intend to make a precise mathematical model of simulation. 3) The proposed design tool, CURVED.IT, integrates curved folding as a design operation in the early stage of computational design. 4) The tool offers a simple approach for user implementation. 5) The algorithmic framework of CURVED.IT was developed with a design research approach by translating the direct exploration of the phenomenon of curved folding in physics to digital design without requiring a priori specialist technical knowledge. 3. CURVED.IT: a computational design tool 3.1. Aim and Scope The main goal of developing CURVED.IT is to allow the architects and the designers the easy use and extension of curved folding in the digital medium. The proposed digital design tool, CURVED.IT, is developed through formulating an algorithmic schema of curved folding in Python language and embedding the formulated algorithm into a Rhinoceros as a tool button. The algorithm schema of CURVED.IT is developed based on preliminary observations with paper

sheets which cannot stretch or shrink (Section 3.2). The inextensible characteristics of the paper, which is translated as a geometric constraint of constant local distances, form the basic idea of CURVED.IT algorithm (Section 3.3). The constraint of constant local distances on the surface is integrated into a dynamic relaxation framework (Day, 1965) using Python programming language within Rhinoceros. 3.2. The geometrical assumptions of curved folding Before the development of CURVED.IT, the preliminary observations are made with a paper model in the physical environment and a digital model in Rhinoceros modeling environment (Figure 5). To understand the displacement of the flat sheet surface, the digital model is discretized (subdivided) into pieces of the surfaces (d). The non-straight curve on the sheet surface is used as a folding axis. The digital surface pieces (d) are folded along the non-straight curve with rotation operation in Rhinoceros. It is observed that the pieces of surfaces (d) orient based on the direction (N) of the associated part of the curved folding axis (Figure 5-2A). In the case of straight line folding, the folding axis has a single tangent vector direction. That means that all pieces of a surface orient in one parallel direction along a straight folding axis. In the case of curved folding, the orientation of each piece along the curved axis (N) differs in a non-parallel fashion. As a result, the pieces of surfaces (d) tend to separate or converge (Figure 5-2B). The distance between pieces gets larger or shorter as distinct from an inextensible sheet deformation (Figure 5-1B). To keep the distance stable as an inextensible sheet, the opposite tension and compression forces are needed to be applied on each surface pieces. In this study, we calculated these tension and compression forces by measuring the distance between the adjacent pieces. We used these forces to guide the displacement of each interrelated piece step by step towards an equilibrium configuration of an inextensible sheet. We used the basic concept of Dynamic Relaxation to develop our

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Figure 5. Curved folding of single sheet surface and pieces of the surface.

algorithmic framework. The numerical technique of displacing the objects towards a goal state by dividing the interval to small steps is called Dynamic Relaxation.

3.3 Algorithmic framework of CURVED.IT: A dialog with a computer To integrate curved folding into the computational design process, we developed CURVED.IT with the algorithmic framework of dynamic relaxation which is built on the preservation of the distances between pieces after they are folded along the non-straight curve. For a more exact measurement, we defined the inextensible sheet material is as a point network. The point network is abstracted as a particle-spring system. Particle-spring system is a discrete differential procedures. In this system, particles are point objects that have properties of mass, position, and velocity. Particles can be made to exhibit a wide range of interesting behaviors.

Springs are the connections between particles. As vector objects, springs basically define the behaviors of the particles. In our case, we programmed spring vectors to generate additional vectoral forces to move each particle towards an equilibrium position. The particles arrive an equilibrium position when the distance between each point in the deformed state became same as the distance value in their flat state. As we mentioned in the previous section 3.2, the distance between each neighbor particle shrinks or stretches when the particle-spring system is deformed along a non-straight curve with an applied rotation operation. With spring vector function, we measure the residual force (length defect=D-d) at each vertex. Subsequently, we multiply the residual force with the damping factor to displace each particle (deformed point) incrementally towards the initial length values (Figure 6). We repeat the previous operation until the distance between each connected point arrives at the initial length (d) where the point network finds the equilibrium solution. This step-by-step small displacement of points with an iterative calculation to find the equilibrium position of each point in the network is called as Dynamic Relaxation (Day, 1965). This numerical form finding technique has been widely used by structural engineers to find the equilibrium state of structures (Sutherland, 1963; Barnes, 1977; Williams, 2001; Kilian and Ochsendorf, 2005) We developed CURVED.IT using the Python object-oriented programming language within a Rhinoceros three-dimensional modeling environment. The algorithmic process of CURVED.IT is described schematically in Figure 7. The algorithm includes six main steps. The steps are as follows:

Figure 6. The diagram of the behavior of one particle with its one neighbor in the CURVED.IT algorithm. CURVED.IT: A design tool to integrate making with curved folding into digital design process


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Figure 7. Steps of the dynamic relaxation (DR) algorithm.

3.3.1. Obtain objects (Curves) First, the two-dimensional curves are input from Rhinoceros modeling environment into Python.

orthogonal and diagonal neighbors of each point become accessible by checking each point’s position in rows (v) and columns (u).

3.3.2. Generate a particle network Secondly, the two-dimensional curves that the user input are subdivided with a nested function and subsequently a two-dimensional point array (matrix) which consists of rows (v) and columns (u) is generated. With this two-dimensional hierarchy, the

3.3.3. Calculate the distances (d) Thirdly, the distance between each point and its orthogonal and diagonal neighbors (d) in this array is measured by subtracting the coordinates of the point from each of its neighbors. The distances in the flat state of the sheet (d) are stored in a matrix table.

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Figure 8. The access to CURVE.IT in Rhinoceros environment.

3.3.4. Fold the particle network (Rotate) Fourthly, the point array along the non-straight curve is rotated with Fold function. To create Fold, the closest point of each point on a curved axis and the tangent vector are defined as the rotation center point and rotation axis to rotate each point a variable (60) degree along the curve. 3.3.5. Calculate the residual force (D-d) with an iterative measuring process Later, the distance between each point and its neighbors is calculated (D). To keep the distance constant, the difference between the deformed state and the initial state (D-d) is calculated using the vector subtraction operation. The difference between the length between the two points in the initial state and the length in the deformed state gives the residual force vectors. 3.3.6. Relax with an iterative displacement process Lastly, the residual forces (D-d) guide the relaxation process. The residual force is decreased by multiplying it with a damping factor to create small changes in the displacement between successive iterations (to prevent big jumps). In each iteration, the algorithm recalculates the distance between points and their neighbors, and the resulting residual force vector displaces the points towards the expected solution. The expected solution is to arrive at the initial distance value between points. The iteration continues until the solution reaches an equilibrium state, where the net residual force on each node equal to zero. 3.4. The steps to be taken with CURVED.IT: The design manual Rhinoceros software allows its user to extend the software through us-

er-defined specific procedures. These custom procedures can be brought to the software’s toolbar as a button. We embed the developed algorithm that is described in the previous section 3.3 in Rhinoceros toolbar (Figure 8). After the user installs CURVED.IT code, he/ she can access the tool with one click to the customized button in Rhinoceros toolbar. The customized tool, CURVED.IT, allows the use of the specific case of curved folding as a design operation in the early stage of the computational design process. The design tool virtually folds the user-defined surface along the user-defined non-straight curve. By clicking CURVED.IT button, the user can follow the instructions from the command line. The user of the tool can easily create a curved folded surface following three main instructions (Figure 9). The instructions are as follows: 1) Determine the boundary edge curves and the fold curve (The user draws two-dimensional edge curve (curve1), fold curve (curve2), edge curve (curve3) in a sequence by using the three-dimensional modeling software Rhinoceros’s in-built curve commands. When the user hit enter, the curves input to Python module. Then the user reselects the fold curve and press enter to input the curves to Python module). 2) Determine the density of the point network (The user inputs a number value to the command line as a curve division parameter). 3) Determine the fold angle (The user inputs a number value to the command line for the fold angle). After inputting data by selection and insertion into the command line, the folded geometry is calculated and drawn as curves between points in 3d Rhinoceros environment. The simplicity of the tool allows the user to explore diverse spatial configurations by playing with two or more

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Figure 9. Generation of a curved folded space with three instructions of CURVED.IT.

curves on the flat surface. The user can adjust the properties of the free-form curve, the relationships between the curves, the density of the point network, and the degree of the fold angle to generate three-dimensional curved spaces. The properties such as curvature of a curve, the length of a curve, and the shape of a curve can be altered by changing the position and the number of control points of the NURBS curve or changing the degree of curve. The in-built command of Rhinoceros turns on the control points and the curvature graph of the curve to edit control points and the degree number.

The simple variations of input curves and the resultant form can be seen in Figure 10. In this process, CURVED.IT aids the user by quickly calculating the three-dimensional folded configuration of the user determined curves. Moreover, the resultant form can be considered as a feedback to a designer. The designer can further the design process or repeat the same operation with a different input configuration. The designer can use CURVED.IT iteratively as a design operation through an ongoing process. To continue the iterative process with CURVED.IT.,

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Figure 10. A simple demonstration of variations by changing the combination of three simple curves.

the user selects one folded edge of the curved form (c3’) as a new fold curve and draw a new curve (c4) as a new edge of the surface. After input the new curves to CURVED.IT., the new folded surface is added to the previous form. If the user does not be satisfied with the 3-D resultant form that is generated by CURVED.IT, he/she can step back and edit the curve (c4= boundary curve) and fold it again as in Figure 11. The user can complete the process when she arrives a satisfied state.

4. Potentials of the tool The proposed design tool, CURVED. IT, integrates curved folding to the Rhinoceros three-dimensional modeling environment as a form-giving design operation. The simplicity of the tool can provide the novice designer an easy acquaintance with the digital design process, as well as with the technique of curved folding. The user can explore the diverse spatial configurations by playing with the two-dimensional curves. The resultant spatial configuration that is generated with CURVED.

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Figure 11. Demonstration of the addition of new folds step by step.

IT is consists of lines between points. The abstract configuration of lines can be furthered by the designer according to his/her design intentions. Such as the lines can be transformed to pipes or the surface panels can be created in between the lines. Figure 12 demonstrates the furthered geometry (E) which was shown in Figure 10. Similarly, Figure 13 shows the interpretation of geometry (H) as an architectural shell structure. One of the advantages of generating the form that is consist of multiple standard elements is the ease

of application of the same operation to many elements with one click. As seen in Figure 14, the numerous joint geometry was produced with one operation. Currently, CURVED.IT allows the easy use of parallel curved folds as seen in previous figures. However, the algorithm has not extended for the simultaneous folding of multiple non-parallel curved pieces. An example in Figure 15 shows a spatial configuration of four curved folded space and the connection in between. In this example, we input the two-dimensional curves

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Figure 12. The applied pipe and surface functions in Rhinoceros to CURVED.IT form.

Figure 13. The process of transforming the resultant set of lines to the solid geometries.to CURVED.IT form.

Figure 14. The generation of a joint detail by applying the in-built Rhinoceros pipe function to the one-tenth of each line segment.

(c1.f, c1.b; c2.f, c2.b, c3.f, c3.b, c4.f, c4.b) to CURVED.IT. The tool found the equilibrium state of curved folded pieces separately. Then, we connected the folded pieced in Rhinoceros. In the future, the algorithm can be extended through grouping the point array for the calculation of multiple folds simultaneously. In the algorithm of CURVED.IT, the inextensibility of the sheet is abstracted as a geometric constraint which guides the interaction between particles and eventually, it relaxes the particle system as curved folded form. In this case, the tool is limited to the generation of curved folded surfaces. However, an expert user with programming skills can change the algorithm schema to generate different behaviors by altering the interactions between particles. For example, programming the net spring force target (vector sum) on each particle as a zero value can produce minimal surfaces, which initially gained the attention of architects courtesy of Frei Otto’s soap film experiments. Thus, the same algorithm can be edited to find diverse topologies which have different levels of structural com-

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Figure 15. The experiment with multiple non-parallel curved folds.

plexities. The specificity and technicality of programming-based design require an advanced logical and mathematical a priori knowledge. However, such digital tools, which attract the attention of the user, potentially improve his/her knowledge. The user, who is engaged in a tool and its open code, can explore the underlying structure and rules. With the integration of the designer’s conceptual design thinking, the algorithm can be extended or reformulated to capture and gener-

ate a different phenomenon. As Burry (2011) points out, many architects who use digital tools are becoming tool makers today. 5. Discussion of future applications Today, one of the contemporary problems with digital technologies in the architectural field is the post-rationalization processes of the free-form architectures for the structural and constructional requirements (Scheurer, 2005; Pottmann et al., 2007). One

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of the solutions to this problem as Bollinger and Grohman (2004) points out that “to shift architectural design from pure modeling to the understanding of organizational principles and systems with a specific behavior. Solutions derived from this process do not necessarily match conventional structural systems, but they gain performance by self-organization of its members”. The proposed design tool in this article is based on an organizational principle which self-organize its members to generate curved folded geometries. Since this organizational principle is defined by a computational logic, it has the potential to allow for a better link between conceptual, structural, and constructional levels of architecture. The use of curved folding itself in the computational design process has already overlay conceptual and structural levels of architecture. The resultant bended and folded surface not only embraces a space after it is folded, but also it transforms the slender sheets into more resistant structures concurrently. Namely, it creates a shell structure. A shell is, according to Williams (2014), “a rigid structure defined by a curved surface. It is thin in the direction perpendicular to the surface. The minimal cross-section of a shell allows for material efficiency. “ In summary, the action of curved folding overlays space and structure by generating the geometry of shell using minimal cross-section. In the architectural design process, curved folding presents us a geometric design method for finding lightweight architectural shell geometries. American Concrete Institute (2008) defined common types of thin shells as domes, cylindrical shells, conoids, elliptical paraboloids, hyperbolic paraboloids, and groin vaults. However, the operation of curved folding allows us to go beyond specific archetypes to complex irregular formations. Thus, the deformation generated by the operation of curved folding can actively be used in the architectural design process to explore complex spatial structures. In this study, we developed CURVED.IT as a tool for design idea generation. Neither CURVED.IT is a tool for simulation nor the digital-

ly-found form created with CURVED. IT is a precise model for the construction. In precise models, the accessive amount of information can slow down the early exploration processes. However, the existence of a computational model can ease the link between conception and later phases such as construction. Due to the explicit structure of the computational design, the conceptual model can be easily connected to other specialist knowledge later. For architectural scale applications, the proposed tool can be fed material information by extending the current algorithm of CURVED.IT with the code blocks on geometrical constraints between the neighbor nodes, as well as integrating the model with the available commercial finite element modeling (FEM) simulation software. Acknowledgments This study is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) under the 2214/A- International Research Fellowship Programme. References ACI Committee, American Concrete Institute, & International Organization for Standardization. (2008). Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-08) and commentary. American Concrete Institute. Architects, P. (2017). Patkau Architects: Material Operations. Princeton Architectural Press. Barnes, M. R. (1977). Form finding and analysis of tension space structures by dynamic relaxation (Doctoral dissertation, City University London). Brancart, S., Vergauwen, A., Roovers, K., Van Den Bremt, D., De Laet, L., & De Temmerman, N. (2015). UNDULATUS: design and fabrication of a self-interlocking modular shell structure based on curved-line folding. In Future visions; Proc. intern. symp., Amsterdam, 17-20 August 2015. Bhooshan, S., Bhooshan, V., ElSayed, M., Chandra, S., Richens, P., & Shepherd, P. (2015). Applying dynamic relaxation techniques to form-find and manufacture curve-crease folded panels. Simulation, 91(9), 773-786.

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Bollinger, K., Bollinger, K., Grohmann, M., & Schmal, P. C. (2004). Workflow: Struktur-Architektur. Brikhäuser. Burry, M. (2011). Scripting cultures: Architectural design and programming. John Wiley & Sons. Chandra, S., Körner, A., Koronaki, A., Spiteri, R., Amin, R., Kowli, S., & Weinstock, M. (2015, April). Computing curved-folded tessellations through straight-folding approximation. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture & Urban Design (pp. 152-159). Society for Computer Simulation International. Day, A. S. (1965). An introduction to dynamic relaxation(Dynamic relaxation method for structural analysis, using computer to calculate internal forces following development from initially unloaded state). the engineer, 219, 218-221. Dias, M. A., Dudte, L. H., Mahadevan, L., & Santangelo, C. D. (2012). Geometric mechanics of curved crease origami. Physical review letters, 109(11), 114301. Duncan, J. P., & Duncan, J. L. (1982). Folded developables. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 383(1784), 191-205. Epps, G., & Verma, S. (2013). Curved Folding: Design to fabrication process of RoboFold. Shape Modeling International 2013, 75. Eversmann, P., Ehret, P., & Ihde, A. (2017). ’Curved-folding of thin aluminium plates: towards structural multipanel shells’. Proceedings of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Fuchs, D., & Tabachnikov, S. (1999). More on paper folding. The American Mathematical Monthly, 106(1), 27-35. Geretschläger, R. (2009). Folding Curves. In Origami 4, Lang, R. J. (Ed.). CRC Press, 151. Huffman, D. A. (1976). Curvature and creases: A primer on paper. IEEE Transactions on computers, (10), 10101019. Kilian, M., Flöry, S., Chen, Z., Mitra, N. J., Sheffer, A., & Pottmann, H. (2008). Curved folding. ACM transactions on graphics (TOG), 27(3), 75. Kilian, A., & Ochsendorf, J. (2005). Particle-spring systems for structural form finding. Journal of the interna-

tional association for shell and spatial structures, 46(2), 77-84. Koschitz, D., Demaine, E. D., & Demaine, M. L. (2008). Curved Crease Origami, Proceedings of the Advances in Architectural Geometry, Vienna, Austria, Sept, 29-32. Lalvani Haresh, 2003. URL: http://www.metropolismag. com/uncategorized/bend-the-rulesof-structure/ Lamere, J., Gunadi, C. (2011). Overliner. URL: http://www.gldarch.com/ projects/show?utf8=✓&tag=16&project=3 Lee, T. U., You, Z., & Gattas, J. M. (2018). Elastica surface generation of curved-crease origami. International Journal of Solids and Structures. Mitani, J and Igarashi T. (2011). Interactive Design of Planar Curved Folding by Reflection. In: the 19th Pacific conference on computer graphics and applications. Kaohsiung, Taiwan: Pacific Graphics. Pottmann, H. (2007). Architectural geometry (Vol. 10). Bentley Institute Press. Resch, R. D. (1974). The Space Curve as a Folded Edge. In Computer Aided Geometric Design (pp. 255-258). Scheurer, F., Schindler, C., & Braach, M. (2005). From design to production: Three complex structures materialised in wood. In 6th International Conference Generative Art. Scott, C., & Iwamoto, L. (2012). Voussoir Cloud. In Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production (pp. 68-80). Routledge. Sutherland, I. (1963). SKETCHPAD-a man-machine graphical interface (Doctoral dissertation, PhD thesis, MIT). Tachi, T., & Epps, G. (2011, March). Designing One-DOF mechanisms for architecture by rationalizing curved folding. In International Symposium on Algorithmic Design for Architecture and Urban Design (ALGODE-AIJ). Tokyo. Vergauwen, A., De Temmerman, N., & De Laet, L. (2014). Digital modelling of deployable structures based on curved-line folding. In Proceedings of the IASS-SLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints.

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Vergauwen, A., De Laet, L., & De Temmerman, N. (2017). Computational modelling methods for pliable structures based on curved-line folding. Computer-Aided Design, 83, 51-63. Williams, C. J. (2001). The analytic

and numerical definition of the geometry of the British Museum Great Court Roof. Williams, C. (2014). What is a shell. Shell structures for architecture: form finding and optimization, 21-31.

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Architecture: Distinguished or ordinary network agents in the field of its representation

Burçin BAŞYAZICI¹, Belkıs ULUOĞLU² ¹ basyazici@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey ² uluoglub@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.28190

Received: March 2018 • Final Acceptance: October 2018

Abstract This study will focus on the representation of Architecture with a capital A by questioning the phenomenon of ordinariness, starting with the question of where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness? The paper goes on to disclose the paradoxical relationship between distinguishedness and ordinariness. Bourdieus concepts of habitus and field are specified as methodological tools to analyze this paradox within the following two themes (i) the representation of architecture and architects as related to the social classes to which they belong (habitus) and (ii) the influence of architectural institutions and their network agents on architecture as they are socially represented (field). The concept of habitus, will help us to understand the social mechanisms of architecture and architects as distinguished and/or ordinary phenomena, while the concept of field will help us to analyze the operative principles of representational mechanisms. The field of architectural institutions (as understood of Bourdieusian term) descriptive phrases stated by the institutional actors will be taken as major data to examine this paradoxical mechanism. They will be represented by network maps to discuss which mechanisms structure the representational field of Architecture with a capital A whether as a distinguished and/or ordinary phenomenon. Keywords Architecture with a capital A, Representational mechanisms of architecture, Habitus, Field, Ordinariness.


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1. Introduction Representation of architecture as a mechanism is a vast topic to be discussed that includes architectural design, architectural object, architectural concept and even architects. In time, these mechanisms have been operated by intermediary firms, actors, institutions, the media, architects and in some cases the architectural object itself. Whenever the definition of architecture has changed, its representation has also extended its limits. However, one phrase is used exceptionally that differentiated from all. It is called “Architecture with a capital A”, Architecture for the purposes and remainder of this article. This phrase seeks to structure an architectural field where Architecture and architecture are separated from each other. It is a contemporary phrase that refers both to distinguished buildings and revolutionary definitions of profession, while architecture (with small a) is left to refer merely to ordinary buildings in which most of the population live and work. We find Architecture in the historiography of architecture, in books on the subject and in architectural magazines but generally not in everyday life. This binary statement in which Architecture is simultaneously defined and circumscribed, inevitably determines the knowledge and the epistemology of the field. Therefore, the representation mechanisms of Architecture become inherently different from the representation of architecture which is placed outside the field of interest, and therefore from its knowledge. Hence, so-called distinguished buildings and architects have become separated from ordinary buildings and architects. This study starts with the question of “where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness?” It may be thought that the phenomenon of ordinariness can only appear in the absence of representation mechanisms, and therefore ‘the representation of ordinariness’ is an oxymoronic phrase. Here, however, it is useful to recall the example of the avant-garde movement which criticized the aesthetic taste of elites and the noble representation of art and ar-

gued that the ordinariness of an everyday object could raze the image of art as a distinguished phenomenon to the ground. Duchamp’s urinal (Fountain) is accepted as the major example of this protest with, as Baudrillard states, Duchamp turning ordinariness into a special occasion by exhibiting the urinal as an art object (Nouvel, Baudrillard, 2011). The question provoked by Duchamp’s work is then, can the urinal remain ordinary once it has caused a revolution in art? A similar question can be asked concerning architecture; even the phenomenon of ordinariness, when defamiliarized, could act as a discourse to gentrify the representation of Architecture. This is what we mean by the paradox of Architecture which we explore in this study. It is proposed that the operative and marketing principles of representational mechanisms in architecture have caused that paradox and turned ordinariness into a distinguished phenomenon. To analyze the operative principles of representation mechanisms and their actors, it is important to understand who creates these mechanisms and how they operate in Architecture. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field help us to understand the underlying motivation behind the process by referring to cultural capital, institutional representation, and to their actors as network agents. To discuss these concepts, the structure of the article is constructed as (i) the representation of architecture and architects as related to the social classes to which they belong, by referring to the concept of habitus, and (ii) the influence of architectural institutions and their network agents on architecture as they are socially represented, by referring to the concept of field. 2. Habitus, field and their network agents Habitus and field are core concepts of Bourdieu and applicable to many professions related to social representation, including architecture. These concepts are also founding ideas within the field of Cultural Studies and, are frequently used to isolate and analyze cultural tendencies and the consumption features of social classes. Accord-

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ing to Bourdieu, class conflict and the dynamics of power are based on the relationships between social classes, which are conditioned by the relative distribution of capital (Bourdieu, 1986). The concept of capital includes economic capital, social capital and cultural capital in Bourdieu’s theory. This study mainly focuses on cultural capital which Bourdieu identifies as including educational qualifications, informal interpersonal relationships and abilities, lifestyles and cultural tastes. When cultural capital cooperates with economic and social capital, it frequently comes in three forms, as embodied, objectified, and institutionalized (Bourdieu, 1986). The institutionalized form of cultural capital which is taken as the major theoretical case for this study, refers to hierarchically institutionalized forms of educational and cultural institutions. Habitus refers to basic cultural tendencies of individuals and or social agents which help to guide their behaviors in society. It is not an innate ability; it is a structure and structured structure (Bourdieu, 1977) that is largely inherited from the social class to which the individual belongs (Swartz, 2011). The concept of taste is representative of this “structuring structure”, and inherited trace revealing the social pattern of classes rather than an idiosyncratic pattern emerging from the individual actor, and its effectiveness conditions the symbolic values between classes (Lury, 2011; Bourdieu, 1985). Bourdieu mostly emphasized the role of education in structuring a habitus when understanding the relation between cultural capital, social classes and cultural tastes. According to him, education systems tend to promote the children of high classes and lead them on to success, as a cyclical mechanism which works to reinforce existing class structures. Thus, educational institutions formalize class distinction, cultural capital and habitus (Grennfell, 2008; Bourdieu, 1986). Moving on to professions, not only educational institutions but also all types of institutionalization help to identify the field of a profession, and DiMaggio, who also refers to Bourdieu’s concepts, has argued that the re-

lationship between institutionalization and cultural capital is at its most visible within the art industry. DiMaggio determines the effects of institutionalization on art by focusing on museum institutions, and calling out the most significant of them as ‘field-wide professional organizations’. This type of organization, according to DiMaggio shapes the cultural taste of the habitus they focalize and sets the institutions and their actors as the referees of the field (DiMaggio, 1991). In Bourdieusian terms, field corresponds to unique and distinct arenas upon which all forms of practices play out. Each field has its particular set of rules, epistemology and forms of capital according to its genre. Field structures the habitus while habitus structures the field. Habitus helps to connect fields to each other and the enterprisers of habitus regulate the continuity of fields. Hence, the cultural capital of habitus constitutes the borders of the field and the network agents develop their individual strategies to the benefit of the class to which they belong. Practice is the whole of the relations between habitus, field and forms of capital (Swartz, 2011) as Bourdieu (1986: s.101) equated as; [(habitus) (capital)] + field = practice From this point of view, architecture has its own field(s) and a particular habitus structures that field. By referring to Bourdieu’s discourse on education and institutional form of cultural capital, and DiMaggio’s field-wide professional organization, the gentrifying architectural mechanisms are determined as architectural schools, institutions and their award mechanisms, architectural biennials and their representation in media platforms. To discuss the paradoxical relationship between the phenomenon of distinctiveness and ordinariness in the field of Architecture, we must first understand how institutions and field-wide professional organizations effect and/or construct this paradox. Institutionalization has a kind of paradoxical relationship in itself. According to institutional critique theories, cultural institutions have the power to exploit every antagonist concept against themselves. Daniel Buren

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argues that, if institutional critique plays a part in institutions, this dilutes the power of critique and destroys the effects of antagonist concepts (Graw, 2016). David Harvey also elaborated on this paradox, stating that these institutions deliberately create a dilemma concerning the uniqueness of the cultural object. Upper-class individuals and their habitus tend to expect uniqueness and aesthetic pleasure from a cultural event and/or object; however, institutions are much more interested in an object’s market value while representing them as an elite occasion. The more institutions commercialize culture, the more the culture is deteriorated, but at the same time, institutions increase culture’s visibility and access. Therefore, cultural institutions need some discursive moves to deal with cultural capital, economic capital and symbolic capital simultaneously (Harvey, 2013). When the topic is Architecture and its representational field, operative principles and marketing strategies of architectural institutions could be the starting points, and we can follow a similar pattern to that of Bourdieu and DiMaggio. Thus, architectural institutions, their representative principles and (st)architects as related to the social classes to which they belong, will all be interpreted as allies of the field. 3. Habitus of architects and field of architecture To follow Bourdieu’s methodology, firstly it is important to discuss the habitus of architects. The reputable definition of architects’ dates back to the origin of architecture. From the iconic edifices of Ancient Egypt up until today, architecture has been established as one of the most honorable professions and architects publicly accepted as influential persons (Kostof, 1977). According to Jean Nouvel, architects have perceived themselves a God-like figure for centuries and only recently they have dreaded only losing that power (Nouvel, Baudrillard, 2011). Even as the roles of architects have changed throughout the ages, their representation as distinguished identities has not. Once, they were second only to the King of Egypt, then

they were honored as eminent persons building for nobles in the Renaissance, and later they became the saviors and the founders of the new world in Modernism (Kostof, 1977; Karatani 1995). However, Modernism could be interpreted as the first breaking point in the field. As the related habitus of architecture has changed, borders of the field have also widened. Architects as actors in the field, started to design for the everyday population. However, it is important to emphasize that even as the related habitus of architecture changed, the habitus of architects was still covered by the high class of society. The image of the profession was still prestigious and the cost of an architectural education was still expensive. For this reason, architects have historically been and continued to be the children of elites, graduating from highly ranked architectural schools (Johnson, 1994). Before Modernism, the field of architecture matched up with the habitus. In Modernism, the field of architecture collided with the new habitus of the society. According to Modernist architects, architectural products should be involved in mass production and this was the only possible way that architecture could help create a new world which served for all social classes. As a consequence, with Modernism the representation of architecture attained a greater prestige, and architects attained a greater sense of social duty than at any other time in the field’s history. The field of architecture represented itself as emanating from the habitus of the middle and lower social classes while its actors and products remained distinguished. This can be interpreted as the first paradox of distinguished and/ or ordinary representation of architecture and representational field of it. Between Modernism and the contemporary world of architecture, the field of Architecture has evolved. As Harvey argues, capitalist and post capitalist production systems and media institutions have consolidated the marketing strategies of cultural objects. A cultural event or object has turned to a sign of high culture and the habitus of high culture demands to have it registered in a distinguished and unique

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way. Hence, the product is represented and commercialized by elite events such as festivals, certification programs, etc. with the help of institutions that have sponsored them (Harvey, 2013). The representational mechanism of Architecture which has also been accepted as one of cultural occasions, has also widened. A complex network of relations including institutions, media, PR agencies, the advertising sector, the fashion sector etc. have all contributed to the representational field of it. Today, the distinguished representation of Architecture generally relates to distinguished representation of architects who are supported by architectural institutions. Indeed, some of the contemporary architects have even a unique denotation as Starchitects. While the Starchitects and their architectural works do not correspond to the most sizeable part of the profession, however, we can argue that the phenomenon of Architecture is represented most cogently by them. Further, it is possible to suggest that a new epistemology of architecture is also being generated, in part by the representation of Starchitects (Basyazici, Uluoğlu, 2017). According to Sklair, Starchitects are also a kind of by-product of institutionalization and marketing mechanisms (Sklair, 2005). If some architectural institutions constitute the main mechanism of representational field of Architecture, Starchitects are the main actors in that field. They are the agents of these networks and determine the borders of the field. Their position in representation mechanisms also makes them pioneer actors in discussing the paradoxical portrayal of architecture as a distinguished and/or ordinary phenomenon. However, it is important to locate wherein and how they act as network agents in the field of Architecture. Are they the agents of architectural institutions or only skillful architects? More importantly, how do they represent Architecture and how do they deal with the phenomenon of ordinariness? To understand these questions, and drawing on Bourdieu, DiMaggio and Harvey; the concept of the institutionalization mechanism should be understood as the cornerstone of the field.

