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Placebolb Project Industrial Design TU/e 11-01-2010

Josje Wijnen B3.2

Coach: Jacob Alkema Client: Tom Bergman (Philips)


Context & Research 4 Introduction 4

Ideas and final concept 16

Final Prototype 30 Hardware 30

Exploring the field of lighting 6

Idea selection 16

Electrical Circuit Diagram 32

Literary Light Research 9

Interim Concept 20

Context Calculations 33

Design Challenge 11

Revising the interim concept 24


User survey 12

Final Concept 27


Future Recommendations 44

Appendices 46 A. Software programmed on the Arduino 46

Form 36

Construction Process 40

B. Results of the Questionnaire 48

Form of interim concept 36

Move across the ceiling 40

C. Electrical Circuit Diagram 51

Form process for final concept 37

Up-down mechanism 42

D. Hardware Problems

Prototype Form 39

Overal conclusion on

and Tips 52

the mechanism 43

E. Form Sketches 53 F. References 56

Context & Research Introduction The sunset of the light bulb The sunset of the light bulb in the Netherlands (and several other EU countries) allows one to look more closely to the available lighting alternatives. Especially revising lighting needs/habits and looking at the possibilities of new technologies (LED technology in particular) allow for interesting design opportunities. This project focuses on new (LED) concepts that fit these needs and habits. LED Technology LED technology offers new opportunities. My personal interest in LED technology (besides energy efficiency) is that it can easily be controlled by a computer. This opens a world of interaction opportunities. LEDs can be dimmed, allow for easy colour change, are very small and last for a long period of time. In contrast to light bulbs which could be dimmed, but not change colour, Page 4

not nearly last as long and can not easily be controlled by a computer. Light I made a small analysis of which aspects of lamplight play a role in satisfying lighting needs. In my opinion there are four main elements. First there is location and direction of light. This is determined by the lamp’s placement within an environment. The last two, intensity and colour temperature, come from the light source itself. These will have the biggest impact on how the experience a light. The colour temperature is not actual colours like red or green, but the degree of whiteness. Cold white or blue-white is best for seeing true colours. Daylight is blue-white. “Daylight is blue-white, because it is a combination of sunlight and bluish light from the sky.” - from the book: “Residential lighting [2]” However, light from light bulbs is more yellow white. It might not be suitable for seeing true colours, but it is generally perceived as a more friendly, cosy light. LED light is usually more blue-white, but does not match the capabilities of daylight yet. Therefore it’s

often perceived as an cold and unfriendly light, making people look pale. So it is important to keep the colour temperature in mind for functional reasons as well as for the light experience.

When some of these, or maybe even all four, elements become adjustable variables instead of fixed values, a light source will become dynamic.

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Exploring the field of lighting Exploring the field of lighting The subject “light” or “lighting” is immensely huge. During the explorative phase of the project my interest focused on small and private areas like peoples homes. I found it remarkable how many lamps can be found within a room. If each lamp stands for a different lighting need, than a lot of different lighting needs can be found within one room. More proof of the presence of numerous lights in homes can be found on the Philips site according to which a home even contains 20-40 light units[3]. This means there are numerous lamps per room.

“For many people finding the right light for a room is rather difficult. People are often discontent with the lighting in their home” [1]

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Together with the statement above this forms a very suitable problem area. So I formed a hypothesis: Multiple lamps within a room means that a number of different activities occur within this room, resulting in different lighting needs to support these activities. From this the following design challenge was derived: “How can I make a light that is adaptable to multiple lighting needs in a room?� I decided to focus on student room because these rooms are ideal places when looking for rooms in which a lot of different activities happen, and thus create a number of different lighting needs.

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Accent light is direct illumination that highlight objects within an environment.

Literary Light Research To get more in-depth information on light, I read a number of chapters from the book “Residential Lighting” which discusses types of light and how light architects can best use this to design the lightuse within a room. I will shortly discuss the main conclusions.

Task light is for performing work-related activities, such as reading, cutting vegetables and sorting laundry. The optimal task light is located between your head and the work surface. Lighting from above isn’t a good source of task light, because your head casts a shadow onto your book. Use pharmacy-type lamps to position the light between your head and the work surface.

Within a room light can have four basic functions: • • • •

decorative accent task ambient

Best one can use layering of the four within a space to create a unified design and a comfortable and flexible environment. Decorative light is for looking good but cannot provide usable illumination. It is the other three functions of light (task, accent and ambient) that are actually doing the real work of lighting up the space.

