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Contents: What is Modernism? The Bauhaus Design Movement. Chandigarh. Italian Modernism: Giorgio de Chirico Aldo Rossi: L’architettura Della Citta Avant Garde: Art and Politics Hot Modernism. Brutalism in the UK: Problems and Legacy Frank Lloyd Wright. Johnson Wax Headquarters. Transcultural Space. References:


3 4-5 6-7 8 - 9. 10 11 12 - 13 14 - 15 16- 17 18 19 20 - 21 22 - 23


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What is Modernism? To understand modernism you have to understand how it came to be, Modernism was originally inspired by the new implementation of steam and electricity and the ability to create new materials and produce work much quicker and with less variation. This leap in technology was coined the Industrial Revolution, the designers and scientists at foremost of this movement included people such as Henry Bessemer and the Darby line, who together formed a path into casting steel on an industrial level and to their name have the iron bridge to which the town was named after. In celebration of such advancement in technology Queen Victoria organise a display of the worlds work. This was called The Great Exhibition the majority of work was a response to the industrial change that was happening during this time. Many works introduced and utilised new materials, concrete, glass and steel. It also brought in new technologies and methods by emphasising the simplicity and rationality and it also created new forms with a new aesthetic by introducing these ideas means that the old technologies were rejected such as the style and historical ideas. This developed into what we now see as a precursor to Modernism called industrialism. Of course during this time of revelation there were some who fought against the change and thought that the way forward was to look back, fore runners like John Ruskin and William Morris who were part of a group called the pre Raphaelites believed that the industrialisation of art was an abomination and that it cant be considered as art unless at least partially created by hand. On a visit to Bantock House I observed the design and detailed way artists like William Morris and other pre Raphaelites rebelled against the sterile mechanical nature of modernism. Even the more industrial looking pieces in this house decorated by Morris is actually hand planished and worked by craftsmen to get this look. Object: Wallpaper Place of origin: England (made) Date: 07/01/1879 (design registered) 1879 (printed) Artist/Maker: Morris, William, born 1834 died 1896 (designer) Morris & Co. (Publisher) Jeffrey & Co. (Manufacturer) Jeffrey & Co. (Printer)


Pre- Raphaelites are English artists of the 19th century. They were founded in London in 1848. The name Pre- Raphaelites Brotherhood is a reference to the groups’ opposition to the Royal Academy’s promotion of the Renaissance master Raphael. They believed that art should be taken seriously and the subject should be maximum realism. The common subjects of the Pre - Raphaelites was religion, literature, poetry and they also looked at in particular love and death. At this time, they also explored the modern social problems at that time (1848). The leaders of the movement William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante GaProserpine - Dante Gabriel Rossetti response by Jo Stant briel Rossetti. Another prominent artist at the time was Edward Burne Johns, who joined the second part of the Pre - Raphaelites movement, he gathered around Dante Gabriel Rossetti in the 1850s. In the late 1870s he helped influence the movement of symbolism, his popularity grew as he became older until his death in 1898. Through a visit to the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and reference from my postcard collection I drew some quick marker sketches and learnt about the PreRaphealites from the standing boards and conversation with attendants. Pygmalion and the Image, BurneJones (1833-1898)

Love Among the Ruins, Burne-Jones (1894)

The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, William Holman Hunt (1827-1910)