4. The field of architectural institutions and their operative principles Architectural institutions could be grouped in many different ways according to the scope of the research. Here, we have grouped them according to their gentrifying mechanisms of architecture and their effects on the field of Architecture. Architectural schools are related to this field through their effective discourses on architectural epistemology and their prestigious images in terms of academic ranking. They help us only to understand the habitus of network agents (architects in this case) and their representations while other institutional mechanisms help us to interpret the operative principles in the field. Complementing the effect of education and educational institutions on architecture, one of the main actors in the field is the award-giving mechanisms. There are many world institutions that award architectural prizes, however, for the purpose of this study, the reputation, prominence and the fame of an award was considered crucial to understanding the effect fieldwide. Therefore, the most prestigious award in architecture, the Pritzker Architecture Prize, awarded by the Hyatt Foundation is determined as one case of the study. 4.1. The pritzker architecture prize The Pritzker Architecture Prize is bestowed by the Hyatt Foundation and is accepted as the “the Nobel Prize in architecture” (Britannica, 2018). It was inaugurated by Jay Pritzker, the founder of the Hyatt Foundation, and his wife, in order to compensate for the absence of architecture within the Nobel Prize categories (Mun-Delsalle, 2017). Since 1979, the foundation has annually honored an architect “whose works demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision, and commitment, for his/her contribution to the profession” (Pritzker Architecture Prize, 2017). Pritzker laureates are understood to have received the highest honor in the profession. To analyze the influence of the Pritzker Architecture Prize on architecture as it is socially represented, it is im-

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portant firstly to rethink the habitus and practices of the Hyatt Foundation. According to Forbes Magazine, the Pritzker family is one of the richest families in the USA (Britannica, 2017). In addition to creating the Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Hyatt Foundation, they have supported many civil society initiatives and founded several educational and cultural institutions. The jury of the Pritzker Architecture Prize includes architects, experts and businessmen form a variety of fields including art, education and technology. However, the social standing of the jury is striking in terms of its cultural habitus. Architect jury members are generally one of the Starchitects and previous or future laureates of the prize, while the experts and/or businessmen occupy to a similarly highbrowed habitus. For example, the directors of the National Gallery of Art and the National Gallery of Great Britain, the chairman of the IBM Corporation, Lord Rothschild, the deans of Harvard University Department of Architecture have at various time participated in and chaired the jury. Another matter of debate is the laureates; are they already a Starchitect when they are given the Pritzker Architecture Prize or does the prize itself help to establish them as Starchitect? It is an open question and there is not a certain answer. However, it is significant that today all Pritzker laureates are known as Starchitects. The presentation of the medal is another representational mechanism of the prize. The ceremony is always held in a significant global landmark in order to “reinforce the importance of the built environment” (The Pritzker Architecture Prize, 2018). It is an invitation-only ceremony and attended by jury members, mayors of the chosen cities, members of the international press, businessmen, academics, chairs of art galleries and museums, members of the Hyatt Foundation, the Pritzker Family and on occasion, the President and Prime Minister of the host country. The chairman of the Hyatt Foundation announces the winner and the recipient gives an acceptance speech. The ceremony is one of the most eminent and newsworthy events of the architectural calendar, and recently

has been broadcast live on the Internet and on TV. This prestige and attention awarded to the prize ceremony itself suggests that not merely architects and Architecture but also the Pritzker Architecture Prize is celebrated and consecrated via the event. Another institutional mechanism that works to consecrate the representation of architecture, and which also intersects with the Pritzker Architecture Prize is the Venice Architecture Biennale, our second case study. 4.2. Venice Architecture Biennale As with award mechanisms, cultural institutions could also be grouped in many different ways according to the scope of the research. The Venice Architecture Biennale, here, is determined as the second case that gentrifies the field of Architecture, due to its public recognition and focus on contentious topics in the world of architecture. The Venice Biennale is self-declared as “one of the most prestigious cultural institutions in the world for over 120 years” by the biennale foundation (La Biennale di Venezia, 2018). And Paolo Baratta, its current president, having served between 2000-2004 and subsequently again since 2008, recently called the Venice Architecture Biennale “the most important event in the world for Architecture” (OMA, 2017). The Venice Architecture Biennale has been part of the Venice Biennale since 1980. It has been successively curated by architects chosen by the president of the architecture biennial and by the biennial foundation. Since its inception, it has been accepted as the major architectural event for contemporary discussion in the world. However, the architecture or Architecture, which has been represented there is also one of the major questions considered in this article. The institutional history of the Biennale is significant. In the beginning, the Venice Biennale was a state-run event financially supported by Italian government. All the curators and pavilions were also Italian. In 2004, the Biennale transformed into a foundation and has been supported by both private investors and the government ever since (La

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Figure 1. Habitus of Starchitects in the field of architecture.

Biennale di Venezia, 2017). Although the existence of financial supporters has liberated the scope of the Biennale, it is believed that they also exercise influence over the design and representation of the national pavilions and even the curators. Nevertheless, it can be interpreted as a win-win situation; while the marketing strategies match with the cultural representation of the private corporations, the curators and participants also enrich their pavilions with their financial support (Stallabrass, 2016). The Venice Architecture Biennale has a parallel historiography in terms of institutional background. First five biennales were curated by Italian architects and they were also only staterun events. The sixth biennale, which was curated by Hans Hollein, was the first biennale curated by a non-Italian architect. The curators of the National Pavilions are generally selected by a national jury of the relevant country, but curators have the right to invite independent architects themselves. Notably, the majority of these independent architects are recognized Starchitects, most of whom have already received

the Pritzker award. This prompts a further question; is the Venice Architecture Biennale monopolized by Starchitects, or does the institution seek to use those architects for its own purpose? This brings us again the field of architectural institutions and their relation with the habitus of high culture. The diagram below displays the field of intersection between The Pritzker Architecture Prize and Venice Architecture Biennale as two main institutional arenas, and their network agents as Starchitects. Following Bourdieu, and examining the habitus and the field of Architecture, architectural schools (as another gentrifying institution) and the professional relations between Starchitects are also attached to the diagram. This diagram shows both the field and habitus of architects as they operate within the most prestigious representation mechanisms of Architecture. It is seen that the Venice Architecture Biennale and Pritzker Architecture Prize are cross-populated with familiar architects. They are the network agents of these two institutions. While those architects are generally in contact with

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Figure 2. Groups of themes in the Venice Architectural Biennale and Starchitects as participants.

most prestigious architectural schools of the world, they are also related with each other as partners, mentors or employers-employees. To be more precise, the habitus of architects who represent Architecture is structured by high-ranking architectural schools and the professional relationships of network agents. Their social class background here is unimportant; rather, in terms of the field of architecture, their social and cultural habitus refers to a high-level representation. The arenas where they work their “magic” and represent their architecture – the Venice Architecture Biennale and the Pritzker Architecture Prize in this case– is the field of Architecture. This field also prompts questions surrounding power, such as; Who represents Who? Is this a mutual relationship wherein both field and network agents represent themselves reciprocally? Or are those architects in fact by-products of these two architectural institutions? Finally, what do they represent and what does it take to affect change in architecture? To deepen these questions, the architectural discussions initiated by the Venice Architecture Biennale should be taken into consideration. The themes of the biennales could be taken as focal points of architectural problems, and also as related to how the curators define architecture and architectural problems in the world and what they represent as architecture. In order to approach these issues, this study groups the themes into three main headings; architecture as a contemporary event that also evolves with its history (Group 1); architecture as a dominant and leading event in contemporary life (Group 2); and, archi-

tecture as an interdisciplinary event that is related to social problems and everyday man (Group 3). 5. The paradoxical nature of the field of architecture The third group of themes in the Venice Architecture Biennale can help us discuss the paradoxical nature of the field of Architecture. We will focus on 12th biennale; “People meet in Architecture”, 14th biennale; “Fundamentals” and 15th biennale “Reporting from the Front”, which were curated by Kazuyo Sejima, Rem Koolhaas and Alejandro Aravena respectively, in order to understand this paradox. The common focal point of these biennales is that architecture is defined as a mundane event rather than a spectacle occasion within a different context. While Sejima emphasized the relation between architecture and common people, Koolhaas criticized the spectacle image of architecture and proposed a rethinking of its fundamental elements. Finally, Aravena “pitched activism against starchitecture” as The Guardian mentioned, and viewed architecture as a tool to contribute to the life of the lower classes, as he emphasized in Pritzker Architecture Prize acceptance speech. These themes caused some unconventional discussions for the Venice Architecture Biennale and sparked debates in architectural world by igniting the fuse of the paradox. While all three curators are Pritzker Architecture Prize awarded architects, they foregrounded the architecture of the mundane in the most spectacular architectural showcase in the world. It is important to highlight that what it is called architectural world here also contains the distinguished field of Ar-

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Figure 3. Discussions on architecture; spectacle or ordinary.

chitecture. Discussions concerning other fields of architecture generally don’t take place in architectural media and therefore cannot reach large masses. For this reason, architectural media as a further formation is also implicated in the network of the field of Architecture. Architectural media acts as a legal entity, rather than a natural entity like Starchitects and does not have an organizational structure like architectural institutions. Nevertheless, as a legal entity, it acts to make other entities visible and contributes to the structure of the field. The network map of the phenomenal paradox for the field of Architecture that is represented by the Pritzker Architecture Prize and Venice Architecture Biennale is illustrated above; The diagram focuses on 12th, 14th and th 15 Venice Architecture Biennales as these are the events that have provoked fundamental discussions on what the explicit aim of architecture should be, be it a spectacle or a mundane occasion. Some critiques also mentioned that some curators have been awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize. While Patrik Schumacher, who took over the Zaha Hadid Architects, questioned the

political correctness of Rem Koolhaas and Alejandro Aravena (Schumacher, 2014; 2016), Peter Eisenman (2014) declared the Koolhaas curated biennale as the end of Koolhaas’ architectural career and declared Koolhaas as an archistar who are going to be the single curator star. Paolo Baratta, the president of 14th Venice Architecture Biennale, discussed Koolhaas curated biennale in the following terms: “architects are called upon prevalently awe-inspiring buildings and the ordinary is going to astray” (OMA, 2017). Indeed, Koolhaas occupies a controversial position in this debate, as at the same time as celebrating ordinariness he has a history of spectacular buildings in third world countries, designed for Prada and proposed that buildings ought to be visited as museums. In the same year as the 14th biennale, a debate on architecture as spectacle or mundane occasion also taking place among Aaron Betsky (the curator of 11th Venice Architecture Biennale), Steven Bingler and Martin C. Pedersen in the columns of Architect Magazine and the New York Times. While Bingler and Pedersen (2014) proposed ordinariness in architecture to communicate

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with common people, Betsky (2014) argued against them and claimed that architecture has always been a spectacle event rather than a building, which is why it is called architecture. Sejima curated biennale has been generally honored in discussions for its modest approaches. However, Kurt Forster issued a cautionary note, arguing that while the “People Meet in Architecture” biennale was gracious in intent, target group of the Venice Architecture Biennale, meant that it registered rather like “architects meet in architecture” (Forster, 2010). Aravena curated biennale occupies a more significant position in this field, however, as his definition and suggestions for architecture are still being argued out in the architectural media. Schumacher (2016) criticized Aravena to be ringing in the changes for Architecture by promoting a humanitarian architecture with both the Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Venice Architecture Biennale. Nevertheless, his intent was met with criticism from some commentators who questioned whether Aravena’s definition of architecture had been unduly influenced by interested developers and politicians, Rowen Moore (2016) said. Similarly, the journalist Mimi Zeiger (2016) asked “Is architecture as guileless as Aravena’s biennale suggests?” Betsky (2016), however, considered the debate from a different angle, arguing that Aravena’s biennale showed that the beauty and pleasure of architecture can only be possible to construct for the wealthy. In case of Aravena, it seems that he doesn’t have a kind of paradoxical relationship between his theoretical approaches and practical career like Koolhas. Yet Aravena is also a Pritzker award winner, has been chosen as a member of the Pritzker Architecture Prize jury for eight years and is an instructor at Harvard’s Faculty of Architecture. These are leading opinions of architects and/or architecture critics who are depicted in this network map. Following opinions for the 14th and 15th biennales and curators’ Pritzker award in many articles or reader columns abound in the architectural media. This platform shows that the phenomenon of ordinariness could be interpreted

as apprehending a loss of power for the distinguished representation of Architecture, which has historically been taken for granted by some architects (Baudrillard, 2011). Rather, it also suggests that even being mundane and/or ordinary can be a representation tool in the field of Architecture. It presents a kind of network for the phenomenon of ordinariness that shows who represents ordinariness, with whom and where. 6. Conclusion This study discusses the representational mechanisms of Architecture by referring to Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field. In order to define the field of Architecture, it is important to discuss the representational field of architectural institutions and the habitus of those architects who participate in these institutions. While every architectural institution has its own mechanism to represent architecture, some undoubtedly hold greater sway over the field than others. The Pritzker Architecture Prize and the Venice Architecture Biennale have been studied as major cases representing Architecture due to their significance and influence on the field. Although these two cases share neither a common aim nor scope, intentionally or not both cases are instrumental in the construction of the field of Architecture. As we have seen, the Pritzker family has created the most prestigious medal in the profession in order to honor the achievements of living architects in a spectacular ceremony. In case the of the Venice Architecture Biennale, it cannot be proposed that Venice Architecture Biennale acts as a gentrifying agent for the representation of architecture in prima facie; however, as we have seen before, due to its esteemed standing in the world of architecture, may have undertaken every theme and curator involved in the biennale as part of a gentrifying process. At this juncture, the distinguished field of these organizations in their definitive context is also important as it leads us to the habitus of architects. The Pritzker family and Hyatt Foundation are firmly located in the field of wealthy institutions while habitus of

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the family also belongs to high culture. Hence, even if they are not an architectural institution, the high-cultured habitus of family and the jury members that they choose also define the field of the Pritzker Architecture Prize as one of high status and prestige. This is borne out by the fact that despite there being many institutional awards, none of them are named as the most respected medal in the profession except the Pritzker Architecture Prize. The Venice Architectural Biennale could be interpreted in two ways: the field of the sponsorship networks and the field and habitus of the biennale’s curators. The financial support of the Italian government, which is itself an institution of major kind, helps to define the Biennale as an Italian occasion: Being the sole funder at its founding, it meant that the Biennale has always been seen as part of an act celebrating the Italian artistic culture. However, with the participation of private investors, the biennale also became a part of the marketing arena for those companies and other cultural institutions that have gone on to help build the cultural capital the Venice Architecture Biennale has today. At the same time, those companies and institutions undoubtedly capitalize their association with the Venice Architecture Biennale for their corporate image. As for the biennale’s curators, they have always been selected from among the most notable architects in the world, whose reputation and contribution to the profession is globally recognized. They are the provokers of the most important discussions that determine the key topics of the architectural discourse as they are the leaders in the field of Architecture. Hence, if we ask the question “is it architecture or Architecture that is exhibited in Venice”, the answer to be expected must be Architecture, despite contrary claims implied by themes of the recent biennales. This study overlaps these two distinguished representation mechanisms to understand the field of Architecture via two network maps. These network maps show that some architects take place in both events, or that those events use those architects in their own self-representation. Following Bour-

dieu and Di Maggio, the architects at the intersection point of the two events are understood as network agents, as they are present at both occasions and thus help form the social context in which the field operates. We have shown that they are representative of a high-cultured habitus in architecture with their educational background and professional relations with each other. Upon these grounds, then, we would expect the phenomenon of ordinariness to have no representative place within Architecture. However, the 12th, 14th and 15th biennales did attempt to problematize Architecture’s privileged positioning. Their limited success in terms of critical reception suggested that “the war” against Starchitecture. Our intention is not to argue that ordinariness is not possible because architecture gentrifies every phenomenon as such. Ordinary and functional buildings can be seen everywhere and contain an aesthetic value in themselves. Rather, the fact that we entitle these buildings as ordinary, mundane or common demonstrates that they do not belong to the field of Architecture. These are the buildings not mentioned in architectural books or magazines, not known all around the world and they are not designed by Starchitects. Koolhaas and Aravena’s attempt to provoke a critical conversation about ordinariness in architecture, however, perhaps suggests that Architecture’s privileged position is ripe for its destabilization. Koolhaas and Aravena share common and unique positions in this field. First and foremost, both architects demonstrate paradoxes inherent within their relative positions and their artistic approaches; and, both turned ordinariness into a cause celebre via their association with the Venice Architecture Biennale. Can their attempts be likened to Duchamp’s urinal as he attempted to unmask this paradox at the heart of the art industry? Perhaps, but our study suggests rather that the two share more in common with Walter Benjamin’s assessment of Baudelaire as a secret agent of his social class, criticism of the class to which he belonged (Benjamin, 2006). Koolhaas and Aravena could also be interpreted as secret

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agents of their habitus in the field of Architecture. Recalling David Harvey’s argument, cultural institutions function by turning ordinary things and events into distinguished ones by attributing noble meanings to them, even if economic interests are absent and the process is not intentional (Harvey, 2013). Thus, in raising the question of ordinariness, the Venice Architecture Biennale initiates structuring of a field, following Harvey, regarding whether the ordinary can exist in Architecture. In this way, since those biennales which have brought the ordinary on stage, and with the intervention of the Pritzker awarded Starchitects, the phenomenon of ordinariness has become a discussion topic worldwide. Returning to our original question, “where in the representations of Architecture can we trace the phenomenon of ordinariness?”, our study has suggested that the answer we must expect is, within distinguished architectural institutions. However, the notion of ordinariness as a mindset, which takes place in representations of Architecture within its present field, cannot be identified as the ordinary in ontological terms. Ordinariness itself becomes a distinguished ordinariness once all the eyes are on it. While the ordinary is in essence still located in the field of architecture (with a small a), ordinary becomes extra-ordinary when it is found located within the field of Architecture. The epistemological tendencies of high-cultured habitus in the field of Architecture turns the unconventional nature of ordinariness to a cause celebre via conventional methodologies. While its inclusion is expected to deconstruct and problematize the distinguished field of Architecture, ordinariness in fact lies to incorporate into the field and thus turns out to be another of Architecture’s lodestars. Leading approaches with leading actors turn epistemology of architecture into a vicious circle and inevitably construct a paradoxical field. This study shows that the phenomenon of ordinariness has a potential power of resistance when included within the field of Architecture. It needs another habitus of actors and structural mechanisms of field to do

this. Within its present position, it is not possible to represent ordinariness thru the representation tools of Architecture and it cannot be conceptualized within the field of Architectural discourse. It needs a different methodology which is expected to have the potential of creating an alternative theory. This study is intended to be a first step towards seeking an alternative methodology to deal with phenomena which are outside of the conventional in Architecture; or rather, outside of conventions of Architecture. We believe that this will open the way to a fertile ground to explore and re-problematize the profession and its episteme. References Aravena, A. (2016). “Rationale” in Reporting from the Front: 15th International Architecture Exhibition Catalogue. Marsilio; Slp Edition, 21-30. Başyazıcı B., Uluoğlu, B. (2017). The Phenomenon of Being Distinguished in Architecture; a Study on Pritzker Prize. Paper presented at the meeting of ATINER 7th Annual International Conference on Architecture, Athens. Baudrillard, J., Nouvel, J. (2011). Tekil Nesneler. Yem Yayın, İstanbul. Benjamin, W. (2006). The Writer of Modern Life: Essays on Charles Baudelaire, Harvard University Press. Betsky, A. (2014). The New York Times Versus Architecture. Architect Magazine. Retrieved from http://www. architectmagazine.com/design/thenew-york-times-versus-architecture_o Betsky, A. (2016). Reporting from the Front: Postcard from the Venice Biennale. Retrieved from http://www. architectmagazine.com/design/exhibits-books-etc/reporting-from-thefront-postcard-from-the-venice-biennale_o Bingler S., Pedersen, M. C. (2014). How to Rebuild Architecture. The New York Times. Retrieved from https:// www.nytimes.com/2014/12/16/opinion/how-to-rebuild-architecture.html Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, New York. Bourdieu, P., (1985). Distinction; A Social Critique of Judgement of Taste. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts.

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Bourdieu, P. (1986). “The Forms of Capital” in Richardson, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, Greenwood, 241-258. Britannica. (2017). Pritzker Family American Business Family. Retrieved from http://global.britannica.com/topic/Pritzker-Prize Britannica. (2018). Pritzker Prize International Architectural Award. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/ Pritzker-Prize Dimaggio, P. (1991). “Constructing an Organizational Field as a Professional Project: U.S. Art Museums, 1920-1940” In Dimaggio, P., Powell W. (ed.) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. The University of Chicago Press, 267-297. Eisenman, P. (2014). Interview with peter Eisenman. Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen. com/2014/06/09/rem-koolhaas-at-theend-of-career-says-peter-eisenman/ Forster, K. (2010). “Interview with Kurt Foster”, in Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012) Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Graw, I. (2006). “Beyond Institutional Critique”, in John C. Welchman (ed.), Institutional Critique and After. JRP Ringier, Zurich, 7-146. Grenfell, M., (2008). Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts. Routledge, London. Harvey, D. (2013). Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. Verso, USA. Johnson, P., A. (1994). The Theory of Architecture: Concepts Themes and Practices. John Willey & Sons, USA. Karatani, K. (1995). Architecture as Metaphor. MIT Press, USA. Koolhaas, R. (2014). “Architecture not Architects” in Fundamentals: 14th International Architecture Exhibition Catalogue, Marsilio, 17-20. Kostof, S. (1977). The Architect. University of California Press, USA. La Biennale di Venezia. (2017). History of Venice Biennale. Retrieved from http://www.labiennale.org/en/ history La Biennale di Venezia. (2018). His-

tory. Retrieved from http://www.labiennale.org/en/history Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012). Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Los Angeles Times. (2016). A Grassroots, Handmade Venice Architecture Biennale from Alejandro Aravena. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/ entertainment/arts/la-et-cm-venicebiennale-review-20160530-snap-story. html Lury, C. (2011). “Capital, Class and Consumer Culture”, in Consumer Culture. Polity Press, USA. Moore, R. (2016). Venice Architecture Biennale 2016 – ideas for real world problems. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/may/29/ venice-architecture-biennale-2016-review-norman-foster OMA. (2017). Rem Koolhaas Announces Title for Venice Architecture Biennale. Retrieved from http://oma. eu/news/rem-koolhaas-announces-themes-for-2014-venice-architecture-biennale Pritzker Architecture Prize. (2017). About The Prize. Retrieved from https://www.pritzkerprize.com/about Pritzker Architecture Prize. (2018). Ceremony. Retrieved from https:// www.pritzkerprize.com/about Portoghesi, P. (2010). “Interview with Paolo Portoghesi”, in Levy, A., Menking, W. (2012) Architecture on Display: On the History of the Venice Biennale of Architecture. Architectural Association Press, London. Schumacher, P. (2014). Facebook Post. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/patrik.schumacher.10/ posts/10202631928712343 Schumacher, P. (2016). Facebook Post. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/patrik.schumacher.10/ posts/10207222111024032 Schumacher, P. (2018). Interview with the Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/ cities/2018/jan/17/architect-patrik-schumacher-depicted-fascist-zaha-hadid Sklair, L. (2005). “The Transnational Capitalist Class and Contemporary Architecture in Globalizing Cities”, Inter-

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national Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 29, Issue 3, 485–500. Stallabrass, J. (2016). Sanat A.Ş. Çağdaş Sanat ve Bienaller, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul. Sudjic, D. (2014). Interview with Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www. dezeen.com/2014/06/05/critics-giveverdicts-on-rems-biennale-withoutany-architecture-in-sight/ Swartz, D. (2011). Kültür ve İktidar; Pierre Bourdieu’nün Sosyolojisi. İletişim Yayıncılık, İstanbul. The Architects Journal. (2010). Venice Architecture Biennale 2010. Retrieved from https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/venice-architecture-biennale-2010/8605444.article

The Guardian (2010). This Year’s Venice Architecture Biennale is about People, not Plans. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/aug/31/venice-architecture-biennale The Guardian. (2016). Alejandro Aravena’s Venice Architecture Biennale. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/may/26/ venice-architecture-biennale-alejandro-aravena Zeiger, M, (2016). Is Architecture Really as Guileless as Aravena’s Biennale Suggests? Dezeen. Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/06/01/ opinion-mimi-zeiger-venice-architecture-biennale-2016-honest-fronting/

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Housing price estimation in order to sustainable housing: Niyavaran area,Tehran, Iran

Mojtaba VALIBEIGI1, Ali Akbar TAGHIPOUR2, Majid FESHARI3 1 m.valibeigi@bzte.ac.ir • Urban Planning and Architecture Department, Industrial & Mechanical Faculty, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Iran 2 a.taghipour@du.ac.ir • Department of Geography and Urban Planning , Faculty of Earth Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran 3 m.feshari@khu.ac.ir • Department of General Economics, Faculty of Economics, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.40326

Received: July 2017 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Housing composite commodity as a one of the most important property of households, has been interesting for researchers and planners in last years. Hedonic pricing, estimating the value of housing characteristics through the use of transactions data. For this purpose, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors affect housing prices in the Niyavaran region of Tehran, Iran. Nowadays, the housing planning tries to meet the needs of users, which this subject is one of the important factors in sustainable housing scheduling. To achieve this objective, first of all the variables influence the housing price have been determined and then, data was collected via the survey and was analyzed, using the Hedonic price model. The empirical results of this paper showed that variables: the building age, number of rooms, house view side, Interior decoration, lighting and distance to school are significant and positive and Parking, education and road traffic were significant and negative in this study. By applying these results in urban projects eventually can lead to the better life quality and sustainability in urban life. Keywords Hedonic price model, Housing, Physical variables, Environmental variables, Tehran.


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1. Introduction People choose where to live and which house to buy by considering a bundle of housing characteristics, and housing space is one of the most important contributors to the total willingness to pay for the unit. From the demand side, adequate housing space is a critical screening factor used in narrowing a property search. Space constraint is also a key determinant when consumers decide to upgrade their residence. From the supply point view, the size of a housing unit is a key parameter that developers adjust to maximize profits. Since housing space plays a pivotal role in determining the bid and offer functions that underlie the hedonic price equation, it is important to have a good understanding of the hedonic price of housing space. However, estimates obtained from a standard hedonic regression could suffer from potential functional form misspecifications and endogeneity arising from omitted variables (Collen & Hoekstra, 2001; Johansson, 2012; Scheiner & Holz-Rau, 2007) Changes in supply and demand, which determine the competitive conditions of real estate, are directly reflected in real estate values and especially changes in supply and demand of housing seriously affect economic growth. The controlling of these changes in real estate values and the determination of economic factors that cause them are possible through objective valuation studies. However, the fact that each property has different and unique characteristics makes valuation a time consuming and costly process. Due to the fact that real estate valuation has not been in line with scientific principles and international standards, it is necessary to facilitate value appreciation processes in both academic and commercial studies as well as to develop certain statistical models such as the hedonic valuation model. The hedonic valuation process consists of the steps of converting the characteristics of properties into massive data in a collective sense and relating these properties to the (sales) price. With the hedonic method developed, it is expected that sales price valuations will be performed in a standardized

manner. In overall, the hedonic model examines the impact of a product’s characteristics on its price. When considered within the context of real estate, the hedonic valuation model enables a statistical association between the characteristics of properties and sales prices(Adair, Berry, & McGreal, 1996; Ali, Bashir, & Ali, 2015; Czembrowski & Kronenberg, 2016). An evolution was occurred in pattern and settlement system, in consequence of industrial revolution improvement and urbanization growth and house supply was become to one of the most urban district difficulties (Mirkatouli, Samadi, & Hosseini, 2018; Muhallab Taha, 2001, 12). Other parameters, on the other hand, such as population growth, new household formation, immigration from the rural areas, Destruction and renovation of places because of the old building amortization, and getting residential units smaller and so on, have duplicated the housing supply problem. Technical and scientific advances, sustainable development theories and plans, made the main humankind demands and stable housing construction achievements, more complicated (Chiu, 2004; Zimmermann, Althaus, & Haas, 2005). Housing problem has been raised all around the world but it has been turned to a critical problem in developing countries due to fast population and urbanization growth, internal migrations, lack of financial sources, problems in land and building material supply and shortage of the manpower beside the lack of policy and proper plans about the land and housing (Malpezzi & Mayo, 1987; Pjanic, 1967; Sinclair, 2017) The growing up role of housing, especially in sustainable development of mankind living, has made the governors, put the house planning on their main priorities. The plans such as new city construction, improvement and renovation of worn tissues and etc. are the attempts for this problem solving. The price of land and housing is an important factor for wrapping up the private and governmental plans and projects; while the price is a function of various time dependent, situations and

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factors (Dieleman, 2017). Recognition of effective factors in housing price, therefore, can be utilized as a powerful tool for housing policymakers and planners. This concept which is commonly referred to in review of literature as the “hedonic pricing model” instead of “hedonic valuation” (Bozkurt, 2016; Hayrullahoğlu, Aliefendioğlu, Tanrıvermiş, & Hayrullahoğlu, 2017, 2018; Kara, Gültekin, Aliefendioğlu, & Tanrıvermiş, 2016) is widely used for the creation of a price index for goods, estimating their values, and performing prosperity analysis of public goods. The hedonic pricing model emerged with a new approach in consumer theory by Lancaster (1966), and is called the Lancaster Preference Theory (Adams & Crawford, 2015; de Oliveira Santos, 2016). In his essay (1966), Lancaster emphasized that a product is heterogeneous and offers no benefit to consumers alone, and that the benefits stem from the characteristics it possesses. Hedonic models, which are basically regression equations, are estimated with the help of regression analysis. The model is based on the assumption that goods are heterogeneous, and each property is described as the sum of its individual properties (Hayrullahoğlu et al., 2018). At the forefront of addressing the need for shelter in urban spaces, which has been shaped in our days through large population movements, houses have changed form in line with social behavior, economic status and demands of individuals over time, have started to carry different qualitative and quantitative features, and even regarded as important investment and financing tools. This situation necessitated the examination of factors affecting the housing market in all types of real estate. Just like any other heterogeneous property, houses also contain more than one feature, and are sold as a collection of the features they have. Since it is very difficult to specify the price of goods with multiple features at a single total price and to analyze the market, the price of the goods is identified by determining the price of each feature of the good, and it is called hedonic pricing (Hayrullahoğlu et al., 2018; Hülagü, Kızılkaya,

Özbekler, & Tunar, 2016; Selim, 2008; Hidano, 2002). Many of studies have been done in housing domain and its effective factors, that some of them will be mentioned henceforward: Farzanegan, Gholipour, and Nguyen (2016) is an example of the association between housing prices and income inequality in Iran over the last three decades. In the recent period, Iran has had the highest average Gini coefficient in the Middle East, a region where inequality has triggered social tension, political instability, and armed conflict. Gholipour and Farzanegan (2015) in “marriage crisis and housing costs: empirical evidence from provinces of Iran” examines the link between housing costs and the marriage rate in Iran, controlling for other relevant economic determinants of marriage. their results reveal that there is a negative relationship between housing costs and the marriage rate. Pour Mohammadi, Ghorbani, and Taghipour (2014) investigated factors affecting the price of housing in the city of Tabriz using hedonic model. The results have shown that some variables including the area of land, building view side, salary and education, access to the radiator, the width of alley or street and the traffic of the alley or street have the positive effect on price while the building view, the number of rooms, distance from the downtown, the age of building and the kind of ownership document have the negative effect. Mohammadi (2017) aims to identify and prioritize effective factors on willingness to pre-purchase demand of housing in the city of Ilam in Iran and to present a conceptual model. The results indicated that economic, financial, fiscal-behavioral, motivational, and social factors influence on housing pre-purchase and economic factors including poverty, economic efficiency and economic crisis. Also, Varesi and Musavi (2010) did a study, entitled: “effective factor survey on housing price, using the Hedonic model”. Their findings showed that the land area, infrastructure area and the number of floors are the most important parameters on housing price in

The estimation of house price in Niyavaran Area, Tehran, Iran, in order to housing sustainable planning


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Yazd. As the housing price has changed to 0.49 and 0.38 due to one percent increasing in land and infrastructure area, respectively. Some variables, also, had the negative sign. Results show that housing price will reduce 0.22 % in consequence of one unit change in building age. The housing price, in addition, will decrease 0.25 percent due to one unit change in building distance from the downtown. Nijënstein, Haans, Kemperman, and Borgers (2015) With the use of a mixed logit model, the importance and influence of the housing characteristics and taste heterogeneity have measured. Individual differences were explained with the use of socio-demographics and human values. The results show that heterogeneity is present in the housing preferences of students. These differences can be explained partly by socio-demographics and human values. Human values are thought to give additional understanding of differences in students’ housing preferences on top of socio-demographics. Within this experiment, hypothetical student houses were defined by systematically varying nine housing characteristics: price, size, kitchen sharing, bathroom sharing, cycling time to city center, cycling time to campus, outdoor space, walking time to supermarket, and walking time to park. Liao and Wang (2012) have estimated the housing price in some areas of China during the 2009. In this study the effective parameters on housing price, have been recognized in economic-social variables framework and physical-environmental properties. Empirical results of this study showed that the per capita income and population density are the most significant variables on housing price in these areas. Results also reveal that some variables including the distance from the downtown, the area of each floor, distance from the urban park and the number of rooms were meaningful and effective on housing price. Kim, Park, Lee, and Xue (2015) estimated house price determinants in the Korean housing market, focusing on Seoul and employing the method of a quantile regression of a hedonic price model. The hedonic variables em-

ployed in this research include building age, size, floor height, and floor level, proximity to metro station and high school and scenic view. The empirical analysis finds that school proximity has the largest effect on the prices among dummy variables and that the level of the effect is larger in lower quantiles (lower-priced houses). Lehner (2011), estimated the housing price in Singapore, using the Hedonic model. Results have showed that the area of each floor, access to urban services and the type of ownership have the positive effect, while the building age, the distance from the downtown, the distance from the nearest public transportation station, distance from the shopping centers and educational centers in addition to dealing season have the negative effect on housing price. Vichiensan and Miyamato (2010) evaluated the effect of urban rail transport lines on housing price in Bangkok, Thailand, using the Hedonic model. In this study the house selling price, land area, the number of bath in each residential unit, the building age, infrastructure of each residential unit, the spent average time, reaching to the city center and the nearest railway station, have been utilized. Results show that the land area, the number of bath in each residential unit and infrastructure of each residential unit have the positive effectiveness, whereas, the variables including the building age, the spent average time, reaching to the city center and the nearest railway station have the negative effect on housing price. Xiaolu and Yasushi (2005) studied the various parameters effect on housing price in Japan. In this study the consequence of different variables on housing price have been assessed; the findings reveal that the area and infrastructure have the positive correlation with land price, while the population density, the land use and road cover ratio in Seijo area have had the positive and meaningful effect on land price. 2. Materials and methods Heterogeneity and diversity is one of the most important properties of housing composite commodity, as it can

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life quality, then, should be considered, buying a home (Gouriéroux and Laferrère, 2009: 207; Sadeqi et al., 2008). Hedonic method states that the economic target of goods and services production should be the customer satisfaction. Hedonic method is applicable when the higher satisfactory is desired Figure 1. Hedonic (Rosen,1974., 39).

price

function

be claimed that any two house are not same as each other. Heterogeneity is searchable in many ways such as physical properties from the geographic and environmental aspects (King, 2017). In physical properties viewpoint, houses have different ages. It is possible for a house to be usable after many years old whereas another new house can be destroyed after few years; this state depends on the house quality and its materials. Houses, also, are different in number of rooms, having a good ventilation and hygiene in physical standard aspects beside the geographic viewpoint. Only building and its plan has similarity in mass production and houses always are different from each other in location, neighboring, light, sound and landscape factors. Also, houses are different in accessibility to urban services such as schools, parks, hospitals, cultural centers and etc. and their distance to downtown. In housing price study, thus, the hedonic model is used generally for the assessment. In Hedonic studies, supposed that the housing price is a reflect of inhabitants’ desire to pay for the facilities accessibility, in and out of the building (Xiao, 2017). In other words, it supposed that the differences of property prices are because of the differences in housing properties. Considering the abovementioned definitions, the housing price shows the maximum money, which people desire to pay for the better life quality, a certain amount of internal equipment and building situation and its accessibility to urban services(Abidoye & Chan, 2017). The Hedonic price concept has been founded on Lancaster (1966), Griliches (1971) and Rosen (1974) theories. Most of specialties affect the

than the general one (Rosen, 1974: 34). The housing Hedonic model, then, is a function of various consumer goods (X), Environmental prosperity features (z), a vector of physical properties such as number of rooms, used materials, view and infrastructure and etc. (S) and a vector of accessibility and neighboring (N) (Freeman, 1993 & Batalhone and etal 2002). Rosen (1974) considers the distinct goods Z with different properties z1, z2, …, zn as below: If the price of each stuff properties shown as p(z), then the p(z) reveals the distinct properties price changes due to changes of each variable. On the other hand, the utility function can be displayed as below: In Utility function, x is the compound goods rather than housing and is a parameter identifier that maximize the consumer desirability. The bud-

get limitation should be considered in consumer utility maximization. The budget limitation function supposed as below: Budget limitation function, y, shows the consumer income and supposed that x equals to one. The final rate of displacing between the certain goods properties and compound goods other than housing will be as below: Equation 3 shows that changing in z goods properties will cause the price changing and it affects the final utility ratio towards the goods x. The consumer final utility, therefore, could be in relation with housing properties and its price (Xiao, 2017). Figure 1 shows the Hedonic function concept.