Pharmacy lamp Page 9

Ambient light is the general illumination that fills the entire room with light. The best ambient light comes from sources that bounce illumination off the ceiling and walls. A common misconception is that the more light there is, the better people can see. If there is too much unshielded light in the room, the monitor becomes difficult to read because of the amount of light hitting the surface of the screen. On the other hand, work on the computer can cause eye strain, fatigue and headaches. This can be reduced by cutting the contrast in the overall environment by adding additional illumination. As long as the task, ambient, decorative, and accent lighting are on separate controls, you can adjust the lighting to create a more comfortable work environment.

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My conclusions from this research When looking at providing functional light for performing activities within a room, ambient light and task light are most important. In order to work with a computer it is best to have an additional light source to make sure that the computer’s monitor is not the sole light source. However, this light source shouldn’t be too bright. It’s not a good idea to get rid of all the lamps within a room and replace it with one multifunctional lamp. However, a dynamic lamp which produces multiple light functions at the same time and adjust to the environment, could really enrich the lighting of a room. A lot of the other lamps could become redundant, with only few to remain. Also, if done right, a lamp which adjust to the environment could help to create a light within their room that they’re satisfied with.

Design Challenge “How can I make a light that is adaptable to multiple lighting needs in a room?� Looking at this design challenge with the previously discussed research conclusions in mind, the light solution should be able to provide multiple light function. Most important are ambient light and task light, when looking at functionality and supporting activities within a room. This means that the solution should lighten the room as well as be able to position itself between head and the work surface.

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Participants have on average 4 (3.95) lamps in their room

User survey As mentioned before I decided to focus on student rooms because these rooms are ideal places when looking for different activities happening within a small space, and thus create a number of different lighting needs. I set up an online survey to investigate which activities occur within these rooms, which are the related lighting needs and to what extend these are currently fulfilled. See appendix B for all results on the questionnaire. Conclusions from the survey 80 people participated 34% female, 66% male

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On average 5 (4.73) seating places per participant

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Activities are performed on multiple places within a room

The piecharts on the right show that activities such as gaming are done on one specific location within the room by 72% of the participants. Educational reading however, is an activity that is done on two or more different locations within their room by more than half of the participants. This means that the light that supports this activity best is needed on several spots within the room.

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On specific places within a room multiple activities occur

This means that on each spot, several lights are needed to support the number of activities.

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Ideas and final concept


User Control

Idea selection Design challenge used to generate ideas: “How can I make a light that is adaptable to multiple lighting needs in a room?” From idea generation a number of ideas were selected. These could be divided into the following categories: • • • •

Location (move across a room) Flexible (be able to switch between light types) Adaptive system (how can I insert some intelligence or behaviour) User Control (User must have control to shape the light to his will and it must be a intuitive and user-friendly interaction)

Tilting the lamp activates different Literally pull the light down lighting elements

The categories formed by the ideas were combined to form one concept.

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Control light by adjusting the lamp’s form.

Natural effect of change in light emount and direction


Adaptive system

Lamp that can extend to reach every place

General illumination with strings that light up when connected

Lamp remembers your preferences Lamp communicates with outlook to and automatically adapts make a light-schedule

Throw the light to the place you want lit

Reflect light to wanted area

Remote control for the lights

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Interim Concept The concept presented at the interim exhibition: a lamp that can move across the room (move across the ceiling and move among a vertical axis) and thus can reach every location within a room. The lamp has three elements. • One element in the middle: decorative light. This is non-functional light, but communicates this is a light-object or lamp. • The second element is to be opened by the user (lower half of the lamp), and contains task light (for reading and working). • The third element is on the top and is ambient light that enlights the room. “The best ambient light comes from sources that bounce illumination off the ceiling and walls.” – book: “Residential Lighting”

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The task light can be adjusted in direction and the broadness of the lightbeam

By pulling the lamp downwards, the ambient light (that enlights the volume of the room) will dim (and get a warmer colour temperature), thus offering the creation of mood. However, there is also the ability to disable this dimming, so to freeze the ambient light at a preferred light brightness. The lamps goes out by putting it up against the ceiling. The elements do not communicate internally. So the main aspects of the concept: • movable (both vertically and horizontally) • lamp is its own control or light switch • offers 3 types of light: »» ambient light »» task light »» decorative light

The user can freeze the ambient light at a prefered light brightness

Together this make the lamp adjustable in: • light location (all lights) • light direction (task light) • light temperature (entire room) • light intensity (entire room) • broadness of lightbeam (task light)