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The Bauhaus Design Movement. The Bauhaus was established in 1919 by Walter Gropius at Weimar in Germany. Bauhaus was a revolutionary school of art, architecture and design. The Bauhaus replaced the idea of pupil-teacher learning and replaced the teaching with all the artists and designers working collectively as a group, sharing ideas and all working together. The initial aim of the Bauhaus was to bring back the design, art and architecture in everyday life. The word Bauhaus is German meaning building (Bau) and house (haus), which is said to of been used to prompt the build of a new society The Barcelona Chair was designed by Ludwig Mies van Der Rohe and Lilly Reich. The piece was designed for the Spanish royal family of the time. The inspiration for this chair was from a Egyptian folding chair and a Roman folding stool as you look at the Barcelona chair you can see the resemblance of the two stools. They both have the interlocking stand pieces at the bottom of the chair, showing legs of the chair cross over each other. I like the simplicity of the chair and how the clean lines add to the simplistic feel. If it was a piece of hollow steel.. I also like the stand that the chair is on as it is very simple and doesn’t stand out and distract from the actual main body of the chair. The 12mm piece of steel used to make the frame of the chair allows the chair to have a lot of strength and durability, which makes the chair last longer as it won’t bend, which it would if it was a piece of hollow steel. In addition the fluid shape is really appealing and relevant even in design today. The whole chair has straps connected to the steel bar, which allows the chair to have structure and maintain its shape over time with a room.

You can see the following influence of modernism through the decades as seen in this white Pieff ‘Beta’ sofa, this design style was the must have in high end British furniture during the 60s and 70s.


The Interbau Apartment House was designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Soares Fiho in 1957. The building is eight storeys high and constructed out of a concrete frame and rests on V-shaped pillars. The front of the facade consists of long windows on some floors to break up the concrete structure. The windows lead onto the common room if the building to allow large amounts of light to enter the building. The apartment block is a shared facility and is meant to create a community between the residents. I think that the V-shaped pillars add to the aesthetic of the building with there bold form and shape instead of using the normal rectangular shaped pillars. The use of repetitive colour throughout the exterior of the building gives the structure an element of unity, for example on the north-west facade of the building there is use orange balconies. The purpose of the building is to create a community and by repeating the colours and adding to that unity resembles the purpose really well. The building resembles the Bauhaus movement by using the typical shapes such as the rectangular balconies. The use of the primary colours on the exterior of the building enhance the aesthetic and the overall design of the building and also separates its self from the traditional design of buildings and concentrates of the modern architecture.

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Chandigarh History As explained on the official tourists guide of Chandigarh Prior to the partition of India, Lahore was the capital city of undivided Punjab. But, after the partition, when Lahore went to Pakistan, India was left without any capital. Also, it led to the migration of people of west Punjab to the eastern towns within India. These two factors gave rise to the need to choose a site in the foothills of Shivalik range that would serve as the capital of Punjab. A committee was set up to choose a suitable site, keeping in mind various factors like military vulnerability, drinking water, climatic conditions etc. Finally, a site was selected, but that was in the shape of farms. The city got its name from Chandi, the Goddess of power and Garh meaning fortress. After the site was finalized, a master plan for the city was prepared by an American team (Mayor, Whittleslay, Glass & Nowicki). The project faced a setback with the sudden demise of Nowicki. It was then that the other teammates refused to work on the project. The committee was again handed over the task of finding a team for completion of the project. In the year 1951, the well-known French architect, named Le Corbusier, took the charge of giving the city a modern look. He further appointed a team, who worked under his supervision and guidance. The team decided to work in two phases. While designing the city, factors like pollution, traffic, travel and tourism and other environmental aspects were borne in mind. This is how Chandigarh turned into a well-planned capital city of Punjab, India. Main design point to note are the human body analogies: • The head. Capitol Complex (Sector 1) • Heart, City Centre (Sector 17) • Lungs, Leisure and green open space. • Intellect, Cultural spots and education facilities • Circulatory system, roads and v7 motion later v8 with cycle paths • Viscera, industry. The concept of the city is based on four major functions: living, working, care of the body and spirit and circulation, in alignment with the original plans it avoids geometric layouts and includes courtyards to promote mingling and community building. Fundamentally the city is made of brick due to its availability and local sourcing (cheaper to source) but large structures are cast concrete and rendered pale to combats solar gains. Direction of the prevalent winds south east to north west in summer at highs of 45 and north west to south east in winter reaching freezing point the city is aligned in accordance with this to ensure no wind tunnels are made and that there can be a reduced impact on buildings that face the winds. Mayer’s layout of 6,908 acres compressed to 5,380 acres, increasing the density of the city by 20% whilst in keeping with the principles of the Garden City Movement.