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In figure one, the residential unit properties have been shown in horizontal axis with Z and r is the desirability of costumers for residential units. The Hedonic price curve then, shows the different prices and costumers various pays. In other words, each vendee pays different price for residential unit based on his satisfaction or desirability of residential unit properties. This function, thus, is expressed as a curve. Considerable point in this graph is that desirability price is different person to person (Xiao, 2017; Ham, 2011). 3. Study area recognition and variables of model Nyavaran is one of the northern parts of Tehran in southern slopes of the Alborz mountains. At the moment, Nyavaran is located in district four area one. It limited to Jamalabad- Bahonar campsite from the north, to Shahid Bahonar Street from the south, to Pour Ebtehaj from east and to Jamshidieh from the west. This district has about 1699379 m2 area and its population was 8979 people upon to 2006 census. There is an especial architecture in this area due to region slope. Also its height is about 1700 m, caused the cooler weather than the other districts in Tehran. In present study the first part related to the literature review and theoretical bases and has been gathered from the library documents and various texts; residential units’ data has been earned, using the questionnaire and field surveys. Real estate consultants were subjected to the questionnaire in addition to residential units’ inhabitants, determining the market value of residential units. Eventually the SPSS 16 and EVies 7 were used for the questionnaire data analysis and model estimation. Utilized variables will be as below, considering the Hedonic model: 1. Dependent variable (the housing price (LPRICE)): in present study the housing price was expressed in Iranian Rial. The various properties of housing affect the price in addition to supply and demand law. 2. Independent variables, categorized in 3 group: A. Physical variables B. Accessibility variables C. Environmental variables

Figure 2. Nyavaran District, Tehran, Iran. Table 1. Independent variables of the study.

Table 1 introduces the independent variables of present study. 4. Empirical results 4.1. Model estimation and results analysis The overall model was designed first, for the Hedonic model estimation and finding of each variable’s coefficient and some variables were omitted for the best result achieving. In present study the log-log model could not be used because some variables were virtual and select the zero or one; therefore, a linear-logarithmic form was applied for the model estimation. The initial form of model is as below and the related results of model estimation have been shown in table 2.

Based on table 2, it can be said that applied variables have different effect coefficient whereas all variables could

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Table 2. Results of housing price function estimation in Nyavaran].

not be referenced in price estimation analysis. On the other words, only the meaningful variables have interpretation capability. The meaningful variables can be interpreted as below: The age and building antiquity is meaningful and positive, The shorter the life of the building, the housing price increases by 0.86%. Level of Literacy is a meaningful and negative variable. In other words, the lower the level of education will decrease the housing price by 0.37%; it can be deducing as the low purchasing power with lower education level. The lack of parking in residential unit is negative meaningful variable and reduces the price by -16.156%. The number of rooms is positive, so that one extra room can increase the price by 1.37%. the building view side on the other hand is positive and meaningful and rises the building price by 0.13 %. Interior architecture and elements such as stucco, flooring, walls and decorations are effective factors in price, the higher the quality of the interior architecture, the more expensive the housing by 1.3%. The better lighting of building can raise the price, this variable is positive here and has a coefficient equal to 48.83%. The traffic situation on alley or street for the house, located there is a nega-

tive variable. The residential units located in dead-end alleys or streets are cheaper than the others. The coefficient amount is -0.31%. The distance from schools is a positive variable, in other word, people prefer to pay more money to be farther away from schools due to their noise. Results show that the price will increase by 0.1 % per unit farther away from school. 5. Conclusion One of the most important subjects in housing sustainable planning, is the willingness to pay from the residential units’ buyers. In other word, each buyer likes to pay more money for one or more especial properties of housing that will cause the rising of customer satisfaction which is the final goal of sustainable housing planning. Present study which has been done in Nyavaran-Tehran, tries to find the most important variables that consumers ready to pay more for them. The variables were categorized in three classes including physical, accessibility and environmental indicators. The building age, parking, the number of rooms and interior architecture were the meaningful variables and interpretable among the physical indicators. It can be found that present study is in accordance to the other studies, for example the building age variable

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has been a meaningful and interpretable variable in all studies such as Pour Mohammadi et al. (2014), Gholipour and Farzanegan (2015). The price of the building decreases, in consequence of building age increasing. Also the number of rooms was meaningful in all studies. The accessibility indicator also has the effect on housing price. Only the distance from school has been meaningful and reveals that the housing price will be more in consequence of more distance from school. This variable has not been considered in other studies; in Varesi and Musavi (2010) this variable has become meaningless. In environmental indicator and its variables, model results show that street traffic and the level of education can be effective on housing price in Nyavaran. It seems that in previous studies only Pour Mohammadi et al. (2014) considered the street traffic and the level of education, upon to their studies these variables were meaningful and increase the housing price. Present study tries to estimate the price, using the housing Hedonic price function for Nyavaran district, Tehran, Iran and move towards the final target that finds the consumer priorities in house selection and move on the way to housing sustainable planning. Custodians want to determine either consumers prefer a house with more rooms, interior furniture, land area and etc. or the accessibility is their priority. The satisfactory level of the city will be grow, satisfying the demands and consumers’ priorities; satisfactory rising, therefore, is one of the city sustainable parameters. For this aim a questionnaire was made which effective variables on housing price in it, have been divided in 3 group including Physical, Accessibility and Environmental variables. data was gathered, asking the families and the housing price was obtained asking the real estate consultants. Then the intended Linear- Logarithmic function was estimated by SPSS and EViews 7 software. Results show that all variables are not meaningful and cannot be interpreted. Some of them were positive and the others were negative. Positive effect means that housing price will be increased due to variable rising and vice versa.

Positive meaningful variables include building age, the number of rooms, building view side, interior architecture of building, lighting, distance from school, while the negative variables are lack of parking, low level of education and street traffic. Obtained results can be applied in civil and technical projects; also mass producers and custodians should pay attention to consumer desires to buyers feel more satisfaction due to their purchase and subsequently this satisfactory will rise the life quality and sustainability in urban environments. References Abidoye, R. B., & Chan, A. P. (2017). Critical review of hedonic pricing model application in property price appraisal: A case of Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(1), 250-259. Adair, A. S., Berry, J. N., & McGreal, W. S. (1996). Hedonic modelling, housing submarkets and residential valuation. Journal of property Research, 13(1), 67-83. Adams, A., & Crawford, I. (2015). Models of Revealed Preference. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource, 1-15. Ali, G., Bashir, M. K., & Ali, H. (2015). Housing valuation of different towns using the hedonic model: A case of Faisalabad city, Pakistan. Habitat International, 50, 240-249. Batalhone, S., Nogueira, J., Mueller B. (2002). Economics of Air Pollution: Hedonic Price Model and Smell Consequences of Sewage Treatment Plants in Urban Areas. University of Brasilia, working paper. Bozkurt, Ö. (2016). Denizli’de gayrimenkul değerini etkileyen fiziksel unsurların tespitine yönelik bir araştırma. Chiu, R. L. (2004). Socio‐cultural sustainability of housing: a conceptual exploration. Housing, theory and society, 21(2), 65-76. Collen, H., & Hoekstra, J. (2001). Values as determinants of preferences for housing attributes. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 16(3-4), 285-306. Czembrowski, P., & Kronenberg, J. (2016). Hedonic pricing and different

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urban green space types and sizes: Insights into the discussion on valuing ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 146, 11-19. de Oliveira Santos, G. E. (2016). Worldwide hedonic prices of subjective characteristics of hostels. Tourism Management, 52, 451-454. Dieleman, F. (2017). Households and housing: Choice and outcomes in the housing market: Routledge. Farzanegan, M. R., Gholipour, H. F., & Nguyen, J. (2016). Housing costs and inequality in post-revolutionary Iran. Economic Welfare and Inequality in Iran (pp. 111-128): Springer. Freeman, A.M. (1993). The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values Theory and Methods. Washington D. C: Resources for the Future. Gholipour, H. F., & Farzanegan, M. R. (2015). Marriage crisis and housing costs: Empirical evidence from provinces of Iran. Journal of Policy Modeling, 37(1), 107-123. Gouriéroux C., Laferrère A. (2009). Managing hedonic housing price indexes: The French experience. Journal of Housing Economics, 18(3), 206213. Griliches, Zvi. Hedonic Price Indexes of Automobiles: An Econometric Analysis of Quality Change, in Zvi Griliches (ed.), Price Indexes and Quality Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971. Ham, C. (2011). Using the Hedonic Property Method to Value Federal Lands Proximate to Urban: Case Study of Colorado Springs. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado. Hayrullahoğlu, G., Aliefendioğlu, Y., Tanrıvermiş, H., & Hayrullahoğlu, A. C. (2017). Konut Piyasalarında Hedonik Değerleme Modeli Tahmini: Ankara İli Çankaya İlçesi Çukurambar Bölgesi Örneği. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 2 nd International Conference on Scientific Cooperation for the Future in the Economics and Administrative Sciences. Hayrullahoğlu, G., Aliefendioğlu, Y., Tanrıvermiş, H., & Hayrullahoğlu, A. C. (2018). Estimation of the hedonic

valuation model in housing markets: the case of cukurambar region in cankaya district of ankara province. Ecoforum Journal, 7(1). Hidano, N. (2002). The economic valuation of the environment and public policy: A hedonic approach. New Horizons in Environmental Economics, Series Editors, Wallace E. Oates and Henk Folmer. Hülagü, T., Kızılkaya, E., Özbekler, A., & Tunar, P. (2016). A hedonic house price index for Turkey. Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Working Papers(16/03). Johansson, V. (2012). Preferences on the Rental Housing Market-What Factors Determine the Attractiveness of an Apartment in Gothenburg? Kara, İ., Gültekin, A., Aliefendioğlu, Y., & Tanrıvermiş, H. (2016). An investigation of Turkey’s real estate sector within the Scope of sustainable development and the human development index (HDI), smart metropoles-integrated solutions for sustainable and smart buildings & cities-SBE16 İstanbul. İMSAD, İstanbul, 420-433. Kim, H., Park, S. W., Lee, S., & Xue, X. (2015). Determinants of house prices in Seoul: A quantile regression approach. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, 21(2), 91-113. King, P. (2017). A social philosophy of housing: Routledge. Lancaster, K. J. (1966). A New Approach to Consumer Theory. Journal of Political Economy, 74(2), 132-157. Lehner, Manuel. (2011). Modelling housing prices in Singapore applying spatial hedonic regression. Master of science thesis of institute for transport planning and systems (IVT), Zurich. Liao W., Wang, X. (2012). Hedonic house prices and spatial quantile regression. Housing Economics, 21(1), 16-27. Malpezzi, S., & Mayo, S. K. (1987). The demand for housing in developing countries: Empirical estimates from household data. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35(4), 687721. Mirkatouli, J., Samadi, R., & Hosseini, A. (2018). Evaluating and analysis of socio-economic variables on land and housing prices in Mashhad, Iran. Sustainable Cities and Society, 41, 695-705.

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Mohammadi, E. (2017). Identification and prioritization of effective factorson willingness to pre-purchase demand of housing. Muhallab Taha, M. (2001). The Potential Role of GIS in the Development and Applications of Urban Indicators: The Case of Housing in Khartoum, Sudan. Master of Science Thesis of Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Nijënstein, S., Haans, A., Kemperman, A. D., & Borgers, A. W. (2015). Beyond demographics: human value orientation as a predictor of heterogeneity in student housing preferences. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 30(2), 199-217. Pjanic, L. (1967). Housing Problems In Developing Countries The Economic Problems Of Housing (pp. 189-199): Springer. Pour Mohammadi, M., Ghorbani, R., & Taghipour, A. (2014). Factors affecting the price of housing in the city of Tabriz using hedonic model. Geographical Planning of Space Quarterly Journal, 3(9), 83-104. Rosen, Sherwin. Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 82, Jan./Feb. 1974, pp. 34-55. Scheiner, J., & Holz-Rau, C. (2007). Travel mode choice: affected by objective or subjective determinants? Trans-

portation, 34(4), 487-511. Selim, S. (2008). Determinants of House Prices in Turkey: A Hedonic Regression Model. Do˜gu¸s Universitesi Dergisi, 9(1), 6576. Sinclair, S. (2017). Urbanisation and labour markets in developing countries: Routledge. Varesi, H., Mosavi, M. (2010). An Investigation into Effective Factors Deciding Housing Prices via Hedonic Pricing Model (Case tudy: District 3 of the City of Yazd). Journal of Geography and Environmental Studies, 1(3), 5-12. Vichiensan, V., Miyamato, K. (2010). Influence of Urban Rail Transit on House Value:Spatial Hedonic Analysis in Bangko. Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies; 8(1), 93-112. Xiao, Y. (2017). Hedonic Housing Price Theory Review Urban Morphology and Housing Market (pp. 11-40): Springer. Xiaolu, G.,Yasushi, A. (2005). Influence of Spatial Features on Land and Housing Prices. Tsinghua Science and Technology,10(1), 206-213. Zimmermann, M., Althaus, H.-J., & Haas, A. (2005). Benchmarks for sustainable construction: A contribution to develop a standard. Energy and Buildings, 37(11), 1147-1157.

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Urban waterfront parks as part of quality of life in İstanbul

Hande TÜRKOĞLU1, Serengül SEÇMEN2 1 turkoglu@itu.edu.tr • Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 serenguls@gmail.com • Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.23600

Received: March 2018 • Final Acceptance: December 2018

Abstract Waterfronts or other natural resources contribute in a positive way to the quality of urban life. Parks located on the urban waterfronts can be defined as being both valuable and unique as they combine the natural settings of water source and green spaces to meet the physical and social needs of urban inhabitants. The aim of this research to emphasize the importance of natural areas for the life quality by focusing on the user preferences of the parks on urban waterfronts in Istanbul. The evaluation of the urban waterfront parks in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area is presented by empirical data on quality of life. A face-to-face interview was conducted within the scope of the data set consisting of 1635 residential units selected by a random sampling method. As a result, the reasons that shape the preferences for urban waterfront parks will be discussed and various suggestions will be presented to increase the use of waterfront parks in order to improve the quality of life in Istanbul. Keywords Waterfront parks, Recreation, Quality of life, İstanbul


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1.Introduction It is commonly agreed that parks and green spaces are of importance when attempting to provide a better quality of life for an urbanized society. Individuals tend to relax mentally and physically when they are in contact with natural elements, and this can occur in various ways such as through recreational, social, cultural and physical activities in open spaces (Barton et al., 2000; Ritter, 1966; Carr et al., 1992; Czinki et al.,1966). By the time of the Industrial Revolution, according to Ritter (1966) urbanization had further raised the already high working populations of cities, and due to the destructive effects of longer working hours these cities were not able to provide any means of relaxation for their rapidly expanding urban societies. Therefore, parks and green spaces may be considered essential to relaxation and mental restoration. A study by Kuo and Sullivan (2001) presents the empirical evidence of the positive functions of green areas that shows the residents living in “greener” surroundings reported lower levels of fear and demonstrate less aggressive and less violent behavior. Additionally, the visual quality of urban parks and green spaces is a critical issue to support the positive impacts of these environment that even highly urbanized areas with a better visual quality may reduce stress and provide a sense of peace and tranquility for their users (Ulrich, 1981; Kaplan, 1983). Within this framework, parks located on the urban waterfronts may be defined as being both valuable and unique as they combine the natural settings of water source and green spaces to meet the physical and social needs of urban inhabitants. Water is a natural asset, and an urban waterfront is the open space located along a water source such as a sea, river, canal or lake. Azeo Torre in Urban Waterfronts (1989) points out that: ‘It is at the edge that man is at his best, that life is most vibrant. It is the lure of water, its spell, its reflection, its endless movement and change, that best captures man’s imagination and provides a variety of applications from business to recreation, from calm to passive activities, the water’s edge is where life is

most diverse and unique’ (Falk, 2003). Since water itself provides a variety of opportunities, it caused the development of various uses and activities on the urban waterfronts. There are distinct approaches to classify the uses and activities carried out on waterfront areas, including parks and green spaces. Smith and Fagence (1995) distinguish waterfront parks as having water-independent uses, which are those neither dependent on, nor directly related to their water edge locations. Breen and Rigby (2003), in their pioneering work ‘The New Waterfront’, established a system of classification depending on the main functions of waterfronts. It includes recreational, residential, commercial, historical, cultural, service and environmental areas that recreational uses comprise parks, walkways and open gathering spaces along the water. In this case, waterfront parks are distinctive combinations of natural elements, built works, physical, social and cultural activities. Their positive image and visual attraction of water can contribute to the spatial quality of a given area, while providing places to improve socialization and health by promoting a better quality of life. This study aims to demonstrate the contribution of urban waterfront parks to the quality of life considering the resident’s preference ratio of waterfront parks in Istanbul. Specifically, the relation between the socio-economic characteristics of waterfront park users and their preferences are going to be asset by the following research questions: Are the waterfront parks highly visited among whole parks all across the city? Which waterfront parks are preferred more than the others? Which waterfront parks are preferred by residents of which parts of the city? 2. Contribution of urban waterfront parks to quality of life The negative effects of urban life such as weak space quality, pollution, traffic congestion, lack of access to services and lack of social cohesion had to be balanced, and the class of activity used to achieve this was termed “recreation”. Czinki et al. (1966) defines it as; time spent to regain a “human” psychological and physical condition.

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Figure 1-2. Brooklyn waterfront. (Photo: Ümit Yılmaz)

Therefore, it is important to provide open areas in the city that people can use for short-term purposes, such as eating lunch or resting, and which can also be used in the long-term for activities such as exercising (Carr et al., 1992). A survey of visitors to Vondelpark, one of the most popular parks in Amsterdam, was conducted to collect data regarding the motives of its visitors. These were given as: to play sport, to meet others, to play with children, to walk the dog, to listen and observe nature, to contemplate and meditate, and to get artistic inspiration, as well as other undefined responses. The analysis of people’s motives to visit nature shows that “to relax” is most frequently mentioned (Chiesura, 2003). The results emphasize the importance of parks regarding interrelated physiological and psychological needs of people. Specifically, natural areas on the waterfronts such as parks provide a distinctive ground for relaxation where the water source and green elements meet. Additionally, these spaces support the water-related recreational

activities such as watching the water view, walking along water, swimming, canoeing or fishing. However, the waterfronts serve to the recreational purposes, they have been far more commonly used for transportation, production and economic activities throughout the history. During the 19th century, waterfronts became vast infrastructures of large-scale developments for industrial production that destroyed the relationship between the city and the water. Following the post-industrialization period, these areas were abandoned and turned into brownfields. Starting in the 1980s they became urban development areas with efforts to integrate them into the city (Marshall, 2001; Bruttomesso, 1999; Hoyle, 1992; Meyer, 1999). Today, cities across the world are striving to achieve similar objectives by utilizing their waterfronts to create better quality of life through their economic, social and spatial aspects. Smith and Fagence (1995) state that in an era of increased leisure time, recreational participation, environmental concern and tourism, many waterfront cities have attempted redevelopment and restoration projects. The scope of waterfront development has already expanded not only economically, but also recreationally and environmentally, providing new recreational and social opportunities (Carr, 1992; Breen and Rigby, 1996; Moughtin, 1992; Meyer, 1999; Gastil, 2002) regarding the social benefits by encouraging the use of outdoor spaces and increasing social integration (Coley et al., 1997). Open space and recreational uses, the inseparable components of waterfronts, are most commonly created as waterfront parks, recreation grounds, sports fields and the like. Even the tradition of waterside parks in example riverside gardens is an old one, dating at least as far back as ancient Babylon (Hudson 1996). Today, one of the influential cases is the ‘Madrid Rio’ project, which is realized on the banks of the Manzanares River running through Madrid in 2011. This area used to be surrounded by a vehicular road system, which has been replaced by an underground, and the available space has been re-designed as a large-scale

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system of green spaces. Also, in New York, the city has opened large portions of the waterfront to the public in recent decades through the creation of new parks and esplanades (New York City Vision 2020, 2011). According to one of the planning strategies, public open spaces on the waterfront can be used to transform neighborhoods and turn previously inaccessible lands into vibrant community gathering areas. This is demonstrated by the Hudson River Park which turned the once-derelict shoreline on the west side of Manhattan into a world-class destination with a greenway, views across the water, a range of recreational opportunities, public piers, a waterfront esplanade, and a limited number of commercial uses. Likewise, the new Brooklyn Bridge Park (Figure 1 and Figure 2), which opened in 2010, became Brooklyn’s most significant new park in more than 100 years. Not only has it benefited those who live nearby but it has also become a draw for tourists (New York City Vision 2020, 2011). Besides, the integration of water source as part of the park design is a critical issue to expand the positive impact of the environment on users that may vary from one place to another, and may be perceived in different ways. A study comparing the usage of urban parks in Turkey and Netherlands found that although water is an important element in all parks, it is used as a decorative rather than a natural element in parks in Turkey whereas in the Netherlands, water is seen as a native element of urban parks (Ak, M., K., Eroğlu, E., Özdede, S. & Kaya, S., 2014). Be the artificial or natural waterfront of a source, should be better to be considered as a part of visual quality, which has strong relation with the quality of urban life. Another issue is design quality to provide a calm and peaceful environment. In terms of design, the Charleston Waterfront Park in South Carolina, which is one of the initial examples of its time, has a wide green barrier reduces any noise which may interrupt the calmness of the park, especially as it is used by residents for relaxing, running or fishing. As Frej (2004) mentions, before implementation the

Figure 3-4. Charleston waterfront park. (Photo: Ümit Yılmaz)

relationship between the park and the water was not clearly defined and the designers decided to build the park up to a level above the water to create a defined edge and visual access to water. The objective was to inject new life to the waterfront and provide a safe and attractive environment that would bring people to the historic downtown area where the park became a part of a wider system for public use. Also, spatial continuity and integration was achieved through the implementation of a master plan for the whole urban area of the Charleston Peninsula (www. sasaki.com/projects). Since waterfronts shape the natural and artificial boundaries of a city, they may also have disadvantages depending on their distance from central urban areas. In such cases, to ensure the livability of the waterfront parks, it is important that accessibility is provided through the public activities and various public transportation modes. In the case of Charleston Waterfront Park (Figure 3 and Figure 4) comprising five-hectare green space that serves as a transition between the Cooper River and the historic downtown of Charleston that the main design decision was

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to ensure accessibility by establishing the strong physical connections between waterfronts and the city (Frej, 2004). 2.1. Problems about design, planning and management of waterfront parks Green areas and parks have an important public role. They act as binders between a variety of urban spaces, and continuous greenways and strong connections may be considered as indispensable items for accessible waterfronts within a rapidly-growing city. According to the New York City Vision Plan (2011), the greenways along the water are defined as connectors to the water’s edge. They also provide recreational movement along the shore by the use of a pathway for non-motorized transportation between the natural and the built spaces. However, it is possible that due to the problems of accessibility, such as insufficient transportation nodes, interrupted physical access and lack of spatial quality, such waterfront parks may become dull spaces with low user density. According to the Project for Public Spaces (2000), waterfront development mistakes are classified as; single-use developments, domination by automobiles, too much passive space or too much space given to recreation activities, private control rather than public access, lack of destinations, a process driven not by community, and design statements such as stand-alone buildings. When a waterfront is limited to natural areas, recreational activities that use up a large amount of space, such as playing fields, are especially difficult to integrate. Similarly, a lack of crosswalks, poorly-marked entrances and walkways pass along private properties should also be avoided. During the 90s, the waterfront played an important role in the Boston city center redevelopment strategy. This focused on the development of a system of public facilities and areas connected to the waterfront through a network supported by Olmsted’s park system (Meyer, 1999). The strategy was called ‘walk to the sea’, and consisted of four projects: a civic center; the renovation of several old market halls; an underpass beneath the expressway;

and a new waterfront park which Meyer calls the “coping stone” that meets the water as the final layer of the public space system. According to Carr et al. (1992) however the Waterfront Park is the only large space on the Boston waterfront, the location of the park presented a number of obstacles against a strong sense of connection between the park and the city. These are the vehicular roads, which make a physical and visual barrier between the city and the waterfront site. Also, the New Waterfront Hotel, which creates a wall along the south side of the park is another physical and visual barrier. The design of the park also includes separate, not integrated activity areas. In the case of Boston, given the limited amount of public open space on the waterfront, and the obvious appeal of the water itself, building a physical and symbolic connection to the water was critical. Meyer (1999) criticizes how the design failed to take advantage of the only opportunity to powerfully reconnect the city to the sea. So, waterfront spaces and parks require a specialist approach to their design and management. There might be particular or various reasons behind lack of usage, and these should be carefully studied and evaluated within the framework of the natural, built and socio-cultural dimensions of the city. Before defining the principles that may be employed to draw people back to waterfront parks, issues including continuity, connectivity, variety and environmental quality must be considered in terms of their planning, design and management. 3. The urban characteristics of Istanbul as a waterfront city Istanbul is an ancient city with a history that goes back over one thousand five-hundred centuries. Straddling two continents and two seas, this historical waterfront settlement is a highly urbanized metropolitan city, which has been rapidly growing both in the eastwest and north-south directions since the 19th century. Today, with its variety of city centers, Istanbul is a steadily growing metropolis. The first settlement area was the historical peninsula (Map 1). This is locat-

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ed at the intersection of three distinctive water spaces, the Marmara Sea, the natural canal of the ‘Bosphorus’ which connects the Marmara Sea to the Black Sea, and the natural creek of the ‘Halic’ (Golden Horn). The Bosphorus is an international waterway and an active local transportation corridor, while the Halic is a calm inner harbor. Unlike the limited space and narrow interaction areas along the Bosphorus and Halic waterfronts, the Marmara Seafront, which consists of settlement areas developed during the 80s, is mostly built on vast tracts of reclaimed land. Throughout history, water has always been the intersection of busy transportation routes, and the waterfronts have always had a great diversity of industrial, commercial, residential and recreational functions. In the 16th century, the historical peninsula became the commercial center due to the ports of the Halic and Galata districts. Wiener (1998) describes the 18th and 19th century waterfronts with shipyards, the arsenal and the harbors around Galata and Halic, the boat repair and small ship maintenance facilities of the villages along the Bosphorus, and the charcoal warehouses and carpenters along the Marmara seafronts. Bilgin (1998) assets the village houses on the north coast of the Bosphorus, the private summer-houses, beaches and sea baths on the Marmara seafronts and their associated neighborhood parks, restaurants and tea gardens as the centers of popular culture and society during the first half of the 20th century. Unlike the natural coasts to the north, the waterfronts to the south are built up (Map 1,2, 3, 4, 5). The waterfronts were the first areas from which the city was developed and activities such as transportation, production and trade caused these areas to be urbanized. Since the beginning of the 20th century, uncontrolled urbanization has stemmed from unplanned socio-physical developments. These include immigration, unregistered construction activities, privatization, large-scale infrastructure projects, peripheral developments, and rapid growth in the east-west direction. The destruction of natural areas as a result of the spread

of built areas to the north, high-speed vehicular roads, insufficient connection nodes or public transportation networks, have brought problems and reduced the quality of urban life. According to Özbay et al. (2014) Istanbul is becoming an enormous heap of structures, and within this fragmentation, working class districts developed on the peripheries, thereby contrasting

Map 1-2-3-4-5: Periodical development of urbanization in Istanbul (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2014).

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Map 6: Major land use of Istanbul waterfronts.

with the hotels, residences and shopping malls at their centers. One of the most important determinants of the uncontrolled urbanization in Istanbul is the inward migration that occurred in parallel with its modernization. Continuous inward migration still brings mostly young people from all over the country who are seeking work. As a result of that, income level rates have accumulated at medium and low levels. Starting in late 80s, the existing industry in the city was removed to the peripheries, forming a new urban context. After de-industrialization, the city specialized in the service industry and a white-collar work force was established (Güvenç et al., 2012). The growth in population has brought an accelerated increase in residential areas, shopping malls, hospitals, universities, social facilities and recreational areas which caused the city to spread to the east, west and north. Today, the Istanbul waterfronts are built up with low rates of natural green areas and parks. According to Özbay and Akbulut (2014), the relationship Istanbul has with nature is the destruction of the natural environment by huge investment projects that have been planned or made recently. Although in recent years, the waterfronts have been losing their natural characteristics more rapidly than in the past, they began to lose their green areas centuries ago, and the most common solution was to use reclaimed land for parks. This can be seen in the major land use map (Map 6) with; • A series of recreational areas on the waterfronts of the inner parts of the Black sea, • Recreational functions on the European side of the Marmara seafronts and active green areas on the Asian

side, including marinas, industrial docks, waterborne transportation facilities and commercial ports, • The Bosphorus waterfronts with a number of recreational areas, smallscale natural green areas and fragmented active green areas of parks, • Small-scale green areas among the dominant commercial functions on the historical peninsula and small-scale maritime uses among the dominant active green areas of parks on the Golden Horn (Halic) waterfronts. The inaccessibility of green areas to different social groups is an important issue in Istanbul. According to Güvenç et al. (2012), residential areas became isolated due to the middle and upper class decomposition after the 1980s. Gated communities are located close to forests, green areas, lakes and seas, promising a life close to nature and far from the city’s crowds, thereby increasing the value of these living spaces. However, the social housing projects built for low and middle income groups are surrounded by limited green areas, which are fenced off, making them inaccessible. Accessibility is also another problem regarding weak connections by public transportation. Over time, the main connection vehicular roads of the highway bridges were transformed into development axis. Although the city served as a natural harbor with its waterways used for transportation for centuries, the Bosphorus bridges gave priority to private vehicles over public transportation. According to Özbay (2014), rather than the bridges there is a lack of connections between the eastern and western directions in the city wide, and similarly poor connectivity between the Asian and European Marmara seafronts with the dense urban growth and the northern regions where urban growth is underway. This situation is defined by Ozbay as “the immobilization of Istanbul”, is a network of streets and railways that do not intersect with each other. Even, the waterborne public transportation of this waterfront city has developed only at specific centers, and is being used only where there are limited transfer connections nearby. (Özbay, 2014).

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3. Istanbul waterfront parks Istanbul has a collection of green areas that includes urban forests, historical woods and gardens, city parks and waterfront parks. These green areas are mostly concentrated in inner-city, rather than on waterfronts (Map 7), which cover 38.760,000 m2 in total (including playgrounds, botanical and recreational areas, historical woods and gardens, city parks and waterfront parks), and waterfront parks account for only 11.475,000 m2. In comparison with the whole green areas, the ratio of %30 for waterfront parks is relatively a considerable high rate but on the other hand a low rate for a city surrounded by water. The Marmara waterfronts are the longest and widest, covering 7.475,000 m2 of green area, and have the highest rates of reclaimed land. In comparison, the Bosphorus waterfront parks occupy 2.850,000 m2 and the Halic waterfront parks occupy 1.150,000 m2. The waterfront parks along the edges of the Bosphorus, Halic and Marmara Sea can be categorized as; reclaimed land for large green areas and parks, walkways and small green parks with playgrounds. The waterfront parks are used for various recreational activities. The research of Koramaz and Turkoglu (2010) on user satisfaction for Istanbul parks found that rates are highest for the Marmara seafronts, and that the lowest are for the Bosphorus waterfront settlements. In addition, satisfaction rates are gradually decreasing in the inner-city areas, which are further away from the water. These findings demonstrate the positive impact of water on user satisfaction and supports the importance of the city’s waterfront parks. Although most of the city parks on the Istanbul waterfronts were established during the 20th century as symbols of modernization, most of the active green areas (historical woods and gardens, city parks, waterfront parks, etc.) date back to 19th century. The 1930s saw a rise in the number of beaches and the development of waterfront ‘city parks’, the most famous being Fenerbahçe and Bebek (Figure 5 and Figure 6). In relation to unplanned urban sprawl, rapid population growth is re-

Map 7: Green areas and parks in Istanbul (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 2017).

Figure 5-6: Aerial view of Marmara seafront and bosphorus waterfront. (Photo: Handan Türkoğlu)

garded as a negative environmental impact because of an inability to provide enough green space per capita and the overwhelming of health services, education opportunities and public

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ed relation between open spaces along the waterfront (Figure 7 and Figure 8).