The lamp is off when it is at its heighest point

Pulling the light down results in a less bright and warmer light

Revising the interim concept After the interim the concept went through a number of changes of which only the interaction will be discussed here. When revising the interim concept I looked more critically upon the task light. I came to a number of conclusions. First of all being able to adjust the direction of the task light becomes redundant when the lamp itself can be moved across the room. Second the gained advantage of adjusting the amount of task light is questionable. The beam itself becomes automatically smaller and more focus when moving the lamp downward, closer to the working surface. So the mobility of the lamp makes both adjusting the direction and the amount of light given from within the lamp unnecessary. However conclusions from the interim exhibition were that opening and closing the task light with the handle was a very strong mapping (the more the lower part Page 24

was opened, the more light would come out). However, dimming the light by pulling it down was less strong. However, since the functions of adjusting the task light were concluded as redundant (and thus so was the entire handle), the interaction mapping of the entire concept had to be revised. I performed interaction tests on how to intuitively dim a light. I put up a lamp with a dimmer, and asked people to make a gesture or movement with their arms in the air beneath the lamp, to control the brightness of the light. All of the participants tried the pull down the light at some point. Remarkably all participants touched the lamp itself multiple times, even though they were specifically (and repeatedly) asked not to. I find this an interesting finding. This confirms the intuition in controlling the lamp through itself instead of from a distance. However, the test did not provide any conclusive outcomes for intuitive dimming movements. Therefore I arranged an expert meeting with Joep Frens (interaction mapping expert).

Conclusions Expert Meeting Joep Frens •

• •

Not different movement but different mapping needed. Vertical interaction becomes more intuitive if the separate light elements communicate Mapping doesn’t necessarily have to be on a linear axes, could also be in levels. Bringing a light closer (without changing it) results in a brighter and more focussed surface. This could be emphasized through technology.

By use of a simulation (made in Adobe Flash and Actionscript 3) I explored product behaviour and affects that changes have. For example the light type, the amount of automation, information retrieved from environment, adjustments to the light itself, etc. Simultaneous to developing the concept I started the building of constructions to move the lamp across the room, this is reflected in the further development of the simulation.

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Screenshots of different versions of simulations to develop interaction

hand of a person for a surface. Yet at the same time this makes the light very formable for the user as long as it is in movement.

Final Concept The expert meeting with Joep Frens confirmed my conclusion to drop the handle, and to rethink the interaction mapping on a nonlinear basis. Through this process I decided upon a new interaction mapping. Instead the lamp automatically switches to task light if it detects a surface within 60 cm. Now all the interaction happens over the vertical axis. In this way the interaction is more intuitive and fluent and becomes far more dynamic and even intelligent because it responds to its environment. To realise this, the lamp has two distance sensors. One on top, measuring the distance to the ceiling, with the purpose to determine whether the lamp is being moved. If this is the case than the distance sensor directed downwards will be activated. This lower distance sensor controls when the task light will be activated. This means that the lamp will only adapt to its environment while it’s in movement. This makes sure that the lamp will not accidentally mistake a head or

To put the concept in other words: the user pulls the light towards him/her. The ambient light weakens when pulling the lamp down to create task light, thus creating a space of centralized lighting where the activity is focussed.

“A common misconception is that the more light there is, the better people can see. If there is too much unshielded light in the room, the monitor becomes difficult to read because of the amount of light hitting the surface of the screen.”- book: “Residential Lighting”

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As can be seen in the scenes from above, the lamp dynamically adapts to surfaces on different heights Page 28

“ Since much of our work these days is done on the computer, we have genuine concerns about eye strain, fatigue, and headaches. These can often be caused by contrast and reflection. Add additional illumination to help reduce eye fatigue by cutting the contrast in the overall environment. “- book: “Residential Lighting”- book: “Residential Lighting”

Through random sampling (heights of desk lamps) the height was determined on 45 centimetres (between head and surface). So at 45 cm from a surface the lamp will switch to pure task light.

As mentioned before the conclusion that can be drawn from these excerpts is that in order to work with a computer it is best to have a second light source to make sure that the computer’s monitor is not the sole light source. However, this light source shouldn’t be too bright. This is cohesive with the mapping of the concept, the lamp will provide both task light and ambient light in addition to the monitors screen to decrease the contrast and reduce eye fatigue. At the same time the ambient light is dimmed when the lamp is pulled towards this activity, thus preventing the lamp to provide too much light which will disturb the situation. Page 29

Final Prototype Hardware On the right hand side is a technical drawing showing the placement of several elements. First of all the heat sink, which is the two bigger back plates, one triangular and one squared form, needed for cooling the LEDs. In this case aluminium was used. Also due to the material this element has most impact on the weight of the prototype. There are two distance sensors (SHARP GP2Y0A02) which measure between 20 and 150 cm. These are placed as centred as possible. This provides a more intuitive interaction than when the sensor is placed more to the outside. The light source used are Luxeon Rebel Warm White and Cold White LEDs.