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The above image is a lay over of the city plan onto the current state of chandigarh, its obvious to see since the original construction massive expansion has taken place and over population has become a real problem

Chandigarh


10 Italian Modernism: Giorgio de Chirico

Italy in the state when De CHirico was growing up, was one of experimentation and lots of political turmoil. The 3 parts which now make up Italy had only just become a formed state, so in the 1900s the learning environment for Giorgio would be ever changing. There was political battle between the government and the church and due to extreme influence of the catholic church at this time many were lead to believe it was the correct way to follow. De Chiricos art surrounds the main themes of forced perspective, shadow and mainly uses a focus on ArchiPiazze d’Italia tecture but places of gathering such as town squares or places of historical or religious importance. His paintings were created in the early half of the Due to the extreme use of shadow, even 1900s following his own concepts in painting surwhen the scenario isn’t inherently religion, rounding what the mind remembers of the impact it still caries the ethereal feel. of a space rather than what is actually there, he was quoted saying “I paint what I see with my eyes closed” By this, meaning the site laid out in front on the canvas is what he saw at a point in time but with his emotion and thought laid on top so if you were to visit the places this painting was based on you would have a completely different experience due to your back ground and your life experiences. This way of working inspired a whole host of artists to come such painters as Andre Breton, Salvador Dali. Rene Magritte, Paul Delvaux and Max Ernst. The most prolific theme in Georgios work is the one that connects both him and Aldo Rossi, the feeling of disturbed or forced perspective. In De Chirico’s work, the first glance tricks you into the feeling that everything is correct and true to life however upon closer inspection you can too there are often many vanishing points to emphasise the contrast between light and dark where in reality there wouldn’t be such a difference. A fine example of this would be Piazze d’Italia which looks like the sun coming from top left casting a shadow towards the fore ground however in the foreground the objects don’t follow this rule where light seems to be projected from the observer to compete with the background light, this illuminates the archway on the left which other wise would be in darkness. Architects like Charles Moore were highly inspired by this way of viewing the world and proceeded to design in a way to encompass the minds view of space and making it what is actually present.


Aldo Rossi: L’architettura Della Citta

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The architecture of the city by Aldo Rossi is an analysis of the typical cities form with consideration of the places history, prominent architectural features, politics and culture to name a few. Through case studies like Camillo Sitte, Vienna, Berlin and others he created a proforma by which an evaluation can be made of the state and harmony of a city. He explains his term the ‘Urban Artefact’ in comparison to the observable building and its ‘architecture’. In simple terms he explains to look at a city buildings ‘Architecture’ is just an objective view of design where as to look at a building like this as an ‘Urban Artefact’ makes to also engage in its meaning, reason, style and history including any use change and the influence of transculturalism or political change. He also underlines the importance of both form and the rationality since they embrace many different values, meanings, and uses. Taking his example of the Roman Forum he manages to explain how, even though the buildings use has changed in response to the current social necessities its fundamental structure and general occupation has remained the same. For example the building is a prominent meeting place in addition, the architectural interest and placement within it surroundings make it protected by stature and an influence on surrounding design.