Figure 7-8: Lack of user density at waterfront parks in Istanbul. (Photo: Tunca Güzeloğlu)

transportation (Özbay, 2014). During the 80s and 90s, due to declining urban life quality, establishment of new parks and recreational green areas on the Halic and Marmara waterfronts became important tools by which to improve life quality in Istanbul. On the other hand, the development of vehicular roads parallel to the waterfront parks was totally opposing to the positive impacts of these relaxation areas. Kuban (1998) states that the negative impacts of spatial changes are related to the destruction of green spaces, the construction of vehicular bridges over Bosphorus, the development of summer-houses along the waterfronts and the collapse of residential structures on the ridge overlooking the Bosphorus. Additionally, Bilgin (1998) assets that the reclaimed lands of horizontal vehicular roads that run parallel to the Bosphorus, the busy maritime transit circulation, and the unhealthy quality of the water has spoiled specifically the Bosphorus waterfronts for public use. On the Marmara waterfront, reclaimed land has been used to make parks that have become huge passive green areas due to their difficult access. Besides their poor design quality, usage rates of waterfront parks may be negatively affected by the lack of a strong relationship between the parks and the water, insufficient green elements, the presence of nearby vehicular roads, weak public transportation and poor pedestrian connections, and interrupt-

4. Case study: A research on Istanbul waterfront parks 4.1. Methodology The purpose of the research is first, to contribute to the Strategic Plan and to determine the development strategy of residential areas in both physical (objective) and perceptive (subjective) terms, and second, to determine the spatial criteria for residential areas. The database was designed for two different research studies: one measures physical quality of neighborhoods, and the other measures the quality of life of residents (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). To identify the appropriate neighborhoods and select the clusters, a formula for density and land value was implemented (Map 8 and Map 9). Initially, a total of 740 neighborhoods were identified across Istanbul. These neighborhoods were then divided into 9 sub categories and analyzed according to the number of housing units and the number of buildings containing housing units. Within each category, 100 points were identified, totaling 900 points. The 900 points were then used in two areas of research: A physical survey and a QoL survey. The physical survey utilized the whole 900 points whereas the QoL survey used 423 points (Map 4). A minimum of 25 households were identified and registered for the 423 points, and were grouped into clusters. From these 25 households, 6 were randomly selected for interview (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). The survey was carried out in the autumn of 2005. 1635 households out of the 423 clusters with adult respondents (18 years of age and older) who were permanently resident in Istanbul were selected for face-to-face questionnaire interviews. The response rate was 65%. The information that was gathered included housing and demographic characteristics, land use characteristics, and other characteristics of the community. The questions consisted of different subjects such as public services and transportation, recreation areas and park usage, the neighborhood

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and neighbors, safety, work and shopping, educational and health facilities (Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., 2011). The indicators for recreation and parks determined in the research were: • Overall satisfaction with parks and recreational facilities • How often parks were visited • Usage of park space • Importance of access to parks • User characteristics The respondents were asked to choose from a list of parks that they had already visited. These were then examined according to three categories: historical woods and gardens, waterfront parks, and city parks. The results of this paper are based on the given data of this research for the indicators for recreation and parks. 4.2. Results and discussion The results demonstrate that waterfront parks are preferred less than other types. The most preferred were urban parks and historical woods and gardens with the ratio of %61, while waterfront parks were preferred by 37%. As seen in Table 1, the most preferred waterfront parks are those on the Marmara and the Bophorus waterfronts with the ratio of 26%. Although the high preference rates for the historical woods and gardens demonstrate a balanced ratio among the choices, the same situation is not valid for the waterfront parks. For instance, Fenerbahçe Park, which is one of the most significant ones on the Marmara waterfront, is easily the most preferred. This research is intended to investigate the relationship between the preferences and the characteristics of Istanbul waterfront park users according to their residential location, income level, age and family status. The 64% of the waterfront park users live on the European Side and the 36% of them live on the Anatolian Side. For all respondents, the Marmara waterfront parks are the most preferred (55%), and the least preferred are the Bosphorus parks (19%) (Table 2). Supporting this result user locations along the Bosphorus are decreasing in relation to preference rates (Map 10). The respondents living on the European Side prefer the Mar-

Map 8: Density and land value categories according to neighborhood (mahalle) groups.

Map 9: Location of clusters.

mara waterfront parks with the ratio of 50%, followed by the Halic parks by 33%. Bosphorus parks have the lowest ratio of 18%. Respondents living on the Anatolian Side prefer the Marmara waterfront parks with the ratio of 66%, followed by Bosphorus parks by 23% and Halic parks by 12% (Map 10 and Map 11). In summary; • For respondents living on the European Side of Istanbul, the first preference is for Marmara waterfront parks (the biggest park area) and the second preference is for those on the Halic (the smallest park area). • For respondents living on the Anatolian Side of Istanbul, the first preference is for Marmara waterfront parks and the second preference is for those on the Bosphorus.

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Table 1. Ratio of park visits and categories (percentage distribution) **Historical woods and gardens are mostly belongs to Ottoman period, in the past these semi-public areas partially covered with trees and the area consists of different types of gardens.

Map 10: Spatial distribution of waterfront parks’ user locations in Istanbul metropolitan area

Table 2. Ratio of waterfront parks preference-users living on the european and the anatolian side (percentage distribution). Map 11: Marmara waterfront parks’ user locations.

A spatial analysis of the results is shown as a distribution of user locations in Map 10. It is a critical finding that the distribution of user locations is random, rather than accumulated on specific spaces, and that the highest rates of preferences are for the Marmara waterfront parks, which covers the biggest amount of green area on the waterfronts. This information shows that the users visit the parks, who reside among various parts of Istanbul, but mostly the respondents from inner-city areas prefer the Marmara waterfront parks. Maps 11, 12 and 13 show the distribution of Marmara, Halic and Bosphorus user locations separately. The users of the Marmara seafront parks are concentrated all over Istanbul, while Halic users are spread more over inner-city areas and Bosphorus parks user locations are spread over its inland areas. It is clear that in contrast with the users of the Marmara seafront parks who comes from all over the city, Bosphorus

Map 12: Bosphorus waterfront parks’ user locations.

Map 13: Halic waterfrontparks’ user locations.

parks preferred more by its residents. Maps 14 and Map 15 also highlight the life cycle and income rates of the waterfront park users at the given locations. In map 14, most of the locations in black are married couples younger than 45 years old with young children,

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Map 14: Spatial distribution of life cycling of users.

Map 15: Spatial distribution of user income

which projects a random distribution among user locations in Istanbul. Elderly (65 and older) users are the least common. Since waterfront parks are preferred by young families, this result assets that the parks are inaccessible for the elderly. As seen in map 15, user locations demonstrate a density of medium-income and low-income levels more than high-income, which demonstrates that the waterfront parks users are from various income levels. However, it is a critical finding that users with medium-income prefer waterfront parks the most and the users with high-income prefer them the least. Apart from the preference rates of socio-economic profiles, inevitably all users are facing accessibility difficulties for waterfront parks. 5. Conclusion The waterfronts are valuable urban spaces and parks are essential to urban waterfronts to enhance the quality of life. Opening large portions of waterfront to the public use with parks and providing communal areas for a range of recreational activities may transform urban life in a positive way. A strong visual and physical connection between water, park and the city contribute also to the urban image. In

this case, the waterfront parks should be handled with a sensitive approach in terms of their planning, design and relation with the rest of the city. Istanbul is an historical water edge city where urbanization has developed from its waterfronts. Although the waterfront parks of this water edge city count for a reasonable amount of area, they are the least preferred in comparison with the green areas and parks all over the city. This demonstrates that they don’t reach to the expected user density. Although the most preferred waterfront parks are located on the Marmara waterfronts, they are not accessible to various demographic groups. Considering the low preference rates in terms of user density and profiles, it might be assumed that this is a result of the weak physical connections and public transportation, unattractive spatial and visual quality of design, insufficient green and natural elements, lack of visual connections with water and physical connections between the waterfront open spaces, lack of surprising water-related recreational activities, existence of barriers such as vehicular roads and inaccessibility, vast passive green areas without activities and gathering spaces for communal life, bad water quality, lack of maintenance for parks and its elements. Consequently, several recommendations to attract people to waterfront parks and provide a better quality of life are given below: • A citywide project regarding the Istanbul waterfronts is needed for a sustainable development of its public spaces and parks, where participation is an important issue during the whole process in order to allow the consideration of a variety of user requirements. • Poor public transportation connections should be reconsidered in relation to the citywide planning of Istanbul. This, together with pedestrian movement and waterborne transportation, should be increased as a part of a wider network. • The Marmara, Bosphorus and Halic waterfront parks should be developed, both in relation to their unique socio-economical context, their geographical characteristics

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and their role in quality of life. • Physical and visual barriers such as vehicular roads running nearby parks should be avoided. This is especially important for the Halic and Bosphorus waterfronts, which are less preferred. • Design quality and management should aim to provide both visual and physical comfort through landscape design and its relation to the water source. • Attractive spatial and functional solutions are essential. These should consider introducing water-related activities, providing strong visual relation with water, supporting commercial-leisure functions, enabling a variety of recreational activities and also calmer environments. References Ak, M. K., Eroğlu, E., Özdede, S., & Kaya, S. (2014). Comparing Urban parks between Turkey and Netherlands: A case study of seğmenler park-frankendael Park and Göksu park-bijlmerpark. Selected Paper of 2nd Global Conference on Environmental Studies (CENVISU-2014), 0910 April 2014, Quality Hotel Rouge et Noir Conference Center, Rome, Italy. Barton, H., Tsourou, C., (2000). Healthy City Planning. World Health Organization, Kopenhagen. Bilgin, İ., (2012). Why and which world cities? Wanings, Flourishings Harbour Cities: Amsterdam, Barcelona, Hamburg. Harbour Cities, Metropolis and Architecture Series No: 3, İstanbul Bilgi University, 7-27. Breen, A., and Rigby, D., (1996). The new waterfront: A worldwide urban success story. London: Thames and Hudson. Bruttomesso, R., (1993). d’Acqua, Venedig Centro Internazionale Città., 1991. Waterfronts: A new frontier for cities on water. Eds. Rinio Bruttomesso. na. Venice: Grafiche Veneziane. Carr, S., et al., (1992). Public space (Environment and behavior). Nowy Jork, Cambridge. Chiesura, A., (2003). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning 68 (2004) 129–138 Elsevier Coley, R. L., Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan,

W.C. (1997). Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior, 29, 468-492. Craig-Smith, S. J., Fagence, M., (eds) (1995). Recreation and tourism as a catalyst for urban waterfront redevelopment: An international survey. California: Greenwood Publishing Group. Czrnki, L., Zühlke, W., (1995). Erholung und Regionalplanung. Hannover: Raumforschung und Raum. Falk, N., (2002). Turning the tide: British experience in regenerating urban docklands, England and Wales, URBED Archive. Frei, A., (2004). Charleston Waterfront Park. Remaking The Urban Waterfront, Urban Land Institute, Washington, 142-147. Gastil, R., (2002). Beyond the edge: New York’s new waterfront. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Güvenç, M., et al., (2012). Azman sanayi kentinden kentsel bölgeye. Istanbul’un Yüzyılı Sergisi. İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi. Hoyle, B., Stewart, B., Pinder, D., (1992). European port cities in transition. London: Belhaven Press. Kaplan, R., (1983). The role of nature in the urban context. In: I.Altman and J.F.Wohlwill (eds.). Behavior and The Natural Environment. New York: Plenim Press. Koramaz, E., Turkoglu, H., (2014). İstanbul’da Kentsel Yeşil Alan Kullanımı ve Kentsel Yeşil Alanlardan Memnuniyet. 24(1) 26-34 İstanbul Planlama Dergisi. Kuban, D., (1998). Kent ve Mimarlık Üzerine Istanbul Yazıları. İstanbul: Yapı Endüstri Merkezi. Kuo, F.E., Sullivan, W.C., (2001). Environment and crime in the inner city: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime?. Environment and Behavior Vol. 33 No. 3, May 2001 343-367 Sage. Meyer, H., (1999). City and port: urban planning as a cultural venture in London, Barcelona, New York, and Rotterdam: changing relations between public urban space and largescale infrastructure. Utrecht: International Books. Moughtin, C., 2003. Urban design: street and square, London: Routledge. Müller-Wiener, W., (1998). Istanbul

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Limanı, Istanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yayınları. New York City Planning Department (2011). New York City Vision 2020. New York: New York City Planning Department Archive. Özbay, C., Candan, B. A., (2014). Yeni İstanbul Çalışmaları (Sunuş), İstanbul: Metis Yayıncılık. Özbay, C, (2014). Yeni İstanbul Çalışmaları (Yirmi Milyonluk Turizm Başkenti: İstanbul’da Hareketliliklerin Politik Ekonomisi), İstanbul: Metis Yayıncılık. Project for Public Spaces (2018). Retrieved from www.pps.org/article/ waterfrontsgonewrong. Ritter, W., Fremdenwertkehr in Europa in Craig-Smith, S. J., Fagence, M. (eds) (1995). Recreation and tourism as a catalyst for urban waterfront redevelopment: An international survey. California: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Sasaki Projects, Charleston Waterfront Park, (1999). Retrieved from website: www.sasaki.com/projects, 18.08.2017. Torre, A. Urban Waterfronts in Falk, N., (2002). Turning the tide: British experience in regenerating urban docklands. England and Wales: URBED Archive. Türkoğlu, H.; Bölen F., Baran Korça P., Terzi F., (2011). Measuring Quality of Urban Life in Istanbul in Isvestigating Quality of Urban Life: Theory, Methods and Empirical Research, Chapter 9, Robert W Marans and Stimson Robert J. Stimson (Eds). Dordecht: Springer, 209-232. Ulrich, R.S., (1981). Natural versus urban scenes: some psychophysiological effects. Environmental behavior 13:523-556. Hudson, Brian James, (1996). Cities on the shore. London: Pinter.

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Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara Nawal BENSLIMANE1, Ratiba Wided BIARA2 1 benslimanenawel@yahoo.fr • Department of Architecture Archipel Laboratory, Faculty of Architecture, Tahri Mohammed University of Bechar, Bechar, Algeria 2 townscape11@yahoo.fr • Department of Architecture Archipel Laboratory, Faculty of Architecture, Tahri Mohammed University of Bechar, Bechar, Algeria

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.99705

Received: May 2018 • Final Acceptance: January 2019

Abstract As everywhere in the world, every traditional masterpiece emanates from a system in which the natural and cultural environment intersect, and are superimposed on a set of local know-how. It is these ancestral techniques and practices transmitted from generation to generation which, Achieving harmony between habitat and the environment, even a symbiosis between techniques, us, customs, and socio-cultural values, allow building architectures and landscapes with obvious universal value. However, traditional know-how including innovative solutions appropriate to each environment, are at risk of lapse or total disappearance leading to the disappearance of an entire culture. Typically, the popular house in Bechar (city located at the gates of the Algerian Sahara), this collective production has proved its worth for centuries, in a severe environment with arid climate. The objective of this work is to show the ingenuity of this construction deflecting the cold, the wind and the sun with passive means able to face undeniable challenges in the face of current production with artificial means (without any adaptation to climate and local context). Keywords Popular home, Know-how, Sahara, Ingenious construction, Climate.


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1. Introduction In ancient times, the architecture of “inhabiting” allowed “living together” and let the «temples and tombs” the task of hosting the “die-alone.”. Today, the situation seems reversed; the sustainable housing is rather based on the facts of the environment than those of social. Sustainable architecture is therefore in matter and in the social fact as well. It also organizes our relationships in the environment inside according to the dual axis to take advantage of the environment (benefit, protection, enjoyment).To extend the service life of a building and reduce environmental impacts, its design must anticipate changes in the current and the future user needs. But, many countries in hot climates remain devoid to this evolution, and the problems related to the degradation of the environment are of increasing concern. In terms of architecture and urbanism, designers must have answers to the problematic of the uncontrollable inhabiting, more related to climate damage. Throughout human history, man has had to satisfy such important needs as protection, shelter and preservation in order to survive in both natural and artificial environments (Arcan et all, 1999; Guliz Ozorhon et all, 2014). To achieve this, people organized the areas they chose within the natural environment and used bordering and encircling applications to modify these areas into new and safe artificial spaces (İzgi et all, 2003; Guliz Ozorhon et all, 2014) 2. Vernacular architecture Before being an economical, ecological construction, vernacular architecture is a response to social needs (Asquith et all,2006; Farajallah et all 2017) . Renowned for its simplistic techniques and materials shaped by local culture, it tries to adapt to the climate and geographical situation (Aziz and Shawket, 2011; Toe et all, 2015; Farajallah et all 2017). Among these materials, we mention adobe (clay or mud) used all over the world for thousands of years (Farajallah et all 2017;Bodach et all,2014; Priya et all,2012; Yorulmaz,1981;Saljoughinejad et all,2015).

Figure 1. Photos show the results of transformations: the search for an artificial internal comfort: the air conditioning and heating. Source: Authors.

For example, adobe is used in some modern buildings in different countries where climatic conditions are different. (Farajallah et all 2017;Loaiza et all, 2002; Hall et all, 2012;Kumar, 2002). Just as a multiplicity of passive vernacular techniques (interior courtyards, wind towers, sensors,...) are similarly applied in modern buildings (Farajallah et all 2017;Hyde, 2008). However, there are some vernacular techniques that have been developed for the hot climates of the Sahara to benefit from cooling and natural lighting. These are courtyards, wind towers, domes, air vents, planting, water walls, solar chimneys, and mushrabiyah (Farajallah et all 2017;Alp, 1991). 2.1. Vernacular architecture in arab world From desert Bedouinism to modern urban planning, from tents to housing, vernacular architecture is changing, affecting its techniques and performance. (Farajallah et all 2017;Alp, 1991). The vernacular dwellings were built using locally produced materials, such as clay (adobe), limestone, stone and wood. Adobe made of clay, sand, silt and water, and used in the construction of walls, roofs has proven its worth in hot desert regions, and has stood the test of time (Farajallah et all 2017;Algifri et all, 1992) . Saleh showed that houses in Saudi Arabia (example of saharian geography) made of adobe have a better energy performance than buildings built of stone (Farajallah et all 2017;Saleh, 1990). Generally, the thickness of adobe walls is about 30 to 50 cm, whereas it should be at least 45 cm thick to obtain the total thermal mass, and typically, the roof is 30 to 40 cm thick (Farajallah et all 2017) Despite its supreme thermal properties, concrete

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and steel have nevertheless blurred the adobe (Farajallah et all 2017;Austin, 1984; Revuelta et all, 2010; Saleh, 1990;Heathcote, 2011). Researches show that, in traditional Arabian Muslim houses in some region, according to wind speed measurements (Figure 12),utilizing prevalent wind-ow in natural ventilation can provide a comfortable environment, a statement that is certiďŹ ed by the lack of electrical devices in the studied houses across the region(Sadra et all,2017). 2.2. Traditional shading elements: (iwan) evons, eyvans (porchs) and talars; the opening Eyvan and Talar are semi-open spaces (open on one side to the central courtyard) (Sadra et all, 2017;Pirnia, 2010; Foruzanmehr ,2015) they are combined with other techniques such as domes and wind sensors, water and vegetation use, contribute to the environment (Sadra et all, 2017;Mashhadi, 2012), (Figure 3), provides indoor spaces with favorable thermal comfort. (Farajallah et all 2017; Saljoughinejad, S et all. 2015). Iwan is a traditional element that provides shade for buildings, reducing incident solar radiation (Platzer, 2001, Hamid et all, 2018). Several shading system have been used in buildings to reduce energy consumption, especially in hot climates (Hamid et all, 2018; Mateus and Oliveira,2009. Baniyounes and all, 2012). and improve the energy performance of buildings, such as external and interior blinds (Hamid et all, 2018;Florides et all, 2000), overhangs (Hamid et all, 2018;Lee and Tavil, 2007), Venetian blinds (Hamid et all, 2018;Hans and Binder, 2008) and canopies (Hamid et

Figure 2. Photo of a patio in Ghardaia. Source: https://quintessences.u.q.f.unblog. fr/2014

all, 2018;Kenneth et all, 2010). While buildings require huge amounts of energy for cooling and heating, the cost of energy types is increasing (Hamid et all, 2018;Liddament, 2000. Kirimtat et all, 2016).The amount of energy required for comfort inside buildings depends on the climate inherent in this region (Hamid et all,2018;Anand et all, 2013;Susorova et all, 2013). Among the energy saving strategies in buildings, passive solar energy seems to be proving its worth (Hamid et all, 2018; Ralegaonkar and Gupta, 2010). Traditional Muslim architecture has always adhered to this solution (Hamid et all, 2018;Khalili and Amindeldar,2014). using wind sensors (Hamid et all, 2018;Saadatian et all, 2012),Shovadans (Hamid et all, 2018;Moradi and Eskandari,2012), yards (Hamid et all, 2018;Safarzadeh and Bahadori, 2005) and domed roofs (Hamid et all, 2018;Faghih and Bahadori,2011) as well as the tanks (Hamid et all, 2018;Ameri et all,2011) ice wells (Bahadori,1985); for cooling arid regions (Hamid et all, 2018;Bahadori,1978;Khoroshiltseva and all,2016; Datta,2001). Mehrotra has developed the thermal performance for the windows of a building with a shading model (Hamid et all, 2018; Mehrotra, 2005). (Hamid et all, 2018; Tzempelikos et all, 2010), found that insulating glass facades with low transmission coefficient create comfortable and stable conditions. The shading system made it possible to experimentally study the indoor thermal environment near a glass facade under variable climatic conditions in winter (Hamid et all, 2018;

Figure 3. Photo of a IWAN. Source: David J. David.

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Bessoudo et all, 2010). The shading system prevents solar radiation from entering the building in summer, while allowing solar radiation to increase in winter (Hamid et all, 2018;Haeri, 2010). Iwan as a passive shading system widely used in Middle East and North African architecture (Hamid et all, 2018;Florides et all,2002). 2.2.1. Courtyards or patio The inner courtyards of houses in the Arab Maghreb are generally small but deep, and less exposed to the winds (Figure 5). Their main role is to promote lighting and ventilation in dense urban areas (Carlos et all, 2015), In summer, they provide indoor freshness, as their characteristics they cool the air at night by wavelength radiation and ventilation (Carlos et all,2015;De Lama et all, 1991). During the day, they are covered with solar rays by canopies, cooling the surrounding rooms with air stored at night. Sometimes streams are equipped with water and vegetation that create a pleasant indoor microclimate (cooling is provided by evaporation). In winter, the courtyards provide heat gains, which are diffused into the surrounding rooms (Carlos et all,2015;Safarzadeh and Bahador, 2005). contrary to traditional houses rely on courtyards for energy savings, modern buildings consume 30 to 40% of the world’s total energy consumption, with a potential to reach 50% by 2050 (Sadra et all,2017;Marin and all, 2016). 2.2.2. Facade External facades are usually blocked by attached neighboring houses in order to reduce the area of external surfaces that face direct sunlight and hot winds. Openings are few, the only opening to the outside (Figure 4) is the houses’ entrance door (Sadra et all,2017;Khajehzadeh et all,2016).

3. Presentation of case study

Figure 5. The spatial composition of ksar: the statement. Source: Authors.

Figure 6. Plan of a typical popular house. Source: Authors.

4. Urbanism in the Sahara “The Sahara is a hot country where there is intense cold” (eim. E, 1966). The people of this hostile environment acted to the extreme of their knowledge and their know-how, on a semi-desert site, with fairly limited resources, to undertake institutions that meet both their pressing needs and their difficult living environment. At the urban level, two parameters are essential in the choices of implantation in hot, dry climates: The first is the presence of water and vegetation, being natural cooling fac-

Figure 4. Schema 1, 2 of climatique functioning of a ‘patio’. Source: https://quintessences.u.q.f.unblog.fr/2014 ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • N. Benslimane, R. W. Biara


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Figure 7. Representative photo of the urban morphology of vernacular fabric, wilaya of bechar.

Figure 8. House of an extended family in a traditional fabric. Source Fouzia M, K. T. Aoul, (2001), redrawn by the author. 1-entrance, 2-vestibule, 3-bedroom, 4-cuisine, 5-the middle of the house, 6-guest room, 7-storage room, 8-wc.

Figure 9. Arrangement of traditional houses in kenadsa. Source: Khizana Kenadsa.

Figure 10. Cylindrical jars buried to preserve dates (khbaya) in “el ksar” of the house “Béchar’s ksar source House of culture wilaya of Béchar, photo by M.A.Djeradi, 2013.

tors, humidifying the air and shading the soil. It absorbs less heat than the building materials. The evapotranspiration increases the relative humidity of the air and regulates the temperature. The second is the importance of the slope and its orientation, which determine the potential rate of ventilation of the site.Urban density is also favorable in hot climates because it limits the surfaces exposed to radiation. 4.1. The social role of the courtyard The compact urban fabric have a sociocultural interpretation which is considered determinant factor more than climatic factor, the insertion of the house in its neighborhood is essential in the traditional city: the neighborhood is an extension of the house. The neighborhoods are urban units that have their identities, traded from several streets and dead ends. Each neighborhood has its own basic amenities. The ksar is divided into several districts whose boundaries intersect in the central square where the great mosque is located. The concept of the courtyard was employed in saharian houses to seek privacy, natural ventilation and day lighting, The desire to preserve and protect woman by establishing limits that are impossible for any stranger to the family is the mark of his appropriation of the domestic space this is reflected in the separation of the feminine domain from which women practice space freely and the male domain. Cohabitation between several family cells forms of solidarity referring to a traditional social organization. 4.2. Techniques of popular architecture in the desert climate This climate is characterized by two seasons: a long hot season, when there is no rain, and a cold season of shorter duration, during which the rain showers are occasional. Throughout the year, the prevailing wind blows from the south, southeast. The comfort of the inhabitants does not require special air circulation, given the dry character of the climate. Thus, protection against sunshine prime on ventilation. It is suitable for all seasons to have homes

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Figure 11. Photo shows the compactness, an example of a lane in a Vernacular popular fabric overlapping floors for shade in the streets and protecting facades of solar rays. Source: https://www.google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar Figure 12. Photo shows the facade declined small drilled outside. Source: https://www.google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+ béchar Figure 13. A type of support very answered in the architecture of Ksour In the form of post called “elsouaries”. Source: Authors.

Figure 14. Type of traditional stake: in palm trucks supported by beams of the same material. Source: Authors. Figure 15-16. Building materials. Source: Authors.

in compact groups around courtyards and spread them in many narrow streets. (See figure 3 and 9). 4.2.1. Constructive building materials and systems The walls: boundary between the inside and the outside. The constitutive materials, thickness, color, coating and thermo physical property are the main factors in their ability to modify the thermal exchanges. In arid regions, it is necessary to achieve high thermal inertia walls having the capacity to store heat during the day and return at night to reduce the temperature fluctuations that are the basis of the discomfort.

4.2.3. The protection of exterior walls Protection of external walls has the objective of shutting down, to slow down and reflect solar flux. Several devices can be implemented: • The decline of the facade and roof overhangs • Wood and palm awnings protect vertical walls and procreate shading entry • Reflective materials; clay mortar in the same color • Local natural materials act as insulators • The foundation of the pillars and structural walls in natural stone

4.2.2. Massive Construction The massive construction provides shading spaces and facades.

Figure 16: Example of an old arch built according to the constructive tradition of the region: An arcade of the

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Ksar of KENADZA; Despite the deterioration of the roof and the degradation of the plaster and some stones constituting the arch, the work still resists due to the good disposition of the stones arch built without formwork by flat stones to note the way in which the arc is closed (source the culture house wilaya of Bechar) Figure 15, 17: cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades (source authors) 4.3. Internal distribution of spaces in the popular houses

Figure 18. Example of an old arch built according to the constructive tradition of the region: An arcade of the Ksar of KENADZA; Despite the deterioration of the roof and the degradation of the plaster and some stones constituting the arch, the work still resists due to the good disposition of the stones arch built without formwork by flat stones to note the way in which the arc is closed. Source: The culture house wilaya of Bechar.

Figure 19. Cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades. Source: Authors.

Figure 17. Cracks and degradations of earthen arches: The absence of the protection of the roof caused cracks, excavations and erosion of the earth material at the level of the bearing structure of the house in particular at the level of the arcades. Source: Authors.

4.4. Ingeniosity in construction’s technique The inhabitants use local building materials and resources. Bearing walls at a thickness of 50 to 60cm are erected with a large number of earth bricks made on site. - A sandy soil is used (50 to 70%) and clay (20%). Slightly moistened, land is put into molds and lightly compacted by hand. Once unmolded, it dries in the sun and gives birth to mud brick. Once dry, the bricks are mounted as cinder blocks with mortar made with the same land as bricks but screened to avoid the gravel. A coating of the same material with a thickness of about 2cm just covers the walls. This type of wall slowed the transfer of heat inside spac-

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Figure 20. Graphic appears a popular home with a court contain plant and patio covered with a dome containing from the top small windows for ventilation. Source: https://www. google.fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar Figure 21. Photo shows the shape of “moushrabiah”sun protection. Source: Author.

es. The Inner surface temperature of the wall facing the sun begins to take uncomfortable temperature values​​ at dusk.The flat roofs of a significant thickness 30 to 50cm are made from palm trunks of 3.00 to 3.50m of reach, put on bearing walls which support log, spaced at regular intervals of 50 70cm, tree branches are then placed perpendicular on the logs and support one or two layers of palms used to absorb water and serve as a formwork to put clay mortar above. However we can get a room climate or microclimate bearable during the hot period by carefully selecting the materials and design details. Unfortunately, the materials used in the actual construction such as concrete, cinder block and glass,are characterized by poor thermo physical against the intense sunlight that characterizes the region. The Wall today has become a mere boundary between outside and inside. The roofs have a low thermal inertia; do not have significant insulating properties constitute an absorption surface to solar radiation. (Liébard and De Herde, 2005). 5. The transformation of the know-how 5.1. Related to climate Like all cities of the sahara, Béchar experiencing excessive and uncontrolled development, the consequences have resulted architecturally by: The loss of identity and its bioclimatic qualities: efficient materials and appropriate techniques to integrate climate and environment. The applications of the vernacular construction techniques and materials have been demonstrated as a sustain-

Figure 22. Graphic shows the shape of a patio interior. Source: https://www.google. fr/search?q=ksar+de+béchar

able option for buildings (Farajallah, 2017;Heal et all, 2006; Sayigh, 2014). However, these techniques and materials are not being employed anymore in the Arabian building industry (Farajallah, 2017). On the other hand, the modern houses have thinner walls and roofs and are made mostly from hollow blocks and reinforced concrete (see Figure 1). Indeed, the presence of an urban group profoundly modifies the structure of the lower layers of the atmosphere as the dynamic point of view or thermal one. The air flow is very disturbed by the numerous obstacles and of unequal heights that characterize urban areas. In addition, replacing the natural soil by large expanses of concrete, asphalt, stone, etc., and the concentration on a small space of combustion processes (heating, industry, transport) cause a significant change in the energy balance between soil and atmosphere. The air pollution that changes the composition of the atmosphere of the cities also causes a modification in radiative exchange and

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precipitation. Finally, the impermeability of the ground and lower evaporation transpiring surfaces disturb the water balance.(Sacré 1983).Contemporary home seems to break with the traditional popular building because extroverted composition of the inhabited space, the use of new materials (concrete block, cement, concrete, industrial brick) has become widespread, and gives an appearance similar to that of existing buildings throughout the country, despite the difference of climate context. The use of air conditioners producers of greenhouse gases, which increases pollution, lowers the environmental and climatic conditions. Because of the importance of conductivity and thermal diffusivity in the development of thermal balance (the thermo physical properties of new materials: thermal conductivity “λ” and thermal diffusivity “a”)The production of state housing is an important part of the total output of the city. It’s a massive production of open fabrics, consisting of bars without concern urbanity “with wide streets, exposed to violence sandstorms and heat of the sun. They are built in a repetitive alignment block of 4 and 5 floors, without relief or soul, cold in winter and hot in summer. This shows the inability of contemporary urbanism to adapt to the specificity of the Saharian environment. “ Therefore, if the environment is predominantly urban, an increase of the ascending heat radiation with big wavelength emitted by the environment. 5.2. The form is a social interpretation of a local culture 5.2.1. The social logic of spatial distribution and design The qâ’a expresses, (see figure 3) by a step and marking in the wall, a purely spatial distinction, but makes visible a symbolic hierarchy: the “low” part, durqa’a, is a distributor element, subordinate, it serves the circulation and the service, while the master (or mistress) of the place stands with his guests in the “high” part, noble, Iwan, where the places farthest from the threshold are the most honorable hierarchy noble space and daily space.

5.2.2. The popular home in arab-muslim world is a projection of a cultural image Culture has always been an essential dimension in the life of man who has manifested in the production of his living (Platzer, 2001). The ksar as a vernacular territory does not only express the environmental and landscape values, but it is also, the reflection of the local ethos (Hamid et all, 2018). Explain the choice of site and morphology of human settlements only by ecosystem constraints and / or technology is in our opinion, insufficient. Given the spiritual (sacred) seems at least as important, if not the most crucial (Hamid et all, 2018).Indeed, this architecture that is specific to a community characterized by its own representations is regarded as a reduced model of an Arab-Muslim city (Hamid et all, 2018). This is due to the organizational characteristics which it presents from the formal and functional point of view. On the contrary, other experts consider that these ancestral cities existed well before the arrival of Islam; they were confronted with several socio cultural and environmental factors, which engendered their morphology and their specific organization (Figure 7, 8, 9).In the Arab-Muslim, the religion has often been served as a landmark in the design of the dwelling and the urban landscape. As an example, we cite the choice of the orientation (even if this choice is irrational compared to other criteria), the requirement of a distinction between the sacred and profane spaces. THe issue of intimacy and the degree of openness to the outside are also determinant, by consecrating the inviolability of the private life (very rigorous ranking of spaces, by distinguishing the passage of places from the most public to the private ones, chicane entrance, introverted house, moucharabieh windows…). At the neighborhood level, it has led to sober uniform facades, allowing no distinction between the housing of the rich and one of the poor, despite the large difference of the interior. What strikes the observer, here is the general character unit.