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“Fluorescent or light-emitting diode (LED) linear lights are also a good source of task illumination when mounted over a work surface” - book: “Residential Lighting” 14 LEDs (7 warm white, 7 cold white) are placed on the upper element, these light upwards, thus enlighting the room. “Ambient light is the soft, general illumination that fills the volume of a room with a glow of light and softens the shadows on people’s faces. The best ambient light comes from sources that bounce illumination off the ceiling and walls.” – book: “Residential Lighting” 6 LEDs (3 warm white, 3 cold white) are placed on the lower element, these are for switching between decorative light and task light. The LEDs are placed in such a way that the warm and the cold light is mixed. Additional elements are the lenses placed on the LEDs of the lower plate. This is to bundle the light and form them into beams (useful for task light).


10 mm





90 mm

2.5 mm





Electrical Circuit Diagram

Building the hardware was a difficult process, and the numerous setback provided me with a set of useful new knowledge concerning this project. For a list of helpful tips see appendix D.

An arduino was used in the electrical circuit. The electrical circuit also all the elements mentioned on the previous page and furthermore includes low pass filters. See appendix C for the electrical circuit diagram. The low pass filters are used to filter peeks from the value retrieved from the distance sensors. The upper sensor has a bigger capacitor (10uF), resulting in a slower response time. The lower sensor has a smaller capacitor (1uF) to be able to respond more quickly. Further coding (taking an average over a number of values) makes sure that the value of the sensor is more stable. The reason for combining a low pass filter and averaging through software is that purely averaging through software slows down the response time of the lamp significantly. See appendix for the graphs showing effects on the value of the distance value.

A look inside the prototype Page 32

Context Calculations Torcheres (floor lamps) which enlight a room, need to have a minimal distance from the ceiling of 60cm to be able to enlight the room. Therefore I made all calculations with the minimal distance of the lamp from the ceiling being 60cm. For the height of the rope and the height of the counterweight calculations were needed. The following numbers were used. Average total length of room: 250cm Min. height of lamp from the ceiling: 60cm Average height of table: 70cm Average height of couch + lap: 40+15= 55cm Lamp height: 20cm Distance to surface for task light: 45cm So the prototype lamp (taking its lowest point) has to be from 80cm from the ceiling (250-80=170cm) to lowest scenario surface (couch+lap) with task light (45+55 = 100cm).

Due to the use of a double-pulley system, the counterweight needs half of the distance up or down compared to the lamp (but also needs to be precisely twice as heavy)

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Software During concept development (after the interim concept) I made use of a simulation to test the effect of changing aspects of the concept. I used Adobe Flash and Actionscript 3 to program the Simulation. See heading “Final Concept” for screenshots. For the actual prototype I programmed in Arduino. See appendix A for the software.

Flowchart of the lamp’s behavior

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Form Form of interim concept For the interim model I didn’t spend much time on form development. I did a small-scale clay exploration which helped mainly in determining the form of the handle. I think the handle on the interim model is visually very present. I like the oversized look, because it makes the interaction so obvious (I like when things are visually clear).

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However, for the final model the form had to be revised. Both for aesthetical reasons as due to functionality reasons. The form of the lamp itself was more of an undefined piece of candy, which is not the effect I was going for. And the functionality of the lamp changed during concept development, making the handle (or most of its functions) unnecessary.

Form process for final concept Due to functionality shifts in concept development and shift in the choice in hanging construction a part of the form development became redundant. See appendix E for more sketches.

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However, based on this a new slightly shorter process was done for the final concept. See the chosen outcome below. See a form exploration sketch excerpt on the right hand side.

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Prototype Form Although the form of the prototype was in a lot of ways limited, it did influence the form of the product. The initial idea was to keep it clean and simple. However, the handle of the prototype was made it looked a lot like a car’s steering wheel. By eliminating some of the aspects that make it look like a steering wheel, this image was taken away. I decided to use the eventual form of the handle and reused the material and colours throughout the prototype. I preferred the iconic image over a clean but barely unique form.