12 Avant Garde: Art and Politics 1. Talk about what you learnt from the lecture and film, how politics shaped art Politics and architecture have an intertwining history, whether that be a form of propaganda by way of building to demonstrate power and wealth or to reflect parts of a manifesto in design. A good example of this from the lecture would be fascist minimalism which came about from the ideas of the National Socialist Party in WW2. Designs would be: • A reflection of the heritage of the area, taking inspiration from gothik design • Minimal and not overly adorned to show the down to earth nature of the party and less of a show off situation and more of a look what we can do • Using light as a metaphor for “doing the right thing” and Christian values, taking ideas from classical architecture and simplifying it. See Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana or The Cathedral of Light. 2. Do you think art and architecture can and should respond to politics? In a lot of contemporary art there are political undertones or in some cases like Matt Bonner or Ai Weiwei, a lot of artists use modern politics as their only inspiration. Its not a bad thing in my opinion, just overly relied on not letting the artists talents talk for themselves. The choice of stimuli in every day art changes with trends and appeals to the audience and the saleability rather than the actual ideas behind the piece. Using my previous examples, Matt bonner, the creator of the Trump Baby Blimp, when I looked into it came across as though it was less of a response to the actual problems surrounding trump and more of a publicity stunt to get his name as a designer out there. In comparison to Ai weiwei, who uses politics to change the perceptions of governments in oppressed countries or to make people aware of the horrors in the world that are being covered by biased systems etc., his work is less about the name behind it but more the impact it has. I believe this to be the correct way of having art responding to politics rather than the mass media viral millennial trend of sensationalising politics to get attention. 3. Think of current political situations globally, that Architects might respond to Something that stood out in the news recently which created a lot of political debate is the Grenfell Tower fire that happened on 14 June 2017 in which a fire broke out in a block of flats causing 72 deaths. The was a lot of debate on whether it was the architects fault or the governments fault for deciding to use a flammable cladding material. In response to this I expect an increase in design built with disaster in mind and alto more thought put into not only the aesthetics of a building but additionally how in the case of a problem exterior design could aid the safe rescue and assistance of public services and occupants. 4. Make a list of action points that could be a’ manifesto’- or call to action • Looking forward design for the current economic state should allow for a new rise in temporary living, building in the essentials for the young who will not be able to afford to buy in their life times • Design should be flexible and compromising to give the upcoming influx of new renters the feeling of control even if for a short period of time • Design should accommodate the possibility that the dwelling may become multiple occupant and therefore have size and safety to deal with this.


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There are no mistakes in art Pesponse by Jo Stant


14 Hot Modernism

Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau

Regional Modernism: Buildings are designed and built to a modernist style but are conscious of and restricted by the area, including the climactic conditions, material availability, local tradition in constructions and access to workmanship. Critical Regionalism: Buildings are designs to a modernist style but are forced to encompass the spirit of the local region whether that be a material or shape or limiting the hight in line with its neighbours, this is done in order to not stand out too much rather than due to the limited resources.

Crossing paths: Luis Barragán was born where most of his design In the 1920s, he travelle and Spain and, in 1931, attending Le Corbusier’s You can see the influenc ever he obviously create and made it unique the

Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau Le Corbusier’s Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau was design a Modern City of 3,000,000 Inhabitants”, the title of hi des Arts Décoratifs of the same year. The design was o to tackle overpopulation, incorporation the furniture fabric of the building. Whilst also having the open roo double hight ceilings with a roof terrace to over come housing. The style was reminiscent of the form follows function embracing pure industrial geometry and the benefits c way he revolutionised modern interiors to embody fu Cuadra San Cristóbal Designed by Louis Barragan, Cuadra San Cristóbal is Expression through colour, space and for breaking the rules. Barragan cleverly used abstract geometry to cr ism in his design, many sources describe the style of spacial manipulation as a synthesis of the fundamental contrast of freedom and regiment, with the water borders created to instil the feeling of contentment and to tion the geometric pool had the refreshing freedom related to the free fall of the water but then being lead in life through the palette, pink hues dedicated to the animals and the calm neutrals represent human dwelling The building combines modernism in is form and the region in is construction and colour.


Cuadra San Cristóbal

n in Guadalajara, Mexico ns were based however ed extensively in France lived in Paris for a time, ’s lectures. ces with his work howed his own angle on it region he lived in.