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5.2.3. The expression of the material world in the Arab Muslim culture The landscape is considered as the cultural expression of the perception of the material world and its representation (Liddament, 2000). As the landscape can have diversified significances, since numerous cultural elements which are closely linked to a context, can intervene in the decryption of these deferent significations (Kirimtat et all,2016).The decoding of the landscape presumes a common language (Liddament, 2000). Thereby the study of the logic of the landscape construction requires the knowledge of the cultural specificities and conventions that are particular to the society concerned with the analysis. The example of the palm plantation (el-Jenna) in the construction and the conceptualization of the landscape oasis are particularly edifying. Te palm tree as a sacred tree of Islam and symbol of eternity is regarded as a crucial factor of the structure of the oasis land scape. In addition to the fact that the palm plantation is a work place, it is also a living being linked emotionally to the family. Thus, in several cases, each member of the family member owns a palm tree that holds his name. 5.3. Sociocultural factors: The transformations’ origin For a long time the work of the inhabitants, the design of contemporary houses by specialists has become the result of sedimentation of traces of exogenous and endogenous factors of transformation. No desire to have an originality of the traditional house that adapts to the physical and socio-cultural environment. The advertising discourse is analyzed as a set of cultural constructs, which, being market sensitive, reflect changing social structures, values and ideologies. Over this period the house structure has been transformed (Anand et all, 2013). Hence, the interpretation and appropriation of the modern society values, Which blur all previous simple principles, economic, ecological, based on cohabitation, social cohesion, and respect for the environment(Susorova et all,2013). Below is an illustration of the pro-

cess of the transformations through which the popular house passed, a typological variation accompanied by an evolution of the uses the fragmentation of the houses induces with the change dimensions of the yard. The transformation of the habitation is linked to the metamorphosis of the built object itself: to the successive modifications of the household, considered here as a unit of members linked by relations of solidarity and cohabitation and shared interests of production and consumption. The observations and the interpretation of the results of the questionnaire developed with the citizens show that the houses related to the town of Bechar passed during the second half of the twentieth century a multi-generational habitat, sheltering several generations and several parental families around resources, services and facilities pooled (sanitary, fire, but also products from oasis farms) and frequent use of collective services and / or public (sagia, fogara, washing, bath public ...), to a single-family dwelling. It would probably be wrong to say, however, that all these aspects of the house were determined by a single physic-architectural variable, socio-cultural factors affect (influence totaling 66%) the form (See figure 23). the plan, the facade, the technique, the volume, the appropriation of the space, the relation with the outside, and the accessibility to the site. Indeed, the different forms of housing, which the man conceived, refer to various factors (and often associated), having deter-

Figure 23. Histogram represents the degree of influence of the factors: socio-cultural, physical-architectural, environmental, economic on the popular house inherent to the ksar of Bechar. Source: Authors.

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Figure 24. Element of the sustainability in the saharian geography. Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara


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mined or modified them (site, climate, materials), these factors are all related to two entities: the man and his environment. Man, being the generator of this conception, referred in design to its social environment (the whole community in which it evolves itself, or on a smaller scale, his family, as well as the types of relationships he has with her). For Rapoport, the construction of a house is a cultural phenomenon, and its form and layout are strongly influenced by the cultural milieu to which it belongs. Through his analysis Rapoport refutes any classification of the forms of the house that would induce the physical aspects as a single causal factor. The physical aspects and the socio-cultural aspects must be taken into consideration, “but it is these that must first be emphasized. [...] The specific characteristics of a culture - the accepted way of doing things, the socially unacceptable acts and the implicit ideals - must be taken into consideration since they affect the shape of the house and the agglomeration» (Mateus and Oliveira,2009). 6. Conclusion The motivation of this study is related to the fact that the type of popular Saharan houses is being lost. Ignorance of inheritance “popular” causes the drift of the authenticity of local architecture that adapts to the environment and the rigor of warm climates. Concept which allows reproducing models “simple” typical in an era when climate change is needed. (See figure 24). Acknowledgments The authors thank the University and laboratory ARCHIPEL. References Algifri, A.H.; Gadhi, S.M.B.; Nijaguna, B.T. (1992).Thermal behaviour of adobe and concrete houses in Yemen. Renew Energy, 2, 597–602. [CrossRef]. Alp, A.V. (1992). Vernacular climate control in desert architecture. Energy Build. 1991, 16, 809–815. Ameri Siahoui, H.; Dehghani, A.; Razavi, M.; Khani, M.(2011). Investigation of thermal stratification in cisterns using analytical and Artificial Neural

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Collective ingeniosity in the construction of the popular home: The challenge of the know-how in Sahara


ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • 83-96

Triangulation study of water play in urban open spaces in Sheffield: Children’s experiences, parental and professional understanding and control Melih BOZKURT bozkurtmel@itu.edu.tr • Department of LandscapeArchitecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.24654

Received: May 2018 • Final Acceptance: February 2019

Abstract As a life source water is the reason why majority of world’s largest cities developed in the area where they are now and it is an aesthetic reason that influence many people and landscape architects. Although, how children experience many types of urban open spaces have been identified in the literature, evidence-based research knowledge was extremely limited about water experiences of children in urban open spaces. The purpose of this paper is to explore what makes water features in different urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience such environments. This research has adopted subject triangulation methodology and focuses on three research subjects; children, parents and professionals who designed and manages those spaces, which are three dimension of water play provision. Study suggest some striking results about children’s use of water features, parental controls and allowance, and professionals’ consideration. Keywords Children, Urban design, Urban open space, Water play.


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1. Introduction According to European Environment Agency (2010) world urban population was projected to become 70 percent of all inhabitants by 2050. However, in Europe the percentage of urban inhabitants has already passed those projections for the future. As was reported by World Bank (2016) 75 percent of European Union countries has already been living in urban areas in 2016. Furthermore, according to same data, urban living in the United Kingdom has increased to 83% of all inhabitants in 2016. It has been estimated that at least half of the world’s children live in urban areas (UNICEF, 2012) and projections illustrated that numbers are likely to increase in the future due to increasing popularity of urban living. These children need open spaces to spend time and energy and be active and fulfil their recreational needs. Children need at least 60-minute of physical activity to turn into healthy adults (WHO, 2015). Urban open spaces are the areas where children likely to play and undertake their daily physical activities. Therefore, it can be described that urban open spaces are the areas children need for the benefit of their physical and mental growth, improving their skills and extending their social barriers (NPFA, 2000; Broadhead, 2006). Understanding children’s experiences in urban open spaces is the first step towards providing better built-environment that meets children’s needs. There is significant literature developed since 1970’s about children’s experiences in urban environments (Ward, 1977; Lynch, 1977; Hart, 1979; Moore, 1986; Moore, 1989; Chawla, 2002). Urban open spaces are the areas where children from different backgrounds come together, which make them aware of differences among themselves and create self-awareness as well as helping creating shared identity and enhance the feeling of being citizens (Madanipour, 2003; Shaftoe, 2008; Gaffikin et al., 2010). Being with unknown children increases anonymity, which helps children to escape from their daily life (Woolley et al., 1997).

During their play children replicate the adult world that one-day they will become (Noschis, 1992). While they are replicating, children learn from each other. However, there are several constraints that effects children’s ability to play in open spaces. First, professional attitude towards children’s play has not been changed in the last five decades with play provision through same structured fenced and carpeted playgrounds, although especially older children do not find them interesting (Veitch et al., 2007; Shaftoe, 2008; Woolley, 2008). Secondly, it was identified that children’s experiences in urban opens space are also limited due to social and physical limitations of urban context. Some of those limitations are physical controls, such as intentionally placed obstacles to prevent unwelcomed activities are common (Kilian, 1998; Woolley et al., 2011); physical boundaries, such as undermanaged and neglected environment, traffic and car domination, litter, and lack of maintenance are recurrent problems (Lennard & Lennard, 1992; Tibbalds, 2001); social controls such as police, ambassadors, and anti-social behaviour orders (Flint & Nixon, 2006; Nayak, 2003); social issues, such as fear of alcoholics and drug users, fear of security, stranger danger, traffic danger, child abduction and parental worries (Valentine, 1996; Woolley et al., 1999; Veitch et al., 2006). Third, not only professional attitude but also the budget issues have been affecting the provision of better urban open spaces for children. Parks and open spaces are most affected areas from budget cuts in USA after 2008 crisis (Walls, 2014; Katz, 2006). In the United Kingdom situation was not any better. According to a recent report, 86% of park managers in the United Kingdom have affected by budget cuts since 2010; and slightly less than a half of councils had discussed selling green spaces and open spaces at one point (Neal, 2014). According Neal (2014) the future of the parks and open spaces does not seem to be very bright and there might be rapid decline in the quality of urban open spaces, if urgent action is not taken. This reduction in ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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the quality was estimated to take place especially in the most deprived areas of the country (Woods, 2014). Forth, children’s play is effected by parental concerns such as stranger danger, kidnapping, rapists and drug users (Blakely, 1994, Larson et al., 2013). Due to fact that play provision is oriented around parental concerns and children’s wellbeing rather than child development. The outcome of this approach is sterile, over protective and uninteresting play supplies (Veitch et al., 2006). Children’s play in urban open spaces has not seen a way of play provision and play policy, although children prefer challenging and loose elements that can be changed such as water, and being in the area where adults are (Francis, 1988). 2. Children’s experiences of urban water features As a life source water is the reason why majority of world’s largest cities developed in the area where they are now. Furthermore, water is an aesthetic concern that influences many landscape architects (Nasar & Lin, 2003). It was evident that through the casual observation and personal experiences that children like water and water play. One of the early studies that explored the relationship between water and children has shown that presence of water is important for children (Zube et al., 1983). Woolley et al. (1997) found that majority of children prefer water features rather than sculptures and statutes. This was significant finding to understand how important the water in urban open spaces is for children. For instance, later research findings show that designed water features and a pond provided seasonal experiences of water to the children using library (Derr and Lance, 2012) while the existence of water in parks can increase the active recreation of girls (Hume et al., n.d). More recent research in Mexico City showed that children identify good park if it has fountains in which they can run and splash (Gulgonen and Corona, 2015). Although children like the presence of water, children’s access to the recreational water in their home settings likely to be limited apart from some families from advantaged

background. Therefore, majority of children’s access to recreational water and their water play limited with urban open spaces. However, there has been limited research exploring children’ experiences of water play in public settings. One of those rare researches has explored children’s perception of river and river restoration and found that children have fears and concerns around rivers (Tapsell, 1997). Later on, following research about children’s perception of two London rivers and their play in river environment has indicated that rivers have little importance to London’s children outdoor play (Tapsell et al., 2001). The research about children’s interaction with water in urban open spaces has been carried out by Tunstall et al. (2004) and they have identified that rivers are seen as polluted, littered and dangerous places, and most of play around rivers was non-river related. However, the recent research identified disaffected young people’s positive relationship with rivers when they experience angling as an intervention (Djohari et al., 2017) The literature about children’s experiences of water features, and facilitation and control of water features in urban open spaces is limited both for natural and artificial water play. Furthermore, it seems that parental understanding and control of water play in urban open spaces has never been research. Therefore, this research paper aims to brings all three different aspects of the spectrum with subject triangulation methodology and it explores children’s water play in urban open spaces via children’s experiences, parental and professional understanding and controls. Therefore the aim of this research is to explore what makes water features in urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience those water features. 3. Study sites Sheffield city set as boundary criteria for this research due to logistic convince of the location and historical evidence that Sheffield had many water features in the past and still have the

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ones children currently interreacting. The criteria also involved that study sites being different in terms of their design, location and children’s experiences, in order to compare how natural sites are different than designed water features for children’s experiences, or how sites designed for visual proposes different from sites specifically designed for children’s play. Three sites were selected using the above criteria. The first site was the Peace Gardens, which is one of the favourite water areas in Sheffield (figure 1 and 2). The Peace Gardens included many artificial water features such as water falls, canals and water jets. Although they were not designed for water play, it has been a big children attraction in the city centre. The second site was Endcliffe Park (figure 3), one of the largest public parks in Sheffield. The Park has a natural stream that was used to power water mills. In the beginning of 20th century the site was turned into park. Two water mill ponds became rowing ponds and they are currently used for their visual aesthetics. İn addition to stream and ponds park has very popular stepping stones, where majority of children’s interact with water happens. The park does not include any artificial water element, but and example of natural water interaction. The park acts as a connection and transition between the City and The Peak District National Park. The third study site had been selected was Millhouses Park, which was one of oldest parks in Sheffield. The Millhouses Park has always related with water activities since it was opened in 1909. Currently, Artificial water play area specifically designed for children’s water play is a one of the strongest points of this park(figure 4 and 5). It is a family day out location for many families in Sheffield. 4. Methodology In order to achieve research aims and objectives triangulation approach was chosen. Triangulation is an approach that uses advantages of both qualitative and quantitative methods and originally introduced by Denzin (1970). In terms of Denzin’s (1970)

Figure 1. Arial photograph of the Peace Gardens.

Figure 2. The Peace Garden in september (Taken by Melih Bozkurt).

Figure 3. Arial photograph of Endcliffe Park.

classification this research is methodological triangulation, which consist of using at least three different research methods. This study used three research methods in various different ways explore the phenomenon (Table 1). The first method used was surveys that have been undertaken with Children and parents. Surveys were proposed to be ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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Figure 4. Arial photograph of Millhouses Park.

Figure 5. Millhouses Park Water Splash Park (Taken by Melih Bozkurt).

undertaken in primary schools within a 1-mile radius of a study sites. Three primary schools, each from different study site, recruited and participated to this research. Children age between 8 and 11 (year 4,5 and 6) included in this research and covers most of the primary school age. Children younger than Y3’s were not included on purpose because of their limited ability to read and write. Year 7 students were also not included due to their busy schedule.

Table 1. The relationship between methods and target groups that they cover.

Boxes that included surveys, consent forms, A3 size photographs of the sites, and instructions for class teachers were delivered to schools on an arranged date. Moreover, children were given take home surveys for parents to complete. Parents’ surveys were designed to get an understanding of the parents’ point of view about water play in public open spaces. Furthermore, surveys were also conducted with parents of nursery age children. The same criteria used for primary schools also applied to nursery school selection. Three nurseries accepted to take part in this research and surveys were placed at the sites where parents could easily see them and pick them up. Researchers also placed return boxes directly next to the survey boxes and under the poster explaining the research. As this was not an obligatory survey, parents picked them up out of choice. The second method used in this study was behaviour mapping observations. A tool for observing children’s experiences of water (TOWEC) was developed to undertake observation as none of the previous tools seemed to be suitable for exploring the children’s play with water in urban open spaces. The TOWEC included activity codes, age codes, gender codes as well as time, day of the observation, area condition, temperature, and weather conditions such as sunny, part-cloudy, cloudy, light rain, and heavy rain. More details about TOWEC explained elsewhere (Bozkurt, et. al., 2018). Behaviour mapping observations had been undertaken for a year in school holidays to increase the chances of witnessing children interacting with water features. Collected data was analysed cross-sectional between activity and gender, age, temperature and weather condition variables. Furthermore, all data was mapped to show the spatial distribution of different activities undertaken by different age and gender groups, and different weather conditions. The third method was interviews, which are able to reproduce the internal realities of people’s life stories, experiences, beliefs, values, ambitions

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and perceptions (May, 2001; Silverman, 2005). Although observations helped to develop understanding about children’s water play and its internal realities, it was important to explore how children’s experiences of water facilitated and controlled. First of all, in order to explore parents’ perception of children’s water play and their control, parents who took their children to study sites for water play were interviewed. Thirty interviews were planned to be conducted in each study sites and 90 interviews in total. These were short interviews that would take 3 to 5 minutes long, and can easily be conducted on the go. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with designers and managers of the study sites. The manager of the Endcliffe Park and Millhouses Park (same person) was interviewed. Due to fact that the Endcliffe Park was one of the oldest heritage parks in Sheffield, it was not possible to interview the designer. Although Millhouses Park is another heritage park, the water splash park was designed and added to park a few years ago. Therefore, designer of the water splash was interviewed. Considering the city centre spaces, both designer and the manager of the Peace Gardens were interviewed. 5. Results and discussions 5.1. Number and diversity of participants In total 237 children and 104 parents were participated to the surveys. Almost equal percentages of males and females were undertaken children’s surveys. On the other hand, females undertook 83% of the parental surveys and 17% were males. A total 85 interviews were conducted and 69% of te participants were females, and 69% were females and 31% were males. During the observation period 5217 children were observed and recoded to the TOWEC, which was later analysed. Furthermore, 4 professional’s interviews were also included in the analyses. Interpretations were made using all of the information obtained

Table 2. Gender diversity of children going to the open spaces.

Table 3. Gender of children interacting and not interacting with water features.

Table 4. Age diversity of children going to the open spaces and water features in them.

and most important results are cited in the following part. 5.2. Children’s experiences of water in urban open spaces This study show that almost equal numbers of males and females visited the studied spaces (Table 2). However, from observations and surveys it was evident that greater numbers of female children interacted with water in all study sites (Table 3). Moreover, figure 6 shows the example of female domination in Eclesall Park as it was identified by behaviour maps. Each individual dot on the map represents a child recorded in the area during observation in specific time period and doing a special activity. In the previous study, it has been concluded that water features make urban open spaces more appealing for adolescent girls (Hume et al., n.d.). This current study provided some additional evidence with respect to girls’ interaction with water, namely that, although parks are male dominated environments (Hume et. at. nd; Karsten, 2003), water features are seen to be more appealing for older (adolescent). This study has illustrated that age diversity of children visiting parks were similar among all study sites (Table 4). Children aged 8 and 9 paid slightly more visits than children aged 10 and 11. However, children’s visits to ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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Figure 6. Example of female dominance in Endcliffe Park.

Figure 7. Study site locations and postcodes.

the water features were different than proportion of children visiting those parks. Furthermore, in the results there was an evidence that children’s independent mobility increases by age. Children age 8 and 9 have never came to the city centre alone but as they get older higher percentages of children visited alone. Moreover, there is almost three times more children from age 11, who came to city centre with friends (33%), compared to children age 8 (12%). Additionally, there was a sharp increase between age 10 and 11 (24%, 33% respectively). All these findings about older age groups seems to be related with gained independent mobility, due to the fact that previous studies have identified that independence is gained from age 10 (Hillman & Adams, 1992; Hillman et al., 1990; Veitch et al., 2008; Brockman et al., 2011; Foster et al., 2014). As their independent mobil-

ity increases, children are likely to visit longer distances such as; city centre spaces, rather than their local parks. This study also suggests that there is a strong relationship between proximity of living and children’s visits to urban open spaces. The majority of children living in distant areas accessed both parks by car. For instance, 68% of the children living in S2 postcode area (Approximately 3 miles) and 58% of children living in S11 postcode area (Approximately 2 miles) accessed Millhouses Park by car (figure 7). Therefore, children in these areas, who have no access to a car might not be able to visit the water features. Results suggested that children who have never visited both parks were from S2 postcode area, which is on the East side of the city by comparison all parks are on the SouthWest of the city (figure 7). Those children and their families may not have access to a car. This is supported by the UK Census 2011 data, which shows that the highest percentage of people with no car ownership live in S2 postcode area among other areas (Office for National Statistics, 2011). This study discussed the relationship between proximity of living and use of urban open space with several indicators. Those findings seemed to support relevant research knowledge that suggests human activity directly related to distance and nearby open spaces are more likely to be visited more frequently, if desired exist (Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002a; Giles-Corti & Donovan, 2002b; Veitch et al., 2006; Shaftoe, 2008). Two types of water interaction have been identified: active and passive interaction. Active interaction involves activities that require physical contact, spending time and energy with water features. Therefore, activities such as: walking/running in the water, playing with equipment in water, jumping in the water, or playing chasing games (water fights), can be counted as active interaction. Passive interaction does not require physical contact or spending time and energy with water. These kinds of activities are generally distant activities. For instance, observing water, listening to water, sitting around water, or laying around water. This is one of the most important findings of

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this study because no previous research was able to identify this sort of interaction profile about children’s water play. Moreover, this study also suggests that younger children seemed to be more interested with active water interaction than older ones in all study areas. Older children mentioned in surveys that “active water play was nice for young children”, “my sisters enjoying it” or “I really enjoyed when I were younger”. Moreover, they also mentioned that they “like picnicking”, “listening to music” and “watching water features”, which are passive interactions. This shows how they transition to different personality and move away from active water interaction to passive interaction, and how age is related with this transition. In Millhouses Park 80% of children interacted with water features, which was related with having structured water play area. However, only a few older children were observed. This was evident in the observations and age diversity map of Millhouses Park which shows the major difference in the age groups that experiencing water (figure 8). Although very limited research seems to be published about children’s interaction with artificial structured water features in parks, play literature provide evidence that children become uninterested in structured equipment as they get older (Veitch et al., 2006; Veitch et al., 2007). This was also the case with structured water splash in Millhouses Park due to fact that it was designed for children younger than 7 years old. 5.3. Parental attitude towards water play in urban open spaces Another aspect of this study was to explore parents’ perception and control of children’s water play in urban open spaces. Parents’ attitudes towards children’s water play were coded into three categories: positive, negative and cautious. Majority of parents’ attitude was positive (84%) both in interviews and survey and significant amount of parent favoured structured artificial water features in Millhouses Park. There are several reasons behind Millhouses Park being parents favourite place such as; Millhouses Park being family day

Figure 8. Millhouses Park age diversity behaviour map.

Figure 9. The Peace Gardens in summer when water features turned down (taken by Melih Bozkurt).

out location, potential social interaction and play opportunities and lastly, structured water play is clearly seen as safe environment. Structure water play has never been discussed in the literature, hence the significance of this study. However, play literature has many similar findings where parents in favour of structured play spaces. Play space provision has never been changed in the last 5 decades, and only concerned on children’s wellbeing in which self-protection is undervalued (Valentine, 1997; Veitch et al., 2006; Shaftoe, 2008). However, for the same reason (children’s well being) parents have favour in structured play areas. This was also the case with structured water play. Furthermore, 78% of the parents involved in this study also have positive attitude towards children’s play with natural water resources such as; stream ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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flowing through Endcliffe Park. Furthermore, no negative attitude was detected about this space. Parents seemed to be rather cautious and recognized the importance of unstructured natural play mentioned by many academics (NPFA, 2000; Ginsburg, 2007; Kolb & Kolb, 2010). Their recognition was evident in both surveys and interviews. Evidence from this research suggests that only 14% of the parents have cautious attitude. Those parents were concerned with water quality, safety around water and visible dangers such as; broken glasses and sharp objects. However, majority of those parents did allow their children to experience water features despite their concerns. A minority of parents restricted their children’s experience to non-physical contact such as; playing on stepping-stones. It has also been previously identified that physical and social concerns likely to limit children’s experiences in urban open spaces (Blakely, 1994; Valentine, 1996; Valentine & McKendrick, 1997; Valentine, 1997; Karsten & Vliet, 2006). Parental controls due to concerns and worries seems to be limiting some children’s water play in urban open spaces. On the other hand, 11% of the parents had negative attitude in Sheffield City Centre where lowest percentage of positive attitude (70%) was also obtained. Majority of those parents were reluctant to go to city centre for just children’s water play, which also supports the argument that when proximity to open space increases, the frequency of use also increases. Some parents questioned whether city centre was an appropriate place for water interaction. They were prepared to drive their children some distance for the desired location such as swimming pools, or “Magna”, which is private science adventure centre with water feature. Driving children to other quality parks (Veitch et. al. 2006) or private play centres is not a new phenomenon but the tendency seems to be growing (McKendrick et al., 2000; Hart, 2002), which reduces the number of children playing freely in urban open spaces. This research seems to support these existing findings and revealed that negative

parental attitude and driving children to more appropriate places is also the case with the experience of water features. 5.4. Professionals understanding of water play Professionals seem to consider children’s water interaction in the design and management for at least some of those spaces. According to Moore (1989) controls of the spaces identified in two categories; physical and social controls. Manager of the Peace Gardens has admitted using physical controls in the site. When the Peace Garden gets quite crowded, the city centre management team lower the water features or completely turn it off until crowds reduce. However, arguably this approach limits children experiences of water in urban open spaces. This act makes children undesirables according to Tibbalds (2001) categorization because turning the water features off only eliminates the children interacting with water and rest of the public likely to continue their activities. Lowering the water features likely to limit age range playing in the water. Children older than age 5 or 6 are less likely to enjoy lowered water features. However, it can be argued that lowered water features might create opportunities of safer water play for toddlers and young children (Figure 9). This was also witnessed in the observations. There also seems to be social controls of managers via city centre ambassadors. Although no direct issue has been reported regarding them, during the observations it was witnessed that ambassadors limit some behaviours such as water fights, skate boarding and cycling. For instance, in one case ambassadors stopped children playing water fights and collected bottles to prevent them restarting their activity. Although the role of the ambassador and what they were trying achieve could be explained with preventing children tripping, slipping, or disturbing other people, ambassadors had still intruded children’s unstructured play. The biggest issue related to the professionals were budget. The manager of the Endcliffe and Millhouses Parks mentioned that he had just about the

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right number of staff in the team but on busy summer days the management and maintenance team struggled to keep up with demand due to lack of staff, adding that the management team probably will not have new staff available in the foreseeable future because of governmental cuts, which have affected almost every city councils across the country. Budget cuts affects the quality of not only water features but also whole park management strategy in Sheffield. A reasonable approach for tackling this issue could be using the findings of this research about where large numbers of children interact with water and introducing focused management regimes. As these tasks, will be concentrated on a few areas in the parks, it could be undertaken with the available workforce. Moreover, the budget issues also effect provision and sustainability of water features. Artificial water feature provision is expensive task as it includes many steps to provide quality water that is suitable to health and safety regulations. Additionally, electricity used in water jets, pumps and many other parts of the water feature, is expensive. Hence according to a designer of the structured water play area in Millhouses Park, Sheffield Local Authority could only afford one artificial water feature, the Peace Gardens, and now the rest of city parks are struggling to pay for Millhouses water play area, which is the second artificial water feature opened in the city. Future of the artificial water features is uncertain, due to running costs and budget cuts. In recent years, United Kingdom has confronted the largest budget cuts since 1980’s. City councils are struggling to manage public spaces. Sheffield has also affected from the situation and lost half of its local budget (Sheffield City Council, 2014). It should not be forgotten that many water features in the past were neglected and closed down due to lack of relevant budget, management and public interest in Sheffield, such as water features in Charter Square, Millhouses Lido and Millhouses Paddling Pools. The latter two places were both closed in 1989/90 when one of the largest budget cuts have happened (Urban Parks Forum, 2001). There is a risk of

Millhouses artificial water play would share the destiny with its antecedents, if urgent precautions will not places immediately. The last category that needs to be emphasized related to professionals’ non-consideration of water play in natural areas. Although unstructured water play has many potential benefits to children such as; developing their understanding, experiences about water and world, motor skills, improving observation, concentration and educational success (NPFA, 2000; Greater London Authority, 2003; Broadhead, 2006), the manager of Endcliffe Park has admitted that children’s interaction with natural water features has never been considered and nothing has been done towards water play in Endcliffe Park. This creates social and physical boundaries to children. One major drawback of this approach is that the boundaries children mentioned regarding Endcliffe Park are likely to be related to ignorance about water play in this area. Moreover, the managers added that water play in natural environment will not be in their agenda near future, although natural water play in urban open spaces is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative to artificial water play and it might replace artificial water play to save children’s water play during financial budget cuts. Therefore, promotion and management of natural water play should be places on the agenda as soon as possible. 6. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to explore what makes water features in different urban open spaces attractive to children and what opportunities or constraints influence children’s ability to experience those water features. Children’s interaction with water has hardly been researched. Hence, the significance of this study was the exploration of how children experience water features in different types of urban open spaces and the identification of parental and professional attitude towards children’s water play. This study was first of its kind to look at this issue in the three different dimensions. This research has ascertained many ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • M. Bozkurt


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emerging themes that support existing research knowledge such as: relationship between proximity of living to urban open spaces and frequency of use; as children get older their independent mobility increases and this increases children’s use of city centre open spaces; male children, especially older children, are less interested in with water related activities; and minority of children interested in water interaction with physical contact in river environments. This shows that how well this research findings fits on general context in the literature. However, majority of findings derived from qualitative methods specific to the time, date, location and ethnographic mix involved in this study. Therefore, there are some limitations on generalizability of the findings. Moreover, this research has also themes emerging that add to the body of knowledge: two types of water interaction have been identified (active and passive); female children were more attracted and more interacting with water features; structured water play provides limited opportunities; children loose interest about water features in urban open spaces, when they transition to adolescents; majority of parents have positive attitude towards water play in urban open spaces but their favourite water play is structured water play area in Millhouses Park, where children were deemed to safe in water. Some of those parents have concerns and negative attitude towards water play in city centre. Lastly, one of the important findings of this research is that professionals water play provision is likely to be affected by budget cuts in the near future and professionals have never considered natural water play in urban open spaces, which is more environmental friendly, and sustainable. However, when we consider number of run down water features due to budget cuts in the past, the natural water resources seem to be the future of water play in Sheffield. Professionals working in the council should develop policies to encourage communities, groups and children into natural water play through awaring them about pollution levels, flood risks and water quality. School trips might be good chance to educate children. Furthermore, in or-

der to increase the awareness and decreases the level of parental concerns, Sheffield parks and countryside management team should test the water quality and should publicized the results through Sheffield City Council web site, local new papers and even on the digital advertisement boards that placed in the areas natural water play might be possible. Moreover, budget cuts affected majority of councils in the country (Neal, 2014), adopting natural water play would be future for water play not only for Sheffield but also for all councils in the United Kingdom. This research was limited with number of age groups involved in this study. Therefore, this research has also provided scope for new research about children’s interaction with water features. Recruiting secondary school children will enhance our knowledge about how children’s interaction with water changes over time. In addition, parental surveys were proved to be successful method to explore parents understanding but future research might focus on the parents who have negative attitude about children’s water play with deep interviews to further investigate the reasons behind parental attitude. Lastly, this research has discovered professional’s understanding and control about water play that highly effected by budget cuts and does not seem to consider natural water play provision. Bibliography Blakely, K. S. (1994) ‘Parents’ Conceptions of Social Dangers to Children in the Urban Environment.’ Children’s Environments, 11(1). pp. pp. 16-25-25. Broadhead, P. (2006) ‘Developing an understanding of young children’s learning through play: the place of observation, interaction and reflection.’ British Educational Research Journal, 32(2). pp. 191-207. Brockman, R., Fox, K. R., Jago, R. (2011) ‘What is the meaning and nature of active play for today’s children in the UK?’ International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(15). Chawla, L. E. (2002) ‘Growing up in and Urbanizing World’ London: UNESCO/Earthscan.

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Shaftoe, H. (2008) Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Places. London: Earthscan Sheffield City Council (2014) News: Budget balanced but changes will be felt for years [Online] [Accessed on 06 May 2014] https://http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/whats-new/2014-news/ february/council-budget.html Silverman, D. (2005) Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. London, SAGE Publications Limited. Tapsell, S. M. (1997) ‘Rivers and river restoration: a child’s‐eye view.’ Landscape Research, 22(1). pp. 45-65. Tapsell, S. M., Tunstall, S., House, M., Whomsley, J., Macnaghten, P. (2001) ‘Growing up with rivers? Rivers in London Children’s Worlds.’ Area, 33(2). pp. 177-189. Tibbalds, F. (2001) Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the public environment in towns and cities. London, Spon Press. Tunstall, S., Tapsell, S., House, M. (2004) ‘Children’s perceptions of river landscapes and play: what children’s photographs reveal.’ Landscape Research, 29(2). pp. 181-204. UNICEF (2012) ‘State of The World’s Children 2012: Children in an Urban World’ New York: UNICEF. Urban Parks Forum (2001) ‘Public Park Assessment: A survey of local authority owned parks focusing on parks of historic interest’. Valentine, G. (1996) ‘Angels and devils: moral landscape of childhood.’ Environment and planning D: Society and Space, 14. pp. 581-599. Valentine, G. (1997) ‘”Oh Yes I Can.”“Oh No You Can’t”: Children and Parents’ Understandings of Kids’ Competence to Negotiate Public Space Safely.’ Antipode, 29(1). pp. 65-89. Valentine, G., McKendrick, J. (1997) ‘Children’s Outdoor Play: Exploring Parental Concerns About Children’s Safety and the Changing Nature of Childhood.’ Geoforum, 28(2). pp. 219235. Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Ball, K. (2007) ‘Children’s Perceptions of the Use of Public Open Spaces for Active Freeplay.’ Children’s Geographies, 5(4). pp. 409-422. Veitch, J., Salmon, J., Ball, K. (2008) ‘Children’s active free play in local

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neighborhoods: a behavioral mapping study.’ Health education research, 23(5). pp. 870-879. Veitch, J., Bagley, S., Ball, K., Salmon, J. (2006) ‘Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play.’ Health & Place, 12(4). 12//, pp. 383-393. Walls, M. (2014) ‘Private Funding of Public Parks’ Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Ward, C. (1977) The Child in the City. London: Architectural Press. Who (2017) Physical activity and young people: Recommended levels of physical activity for children aged 5 - 17 year. Available at: http://www. who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_ young_people/en/ [Accessed on 24 March 2017]. Woods, P. (2014) ‘To have and have not.’ Public Finance. 27 February 2014. Available at: http://www.publicfinance. co.uk/features/2014/03/to-have-andhave-not/ [Accessed on 25 Octorber 2014]. Woolley, H. (2008) ‘Watch This Space! Designing for Children’s Play in

Public Open Spaces.’ Geography Compass, 2(2). pp. 495-512. Woolley, H., Hazelwood, T., Simkins, I. (2011) ‘Don’t Skate Here: Exclusion of Skateboarders from Urban Civic Spaces in Three Northern Cities in England.’ Journal of Urban Design, 16(4). pp. 471-487. Woolley, H., Rowley, G., Spencer, C., Dunn, I. (1997) Young people and town centres. London, Association of town centre management. Woolley, H., Dunn, J., Spencer, C., Short, T., Rowley, G. (1999) ‘Children describe their experiences of the city centre: a qualitative study of the fears and concerns which may limit their full participation.’ Landscape Research, 24(3). pp. 287-301. World Bank (2016) Urban Population [Online] [Accessed on 24 April 2018] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS Zube, E. H., Pitt, D. G., Evans, G. W. (1983) ‘A Lifespan Developmental Study of Landscape Assesment.’ Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3. pp. 115-128.