Construction Process Move across the ceiling Throughout concept development and building the prototype there have been numerous choices made on construction mechanisms of all kinds. The initial requirement for the construction which should transport the lamp throughout a space was feasibility. This was because I wanted to put the main focus on the workings of the lamp, to be able to experiment with the light experience and all its facets. However, due to necessities and complexity of the case, the construction took a lot of time off my hands. Here I will present the variety of constructions considered.

A. The imaginary construction presented at the interim, supposed to be movable in 3 dimensions and stick to its place. B. Stuck to the ceiling through magnets, not the most feasible option. C. A big telescopic arm, too heavy to stay aside. D. Use of pipes, causes friction, not advised by expert (Mr. Delbressine, TUE). E. Arms like a dentist lamp, extremely precise craftsmanship needed to make this work, not advised by expert (Mr. Delbressine, TUE). F. System of pulleys, advised by expert (Mr. Delbressine, TUE) Conclusion: Option F

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Option F offers some variaties: H. Simple use of counterweights on four points of the room to keep the lamp in the middel up I. Use of wind-up-spring mechanism to get rid of the weights J. Use of motors which electronically pull and push to help move the lamp. This offers possibilities to let the lamp move by itself, but it also causes noise. Conclusion: Option I

Situation: the pulley-system turns out to draw the lamp back to the middle. Revising of construction choice. L. Use of motors. M. Use of wind-up-spring mechanism positioned in the lamp in combination with a break to fix the lamp to its spot. N. A fixture to the ceiling connected to a pipe with the lamp on one end of it and a weight on the other. Together with the ability to move across the pipe the lamp still covers quite some space. O. Also known as construction D, but then use rail instead of pipes and only make use of 1 rail. Conclusion: Option O is the most feasible, which is the primary requirement since only little of the project’s time is left. Page 41

Up-down mechanism Apart from moving across the ceiling, the lamp also has to be able to move up and down. Some of the previously discussed constructions already include the up-down movement, but others not. On the right hand side the considered options are shown. B. The up-down mechanism is already included in the construction C. The up-down mechanism is a separate element Conclusion: This is dependent on the construction, but it soon turned out that the up-down needed to be a separate element. D. An antenna or telescopic mechanism. This needs precisely enough friction. Not too little, then it wont stay in place, not too much because then it won’t move smoothly. E. Counterweight. Makes the movement smooth. F. A wind-up-spring. This can be found in older lamps which are height adjustable. However, the user has to Page 42

lift the weight of the entire lamp, plus the lamp has to be held straight (so needs two hands). G. Extendable system. Possible, but not the most aesthetical solution. H.&I. Move over a pipe and use gravity to keep let it stick to a height. With this there is always a pipe hanging down the ceiling J. See construction E on previous pages. Conclusion: A combination of option D and option E. Option E because it is the ideal up-down construction and option D because it will make sure that the lamp can be pulled to the sides (instead of the rope just bending) So last I made a small exploration of possibilities for the counterweight. K. By putting the counterweight itself on a pulley the counterweight only has to go up half the distance the lamp goes down. L. How about symmetry. M&O. Inserting another lamp violates the concept. N. Have the counterweight above the lamp. Conclusion: Option N. I like the effect. The counterweight will have to be hollow to allow the distance sensors to generate usable values.

Overall conclusion on the mechanism The mechanism of the final prototype with just the rail and the counterweight worked pretty well, even moving to the sides. The up-down mechanism is very smooth and was exactly the feeling I was looking for. By using multiple connection points at the lamp for hanging up, the turning freedom is constrained and this also enables the side movement of the lamp. This now goes rather smooth, though looking for ways to improve this aspect is advised when continuing this project. Page 43

Future Recommendations 1. The project ends with the prototype, however, recommended is to play with the light experience and improve the light source by making sure the user cannot look into the LEDs. This could be done through diffusion for example, which would also make the LEDs more one combined light instead of 14 separate sources 2. The chosen construction for moving the lamp across the room is interesting. The main requirement for the construction was feasibility, due to which a tradeoff had to be made with the movability of the lamp. However, this construction can very well be marketed by offering the customer: a. the choice of where to put the rail in the room b. a variety of rails, straight or with corners, U-shaped, etc 3. In addition to this I recommend testing construction N. I think that both constructions mentioned are the least obtrusive in a home environment, thus fit in best.