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Differences in design: Le Corbusier’s Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau was meant as a replicatable design so although designed in a modernist style it was constricted by the fact it would have to be mass producible and slot into any cultural region making it fit in the category of Critical Regionalism Cuadra San Cristóbal however is a one off and was designed on site by the locals so use materials from relatively near and the cast sections are rendered in colours reminiscent of the primary festival colours in Mexico whilst still having cool heat reflecting colours to keep living conditions controllable. This would come under regional modernism.

ned in 1925 under the larger guise of “Plan for is project that he entered in the Paris Exposition one that would fit into a revolutionary grid design like cabinets, shelves and wardrobes within the omy feel you get with larger houses by having e lack of green space that comes along with mass

n in a modernist body, rejecting the ornate and connected to mass production. By working this unctionality.

located in Mexico City and is renowned for its reate barriers and partitions that emulate a sense of room separation. There is a lot of emphasis on symboll questions of life expressed through the water and geometric abstraction. I see is slightly differently, about o proved a proving ground for the animals, however whimsical they are they’re still entrapments, in addinto a squared sectioned pool that screams control. I do however like the segregation of animal and human g.


16 Brutalism in the UK: Problems and Legacy

Birmingham Central Library Birmingham Central Library was designed by the architect John Madin, his style was of design is considered brutalist however, brutalism was prevalent between 1951 and 1975, Madin designed BCL in 1974 towards the tail end of the period. The lateness of his induction of the UK to bruitalism is probably what lead to such a hatred of the building itself as it was considered ugly and unfashionable soon after its completion. In addition to its limited appeal, it was also never completed to Madins original design some external buildings and extensions to the site never made it to fruition. On the flip side, those who did appreciate his design and understood bruitalism could appreciate the strong graphic aesthetic, highly contrasted concrete to the shadows it makes, and the progression in industry and society that it represented. The layout consisted of a split tiered system where the top layers and extruding facade of the building were home to the lending library for general use, then to the rear leading to a more secluded space were the reference library where material was climate controlled to reduce degradation.


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Arguments for the Demolition of the Library Design was inappropriate and unfashionable The design of the building was in a style which quite quickly grew out of fashion, Prince Charles was quoted saying it looked like “a place where books are incinerated, not kept”. Many people felt similarly and subsequently built a popularity in opinion through word of mouth that the building was indeed “ugly”. The materials were eroding creating a health and safety hazard The building itself was constructed from a series of reinforced concrete panels, the design of this however must have be inadequate seeing as in 1999 small chunks became loose and were reported to have narrowly missed members of the public. This created some conflict in the safety of the building leaving to discussions on how to sure up the building from further erosion from the weather and other sources. the results of said discussion were that of a netting to be equipped, creating a retainer. The upkeep was too expensive and subsequently wasn’t happening. The buildings concrete panel system, as well as being problematic in resistance from erosion was also causing absorption of the pollution in the rain, this was causing staining and leaving the slabs dreary and reminiscent of a grotty council flat and gave off bad imagery to its users, to clean the building was a possibility however the expense wand never spent due to the cost and a list of higher priority things that came above exterior aesthetics.

Arguments Against the Demolition of the Library

An Icon of British design This design style, was revolutionary for this point in time, it was changing the British urban landscape and even in its non-existent state now its still considered a point of great architectural influence. Many historical and architectural boards applied to get the library listed only to get the feed back that “the building did not have sufficient historical or architectural importance to merit listing”. To knock it down is unsustainable The building was on a whole intact and safe minus some surface details, it was only in intended used for 40 years and considering the many possibilities the building could be converted into, like a school or uni, office block, armature dramatics theatre to pair with the REP, all would take less resources than would be wasted by demolition. It was what was know by the locals and seen as a part of many peoples personal history The building was considered a place of social importance, many people who campaigned to keep the building were locals who had grown up with this piece of art and believed it benefited the future generations to also have the opportunity to know the library like this and grow up in a Birmingham that their parents knew and could share experiences.