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Developing an approach for conservation of abandoned rural settlements in Turkey

Koray GÜLER1, Yegân KÂHYA2 1 koray.guler@msgsu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 kahyaygn@gmail.com.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.48991

Received: May 2018 • Final Acceptance: February 2019

Abstract Following the industrial revolution, abandonment and decrease of population in rural areas are common problems that can be faced all around the world, as a result of various factors. As a consequence of implemented policies and radical changes in social life, nowadays large number of rural settlements in Turkey are also in the process of abandonment. However, many of these abandoned rural settlements have invaluable vernacular assets that bear the traces of past rural life and comprise the spirit of these cultural landscape areas. Although rural heritage in depopulated settlements have melted against the natural conditions by time, some settlements succeed to preserve their authenticity and integrity to a certain extent. On the other hand in some villages, which are more crowded and close to the city centers, authenticity and integrity values of traditional architectural heritage has been destroyed by human beings as a result of new construction pressures. This situation accompanies a big dilemma about conservation of traditional architectural heritage. This article aims to discuss reasons of depopulation in countryside, impacts of abandonment, pros and cons of re-evaluation alternatives for rural settlements and to develop proposals not only for preservation of rural architectural heritage in rural regions of Turkey, but also for revitalization and sustainability of livelihoods in there. Keywords Abandoned Rural Settlements, Rural Depopulation, Rural Architectural Heritage, Rural Landscape, Cultural Landscape


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1. Introduction Abandonment of rural settlements and decrease of population in rural areas have become common problems all around the world resulting from various factors coming into play after the Industrial Revolution. However, many of these abandoned rural settlements have invaluable vernacular assets that bear the traces of past rural life and embody the spirit of these cultural landscape areas. The de-populization process leads to neglect, gradual deterioration and finally the destruction of the traditional environment built with the experiences gained over the centuries. These rural settlements are shaped by the interaction between man and nature. Accordingly, the loss of continuity in habitation does not only cause the loss of cultural heritage but also has negative effects on natural life, the agricultural landscape and bio-diversity of these settlements. The factors leading to abandonment of rural settlements can be classified into two main groups: human and nature based. The former can be divided into three subgroups as socio-cultural and economical, political, and other reasons (Table 1). Traditional rural settlements whose vulnerabilities increase day by day reflect the everyday life, architec-

tural approach, building technology, construction techniques, craftsmanship and landscape features of their period and require a holistic approach for their protection. This article aims to propose solutions by discussing possible options for Turkey’s rural architectural heritage which is being lost due to abandonment and neglect. 2. Reasons for abandonment of rural settlements The reasons for abandonment of rural settlements are multidimensional and interdependent to each other from time to time. It can be classified basically into two groups as follows: Human-based or nature-based reasons (Table 1). 2.1. Human-based reasons 2.1.1. Socio-cultural and economic reasons Socio-economic conditions such as unemployment, agricultural inefficiency, lack of public investments and services, inadequate access to education, health and cultural services, lack of infrastructure and transportation facilities, distance to focal points and psychological influences, such as dissatisfaction with the living conditions caused by these circumstances, desire

Table 1. Reasons for abandonment of rural settlements.

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The village of Sarihacılar has been abandoned as a consequence of declining income from agriculture and animal husbandry, which were the traditional livelihood, and the tendency of out-migration from rural to urban seen in the whole country. 1

During the First World War and the years of the Turkish War of Independence, the inhabitants of the Dumanli village, who supported the rebellion in order to establish a Greek state in the region, became lonely after the absolute defeat of the Greek army in Western Anatolia (Tutkun, 2009: 121). Even though, the villagers from Trabzon and Gümüşhane were settled to the village instead of the inhabitants who migrated to Greece as a requirement of “The 1923 Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey”, the settlement could never regain its vitality and was abandoned in time (Tutkun, 2009: 121). 2


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for life in big cities, hopes for a better life or the desire to change social status are grouped as socio-cultural and economic reasons for abandonment of rural areas.

Figure 1. A view of a village abandoned for socio cultural and economic reasons: Sarıhacılar Village in Antalya, Turkey.1

The depopulation process in the village of Dereuzunyer was started in the 1970s after the news about a dam construction in the region (Kâhya et al, 2018). Following the government decision of expropriation in 2014, the village has been completely abandoned. In the near future, on completion of the Rahmanlar Dam, all of the settlement and agricultural areas of Dereuzunyer will, unfortunately, be submerged by dam waters (Kâhya et al, 2018). 3

The beginning of the abandonment in rural settlements for socio-cultural and economic reasons could be linked to the Industrial Revolution that began in Europe in the 18th century. The technological developments and mechanization of production caused rural populations to accumulate in the cities where factories were located. The number of people working in the agricultural sector, which constitutes the source of livelihood of the rural population, declined and migration from rural areas to urban centres was accerelated because of change in production systems from traditional form towards mechanization (Figure 1). 2.1.2. Political reasons/conflicts Factors causing loss of population in rural settlements such as wars, conflicts, terrorist incidents, security issues, forced migrations, political discrimination, and racism have been grouped as political reasons. Over the years, many urban and rural settlements have been devastated by wars

Figure 2: A view from an abandoned village because of politic reasons: Dumanlı Village in Gümüşhane, Turkey.2

and conflicts, and in some cases all of the traces and remains have been completely and intentionally destroyed following the war (Figure 2). 2.1.3. Other reasons New public or private sector investments such as small or large-scale dams built on rivers, investments in wind and solar energy, unplanned growth of settlements, improper development policies, motorway, seaway or airway investments or public works and urban development activities, are examples of other elements that threaten traditional rural environments (Figure 3).

Figure 3. A view from an abandoned village because of human based other reasons: Dereuzunyer Village in İzmir, Turkey.3

Following the legal restrictions introduced by conservation boards in some of the multi-layered rural settlements located on an archaeological site, settled continuously since ancient times and bearing traces of different civilizations above or below ground (Bilgin Altınöz, 2006:1), it is seen that local communities willingly leave their living environment because of the inability to sustain their lives or through the expropriation decisions. Pollution and environmental degradation areanother reasons for depopulation in rural settlements. Being located above high-valued mine reserves, or exhaustion of reserves could also cause migration from rural settlements. 2.2. Nature-based reasons Natural constraints or natural disasters like earthquakes, fires, floods, erosion, landslides, volcanic eruptions and avalanches which cannot be foreseen and occur suddenly are nature-based reasons for abandonment of rural settlements (Figure 4). Even though climate change and

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Figure 4: A view from an abandoned village because of nature based reasons: Roghudi Village in Calabria Region, Italy (Italian Ways, 2014).4

global warming are caused by human activity in the world, they are considered as nature-based reasons in the classification. Natural disasters cause loss of population in villages directly and/or indirectly. Rural settlements are not abandoned only because of direct effects like becoming unusable after natural disasters, but also some are evacuated before the disaster due to high risk (location on the fault line, presence of an active volcano in the area, avalanche danger, etc). 3. Impacts of abandonment It is possible to classify the negative impacts of depopulation in rural settlements into three groups as impacts on culture, nature and human beings. The loss of rural heritage, which has been shaped by the daily lives, traditions or cultural activities of past societies availing themselves of resources and opportunities in the surrounding environment, causes cultural desertification and loss of today’s generations’ links with past (Bronner, 2006: 26). Depopulation of rural settlements does not have only negative effects on the historic environment and cultural heritage but also on natural life, agricultural landscape and bio-diversity (Macdonald et al, 2000: 56). The loss of cultivated areas which have great importance in terms of sustenance can be caused by the lack of maintenance and neglect of agricultural landscape elements such as terraces and waterways built to protect agricultural land and to increase production. Flood disasters in 2011 in the Cinque Terre National Park, which is one of Italy’s World Heritage sites, is a typical example of this circumstance. While

life in the region continues, in some areas traditional farming practices have been abandoned and terraces where agricultural products had previously been planted have been left to nature. 90% of these cultural landscape areas, which were damaged by excessive rainfall in 2011, are abandoned or uncultivated agricultural terraces (Agnoletti, 2014: 69). Agricultural products in the uncultivated agricultural terraces have been covered over the years by Scots pines and mediterranean shrubs, and cultural landscapes have been damaged as a result of changing vegetation. Compared to big effects in abandoned terraces, excessive rainfall has only negatively affected 2% of the cultivated areas where traditional farming practices have been continued (Agnoletti, 2014: 69). Considering the difficulties and cost of activities for reducing the negative impacts of abandonment on biodiversity and environment, preventing the migration trend and depopulation is crucial for the future of conservation of nature and cultural heritage. Apart from negative impacts of depopulation, other direct effects like loss of social identity and a sense of belonging in the rural population, which has strong ties with the living environment and traditions, can also be seen. It is evident that some of the people who migrated from rural areas to big cities have experienced difficulty in adapting to city life and have wanted to return. However, they could not return because their old settlements are in bad condition due to lack of maintenance related to depopulation. This situation creates a sense of desperation for these people and indirectly causes social crises. 4. Possibilities for re-evaluation of rural settlements 4.1. Re-wilding or reforestation approach Approaches for re-evaluation of rural settlements can be classified into four groups as re-wilding/reforestation, museumification, tourism, and re-settlement. The first one of these options, re-wilding/reforestation, is based on the principle of convertion of abandoned rural settlements to wild life or forest area via abolition. This approach,

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The depopulation process in the village of Roghudi Vecchio began in the 1940s with the migration of some of the villagers to the coastal areas because of declining agricultural income (Italian Ways, 2016). After a series of floods and landslides occurred in the 1970s, the settlements, dwellings, animal shelters, agricultural fields and most importantly the hopes of the villagers for the future were flooded and the settlement was completely abandoned (Italian Ways, 2016). 4


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The village of Lehde, which was declared as a Biosphere Reserve Area by UNESCO in 1991, has been partially transformed into a museumvillage. The village is located in the midst of Spree Forest which consists of many small islands that are surrounded by the streams of the Spree and are connected only through small pedestrian bridges. The open-air museum, located in the village where only 150 people live today, gives broad information about the rural life of the XIXth century. 5

which consciously destroys the rural environment created by the common contributions of nature and man as a result of centuries of cultural accumulation, causes irreparable loss of cultural heritage and a period of human history which can not be reproduced. According to Navarro and Perreira, the living conditions of the rural population are poor and traditional farming techniques are not environmentally friendly contrary to the common belief, so abandonment of rural areas can be regarded as an opportunity for rehabilitation of nature (Navarro and Perreira, 2012: 900). Furthermore, it has been argued that policies to prevent the loss of population in rural areas and protection of rural heritage are very costly, so re-wilding/reforestation option should be considered by policymakers. On the other hand, some believe that the protection of nature without the human factor will not be possible and the forestation of abandoned agricultural areas will cause different disadvantages by making the land use homogeneous contrary to Navarro and Perreira (Agnoletti, 2014). Because of its controversial aspects and severe consequences, the reforestation approach has been excluded from the alternatives of re-evaluation. 4.2. Museumification approaches The first approaches in the preservation of rural architectural heritage are known to have been implemented in a way in which buildings were dismantled from their authentic location and relocated in an open-air museum that could be visited by the public. The first examples of open air museums, which were located in Europe, were built around a green area or an existing village near the big city centres. In these museums, different themes and periods ranging from the medieval farm buildings to the bourgeois towns, the workers’ neighborhoods representing the early industrial cultures and ateliers have been exhibited (Zippelius, 1974). The presentation and interpretation of the rural architecture through open air museums had become an effective tool for raising awareness, keeping traditions alive, and introducing past rural

life to local communities (Figure 5). After the adoption of the Geneva Declaration by the International Council of Museums (ICOM) in 1956, the European Open Air Museum Association (AEOM) was established in 1972 to determine international criteria for open air museums. AEOM suggested the protection and restoration of rural buildings in their original environment as far as possible in order to raise the scientific quality of the open air museum approach (Eres, 2016: 162). The notion of preserving cultural assets in their authentic environment began to be accepted with the introduction of modern conservation principles in 1960s. The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) suggested encouraging the open air museums to protect rural buildings in-situ as well in the International Colloqium on Folk Architecture held in 1971. Although the educational roles of open air museums like introducing visitors to the past rural life are acknowledged, it is thought that the approach of bringing different buildings together in a new environment by dismantling them from different contexts is in contradiction with contemporary conservation principles. So it can be said that such museumification approaches cannot be considered as a desirable or sustainable option for the conservation of rural settlements anymore.

Figure 5: A view from in-situ conserved museum village: Lehde Village in Spreewald Region, Germany.5

4.3. Tourism approaches One of the possible scenarios for the protection of cultural assets in abandoned rural settlements is the re-functioning of these environments for touristic activities, either partially or fully. Tourism, which has created new economic resources for countries and affected their policies, is recognized both

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as a positive and negative force for the conservation of natural and cultural heritage (ICOMOS, 1999). While it is known that the travel action which is the basis of tourism is as old as the history of humanity, the first mass visits for recreational purposes to remote and hard-to-reach rural areas took place after the developments of railways in the second quarter of the 19th century (Roberts and Hall, 2001: 3). After the Industrial Revolution in European countries, technological developments have facilitated human life and extended the average human lifespan. With the expanding scope of human rights, ordinary citizens gained freedom of movement and began to travel more in their more expansive leisure time over time. The preference for leisure tourism based on the sea, sand and sun trio up to the end of the 20th century has begun to change due to reasons like improved educational level and intellectual capacity, globalization, development of new marketing techniques, change in holiday perception, problems of urbanization and improved social mobility. Nowadays, rural areas endowed with natural and cultural amenities attract more people due to the growing demand for alternative holidays (Figure 6). The European Commission (EC)

Figure 6: A view from a World Heritage Site where rural tourism developed: Bacharach in Upper Middle Rhine Valley, Germany. 6

Figure 7: Albergo (Dell’Ara, 2015).

Diffuso

Approach

defined rural tourism spaces in which small-scale businesses provide services such as accommodation, food and beverages to visitors who aim to have a pleasant time integrating agricultural or local values with reference to agricultural tourism (EC, 1999: 151). As in industrialized countries all over the world, rural areas of Italy started losing population due to migration in the 20th century. The population in the rural areas of Tuscany, which is the most prominent region of Italian rural tourism today, declined by 50% from 1951 to 1971 as a result of rural migration (Randelli et al, 2014: 278). The depopulation trend in the rural areas of Tuscany has been reduced after the success of the policies implemented by the Italian government, and thus the region has maintained its vitality today (Randelli et al, 2014: 278-280). This success of the region in rural tourism can be related with the wealth of local resources, a picturesque landscape, high quality agricultural products and the location of many historic town centers on the periphery of rural areas (Randelli et al, 2014: 278). “Albergo Diffuso (AD)” (Scattered Hotel) is one of the models used for revitalizing life in rural regions of Italy by developing tourism (Figure 7). In the AD approach, which was first implemented in Friuli-Venezia Giulia village, located in the northeast of Italy and abandoned in the 1980s due to the earthquakes, the principle of restoring and using abandoned buildings for touristic purposes has been adopted (De Montis et al, 2015: 12). In line with AD approach; the restoration practices and contemporary designs built with traditional construction techniques will contribute not only to the conservation of cultural heritage neglected after abandonment, but also prevention of permanent loss of living population by strengthening the site with modern equipment (De Montis et al, 2015: 12). According to Dall’Ara (2010), in the AD approach horizontal and scattered use of the buildings in historic rural settlements has been adopted instead of vertical use preferred in traditional hotels. In AD, accommodation units, are scattered around 200 meters away from reception and other common ar-

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The village of Bacharach is located in the Middle Rhine Valley between Bingen, Rüdesheim, and Koblenz. The region as a transport artery has been comprised of sixty small towns, the extensive terraced vineyards and the ruins of castles that once defended the trade. Various rural tourism activities such as grape harvest festivals contribute to the rural economy of the region and also the preservation of the physical and natural environment. 6


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The cultural assets in the village of Počitelj, which is a typical traditional Ottoman settlement with its castle, mosques, Turkish Baths, public kitchens, madrasahs, and half-timbered dwellings, suffered great damage during the Bosnian War (1992-5). After the end of the war, rehabilitation works were carried out with the support of national and international organizations and the life in the village was restarted again. 8

eas of the complex. China was and still is the biggest agrarian society by population in the world (Su, 2011: 1439). Although it is a relatively late-starter compared to the Western countries for rural socio-economic regeneration through the promotion of rural tourism, after the efforts of the Chinese National Tourism Agency, which offers both financial incentives and government policy support, farm diversification into tourism has shown great improvement over the country in recent years (Su, 2011: 1439). According to Hu (2008: 89-90), the number of rural communities has greatly increased in pursuit of different forms of rural tourism, particularly “Nong jia le” (Happy Farmer Home) tourism, a dominant form of rural tourism in China. “Nong jia le” tourism, a distinctively Chinese version of rural tourism which is promoted as “having fresh food, tasting green vegetables, experiencing traditional courtyard living, doing hard farming work, seeing entertaining farmers’ plays, and purchasing indigenous products from farm families”, has been developed not only as a style of holiday, but also as a new form of privately-owned small enterprise among millions of Chinese farmers (Su, 2011: 1439). According to Su (2011: 1439), “Nong jia le” tourism appears to be as a new concept of cultural rural tourism integrated through the cultural and rural tourism, invested and operated by individual farmers and farmer’s families, providing rustic meals and accommodation (farmhouse) services and amusements for tourists and vacationers who during the holidays leave their homes in the

Figure 8: A view from a rural settlement that life restart after war: Počitelj village in Čapljina Region, Bosnia Herzegovina.8

city to go and enjoy “Nong jia le”. 4.4. Resettlement approach The third re-evaluation scenario for abandoned rural settlements is the usage of this built environment with its authentic function. Revitalization of livelihood in depopulated settlements can be achieved in two ways, the first of which is the return of the former inhabitants, the second being resettlement with new residents. 4.4.1. Resettlement of former inhabitants The first option for the revitalization of life in abandoned rural settlements is the resettlement of the built environment with its former inhabitants. The prerequisite for this option is availability and willingness of the people who left their villages for various reasons to return to their homes. Another requirement in the return of former inhabitants is not to face any legal restrictions. The encouragement of people subjected to forced migration due to manmade disasters such as war, terrorism, or political pressures, to return to their villages after changed political conditions can be given as an example of resttlement of former inhabitants (Figure 8). 4.4.2. Settlement of new inhabitants The second option for the revitalization of life in abandoned rural settlements is the settlement of new inhabitants who want to live in the countryside. Increasing population in big cities causes expansion of cities towards rural areas and transforms these areas into an integral part of the city. Beside the expansion of the cities towards to the countryside, recent developments in mobile communication and transportation facilities make the remote rural areas more residential and livable. People have been enabled to do their jobs via telephone and internet thanks to the progress in technology. Accordingly, a new trend to settle in the rural areas to escape the city, air pollution, noise and overcrowding was born, particularly among the upper income group. In some cases, these new dwell-

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ers, referred to as the neo-rural population, bought abandoned buildings in rural settlements and transformed them according to their own desires. The refunctioning of cultural assets that have been neglected as a result of abandonment can be considered as a kind of rural gentrification by re-functioning by people belonging to the middle and high income groups and a transformation of the past rural fabric into a closed new living environment (Dinçer and Dinçer, 2005: 2). In some cases, this wave of migration from cities to rural areas is in the form of secondary usage like weekend or holiday housing (Figure 9), while in others it leads to permanent settling.

Figure 9: An instance from a rural settlement in which new inhabitants start to live, Doğanbey Village in Söke, Aydın, Turkey. 9

Migration to rural areas by some ecologically conscious people who have chosen an alternative way of life based on the principle of ecological life such as natural architecture, organic farming and animal husbandry is another example of resettlement in rural areas. These settlements, which are called eco-villages, can be established in an abandoned village by restoring buildings, or in a village where life goes on as well as on empty plots close to an existing village by constructing new buildings. 5. A model proposal for conservation of abandoned rural settlements 5.1. Discussion of international approaches Different approaches such as “analytic hierarchical process”, “multiple criteria evaluation”, “methodological bases for documenting and reusing vernacular farm architecture”, “village renewal”, “developing interpretation

plans to promote traditional rural buildings”, “natural and cultural heritage conservation and multifunctional valorization in abandoned villages” have been suggested for revitalization of life and conservation of cultural heritage in rural settlements. Russo et al. (2013: 323-342) exemplified the analytic hierarchical process proposed for designating alternatives for the reuse of rural buildings in an abandoned village on the island of Sicily(Italy). The aim of the analytic hierarchical process, which is used for comparing, evaluating and classifying the reuse options of abandoned rural settlements, is to determine the best scenario among all alternatives for the target case (Russo et al, 2013: 25). Zavadskas and Antucheviciene (2007: 436-451), suggested the use of the multiple criteria evaluation method for the restoration of abandoned rural buildings. The method is composed of eight phases. The first phase of the method is “preliminary research for derelict rural buildings regeneration”, the second is “formation of variants of derelict rural buildings regeneration”, and the third is “identification of the evaluation criteria”. In later phases, the most appropriate reuse alternative for the abandoned rural buildings has been determined with the help of the “fuzzy decision matrix” (Zavadskas and Antucheviciene, 2007: 442). The first phase of Fuentes’ sixphased proposal (2010: 119-129) for “methodological bases for documenting and reusing vernacular farm architecture” aims to collect geophysical, historic, socioeconomic and legal data about the study area and to analyse the traditional materials and building techniques under the title of draft studies. The second phase is inventory, the third is typological analysis and selection of significant samples, the fourth is cataloguing, the fifth is assesment of reuse potential and the last phase is development of a local reuse scheme. In the assesment of the reuse potential, which is defined as the fifth step of the method, variable factors such as location, accessibility, landscape value, settlement character, close environments features, property structure, legal status, architectural, historical or other

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After the landslide in 1985, the village of Doğanbey was declared as a disaster area by the government and subsequently evacuated. After the change in the status of the disaster area at the end of the 1990s, a group of intellectuals living in Istanbul was bought and repaired the damaged historical buildings in the village and thus the life in the village started again. 9


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authentic values, number of storeys, lighting conditions, privatized areas, structural conditions and state of authenticity are taken into account for re-evaluation of abandoned rural settlements (Fuentes, 2010: 127). For rural regions of eastern Germany, Wilson (1999) proposed the concept of village renewal (Dorferneuerung) which has been successfully implemented in West Germany since 1950. This concept aimed to prevent the loss of population living in rural regions of eastern Germany and to achieve rural development following the fall of socialist rule after the unification of East and West Germany (Wilson, 1999: 247-255). The Dorferneuerung approach, which is related with agricultural policy, includes not only the modernization of villages in terms of 20th century necessities, the addition of the deficient modern equipment to the traditional fabric, and the improvement of the infrastructure possibilities but also the preservation of the rural heritage (Wilson, 1999: 248). Porto et al. (2012: 421-436) proposed a four-phased method to local governments for developing interpretation plans to promote traditional rural buildings as built heritage attractions. The first phase of the method is focused on the definition of historical, cultural, environmental and social values and evaluation of tourism potential. The second phase consists of determining visitor profiles by surveys and the third phase includes selection of rural buildings for interpretation and collection of data about them (Porto et al, 2012: 424). The interpretation strategy, which is expected to be finalized in the last phase of the proposal, consists of preparation of sub-targets and action plans for their implementation, identification of working groups and stake-holders and production of necessary tools for presentation (Porto et al, 2012: 424). According to Filipe and Mascarenhas’ (2011: 21-45) guidelines to natural and cultural heritage conservation and multifunctional valorization, which is exemplified in Broas village in the north of Portugal, abandoned rural settlements can be reused with touristic, museological and similar ap-

proaches. In this direction, Filipe and Mascarenhas (2011: 38), suggest that the Broas village can serve as a cultural park that is supported by versatile activities. The cultural park concept is mentioned as a new kind of cultural heritage management and rural museum strategy, which provides a contemporary education and research opportunity and creates new economic resources with development of cultural tourism and several touristic activities in rural areas (Filipe and Mascarenhas, 2011: 21-45). It is seen that different proposals have been developed for the revitalization of life in rural settlements and for relating re-evaluation and conservation of rural heritage with rural development policies, as well as refunctioning of building types associated with agricultural production. Fuentes et al. (2010: 738-748) discuss the re-functioning of abandoned underground wine cellars in Spain. Major transformations in the agricultural sector and industrialization of economic activities caused decline in rural population in Spain as well as other developed countries (Fuentes et al, 2010: 738-748). Fuentes et al. also stated that wine cellars can alternatively be reused for aging specially produced wines, local restaurants and wine tasting areas, and these new functions not only contribute to the regional economy and conservation of cultural heritage, but also reverse the migration trend from rural to urban (Fuentes et al, 2010: 742-747). Van Der Vaart (2005: 143-152) questioned re-use alternatives of abandoned farms within the Netherlands-Friesland borders. Re-use alternatives in Friesland have been concentrated on residential functions and the economic vitality created by new inhabitants restoring and living in rural buildings has contributed to the conservation efforts (Van Der Vaart, 2005: 146). Figlia (2012:2), put forth in his research conducted at Aspromonte and Belize valleys in Italy, where abandonment problems have been experienced intensively, that rural buildings should be considered as a regional source with their local values. According to Figlia

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(2012: 14-16), life can restart with new uses such as tourism or ecological life, which are determined as a part of rural development policies. Although there is no direct emphasis for conservation of abandoned rural settlements in Burra Charter, a threestage process of “understand significance”, “develop policy” and “manage in accordance with policy” has been proposed for planning and management of all areas which have cultural significance, whether rural or urban (ICOMOS Australia, 2013). US National Park Service’s Cultural Landscape Program focuses on preserving a landscape’s physical attributes, biotic systems, and use, when that use contributes to historical significance (Page et al, 1998: 8). The National Park Service program involves three primary activities, namely, research, planning, and stewardship (Page et al, 1998: 8). The landscape characteristics and associated features, values, and associations that make a landscape historically significant have been defined in the research (Page et al, 1998: 8; McCelland et al, 1999). While planning outlines for the issues and alternatives for long-term preservation, stewardship involves such activities as condition assessment, maintenance, and training (Page et al, 1998: 8). According to Birnbaum (1994: 3), the preservation planning generally involves the following steps: historical research; inventory and documentation of existing conditions; site analysis and evaluation of integrity and significance; development of a cultural landscape preservation approach and treatment plan; development of a cultural landscape management plan and management philosophy; the development of a strategy for ongoing maintenance; and preparation of a record of treatment and future research recommendations. The management plan, which was declared as a prerequisite for heritage sites to be nominated for World Heritage by UNESCO World Heritage Center (WHC), can be defined as a constantly revisable guideline that describes which methods, sources, experts and programmes should be followed to protect cultural and natural heritage sites. Feilden and Jokilehto

(1998: 25) described the process for preparing a management plan as: initial survey of the site, site description and boundary definition, identification of resources, formulation of objectives and consideration of constraints, definition of projects, work programme and annual plans, execution of works, recording, reporting and review of results, storage of information and data, revision of site description and re-evaluation, formulation of revised objectives and reconsideration of constraints, definitions of further projects and revised work programme and the next annual plan. Similar to other definitions, IUCN have defined the process as: getting started and planning the work, understanding the property’s characteristics and its natural values, deciding who should be involved and when, agreeing a vision for the property and setting management objectives, examining management policies, agreeing on management policies, agreeing on management actions, consulting on and approving the plan, monitoring the plan and reviewing the plan (IUCN, 2008: 8). As a result of implemented policies and radical changes in social life, nowadays a large number of rural settlements in Turkey are in the process of abandonment or rapid transformation (Güler, 2016). Although rural heritage in depopulated settlements has been eroded by natural forces over time, a few settlements have managed to preserve their authenticity and integrity to a certain extent. On the other hand, in some villages, which are more crowded and closer to the city centers, in some villages, which are more crowded and closer to the city centers, unfortunately, the authenticity and integrity values of the traditional architectural heritage have been destroyed. This fact indicates a big dilemma about the conservation of rural architectural heritage in Turkey. 5.2. Proposed conservation approach The international approaches for conserving the rural patrimony have been evaluated in terms of applicability in Turkey and possible challenges during implementation process of the models that have been discussed (Ta-

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Table 2. Comparison of international approaches and assessment of applicability of those approaches in Turkey.

ble 2). Aspects of these approaches pertinent to Turkey’s own conditions have been taken into account and incorporated into the creation process of a conservation model. In the creation process of conservation model, criteria such as suitability to the rural heritage conservation principles, fitting the conditions in Turkey, being easy to apply and understandable, not recommending only one option (proposing different alternatives) for re-evaluation have been taken into consideration. As a result of all the research, analysis and evaluations contained in this paper, the proposed conservation model is based on five main parts, namely, (i)“Definition of cultural and natural values and importance of the settlement”, (ii)“Determination of the re-evaluation alternatives”, (iii)“Determination of conservation policies”, (iv)“Implementation”

and (v)“Monitoring, evaluation and update” (Figure 10). In this regard, determining cultural and natural values of abandoned rural settlements constitutes the first step of the conservation approach in response to the question of why these settlements should be preserved. 5.2.1. Definition of cultural, natural values and importance of settlement (1st Stage) Documentation of biodiversity and tangible-intangible values of rural environments, which should be a part of the national cultural and natural heritage inventory system, is a precondition to be able to define the cultural significance. It is also a necessity to define the boundaries of protected areas and buffer zone. When determining the borders of protected areas, elements such

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Figure 10. Stages of proposed conservation approach for abandoned rural settlements.

as traditional settlements, agriculture and forest areas, water resources, and transportation links, should be taken into consideration. Boundaries of protected areas should consist of core protection area, shaped by traditional buildings, roads, squares, agricultural areas, etc. and buffer zone, which is located outside of the area and affects it physically, visually and socially. It is crucial to determine the state of built heritage and reasons for abandonment, which can differ according to various factors outlined in Table 1.