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4. Test for optimal task light switch-point (current height, 45 centimetres from surface is derived from random sampling). Advisable is an overlap of task light and warm decorative light from a distance of 60cm. Or to revise the decision to put the upper element on the lamp instead of at the ceiling. 5. Provide the LEDs with more current The prototype was not able to actually enlight the entire room. However, to my opinion the current LEDs are capable of doing so. To ensure this it is recommended to replace the constant current supplies (providing 350mA) for elements which provide the LEDs with more current (max 1A). 6. By mounting the LEDs in a different angle it is possible to enlight the room while the lamp is closer to the ceiling than 60cm. However, the effect on how much the room is enlighted when the lamp is lower should be tested. 7. Optimise acceleration determination. The acceleration used in the code is not optimal yet, since it uses short detection period, disabling comparison for longer periods. For example when the lamp is pulled down or up in a slow manner.

Appendices A. Software programmed on the Arduino //PlaceBolb Josje Wijnen B3.2 #include <math.h> // (no semicolon) #define SENSOR 0 // select the input pin for the sensor resistor #define SENSOR 1 #define LED 3 // the pin for the LED #define LED 9 #define LED 10 #define LED 11 #define LED 13 // this is the testLED on the Arduinoboard int sensorUp = 0; // variable to store the value coming from the sensor int sensorDown = 50; int intensityUp = 0; int intensityDown=0; int count = 0; int count2 = 0; int sumUp=0; int sumDown=0; Page 46

int averageUp = 0; int averageDown =0; int acceleration = 0; int oldUp = 0; int newUp = 0; void setup() { pinMode(LED, OUTPUT); // LED is as an OUTPUT //Serial.begin(9600); // open the serial port to send // data back to the computer at // 9600 bits per second } void loop() { sensorUp = analogRead(0); // read the value from the sensor //Serial.println(val); // print the value to the serial port if (count >=50){//calculate average to decrease spikes of sensor output oldUp = averageUp; averageUp =sumUp/count; newUp = averageUp; averageDown= sumDown/count; sumUp= 0; sumDown=0; count = 0;

} count +=1; if(count2>300){ acceleration = fabs(oldUp - newUp); // make pos values of all negatives count2 = 0; Serial.println(acceleration); if(acceleration >3){ // if the lamp is moving.. sensorDown = analogRead(1);// values from the sensor below } } count2 +=1; sumUp= sumUp+sensorUp; sumDown = sumDown+sensorDown; intensityUp = 255-(averageUp/2); intensityDown = averageDown/2; if (intensityDown<0){ intensityDown = 0; } if (intensityDown>255){ intensityDown = 255; } if (intensityUp<80){

intensityUp = 0; } if (intensityUp>255){ intensityUp = 255; } //folowing code connects sensor input directly to light output analogWrite(10,intensityUp);//warm up light analogWrite(11,intensityUp);//cold up light if (sensorDown<400){ analogWrite(9,intensityDown); analogWrite(3,0); } if (sensorDown>=400){ analogWrite(3,255); analogWrite(9,0); } if (averageUp>200 && averageDown>200){ // this is for testing the distance sensors at set-up digitalWrite(13, HIGH); // turn the LED on } if (averageUp<200){ digitalWrite(13, LOW); // turn the LED off } }

B. Results of the Questionnaire

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C. Electrical Circuit Diagram

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D. Hardware Problems and Tips Building the hardware was a difficult process, and the numerous setback provided me with a set of useful new knowledge concerning this project. 1. Everything that can go wrong will most likely go wrong, even if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not supposed to 2. Most helpful is to regularly measure (to become familiar with the values), so when the prototype suddenly stops working the problem area can be detected more quickly 3. When using a long wire to bridge the distance its useful to keep in mind: the longer the wire the higher the resistance and the thinner (more flexible) the wire the more resistence. 4. Make sure that all connections are solidly fixed (well soldered), this can save a lot of trouble later on. Especially when you have a lot of soldered connections. 5. The same goes for wires connected through connectors. Plus when some wires have to connect and disconnect regularly, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wise to mark which wire needs to be fixed to which. 6. When a the electric circuit is a combination of a number of elements, it is advised to test these elements seperatley before putting it all together to minimize mistakes and errors. Page 52

7. Make sure to regularly check whether the hardware still matches the circuit scheme to prevent shortcircuiting your prototype.

E. Form Sketches

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F. References [1] Comment made by Client Tom Bergman (Philips) [2] Residential Lighting, A practical guide to beautiful and systainable design by Randall Whitehead, IALD 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey [3] [4] ovember+2009+Eindhoven.aspx

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