Drawing response by Jo Stant


18 Frank Lloyd Wright “I believe in God, only I spell it Nature” Known for his understanding of shape and form in terms of contrast to its surroundings, Frank Lloyd Wrights architecture was no different. Wrights creations seemed to sprout from the landscape around it, where in stark contrast such as falling water the cliff like stone surface protruding from the greenery around redirecting the natural flow of the river on which its build. This theme of discourse in reflection of the surrounding landscape whether it be the current landscape or the historical can be seen throughout his design back log. The image below of Falling water depicts the jagged geometric yet still natural looking house that could be mistake as a rocky outcrop from which the waterfall springs, the use of local stone and similar shades of concrete render allows what could seem disjointed to blend into the landscape. He takes inspiration from his forbears and key elements show through quoted saying “Form follows function - that has been misunderstood. Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union.” ~ Frank Lloyd Wright, he made his own opinions building on that of the past. “A building should appear to grow easily from its site and be shaped to harmonize with its surroundings if Nature is manifest there.” Another quote which his indicative of Falling water and the Johnson Wax Headquarters. Although positioned in an industrial area and made to a strict specification the JWH still stays true the themes of nature in the lily pad design.

Falling Water


Johnson Wax Headquarters

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The Johnson Wax Headquarters designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, completed in 1939. One of the most famous of his work for its outstanding natural form; the great workroom is designed in a way that the glass roof is supported by columns that are 23 cm diameter at the base and 500 cm at the top. The design is inspired by the shape of lilly-pads on water as though they are holding up the tension and surface of a lake hence the glass roof. At the time the design did not correlate with the building regulations of the time so to prove they would be sufficiently strong Wright tested one with 12 tonnes of material, but due to his design genius and stubbornness he also insisted it be loaded with 5x that weight, to the point where it could handle 60 tonnes before any cracking occurred. Following this demonstration, Wright was given his building permit. With a tight specification to provide a work space in a professional manor by designing the building this way hes in-keeping with his beliefs that you should not sully the landscape with the architecture on it but more add and enhance the nature through form.


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Chinese New year 10 year anniversary Union Drive

AEGON Classic tennis tournament African dance group Umoja

Recycling Week

Little Hears Matter Foundation

Christmas LGBTQ+ Pride


Drawing response by Jo Stant

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Transcultural Space Transculturalism is the ability to take on elements of culture and ideals of another group whilst still staying true to your original beliefs. So applying this to an architectural standing may be explained as, transcultural space is a building or area that may be either a blank canvas or strongly culturally influenced space to which different cultures impact and manipulate to work for them. My obvious display of this would be the Birmingham Bull Ring, this was originally build in a way that is inoffensive to everyone and can be used by anyone from any back ground, in more recent times there have been more material impacts on the space by different cultural groups (and for my example general collectives of people) in the form of a new tradition of fancy dress for the bull in the centre. This has had timely and impacting influences from the celebration of the large Asian population in Birmingham with the dragon for Chinese New Year to the dramatic performances based on and surrounding the animal displayed by African dance groups.