Determining the reasons for abandonment of rural settlements is one of the most fundamental issues that will guide decisions to be taken in next step “Determination of the re-evaluation alternatives”. Reversing abandonment conditions is a necessity to revilatize life and to conserve the rural heritage with decisions made in accordance with the country’s rural development policies and other planning tools. Re-evaluation possibilities can differ in some cases where there is no chance to remove the factors causing abandon-

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ment. Simultaneously to identify the underlying causes of demographic loss, not only documentation of the cultural and natural heritage of the settlements, but also legal status of the protected area, land use and planning decisions, international and national conservation legislations and analysis of physical, social and economic structures need to be done. If it is determined that there is a deficiency in current legal status during analysis, it is crucial to attain legal protection for the site with the definition of boundaries of protection zones in line with the aforementioned criteria. At this point, making reforms in national conservation legislations of the countries in line with the contemporary conservation principles to meet the needs of rural settlements should be seen as one of the prerequisites for success. In addition to this analysis, information such as availability of natural resources, structural conditions of cultural heritage, state of ownership, usage of building stock, sufficiency of infrastructure facilities in terms of current and possible future uses, transportation facilities, land use and planning decisions and socio-economic indicators are necessary for deciding the re-evaluation alternatives of the site. As a result of the documentation process which requires interdisciplinary studies, all related data should be compiled and an information database about the protected region should be established. After analysis and synthesis of all the obtained data, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and the threats (SWOT analysis) of the protected area should be determined. 5.2.2. Determination of the re-evaluation alternatives of settlement (2nd Stage) The second part of the conservation approach is “Determination of the re-evaluation alternatives of the rural settlement�. The first step of the determination of re-evaluation alternatives stage is identification of national and international partners, stakeholders and financial resources in relation to the protected site. Most of the stakeholders and partners involved in the protection of rural settlements can be listed as follows; all

units bound to local or central government which are responsible due to legislation, national and international organizations related to conservation of natural or cultural heritage, universities, representatives of professional chambers, financial sponsors, non-governmental organizations, national and local media organizations, local communities and users, who are local and foreign tourists, tourism companies working in the region and guides. The effective conservation and reassessment of the cultural and natural heritage and re-establishment of a sustainable economic structure in abandoned rural settlements are only possible by developing social awareness with the contributions of all stakeholders and partners. Participation of locally related people as well as professionals, representatives of professional chambers, non-governmental organizations, central or local governing bodies which influence and shape decisions, is crucial in determining and achieving the future goals for conservation. Considering that the economic power of the property owners in the abandoned rural areas is very limited, the development and conservation of rural areas, which have rich cultural and natural heritage, depend on the economic resources provided. Mitchell et al. ( 2009: 73-78) have classified the strategies for creating financial resources for conservation of cultural landscape areas in two categories; external resources, which are directly provided by public or private sectors, and internal resources, obtained from uncovering the hidden traditional potential of these areas. According to this classification, possible sources for conservation of cultural and natural heritage in rural settlements can be classified as; direct public resources allocated to agriculture, forestry, rural development and other village affairs and resources provided from public-private partnerships, chambers of commerce and industry, private individuals or companies, and national or international organizations. In addition to above-mentioned external resources, possible contributions or sponsorships of wealthy people living in big cities or

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other places but having strong ties with the settlement (hometown) or citizens’ associations can also be considered as other sources. Limited resources provided for rural areas should be used not only in the rehabilitation of the physical environment but also in building a sustainable economic structure in these settlements. Along with direct sources of public and private sectors (external sources) for establishing a sustainable economic structure in cultural landscape areas, it is crucial to enable internal resources such as “directing the site operation income to site management” (Mitchell et al, 2009: 73-78). Incomes derived from sales of high quality touristic objects and agricultural products promoted by using the advantage of heritage site image with area-specific labels are examples of internal sources. Before determining the alternatives for re-evaluation of abandoned rural settlements, it is necessary to investigate the possibility of local people’s return to their villages. In the re-evaluation stage, it is crucial to consider former residents who want to return and not demolish the ties of these settlements with the past. Strong rural economies, which will be created by support in agriculture and forestry that comprise the traditional livelihoods of rural environments and by other rural development investments, will encourage the return of former inhabitants by overcoming socio-economic and psychological factors that cause abandonment. The return of former inhabitants is not always possible due to natural, political and other reasons. On the other hand, it should be considered that some of the former residents may not want to return, despite the incentives provided for returning and revitalization of rural life. In this respect; determination of needs and expectations of former residents who are willing to return, of people who want to live in rural areas or who want to use these areas for vacation, education, cultural, sportive or different concerns or want to invest in these areas is another step when considering the re-use alternatives. The needs and expectations of potential users should be compatible with the

physical condition of the settlements. When adapting rural environments built in past centuries to contemporary living standards, it is crucial to respect authenticity and integrity values of settlements. Major interventions and reconstructions should be avoided in re-use projects, unless they are compulsory. The state of integrity of the architectural heritage in all conservation work to be done is another factor to note. The structural condition of the architectural heritage is an another factor that affects the decision of reuse alternatives. In all rehabilitation or conservation activities, preservation of traces of abandonment, which is a historic turning point for settlements and development of informative interpretation and presentation techniques about this historic era should be considered. Museumification, tourism and resettlement approaches which are determined as re-evaluation alternatives of abandoned rural settlements, can be implemented on their own or all together depending on various factors such as the reasons for abandonment, socio-economic structures, physical conditions, strengths, weaknesses, potentials, risks, financial resources and legal status. In the determination of re-evaluation alternatives, physical and social conditions of settlement along with neccessities and expectations of possible users are key shaping elements. The next step in this phase is to identify a common future vision in the direction of new use or uses, which should be determined through participation of all stakeholders and partners in order to protect the settlement and establish a sustainable economic structure. 5.2.3. Determination of conservation policies (3rd Stage) After defining the cultural and natural values and significance of the settlement and determining the re-evaluation alternatives, the third main part proposed in the conservation model is to determine the conservation policies (Figure 10). Conservation policies should put on the agenda matters like financial resources, tools, conservation methods and priorities for sustaining the cultural and natural values and

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ecological balance of the settlements integrated with other national policies. Conservation policies of rural heritage can only be achieved if they are compatible with the national policies such as rural development, environment, forestry, agriculture, water, urbanization, tourism, education, energy, economy and administration. From this point of view, countries should revise their national agriculture, forestry, development and all related policies and large-scale planning decisions with the priority of conservation and a partnership among these policies must be ensured. After the reforms in national policies, it is necessary to determine objectives, strategies, actions and tools in line with the announced conservation policies. The forms of intervention required by the reuse scenario, which is determined by the conditions of the rural settlements, should be shaped according to the values of the architectural heritage and conservation principles (ICOMOS Turkey, 2013: 24). In conservation practices, conservation of authentic features and minimum intervention are main aims but if it is seen as a requirement within the scope of maintenance and restoration; one or more approaches such as rehabilitation, adaptive re-use, moving, anastylosis, re-construction and forms of intervention such as cleaning, consolidation, reintegration, structural reinforcement can be implemented with a holistic view and understanding (ICOMOS Turkey, 2013: 24-27). 5.2.4. Implementation (4th Stage) The tools, timelines, resources and methods of projects should be defined as work packages in the implementation process. Orbaşlı (2010: 56), recommended the use of “Policy-TimeResponsible Institution-Financial Resources” headings for preparation of work programmes of the projects aimed to be implemented in short, medium and long terms. Objectives to be achieved through the implementation of the proposed policies, works to be carried out to achieve these objectives, people/organizations who will undertake these works, financial issues and time intervals in this work programme,

which can be defined as a type of distribution of roles, should be determined. 5.2.5. Monitoring, auditing, evaluation, and review (5th Stage) Conservation of rural heritage and sustainability of rural life can only be achieved by monitoring the proposed implementations, the cooperation between all the stakeholders and sharing the knowledge and experience. In case of changing conditions, the monitoring process will provide a chance to fix the problems in advance. The monitoring process requires observing the projects’ compliances to work packages and the success in conservation of rural heritage. In order to review the implementations objectively, it is recommended that an independent expert team, in which the representatives of all stakeholders and partners can contribute and can share their views should be established to evaluate the projects periodically. In case of failure detected by the expert team, re-evaluation alternatives of the settlement determined with the participation of all the stakeholders and partners and related common future vison should be discussed again and the process should be reconsidered. This will ensure effective conservation of cultural and natural heritage, which are non-renewable resources. 6. Conclusion The conservation of rural settlements depends on preventing the loss of population and revitalization of life which can only be possible if factors that cause abondonment are eliminated. If it is possible to reach former inhabitants of rural settlements, they should be respected and priority should be given to encouraging their return by enhancing their living conditions and rehabilitating the physical environment. Rather than re-functioning of all or most of the rural settlements for tourism or turning them into a museum through ownership change, fostering the attractiveness of rural areas by encouranging the return is suggested. In order to conserve cultural assets and to revitalize life in abandoned rural areas, the museumification, tourism

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and resettlement approaches can be adopted together or independently, in accordance with reasons for depopulation, socio-economic structure, physical condition, strengths and weaknesses, potentials, risks, possible financial resources and legal status of the settlements and also in harmony with national rural policies. Whatever conservation approach is preferred, it should not be forgetten that all of the efforts are just a tool for preserving these areas and sustaining rural life. In restoration works for new life scenarios, first of all, the traditional buildings which are not used, abandoned or ruined should be considered, provided that the number is limited. In re-use approaches, special attention should be given to prevent damaging the social structure of settlements. They should not be left at the mercy of a single person or an institution; instead, they should be open to all segments of society after rehabilitation. It is thought that preventing the physical erosion of cultural assets is more difficult and expensive in settlements re-functioned as a museum-village after depopulation than where life continues. However, in some cases where the factors leading to abandonment cannot be eliminated for various reasons, the only alternative for preservation of such neglected and ruined rural settlements is turning them into a museum-village. In addition, there are examples of rural settlements turned to memorial sites after abandonment or compulsory evacuation due to such causes as war or conflicts. In such uses, it should be seen as a necessity to conserve and maintain the cultural assets exposed to great destruction through war, abandonment and so on in order to prevent the deteriorating effect of the natural conditions. Despite acceptance of educational roles of open-air museums, which emerged as the first practices in history for the protection of rural architecture, it is thought that the approach of bringing different buildings together in a new environment by dismantling them from different contexts is in contradiction with contemporary conservation principles except in extraordinary circumstances. Transformations of abandoned settlements into muse-

um villages or only tourism oriented usage, do not provide a permanent life in some cases, and therefore some challenges can appear in preserving cultural assets. Some negative impacts like changes in the traditional way of life or complete abandonment of traditional habits can be seen in some cases after uses related to tourism. Cultural assets in depopulated settlements can be re-used with touristic functions to meet the wishes of people who want to spend their free time or vacation in rural areas; however, it should not be overlooked in the interventions to be carried out that tourism is not an aim but merely a tool. Tourism is only a way to preserve these areas and improve the living conditions of the local inhabitants; it should not change the social structure completely. It is evident that rural settlements from which there has been enforced evacuation because of conflicts, wars, security problems, etc. can be re-settled after the circumstances causing the abandonment have disappeared. Although revitalization of life can be provided with the return of the former inhabitants, it is seen that preservation of cultural heritage does not even come to mind in some cases and instead of repairing or restoring the traditional buildings, people choose to demolish them and build new buildings after their return. For this reason, it is thought that people should be encouraged to restore their traditional buildings and additional government support can be provided for this purpose. Another form of re-settlement in rural regions is settling of new inhabitants, apart from local people, especially those coming from the cities through reverse migration. Such uses cause changes in traditional rural life, social structure and landscape characteristics of the living environment. Although revitalization of life after abandonment is favourable, limited life in certain seasons and major interventions in the restoration of cultural assets are negative effects. Another group of migrants from the cities to rural areas are those who have ecological tendencies. It is observed that those who prefer an alternative lifestyle in this way establish a new living environment or in some

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cases transform derelict villages to a new living environment. This article has aimed to discuss reasons for depopulation of the countryside, the impacts of abandonment, the pros and cons of re-evaluation alternatives for rural settlements and to develop proposals not only for the preservation of the rural architectural heritage in rural regions of Turkey, but also for revitalization and sustainability of livelihoods in such regions. Eventually, the conservation approach, which was prepared to meet the needs of special conditions in Turkey, proposes different perspectives by creating a multi-staged guide for protection and revitalization of rural settlements. This guide created a framework that can easily be understood and implemented by local authorities or other policy practitioners who are authorized to protect cultural and natural heritage. With the implementation of this approach, which can be elaborated and developed with the contributions of different disciplines, the effective use of restricted resources of Turkey will be ensured in order to overcome human or nature-based problems. References Agnoletti, M. (2014). Rural landscape, nature conservation and culture: Some notes on research trends and management approaches from a (Southern) European perspective, Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, 126, 66-73. Bilgin Altınöz, G. (2006). Çok Katmanlı Kentteki Tarihsel Katmanlaşmayı Çözümlemek: Kent Arkeolojisi. Retrieved from http:// www.metropolistanbul.com/public/ temamakale.aspx?tmid=&mid=13 Birnbaum, C.A. (1994). Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes. Preservation Brief: 36. Washington, D.C.: Department of Interior, National Park Service. Bronner, S. J. (2006). Building tradition, control and authority in vernacular architecture. In Asquith, L. & Vellinga, M (Eds.), Vernacular Architecture in the Twenty-First Century, 23-45. Taylor & Francis, New York. Dall’Ara, G. (2010). Manuale dell’al-

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912. Orbaşlı, A. (2010). Tarihi Çevrenin Korunmasında Yönetim Planlaması. İçinde Özaslan, N. & Özkut, D. (Eds). Mimari Korumada Güncel Konular, Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları No: 2049, 45-60. Eskişehir. Page, R.R., Cathy A. Gilbert, C.A. & Dolan, S.A. (1998). A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, Process, and Techniques. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Porto, C. M. S. & Laenza, M. P. & Cascone, G. (2012). Developing interpretation plans to promote traditional rural buildings as built heritage attractions, International Journal of Tourism Research, 14, 421- 436. Randelli, F., Romei, P. & Tortora, M. (2014). An evolutionary approach to the study of rural tourism: The case of Tuscany, Journal of Land Use Policy. 38, 276-281. Roberts, L. & Hall, D. (2001). Rural Tourism and Recreation Principles to Practice. CABI Publishing CAB International. Wallingford-UK. Russo, P., Riguccio, L., Carullo, L. & Tomaselli, G. (2013). Using the analytic hierarchical process to define choices for re-using rural buildings: application to an abandoned village in Sicily, Journal of Natural Resources, 2013/4, 323-332. Su, B. (2011). Rural tourism in China, Journal of Tourism Management, 32, 1438-1441. Van der Vaart, J. H. P. (2005). Towards a new rural landscape: Consequences of non-agricultural re-use of redundant farm buildings in Friesland, Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, 70, 143-152. Wilson, J. O. (1999). Village renewal and rural development in the former German Democratic Republic, GeoJournal, 46, 247-255. Tutkun, M. (2009). Santa Harabeleri ve Yeniden Kullanıma Kazandırılması Üzerine Model Önerisi. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon. Zavadskas, K. E. & Antucheviciene, J. (2007). Multiple criteria evaluation of rural building’s regeneration alternatives, Building and Environment, 42, 436-451. Zippelius, A. (1974). Handbuch

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der Europaischen Freilichtmuseen. Verband Europaischer Freilichtmuseen, Führer und Schriften des

Rheinischen Freilichtmuseums und Landesmuseums für Volkskunde in Kommern, 7, Köln.

Developing an approach for conservation of abandoned rural settlements in Turkey


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An analysis of the plan typology of vernacular Talas Houses

Duygu TURGUT m.duyguturgut@gmail.com, • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.08379

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: February 2019

Abstract Kayseri has always been an important administrative center throughout its history. Talas, which is a town in Kayseri, is situated on the slopes of Ali Mountain which is to the northeast of Erciyes Mountain and about ten kilometers from the Kayseri city center. Talas is an important town with regard to the history of architecture including traditional vernacular texture occupied by Turkish, Armenian and Greek populations in the late Ottoman period. The Harman District, which is chosen as a case study, acts as the core of the housing texture of Talas. Plan formations of traditional Talas houses present information on related periods and local characteristic styles. Within the scope of this study, the local features of these houses, plan elements and plan types are analyzed. As a result of this analysis, a table of the plan typology of these houses is prepared. In a culturally rich settlement of Anatolia located at the crossroads of civilizations in Talas, nowadays the existing historical texture is gradually disappearing. The documentation of the vernacular architecture of Talas will have an impact on the conservation of the historical texture of the settlement as well as transferring the data to future generations. Furthermore, this data could be a guide in the area for site management projects prepared by the local municipality. Keywords Plan typology, Talas houses, Plan types of Talas houses, Vernacular architecture, Traditional houses.


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1. Introduction Kayseri is a city in Turkey located in the Central Anatolia (Figure 1) and is a settlement where many important historical events and ancient civilizations from the past to the present to place. It was the biggest city in Anatolia after Bursa during the 16th century (Faroqhi, 2014). Talas is one of the most developed towns in Kayseri. According to 1875 census, Talas had approximately consisting of 4650 non-Muslims men and 1200 Muslims men (Cömert, 2010). According to this, in the 19th century in Talas, eighty percent of the total population is non-Muslims and twenty percent is the Muslim population. In 19th century, the Harman district was one of the largest districts comprised of 188 houses, 11 vineyards, 31 gardens, 1 Mercer store, 1 farrier store, 1 secondary school, 2 wells, 1 mosque, 1 bakery, 1 grinder, 1 Armenian cemetery, and 1 government office (Cömert, 2000). Today, with 3461 houses, 140.000 inhabitants, 33 districts, almost 1100 workplaces and stores and also 11 schools, Talas is the most culturally and economically developed center in the Kayseri neighborhood (Turgut & Aktuğ Kolay, 2017). The Han, Harman, and Kiçiköy districts are located in the lower part of Talas, while the rest of the districts are located in the upper part. From pictures taken in the 1880’s in which the whole town can be seen, it is observed that there were mansions and pavilions embellished by stone workmanship (Figure 2). After the population exchange following the Lozan Treaty Talas was left deserted and economically poor; most of the buildings were ruined and only 5% of these vernacular structures survived until now (Cömert, 2000). The Harman district, located in the center of Talas, attracts attention with its unique dwellings. Most of the houses in the district had lost their original design. However, the ten of the houses still show the common architectural characteristics of the Talas vernacular houses. These houses have been selected as a case study and their locations are shown on the map below (Figure 3). During the research, measured drawings of the ten houses are done

Figure 1. Location of Kayseri on the map of Turkey and location of Talas on the map of Kayseri.

Figure 2. Talas in 1880 (Cömert, 2000).

and the photographs are taken for the data. The evaluation of the plan types are analyzed and tables are prepared showing the results of the survey. The main aim of this study is to analyze the plan typology of Talas houses through a survey. In the survey, their plan types were classified and the plan typology of these houses was analyzed. The research data is evaluated to determine the plan typology of the vernacular Talas houses in the district.

Figure 3. General Harman district plan of Talas and ten selected houses. ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • D. Turgut


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Figure 4. Dış Sofalı Plan Type (Type A).

Figure 5. Dış Sofalı Plan Type (Type A).

the shape and location of the Sofa. According to Eldem (1954), the plan type is best classified by the position of the Sofa, as a basic reference. Eldem classifies (1954) the four basic plan types of the houses, as follows: 1. Dış Sofalı (with an outer hall) 2. İç Sofalı (with an inner hall) 3. Orta Sofalı (with a central hall) 4. Sofasız (without a hall)

Figure 6. Dış Sofalı Plan Type (Type A).

2. Plan typology of Talas houses Talas houses usually consist of a basement floor that is not perceived from the facade, a ground floor, and a first floor. In this study, the first floor consisting of Sofa and rooms is determining for plan typology. The basement of the Talas houses is mostly utilized for storage. The ground floors are usually occurred service areas and rooms.The most influential factor in the composition of the plan of the houses in the first floor is the Sofa which is the resting and recreation space. The Sofa is a wide space where doors of the rooms in the houses are opened, a “hall”, in the dictionary of architecture and building (Hasol, 2016). The plan type of the house is determined directly by

The plan typology of the Talas houses also are grouped under these four main headings. A Dış Sofa, which is an open area, is referred to as Hayat in many regions (Kuban, 1995). In addition, the houses having the Dış Sofa in Talas is classified with subheadings as without iwan (Type A) and with iwan (Type B). In the plan schemes of five of the ten houses, this feature is observed. In figure 4, 5 and 6, houses of Type A can be observed. Three of the Dış Sofalı plan types houses are without iwan. In figure 5, the house has two Dış Sofa on two different sides of the house of which one is facing the garden, another the street. The stairway is situated in the middle of the Dış Sofalar. The Sofa windows on the street facade of the house in figure 5 have two arches, resting on columns with their capitals and bases. However, these arch openings must have been closed with windows at a later time. In addition, semi-circle form iron console flower beds, in front of them were situated. The most decorated space of the first floor is the

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Figure 7. Dış Sofalı Plan Type (Type B).

Sofa. On the first floor, it faces to the street with the decorated pavement of the floor and the ceiling in this house. Besides, a “U’’ shaped stone sedir is in front of the street facade of the Sofa. The Sofalar of the house are related to the street and garden in this example. In figure 6, the plan type house with the Dış Sofa has a unique example with a Portico. On the ground floor, in this house, there is an iwan which has a height of two floors with an ornamental pool inside of it, and this iwan faces this Portico and a big garden. The stone stairs were situated as the console in the portico for the upper floor. At first, the stairs reach to the Sofa on the first floor. The northern facade of the Sofa (the square facade of the Sofa) had wooden columns, column capitals, and pilasters before restoration, however, today, these columns, column capitals and pilasters are not there. In addition, these openings have closed with windows later. In this house, the Sofa is faced to the Harman Square. In Figure 7 and 8 houses, Type B scheme is observed. Therefore, two of the Dış Sofalı plan types houses are with iwan. The houses in figure 7 and figure 8 both have an iwan facing to the garden. According to Kuban (1995) in the classical form of Dış Sofalı houses the functional differentiation between the Sofa and iwan was very uncertain. The iwan as the most isolated part of the Dış Sofa becomes the natural area

Figure 8. Dış Sofalı Plan Type (Type B).

for sitting. The ideal form of the Sofa cannot be separated from the iwan. Moreover, the Sofa is “T” or “L” form, being the together with extension of this rectangular recess. On the other hand, the iwan may be interpreted as a spatial extension of the semi-open gallery towards the house interior. In figure 7, the garden side of the iwan of the house is faced with a large lancet arch and capitals as pilasters, while in figure 8, the iwan of the house is faced to garden with three round arches, two columns, and capitals. There are also two the similar niches in two opposite walls in the iwans of these houses. These iwans have decoration similar to the decorated rooms in the first floor with sedir, ceiling and floor pavements. In addition, the house in figure 8 has a projection as right-angled form with cantilevered beams on the street façade. Another plan type is İç Sofalı (with an inner hall). In these houses, the Sofa usually is designed as rooms and stairs on the three sides, while fourth side of it facing the garden or street. Therefore, this fourth side of the Sofa is the closed by a wall with windows. In figure 9, the Sofa of the house faces the garden with two windows. The Sofa has a stone sedir in front of the garden facade. In this house, five rooms are situated on the northern, southern and eastern sides of the Sofa. In figure 10, the Sofa of the house ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • D. Turgut


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Figure 9. İç Sofalı Plan Type (With an Inner Hall). Figure 10. İç Sofalı Plan Type (With an Inner Hall).

faces the street with a projection. The projection of the Sofa has right-angled form and with cantilevered beams on the street façade (Figure 10). There are four rectangular windows on this projection facade. This Sofa is surrounded on the three side by four rooms and stairs. In figure 11, the garden façade of the Sofa has different windows from the other windows of the houses. The windows of the Sofa are more dynamic than the other windows of the house. This situation can be noticed from the interior and exterior of the house. The Sofa is more elaborately decorated than other rooms of this house. In this

Figure 11. İç Sofalı Plan Type (With an Inner Hall).

house, different materials are used in the Sofa from the other spaces of the building as ground and ceiling coverings, therefore, it is more decorated with fine materials, such as the marble plate with ellipse form at the center of the floor. Therefore, indicating that the Sofa is a space that is used as both for the entertainment of guests and a social area. The projection of the Sofa has right-angled form and with cantilevered beams on the garden façade (Figure 11). The Sofa is surrounded by two rooms on the northern and southern side of the Sofa. Among the ten houses, there is one house having an Orta Sofalı (with a

Figure 12. Orta Sofalı Plan Type (With a Central Hall).

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side. It is connected with one side to the street and with the opposite side to the garden. In the Taşlık there is usually a hearth, a niche and rarely a well. Another circulation space, the courtyard is open area with around rooms or garden walls.The courtyard, which is an integral part of the house on the ground floor, provides passage to the places. In Figure 14, there is the figure 8 house with courtyard. In the courtyard of this house, there are a toilet, a fountain, and a stairway for the upper floor. In addition, the door of the ground floor has opened to the courtyard. The basement floor in Talas houses is usually found in every house. However, it covers only a small part at the bottom of the ground floor (Figure 15). In Figure 15, there is a basement floor plan of the house in the Figure 5 with a photograph. In the Talas houses, this basement floors have usually consisted of a room as vaulted or spaces carved in the rock. In some houses, rock-carved basements have been built according to the needs of the owner of the house and has continued to enlarge over time. These basement floors are a store of the house, where have keeping food during the long time. They function as a natural refrigerator. The upper floors are as dynamic as possible with projections, different and large windows forms, the open-

central hall) plan type (Figure 12). Therefore, in Talas houses, this plan type is uncommonly used. On the other hand, this plan type of traditional houses was very popular in big towns and in particular in İstanbul. In this plan type, the Sofa is situated in the middle of the house and is surrounded on four sides by large rooms. One reason this plan type is not preferred is that people at Talas are more concerned with rural life and garden. This plan type mostly focuses on the center of the interior of the houses rather than the garden. Another reason for this must have been a need for a bigger house like having four rooms around Sofa. However, Talas houses are usually smaller and closer to human scale than Kayseri and İstanbul city houses. Another plan type is the Sofasız (without a hall) plan type (Figure 13). In figure 13, we can observe this plan type. The Sofasız plan type is also an uncommon plan type for Talas Houses. In Talas houses, the circulation spaces of the ground floor plan are the Taşlık, passage, and courtyard. According to Hasol (2010), taşlık is interior part of the street entrance door in traditional houses. Taşlık is a space that created directly connected with street on the ground floor of the house (Figure 13). Taşlık usually is surrounded by rooms from one or two on the

Figure 14. One of the studied houses has a courtyard.

Figure 13. Sofasız Plan Type (Without a Hall).

Figure 15. The basement floor plan and picture of the house in figure 5.

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ings of the Sofa, whereas, the design of the ground floors of the Talas houses is modest. When considering that the ground floors are used as stables and warehouses, such a design must be found suitable. This situation also shows that, in Talas there are more connections to the rural life and garden. Moreover, the plan typology may have been developing according to the requirements of the owners. 3. Conclusion Talas houses usually consist of a basement floor that is not perceived from the facade, a ground floor, and a first floor. The design of the ground floors of Talas houses is functional whereas the upper floors are as dynamic as possible. The openings of the Sofa and projections give a movement to the upper floor. In Talas, the preferred resting and recreation space is the Sofa. The most influential factor in the composition of the plan of the houses is the Sofa. The plan type of the house is directly determined by the design and location of the Sofa.

The typological table (Table 1) of the plans of the houses surveyed show that: •Nine of the ten houses have a Sofa; so it can be said that the Sofa was often used as a plan element. •Five of ten houses have a Dış Sofalı (with an outer hall) plan type; so it can be said that one of the most common plan type in Talas is Dış Sofalı plan type. •Five of the ten houses have a Dış Sofa (an outer hall), three of these houses are without iwan and two are with iwan. •Three of ten houses have an İç Sofalı (with an inner hall) plan type; so it can be said that the second most common plan type is İç Sofalı plan type. •One of the ten houses has an Orta Sofalı (with a central hall) plan type; so it can be said that Orta Sofalı is a rare plan type. •One of the ten houses has a Sofasız (without a hall) plan type; so it can be said that Sofasız is a rare plan type. This survey shows that the plan typology of Talas houses mostly coincides with the plan typology of Sedad Hakkı Eldem.

Table 1. The typological table of the plans of the selected houses.

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In seven of the nine houses, the Sofa façades are on the garden side (Figure 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12), while the Sofa façades of the three houses of the nine houses are on the street side (Figure 5, 6, 10) and the Sofa façade of the one house faces both to the garden and street (Figure 5). Therefore, it can be said that people at Talas have valued their privacy, comfort, and view of the garden green area. The Dış Sofa (an outer hall) of four of the five Dış Sofalı houses is directly connected to the garden (Figure 4, 5, 7, and 8), while one of them it is related only to the street (Figure 6) and one house is associated with both the garden and street (Figure 5). For this reason, it can be said that people at Talas has concerned with their gardens. Three houses which have a Dış Sofa view towards the south, since there are hard climate conditions in this region (Figure 4, 5, and 7). Another two houses which have a Dış Sofa that is not facing to the south would presumably be a summer house used during only the summer season (Figure 6 and 8). The routine of moving to the vineyard in summer, despite of living in the city center in winter, is still favored today in Kayseri. These houses with their Sofa of the facing north may belong to the families who live in the city center of Kayseri and migrate Talas in the summer. In the İç Sofalı (with an inner hall) plan types of Talas houses are mostly provided light and air circulation from one direction. Accordingly, this plan type is appropriate for Kayseri that has a continental climate. Therefore, the reason for the preference of the inner hall type is economic due to heating. In addition, according to Eldem (1954) in the traditional houses with a Dış Sofalı plan type (the outer hall) it is not possible to have numerous sections unless the façade is lengthened or the house is extended along the sides of the court. However, in the houses with the İç Sofalı (with an inner hall) plan type and particularly the Orta Sofalı (with a central hall) plan type, there is a great number of rooms which may be related to one another in a variety of ways. According to whether these rooms have identical or varied shapes,

the meaning and form of the resulting plans show a great diversity. However, with this plan type house have been started to designed far from nature and garden works. Moreover, this plan type has clearly turned as an apartment plan type as a result of the process of urban life. In Talas houses, the Orta Sofalı plan type, which is a common plan type in İstanbul (Eldem, 1954), is rarely used. As a matter of fact, the rich merchants of Kayseri, who are in contact with İstanbul, were expected to build their houses in Talas in a similar fashion to the İstanbul houses. However, we see that there are not many such houses in Talas according to the existing data. The Turkish vernacular architecture in Anatolia is specific to the geography, climate, culture of the region. The survey shows that in Talas there are more connections to the rural life by using the plan typology with a Dış Sofa looking towards the garden. Dış sofa are located on the south of the houses due to the climatic reasons. The traditional houses of Anatolia still keep their traditional original designs, whereas the houses of the developed cities like Istanbul had lost their traditional design characters. As a result, these houses in Anatolia should widely be surveyed. References Cömert, H. (2000). 19. Yüzyıl Vergi Kayıtlarında Talas. (III. Kayseri ve Yöresi Tarih Sempozyumu Bildirileri Kitabı). Kayseri: Kayseri ve Yöresi Tarih Araştırmaları Merkezi (Vol. 4). Cömert, H. (2010). 19. Yüzyılda Talas. Ankara: Mızıka Yayıncılık. Eldem, S.H. (1954). Türk Evi Plan Tipleri. İstanbul: İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi. Pulhan Matbaası. Faroqhi, S. (2014). Orta Halli Osmanlılar. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları. Hasol, D. (2016). Ansiklopedik Mimarlık Sözlüğü (12. Basım). İstanbul: Yem Yayınları. Hasol, D. (2010). Mimarlık ve Yapı Sözlüğü. İngilizce-Türkçe. Türkçe-İngilizce (4. Basım). İstanbul: Yem Yayınları. Kuban, D. (1995). Türk Hayat’lı Ev. İstanbul: Ziraat Bankası Yayınları. ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • D. Turgut


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Turgut, D., Aktuğ Kolay, İ. (2017). Talas Houses an Analysis of Façade Typology, Paper presented at the meeting

of ICBEST-İstanbul Technical University, İstanbul.

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Challenge of identity in the urban transformation process: The case of Celiktepe, Istanbul

Elmira Ayşe GÜR1, Nasim HEİDARİ2 1 elmiragur@itu.edu.tr • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 nassimheidari66@gmail.com • Graduate School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019. 47123

Received: January 2019 • Final Acceptance: March 2019

Abstract Urban identity as a continuous but shifting notion is a subject of many arguments due to globalization, particularly in the context of the urban transformation, which has taken place around the world with the aim of increasing the quality of urban life. Each urban transformation project had some successes and failures. Some of these failures have been caused by the loss of the sense of place and urban identity. The main aim of this article is to reveal the components of urban identity regarding physical, environmental and social dimensions, to provide measurements of these elements, and to evaluate the achievements and failures through the Celiktepe urban transformation process. Celiktepe informal settlement is a neighborhood in Kagithane district, which is located on the European side of Istanbul and has been experiencing drastic changes for various reasons over a long time. In order to understand these changes, the effects of physical changes in the district’s socio-cultural structure and the impacts of urban transformation on the urban identity, place attachment, satisfaction and quality of life of local residents have been investigated. In this article a literature review, an observational study, and a survey have been carried out in the region for collecting data to analyze the urban transformation in the Celiktepe informal settlement. It has been found that there is a direct interaction between the urban transformation process and changes in urban identity and its components. Keywords Urban transformation, Urban identity, Social identity, Physical identity, Place attachment, Celiktepe.


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1. Introduction One of the controversial issues of cities that has been created along with cities’ globalization process is urban transformation. It is defined as the changing process of cities and every settlement to enhance the quality of space, which needs time due to changes in texture. The general aims of urban transformation are improving the quality of life, increasing livability, boosting the economy and providing a suitable situation so that the city can cope with other cities in national and global scale (Iveynat, 2008). In addition to historical and geographical location, cities are modified in relation to their social structure, and economic and political ties. These changes are not only physical; they even contain dynamic systems like urban identity. The concept of urban identity can be evaluated in the context of urbanization and globalization due to urban transformation and its influences. In this concept, changes have been done by protecting the regions’ original features and uniqueness with an effort to adapt it to contemporary living conditions. Therefore Celiktepe region in Istanbul is deemed an interesting case to examine the change of urban identity caused by urban transformation. Celiktepe, a district of Istanbul on the European side is one of the instances, which referring to that the spatio-temporal connection emerged and transformed during the whole of its history and in the shift from industrialization to post-industrialization can be disclosed. The multi-layered structure of this urban area is a component of this process, and today it is not possible to distinguish one layer from another. The physical changes in the district caused different types of housing in the region. Moreover, each house type requires its settlement and social structure. The main aim of this article is to represent the components of urban identity due to the physical, environmental and social dimensions in context of the urban transformation process specifically via the example of Celiktepe. Moreover, the success and failure factors of Celiktepe’s urban transformation process will be evaluated and measured in the paper. Therefore, the study

answers the questions: (1) what is the effect of physical changes in a district’s socio-cultural structure; (2) how urban transformation influences the urban identity; and (3) how urban transformation affected the place attachment, satisfaction and quality of life of local communities. 2. A general look at the urban transformation phenomenon All activities that try to improve the quality of urban life and social welfare are known as urban transformation. Since urban areas have deterioration and decay processes in their physical settings, urban transformation has been admitted to overcome such challenges, while targeting urban changes through livable places (Bosselmann, 2008). Addressing such needs, such operations covering urban transformation may offer new fields of opportunity. It can be said that urban transformation is the science of changing a city’s form. Since cities are sophisticated and vital systems, these changes provoke several kinds of differences in every feature of a city, and changes are not only in the physical, social and economic factors. Even though they have common goals, because of focusing on various aspects, they have been appointed by different terms. This process occurs in various regions of a city with different aims and approaches. All projects require various interventions. Renewal, rehabilitation, redevelopment, regeneration are types of urban transformation methods based of the needs of the area. Physical, political, cultural, economic and social changes are various dimensions of urban transformation projects. These methods have been named and classified according to the degree of focus on the above mentioned dimensions (Iveynat, 2008). Accordingly, creating a city, which causes a high quality of daily life experience and livability, is an art. Therefore, designers take into account user’s intellectual backgrounds, ideals, interests and their decisions depend on societal structures. Cities change and develop in relation with their residents and their choices and movements. So, physical variations in artificial environments are not only architectural,

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functional or technical; they also have a wide, multi-dimensional phenomenon and improve the deterioration and destruction of urban areas. It includes all aspects of residents’ life, and is influenced by a community’s identity, demographic features, and ecologic, economic and social values, as well as residents’ comfort levels. Urban transformation has a laminated structure and variety aspects and interests. In the meantime, physical changes are its core (Gustavsson & Elander, 2015). When a non-integrated approach occurred in urban transformation projects, some echoic unpleasant outcomes like damaging houses and declining environment have been expected (Alkiser, Dulgeroglu-Yuksel, & Pulat-Gokmen, 2009). Losing and changing the identity and sense of a place are other adverse effects of this process. 2.1. Policies towards urban transformation in Turkey In every country, the historical background and the social, political and economic changes have a significant role in the city structure and its shifts. Turkey has experienced a great deal of changes in its population, geographical expansion, and urban structures over the last two decades. Turkey is a country that has undergone urban transformation in its squatter settlements for the first time due to migration, urbanization and economical changes (Danis, 2010; Duyar-Kienast, 2005). In this way, they want to reduce migrations to urban areas and control the widespread urban growth. Therefore, the world urbanism movement has been adopted. Regeneration of existing urban areas that completed physical or sociological life is more attractive and more respectful because of: redistribution of population in major cities; preventing the centralization of facilities only in major cities; decreasing the high population density in major cities, and avoiding an increase in land and housing are some urban policies in back of the Turkey’s urban transformation projects budgets (Zamani & Arefi,2013). Istanbul is Turkey’s core of these changes. They affected the quality of life in a negative way and changed the city to a multi-central metropolis. Physical

structure, function and geography can be counted as different factors of urban destruction for these high-populated areas. Urgent actions are needed to accommodate these people and immediate accommodation demands require settlements with sufficient technical and social infrastructure (Eren, 2014; Gur & Dülgeroğlu-Yuksel, 2011). In Istanbul attempt has been made to coordinate global changes with urban transformation projects. Majority of the urban transformation projects are categorized into two groups: projects for squatter settlements and projects for under earthquake risk areas. Istanbul has witnessed both of these types in various regions. A look at the summary on the history of the interventions shows that the urban transformation foundations were based years ago. The roots refer to Henri Prost’s studies and planning in Istanbul between 1936-1948. After that, Istanbul’s urban shape has been defined by three major growth waves in the recent century. These growth waves occurred in the 1950-1960s, at the beginning of the 1980s and 2000s. In order, they related to industrialization, liberalization and integration of Turkish economy through global markets. Because of enhancing life costs in Istanbul, jobs with low income, and migration from rural to urban, both the squatters and other populations are increasing and open spaces are decreasing. As a result, there are not enough open spaces to respond to housing needs. Besides adequate housing, the big problem of migrants who come to urban areas is to improve their life quality. The lack of financial resources and skills does not let them find good jobs, so a primary shelter on a vacant land seems their only chance to own a home; this event develops squatter settlements as a social unfavorable (Gur & Dulgeroğlu-Yuksel, 2011). These unplanned areas directly affected the image of the city, and in the same time social and place identity of the district. 3. Urban transformation and identity as a component of social sustainability Identity is a sense of belonging that interconnects people and connects

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them to place over time. It is a very loose and elusive concept. It is conducted and connected by sociological and psychological elements in various ways. This sense is neither reducible and permanent nor changeable and variable. It is a process, which was produced through history by human activities. On the other hand, the environment is a broad concept. In addition to its physical, psychological, architectural, religious and social aspects, its meanings change in relation to location and scales (Aly, 2011). Sustainability is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that can be defined from various perspectives. Sustainable urban society is related to the relationship between economy, society and the environment. So, reaching a sustainable community is related to having a sustainable building and environment. Place-based operations for reconnecting and conciliating with space are developed by social mobilization; it is an essential component of community and sustainability. Figure 1 displays the components and relationships of sustainable identity and urban identity. Some scientists define social sustainability as a personal code of conduct that needs to be achieved in an equitable, inclusive and prudent manner. Throsby (1995) cited social sustainability defined as a group of relations, orientations, activities and opinions that work as the main activities of ev-

ery community and has transmits intergenerationally. A community life’s sustainability is determined by social identity and environmental quality. The socio-cultural identity of people is built on images of a consumer society and evolution of a wage labor society. It is an excellent adaptation of sustainable development and sustainable livelihood. Public services and taxation are efficient tools for making identity. Social identity is the core awareness structure of people to prompt everyday life. Studies have shown that harm to physical space brings harm to social identity. A generation of identity is a pressing member of social action, through the identification of actors involved in the conflict, the activation of relying on relationships among them and the formation of connections linking events from different periods (Farida, 2014). 3.1. Social and place related significance of urban identity Identity is in direct relation with a city’s character. This character is obtained through time of objects and places. These places have an essence, an atmosphere and character that distinguish them from others. The surrounding environment refers to various items. It is directly changed through everyday choices of its user’s. The natural environment, climate, topography and landscape are the con-

Figure 1. Components of urban identity and sustainable identity, adapted from (Aly, 2011; Torabi & Brahman, 2013). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • E. A. Gur, N. Heidari


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texts of urban identity. In addition to the natural environment, economy and politics, the social environment by its psychological and cultural dimensions describes the notion of urban identity. In this way, people and their communication in the context of local lifestyle, history, language, religion, ethnicity, family structure, residence type, communication pattern, privacy, density, education level, and so forth play a significant role. The identity process is in direct relation with the settlement. Therefore, the environment has a notable role on identity and the process of urban identity is formed in the togetherness of natural and cultural values. It can be evaluated in the scope of socio-economical, socio-cultural, physical environment and imaginary elements (Twigger-Ross & Uzzell, 1996; Aly, 2011). There are two holistic approaches to urban identity with different emphases. In one approach, aesthetics and physical elements in the natural and artificial context are emphasized. In the other approach, the focus is on the social notion of place and identity; considering the activities, functions, and perception of place beyond its physical aspects describing the urban identity notion (Goličnik Marušić & Nikšič, 2012). Social identity as a component of urban identity is a sense of attachment, attention and pride that exists from man’s knowledge in a variety of social memberships. It is a type of identity, which branches from belonging to or dependent on particular groups such as ethnic, religious, nationals (Aly, 2011; Farida, 2014). This theory tries to recognize group belonging and intergroup connections in terms of the qualities that define a group. It refers to the self-concept resulting from our belonging to social groups. Social and cultural principles play an important role in determining group characteristics, social and place identity of the residents. Cultural differences affect the attachment level of different cultures. The consequences of changes in social identity have concluded that reinvestment, physical change, enhancement in social profile by new residents, displacement of the poor income group in a direct or indirect way. The state axes process starts in

public bodies with control and correspondence to a period occurring in the area (Islam, 2009). Natural structures of the district like topography, climate, vegetation, and natural structures like economic and political structure, culture, lifestyle, social experience, value systems, human relations, production techniques and materials, are all factors discriminating characteristics of various areas (Tas & Tas, 2014). In the book “Place and Placelessness” Relph (1976, p. 45) mentions: “People’s identity of and with the place is place identity, which allows a place to be differentiated from other locations. Moreover, it has three components: the place physical setting; its activities, situations, and events; along with the individual and group meanings constructed through people’s experience and intention by paying attention to that place”. Place identity is a substructure of self-identity; it refers to a set of typically accepted perceptions, sensations and connections to the physical environment and belonging to the person’s living place. That becomes the infrastructure of the self. It lets the person identify a new environment’s properties related to a person’s environmental past, and cultivate a sense of familiarity, environment establishment, safety, and control. In this way, the place is an essential component of personal identity, and place identity changes as physical and social environment changes. Place identity is an essential part of the person’s whole identity. The sense of place is related to the type and quality of the communication between the newcomers and the place where they live. It is combined with place identity. They often demonstrate feelings rooted in, connected with, or belonging to a site (Lattanzi Shutika, 2012). 3.2. Physical and social impacts of identity loss through transformation The relationship between healing environment, well-being, and place identity has a principle role in maintaining and developing identification of neighborhood and it is one of the main aims of the urban transformation projects. In this way, architectural landmarks and streets are important visible signs,

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which minister to raise people’s sense of identity, awareness, and loyalty to a place (Eranil Demirli, Tuna Ultav, et al., 2015). Since cities are appraising physical, social, economic and cultural dynamics, identity is shaped by a variety of factors specific for each district. Changing the demographic and socio-economic structure of an area as a result of urban transformation projects makes changes on the district’s identity. According to these changes the settlers’ sense of belonging and place attachment can be decrease, and they can lost their vitality, livability, and sense of place. It can enhances their displacement sense. Physical environment, demography, social system, high-end services have impacts on residents’ identity, place attachment and satisfaction. High-quality places can be described as places where residents can connect to, can feel attached, remind and miss it. As a result of new urban transformation projects and with the high density in cities, the users’ satisfaction, their connection to the place and communication, all of them cause the reduction in their quality of life. The sense of place is a notion that has been affected by the urban transformation process. It is a complete mix of physical forms, activities, and meanings. It can separate from the people who create and use them. Public memorials are perspectives that make memories alive through the physical presentation in public areas (Ujang & Zakariya, 2015). Memory sites are connected to their environment and are multi-user and alive all the time. They are not separated from urban life and everyday life, they information about

a district’s background. They have high potential to affect positively the social memory and urban identity (Maree, Gurler and Ozer, 2013). They are places for cultural productions and exchange, a place to negotiate problems and subjects and a place to build society and values (Hernández, 2012). Locals mostly developed these public open spaces. Place identity has an intrinsic interest and relation to place attachment. Some researchers believe that place attachment is a component of place identity. Some others consider both of them as dimensions of a bigger concept, like the sense of place. At last, some propose place attachment as a complex form which has been created by mixing the factors like identity, dependence on the place and social bonds as it can be seen in figure 2 (Hernández, Carmen Hidalgo, Salazar-Laplace, & Hess, 2007). The subsequent effects of identity loss in the urban transformation process are changes in place attachment, satisfaction, quality of life and the affordability sense of residents. 3.2.1. Place attachment in relation to changes Casakin, Hernández and Ruiz (2015) mention that the emotional connection between a person and his/ her life’s region is named place attachment. It causes feelings of comfort and safety and tends to remain in that location for a long time. Place attachment is a complex phenomenon as it merges several factors like identity, dependence on the place and social bonds. It includes interactions of effect and emotion, knowledge, and acceptance, behavior and actions about a place. It

Figure 2. The relationship between place attachment and place identity, adapted from (Hernández et al., 2007). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 1 • March 2019 • E. A. Gur, N. Heidari


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has an associate role in development, maintenance, and protection of person/group identity or culture (Low & Altman, 1992). Characteristics of user groups in the scope of their role, culture and social level affect the place attachment degree of different socio-cultural characteristics. Dwelling in a place for a long time and life-cycle stage, residents’ place of birth, their participation in social activities and celebrations with local people considerably increase the sense of belonging the place. So, the length of residence and property ownership affect the relationship between a person and a place in an inescapable way as experiences with a place lead to more place attachment. It has a direct relation to place attachment and identity. Spending more time in an area allows residents to interact and communicate with their social network (Altman, 1992; Hummon, 1992; Casakin, Hernández et al., 2015). Any change in the urban transformation process makes a difference in the physical and social structure and the user’s sense of place. 3.2.2. Place satisfaction in relation to changes A place satisfaction is the understanding of the gap between residents’ expectations, and the reality of their residence, aspirations, and the reality. There are extraordinary evidences that show social satisfaction is affected by people’s realization of their environment (Hummon, 1992). Life satisfaction refers to a comprehensive assessment of one’s life, and translates satisfaction with relative standard of living or material comforts. Studies have determined that both demographic and physical environment components influence neighborhood relations and satisfaction. They relate to a small size, but well located area that provides quality, access, safety, amenity, and social communication and connectivity through the neighborhood (Pojani & Buka, 2015). Residents have high satisfaction with larger size and better form of housing. The place and condition of the neighborhood are important factors in residents’ satisfaction. Public facilities and

infrastructures determine the degree of life comfort and satisfaction. Social relations, solidarity, and safety are other affective factors. Freedom to choose housing and ownership are other factors that directly increase satisfaction. On the other hand, there are items like household characteristics of age, sex and income status that influence satisfaction in an unclear way. 3.2.3. Quality of life and affordability in relation to changes Mazlumdar (2003) describes a high-quality place as a place where dwellers can connect to, feel attachment to and identify with. According to this definition, the sense of place is a set of local people’s culture, society’s perception, psychological well-being, the uniqueness of the place and connection between people and place. Since humanity spends most of its time in buildings as a physical environment, residential environment has a significant role in human well-being. As a result, quality of life is influenced by a wide range including local and general culture, nature, policies, ethnicity, sustainability, transformation, life experience, residents, along with other items (Ozçevik, Sener, et al. 2003; Garcia-Mira, Uzzell et al., 2005). All changes in the social and physical structure of district affect the sense of quality of life. Affordability of housing is the most important item because it pays particular attention to mental health (Mason, Baker et al. 2013). According to UK policy, when the residents spend less than 30% of their earnings for house, it can be classified as affordable housing (UK Policy definition; Jie & Jiao, 2011). Housing affordability is measured by the cost of the dwelling and the households’ income relationship. Now the interaction between housing and location is the criterion for measuring house affordability. The location, its amenities like schools and job availability, welfare and safety are items of affordability. Housing affordability is not an issue for the owners who have already purchased a home, but an issue for the first-time buyers and tenants owners because having a house determines affordability (Gur & Dulgeroğlu-Yuksel, 2011). Housing quality and

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ownership always influence place attachment and affordability in a positive way. 4. Case study: Çeliktepe, Istanbul 4.1. Methodology Celiktepe region’s socio-cultural and physical aspects have been examined. The motivation is to represent the dependence of urban identity based on the physical, environmental and social dimensions being affected by an urban transformation process in Celiktepe, and to answer the main research question based on the effects of physical changes in the district’s socio-cultural structure. In order to answer this question, the effects of physical changes in the district’s socio-cultural structure and the impacts of urban transformation on the urban identity, place attachment, place satisfaction as the parameters of quality of life with in Celiktepe’s local residents have been investigated. In order to analyze the urban transformation of Çeliktepe as an informal housing settlement in Istanbul, data, used in this study, is obtained by the literature review, observational study, and survey carried out in the district. The survey includes questionnaires with eighty local settlements and semi-structure interviews with twenty people who were between seventeen and seventy-five years old. The respondents have been randomly selected from residents who were willing to take part in the research. The survey took place in a period of about five months. The questions were classified; (1) demographic, (2) socio-cultural, (3) socioeconomic, (4) socio-spatial, and (5) physical and environmental features of the urban transformation aspects. The aim of this survey is to understand the settlement’s perception about the changes that happened in the neighborhood over years, and moreover, to find out how physical changes have modified the identity, and the social structure and impact of these changes in residents’ place attachment, satisfaction and quality of life feelings. 4.2. Celiktepe and its sociocultural and physical aspects Celiktepe is one of Kagithane’s quar-

ters, an independent village located in the eastern Marmara region, on the European side of Istanbul. It is one of the high density quarters of Kagithane. Celiktepe is located near the intersection of TEM highway and Buyukdere Street. The district is in the area of Buyukdere Street that has a highly developing process in all periods. As it can be seen in figure 3 this area has a strategic position. There is an invisible border between the quarter structure and the buildings on the edge of the street. They have different anatomy and characteristics. The buildings give a luxury feature and change the function of the area (Yetman, 2013). The Kagithane tried to change the district into a livable quarter that is alive and dynamic at all hours of the day. To reach these aims and objectives, the project has been designed in three main categories: transformation of squatter regions, transformation of industrial areas, and the third can be listed as transformation of the risky areas (Yetman, 2013). 4.2.1. Socio-cultural aspects of Celiktepe Kagithane has been formed as a result of the extensive construction activities that occurred in Istanbul before 1960. Before this date, it was empty

Figure 3. The location and quarters of the district (Yetman, 2013).

farmland. Then it changed into a small village for a long time. It was created by two groups of people - landlords and poor farmers. Part of the landlord’s labor need had been provided by the village’s poor families, and the other part by seasonal migrants. Most of the seasonal migrants were from Anatolia.

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These migrants played a significant role in the 1950s migrate wave. They usually chose the districts that they knew and previously come for work. Its development process started in the 1950s with the initiation of factories on Buyukdere Street and with the occurrence of shantytowns around local industrial institutions. At the same time, parts of Celiktepe village’s land were given to some people whose houses and lands had been seized during Istanbul development work in the 1950s. The factory laborers or persons who planned to work in these factories started to live in Celiktepe because of the short distance and lack of accessible transportation and financial problems. In Henry Prost’s master plan the district was designed as an industrial region (Bisel, 1990). These demographic changes started with the first phase of the village to city migration. The 1960s and 1970s were the industrialization years in Turkey; they needed laborers who lived near their work. The labor force migrated to the cities. These changes in the labor geography caused the district to become filled with squatters (Yetman, 2013). Also, in 1970, the Celiktepe IETT garage had been established. It changed the district into a very easily accessible region as it attracted a large number of people to the district. It worked as an event that attracted a large number of people to the district. The last reason for the high rate of migration to the quarter was its closeness to the Levent and Besiktas districts, which are main arteries in Istanbul. Figure 4 shows the photo of the IETT garage at that time. As a result, in 1980 Celiktepe was one of the most important industrial and squatter settlements in Istanbul. The majority of the Celiktepe residents were industry workers. The last urban policy formulation stage was in the mid-1980s; it accents the urban marketing and contests it with the results of neoliberal policies at the same time. Removing the industrialization and transformation process of the district has not been independent of politics of the privatization initiatives. Since the removal of industrialization from the district is a long process which is still continuing, the economic condi-

Figure 4. Public transportation station located in the Levent district of Istanbul established by the Istanbul Electric Tramway and Tunnel Operations organization (IETT) (photography by Huseyin Irmak).

tions of the district are progressing. At the moment, small industries continue their presence in area. Nevertheless, these developments began to decline in the 1990s and entered the period of industrialization in the 2000s. In recent years, the city has developed rapidly. The district has a central location, and it is a very important issue for urban settlements. Therefore, it has required new policies for developing the cities, which are more flexible, advanced and modern. After that, the culture became affiliated with the urban environment and life (Mazumdar, 2003). After the transformation of these industrial areas, some dwellers that were the professional laborers of the factories left the district. They migrated to the districts near the new location of their working places. Urban transformation projects in post industrial economies try to eliminate physical and socio-economic deterioration and to create a positive image of the area. Sometimes these actions make the place more attractive to a group with different socio-economic characteristics and lifestyles. A new field gets a new financial supply and service activities that are in harmony with new dwellers (Belanger & Cameron, 2012). In accordance to all steps of the changes, a new social profile of the residents is added to the district. Newcomer residents of Celiktepe are mostly employees and university students. 4.2.2. Physical aspects of Celiktepe Housing supplies a physical world that gives information about socio-cultural patterns, traditions and beliefs, rural background, and priorities of the people living in it. In Celiktepe the poor and the migrants settled around

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the factories in the district (Yetman, 2013). These migrants needed the lowcost houses, and the government paid no attention to their requirements. They formed new urban areas and informal houses that attach themselves to old city centers. So, they especially who worked in factories occupied the agricultural and empty lands near the factories to respond to their needs and constructing of low-cost and low-quality houses. These houses are the first kind of houses in the district that were called squatter. Squatter areas after the 1984 law that let them progress to four floors quickly changed to high-density apartkondu zones. Apartkondus can be unplanned and illegal (Gur & Dulgeroglu Yuksel, 2011). The quality of life and urban infrastructures and services are low. These actions changed Istanbul into a disproportioned and unplanned city that suffers from traffic problems and lack of the green and socio- cultural areas (Güvenc, 2014). Over time, these squatter regions have obtained a value, construction and housing sector looking for empty lands to answer housing needs, especially in the district’s closeness to highways and high potential locations (Danis, 2010). As a result of capitalism and earning more gains and responding and attracting newcomers, lots of the squatter houses or apartkondus started to change to apartment types (Figure 5). The last type of residence in the district is gated communities. Since the beginning of the concept, gated communities have been defined as a physical privatized zone with limited access that separates the inside from the outside, separated by walls or fences with a guarded gate controlling the movements in and out of the residential area. They are being managed by their own rules and are pretty much independent from the urban services. Gated communities give a new character to the city; they guide users to make a distinction between their living environment and surroundings. Here the social isolation is critical. The aim of gated communities in urban transformation projects is to benefit from the three previous separate blocks to be brought together into one block. The concept helps to get a higher volume

Figure 5. House types in the quarter.

Figure 6. Development of gated communities in squatter areas (Goksu & Akalp, 2012).

of green area, public buildings, parking lots, and wide streets. It also contributes to create a sustainable living environment. In addition to investigation of the housing types in the district, studies and comparisons based on the observations, have shown that the slopes of the field in some districts vary throughout the area and are not suitable for service facilities. In the transformation process, this problem is not noticed and there are no changes in this part

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dimensions, and to specify the dependence by means of measurement.

Figure 7. The plan and regional section of Celiktepe (Heidari, 2016; Yetman, 2013).

Figure 8. The previous and current positions of some buildings in the district (photography by Huseyin Irmak).

(Terzi & Bolen, 2005). In the transformation process only, there are changes in buildings separately (Figure 6). The trade centers are across the main street of the district and there are not sufficient green areas. Figure 7 shows the plan and section of the district while figure 8 displays some buildings previous and current positions. 4.3. Survey results In the following section the achievements, losses and variations through the Celiktepe urban transformation process have been evaluated, and the demographic, socio-cultural, socio-economic, socio-spatial, physical and environmental results of the survey have been analyzed. This has been done in order to reveal the dependence of urban identity and sustainability on physical, environmental and social

4.3.1. Demographic results of survey Fifty percent of the volunteers are women. To have a reliable outcome, participants were chosen in the age range of 17 and 75. 54.5% of the volunteers were born in Istanbul, and 75% of these people have lived in Celiktepe since they are born. The majority of the people who are local of the district and are living there for the extended years are from crowded families. The rate of the young people was very high. More than half of the participants are between seventeen and thirty-five years old. They are the group, which is categorized as young and economically active. 4.3.2. Socio-cultural results of survey Results show that the district’s residents are highly educated, and only a few are illiterate. Nearly 40% of the participants have a university degree and about 45% of the inhabitants do not live with their parents. Most of them are university students who live alone or share their homes with their roommates who have recently come to Istanbul. They are new in the quarter, they are temporary residents, and they are living with their friends and relatives. Figure 9 shows that the district has a vast range of demands for social services, and there is a low level of satisfaction about the neighborhood’s social facilities. The majority of the people who were not pleased with the district’s social services were newcomers. Settlements believe that these places can help to improve the district’s cultural level and places for settlements’ connection and communication have been constructed. About half of the participants have an ordinary sense of satisfaction about the district. Various groups of people categorized for instance by their age, the level of education, personality and many other factors have their own special reasons for the satisfaction level. Some of the locals have a low level of satisfaction because of the recent changes in the district. They think the changes modified the district and the

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residents. Newcomers are not happy about being in the district. They express that they do not have the sense of belonging to the new district, and this reduces their satisfaction level (Figure 10). 4.3.3. Socio-economic results of survey Findings show that more than 60% of the district’s population is economically active. They are young or middle-aged individuals who work and have a monthly income. The unemployed group consists of the people who are not in the active economy years or are students and had not started to work yet. The students occupy a big scale of the unemployed group. In accordance to the range of residents’ income level, it can conclude that different groups are living in the district. Some of them are needy individuals; about 30% of the settlements are from the lowest income group. Nearly 45% are individuals who are classified as middle-income who earn more than 2000 TL monthly. A large number of this group is newcomers. The housing market is growing in the district and all the participants agree with the idea that the rents are increasing. These changes dissatisfied the tenants because they indicate that one of the important reasons for choosing Celiktepe was the district’s affordable rents. The rents have increased and this process continues. According to figure 11, it is possible to emphasize that about 40% of the participants do not think that their houses are affordable. Moreover, about 40% believe that it has a middle level of affordability. Only 20% of the volunteers believe that their houses have a standard degree of affordability. The group with high income level is the newcomers. The locals think the price of rents in comparison to their income level are very high. 4.3.4. Socio-spatial results of survey Findings show that about 70% of the people are in interrelations with one or two quarters or have no relation with their building or neighborhood residents or neighborhood habitats. Most of them communicate with their

Figure 9. The neighborhood needs for social services.

Figure 10. Life satisfaction.

Figure 11. Affordability of houses according to the incomes.

Figure 12. The place attachment in the quarter.

neighbors only when there is a problem in the building. They do not have a neighborhood relationship similar to what was in their countries’ historical background. About 55% of the participants have place attachment sense to the neighborhood, and 45% of them do not feel any. They have various reasons for their feelings. Among 66.5% of the participants who feel attachment are inhabitants who have lived in the quarter for more than five years. Most of these people are locals and have been living for long years. Figure 12 below shows the statistics as a chart. Figure 13 shows that only 13.5% of the participants think that the quality of life is above the average in the quarter. Moreover, 32.5% of them believe that it is on an average level. It shows independence to the duration in the district in which most of the inhabitants are not pleased with the district’s

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Figure 13. Quality of life in the neighborhood.

Figure 14. The sense of displacement.

Figure 15. The physical condition of the building.

Figure 16. The relation between the physical changes and resident’s sense in district.

life standards. 18% of the volunteers believe that the quality of life in the district is at a terrible level. This group mostly is newcomers who have to settle in the district for a short time. According to the survey results, about 70% of the volunteers feel they belong to the district. However, 30% do not have any sense of belonging toward the quarter. The majority of this group is newcomers. In this way, 27.2% of the participants always feel displacement in the area. They cannot communicate with the quarter. Despite the sense of belonging, 54.6% of participants feel displacement. This is because of some demands and lack of services. Moreover, 18.2% of the inhabitants feel a strong sense of belonging. They point out that they never think about displacement, mostly they are locals (Figure 14).

4.3.5. Physical and environmental results of survey According to the results, more than half of the district’s population lives in apartments. Apart from the apartments, there are apartkondus and squatter types of building in the area. According to figure 15, about 45.4% of the participants have an average satisfaction of the building’s physical condition. They think the building is acceptable to their needs and do not make any serious problems for them. On the other hand, about 22.7% have a very low level of satisfaction about the physical condition. Most of this group are residents of the buildings older than 21. About 24% of the participants give grade three to the relation between the physical changes in the district and the sense of residency. Apart from this group, the ratio of the people who give less than three and the persons who give more than three are equal. These results show that the sense of place is a sense related to the belonging and duration of staying in an area. The newcomers do not feel belonging, and they do not have any particular sense for the area and its changes. The newcomers have a positive point of view about changes in the district. They believe these changes enhance the standards of living and the general opinion of the district (Figure 16). 5. General evaluation and conclusion Over time by globalization and changes in the economy and urbanization, cities started to change and develop. These squatter regions had located in central parts of the cities to have excellent accessibility. It was an attractive subject for urban residents. These areas started to be selected by urban dwellers to inhabit. As noted in other studies, new residences have a better educational level than the original ones, so this creates a gap and social problems between these two groups of residents. In gentrifying areas, new residences do not have much communication with long-term residents (Freeman, 2012; Gur, 2009). It is the result of replacing apartments with squatters and apartkondus; new dwellers are coming in order to settle in this area but there is

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not any connection between the locals and newcomers. Although the area has been a high-density region through time, today the population has also increased due to the increase in housing numbers. The urban identity is in direct connection to the city character that has been obtained through the time of objects and places. Social identity and place identity are main components of urban identity. Moreover; various items such as physical characteristics and activities of users play a significant role in its development. Every change in the cities’ physical and social structure makes differences in the urban identity. So, any change in the urban transformation process makes evolution in the physical and social structure of the district. Therefore, these changes affect social and place identity. The article aimed to reveal the components of urban and sustainable identity and to explore the achievements and failures through the Celiktepe urban transformation process. If we evaluate these achievements, losses and variations, socio-cultural, socio-economic, socio-spatial, physical and environmental outcomes of the study, we can underline them in following lines. 1. Socio-economic identity; The rate of young and middle-aged people is high in the district. In between, more than half of the population is individuals who have lived in the district for less then ten years. 55% of the district’s population lives with their family elders, and are close to their relatives. They note that they are close to each other because when one migrates to a metropolis then he or she prefers to stay near their relatives. The individuals who do not live with their parents are young couples, university students, and new graduates, or people who come to Istanbul to find a job. Except for the couples, the other group is individuals who have shared their flats with friends, siblings or have stayed with their relatives for an a temporary period. Surveying the socio-cultural part of the research shows that the number of educated people has increased in comparison to the previous studies. A high rate of this group can be classified as

district newcomers. They require new demands and services. This generation demands spaces for communication, social relations, activities, parks and playgrounds for their children. By analyzing the results, it is correct to say that changes on the social structure have affected the economy in the district. Newcomers who are from with high income groups changed the average of family earnings in the district. According to the variations in the district, demands for house rent have increased. It has affected the housing market directly and increased the average rent in the area. Newcomers have caused the economic increase. In accordance to the affordable definition in the literature review, affordability is described as the cost of housing, social income structure, and facilities of the location. Survey findings show that due to the housing costs the neighborhood is more affordable for newcomers than for locals. However, affordability according to the housing cost is a more affected item in the studied area. So, it can be concluded that newcomers have a higher level of affordability in the district, because of a higher standard of income and fewer family members. 2. Socio-cultural identity; Place attachment is described as an emotional connection between a person and the life’s region. It is in a direct relation to comfort, safety, and duration in an area. Place attachment develops when the place can be in proper condition to perform their function and social aims (Casakin, Hernández et al., 2015). The study results have supported this idea. Comparing to the newcomers locals feel more well-being about the facilities and social incomes of the area. Newcomers do not have any intimate connection with their neighbors, and they do not wish. They feel no connection to the place and consider it to be temporary. They are generally of the young generations who have chosen this neighborhood due to its proximity to their working place or universities. Place attachment is in a direct relation to the length of residence, ownership and property. So, contrary to the newcomers, the local settlements have a strong relationship with their

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neighbors (Heidari, 2016). Their level of place attachment and quality of life senses are greater. Neighborly relations do not disappear in this district between the locals. Locals have strong relations with each other contrary to the newcomers who do not have any relations with their neighbors. Generally newcomers meet their neighbors just because of the building’s problems and fees one time a month in comparison the locals do not need the excuse for meeting. They meet each other two or three times a week. They are pleased with neighbor relations and believe that longtime friendships, sharing happiness and sadness cause this deep relation. The sense of belonging and place attachment in the locals is higher than the newcomers. Nearly half of the district’s houses are old buildings. 25% of residents are local people who got their homes as inheritance. The locals do not have the desire to leave the district. To change their houses, they participate in the transformation process by taking partners for reconstructing their buildings. The district is suitable for their earnings, and they have a powerful sense of belonging to the district. The newcomers mostly live in new buildings, and their buildings in the comparison to their former buildings are not in a better situation. The district is a high-density area, and the buildings do not have high quality. Their reason for preferring Celiktepe was the suitable rent, accessibility, and transportation issues. Newcomers from other districts of Istanbul live in the district with a similar style and quality. 3. Place identity; Physical alternatives in the district are not only structural, functional, or mechanical, they even contain all aspects of resident’s life (Gustavsson & Elander, 2015). The findings of this research have supported this theory. They show that physical changes have affected the social structure of the area. The new physical structure of the district worked as an attraction item and invite new settlements. The newcomers have a different social pattern than the locals. In Celiktepe, a previous farmer or laborer structure has been converted to a multiple structure pattern, which consists

of workers, employees or students. Satisfaction is affected by items like living conditions, education, district facilities, and cost of living. Moreover, it is about place identity. According to all of these factors, the urban transformation has changed the satisfaction level of all the inhabitants. About half of the inhabitants have a mean average of satisfaction. Generally, the satisfaction level among the newcomers is lower than the locals. Newcomers do not feel euphoria about them. Results show that place satisfaction affected place attachment directly and indirectly. Researchers believe that greater satisfaction creates stronger place identity. According to the results, the district’s physical conditions have improved through the years. However, the district needs many more civil projects to convert it to an ideal settlement. Lots of public spaces must be provided in the area. To sum up, there is an average level of satisfaction with the area. The results of the study show that residents are content with urban transformation. They express that it can improve the resistance and quality of their houses. However, this construction is not planned and designed by architects and designers. Newcomers have their own expectations. The environment slowly changes through these needs. New services and functions are added to the area, and shortages of some functions are felt. The physical aspect of the city tried to adapt with residents and answer all the local and newcomer demands. All of these changes have problematized the matter of identity. As a conclusion, as the fundamental outcome of the recent urbanization processes in Turkey; metropolitan cities and primarily Istanbul face significant challenges, especially on urban transformation. While overcoming these challenges with urban renewal programs, urban settlements should be sustained with their social and cultural circumstances, instead of focusing on physical improvement. Then gaining vibrant urban settlements can be highlighted as the major challenge to be considered in urban transformation. However, urban transformation process in Istanbul may force low income household group to be evicted further

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