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References Planning Tank™. (2018). Chandigarh Master Plan by Le Corbusier - Urban Planning. [online] Available at: https://planningtank.com/master-plan/chandigarh-master-plan [Accessed 29 Oct. 2018]. Prakash, V. (2002). Chandigarh’s Le Corbusier. Ahmedabad, India: Mapin Pub., pp.5-6. Chandigarhurbanlab.org. (2018). The Shivalik Hills and the Plan | Chandigarh Urban Lab. [online] Available at: http://chandigarhurbanlab.org/the-shivalik-hills-and-the-plan/ [Accessed 29 Oct. 2018]. V and A Collections. 2014. Sunflower | Morris, William | V&A Search the Collections. [ONLINE] Available at: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O249324/sunflower-wallpaper-morris-william/. [Accessed 15 November 2018]. Bantock House Museum, Wolverhampton - WAVE. 2019. Bantock House Museum, Wolverhampton WAVE. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.wolverhamptonart.org.uk/visit/bantock/. [Accessed 15 November 2018]. Barcelona® Chair | Knoll. 2019. Barcelona® Chair | Knoll. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.knoll.com/ product/barcelona-chair. [Accessed 1 December 2018]. leksinteractive.com. 2019. Mr. Bigglesworthy - Mid Century Modern and Designer Retro Furniture. [ONLINE] Available at: http://mrbigglesworthy.co.nz/designers/39/pieff-furniture. [Accessed 1 December 2018]. leksinteractive.com. 2019. Mr. Bigglesworthy - Mid Century Modern and Designer Retro Furniture. [ONLINE] Available at: http://mrbigglesworthy.co.nz/designers/39/pieff-furniture. [Accessed 1 December 2018]. Italy’s squares in Giorgio de Chirico’s works | Italian Ways. 2019. Italy’s squares in Giorgio de Chirico’s works | Italian Ways. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.italianways.com/italys-squares-in-giorgio-de-chiricosworks/. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. Piazza d’Italia (New Orleans) - Wikipedia. 2019. Piazza d’Italia (New Orleans) - Wikipedia. [ONLINE] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piazza_d%27Italia_%28New_Orleans%29#/media/File:PiazzaDItalia1990.jpg. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. Trivium Art History. 2019. Giorgio de Chirico - Piazza d’Italia, 1964 | Trivium Art History. [ONLINE] Available at: https://arthistoryproject.com/artists/giorgio-de-chirico/piazza-ditalia/. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM: Aldo Rossi: The Architecture of the City (1966). 2019. ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM: Aldo Rossi: The Architecture of the City (1966). [ONLINE] Available at: http://architectureandurbanism.blogspot.com/2012/06/aldo-rossi-architecture-of-city-1966.html. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. ArchiTravel | Online Architecture Guide. 2019. Cuadra San Cristóbal | ArchiTravel. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.architravel.com/architravel/building/cuadra-san-cristobal/. [Accessed 3 January 2019]. ArchDaily. 2019. Le Corbusier’s Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau Named One of “20 Designs That Defined the Modern World” | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/883336/le-corbusiers-pavillon-de-lesprit-nouveau-named-one-of-20-designs-that-defined-the-modern-worl. [Accessed 18 February 2019]. My Modern Met. 2019. What Is Brutalism and Why Is It Making a Comeback?. [ONLINE] Available at: https://mymodernmet.com/brutalist-architecture/. [Accessed 18 February 2019].


reddit. 2019. 1 Fallingwater - Mill Run, PA - By Frank Lloyd Wright [OC] [2000x1335] - Interior Album in Comments : ArchitecturePorn. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/ArchitecturePorn/comments/8g04c7/1_fallingwater_mill_run_pa_by_frank_lloyd_wright/. [Accessed 18 February 2019].

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Behance. 2019. Behance. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.behance.net/gallery/3223273/Sowden-House. [Accessed 18 February 2019]. ArchDaily. 2019. AD Classics: S.C. Johnson and Son Administration Building / Frank Lloyd Wright | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/90519/ad-classics-s-c-johnson-and-son-administration-building-frank-lloyd-wright. [Accessed 18 February 2019]. www.fondationlecorbusier.fr. 2019. No page title. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=5061&sysLanguage=fr-fr&itemPos=44&itemCount=78&sysParentName=home&sysParentId=64. [Accessed 18 February 2019]. Dezeen. 2019. Luis Barragรกn | Dezeen. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/tag/luis-barragan/. [Accessed 18 February 2019]. Luis Barragan | Tag | ArchDaily . 2019. Luis Barragan | Tag | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: https:// www.archdaily.com/tag/luis-barragan. [Accessed 18 February 2019].

Profile for Johanna Stant

History of Modern Architecture.  

NAME: JOHANNA STANT ID: S18111376 COURSE: BA ARCHITECTURE

History of Modern Architecture.  

NAME: JOHANNA STANT ID: S18111376 COURSE: BA ARCHITECTURE

Profile for jostant
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