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Joshua Ralls

1417 W. Chalet Ave. Anaheim, CA 92802 (714) 329-6947

Profile Education

Raised in Anaheim, CA and educated at Kansas State University in Architecture. Highly committed to the task assigned and to provide the best possible work.

2010-2016 Masters in Architecture Kansas State University [Manhattan, KS] 2015 Italian Semester Abroad [Orvieto, IT] 2006-2010 High School Diploma Loara High School [Anaheim, CA]

Skills Extra Curricular

Team Management Autodesk Programs 2013-2014 President of American Institute of Architecture Students Managed and lead the AIAS of Kansas State University team of 8 officers Adobe Programs and over 50+ members, networked with design professionals and coordiMicrosoft Office nated public lectures for students, faculty, and members.

2013-2014 Member of the Dean’s Student Advisory Committee

Assisted in school events, acted as a representative for the student body Program directly with the faculty of the college. Proficiency 2014-2015 Architectural Student Advisory Board Member

Microsoft Office Adobe InDesign Adobe Illustrator Adobe Photoshop Rhinoceros Autodesk 3Ds/Max Autodesk Revit

References Gilman Waldo

System Architect for Honda Corp.

(714) 315-0542

Chris Fein

Visiting assistant Professor (630) 776-9089

Robert Condia

AIA Architect/Professor (785) 532-1106

Supported the board with making decisions on what the college needed to provide for the student body, assisted in accreditation and faculty interviews for future professors.

2011-2016 Continual mentor for underclassman 2014-2015 APD Ambassador

Assisted in promoting APDesign to future and oncoming students

2014 2016

AIA Central States Confluence Competition Participant ANFA-Academy of Neuroscience For Architecture

“Embodied Metaphors and Aesthetic Experience in Architecture” Abstract accepted and to be presented at Connections-BridgeSynapses Conference.

Work Experience APDesign CNS Office - Assistant Systems Analyst May 2015 - December 2015 Applebee’s Neighborhood Grill & Bar - Server/Host May 2013 - November 2013 - “Applestar” Employee of the month July Big 5 Sporting Goods - Sales Associate June 2010 - August 2012














GOWANUS WATER TREATMENT CENTER BROOKLYN | NEW YORK | FIFTH YEAR MASTER THESIS RHINOCEROS | REVIT | PHOTOSHOP | ILLUSTRATOR | INDESIGN A year long explorative research project in the Gowanus Canal neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. Developed under the Distinguished Regnier Visiting Professor Jay Seibenmorgen, AIA, LEED AP BD+C of NBBJ, this project intended to sustainably redesign the Gowanus Canal and provide the community with an environmental, renewable, and cultural center for years to come.

Project Form 1

After months of research and development, (Please refer to project books), of the Gowanus Canal and the surrounding Brooklyn neighborhoods, Schematic design and Project Generation began. A need for internationality began to arise. A cross-section of dierent programs began to grow as the project developed. Through the

Project Form 2

Master Plan design it was apparent that the project needed to compliment the ideas of sustainability and regeneration. Split into 3 main locations, the Master Plan was designed to regenerate and purify parts of the natural shoreline and marsh lands of the area, reinforce a relationship to the waterfront, and spur cultural growth.

Master Plan Overview

Project Form 3

As the project developed, it began to be influenced by the projects idea of purification. The need for multiple programs within the project began to subside, and the purification of the building form became to appear. In a multi step iterative design process, the project focused down to two program types, the water treatment center,

Final Project Iteration

and the cultural art center and education facility. These two programs would influence one another and create an intersection between the building, the location, the culture, and the overall master plan of the Gowanus Canal. The master plan would continue the ideas of the building by inserting cultural nodes along its waterfront.

Park Plan Overview

Program intersection leads the ideas of the building form and its generation. Sectionally the building achieves a relationship from all parts of the project. From its relationship to the water, the public plaza, the water treatment facility, the structure, and the dynamic and always changing culture, the architecture brings together the ideas of the design and puts them to the forefront. The plaza space grows organically from the shoreline returning native plant species. It creates small group spaces that interact between the water of the canal as well as the building that is purifying it. Informal performance areas develop, or simple relaxation space grow from these intersection points, and facilitate 1. The Cantilever 2. Exposed Truss Structure 3. Sheltered Public Space 4. Organic Public Plaza 5. Water Treatment Center


neighborhood comradely. The structure of the building is in plain view, representing how the building form comes together. The transparency of structure reflects the idea of the transparency of the purification process on display. It influences how the building is understood from the public, reinforcing these ideas of transparency throughout. The cantilever element encapsulates the core ideals of the design, reaching out towards the ocean, shielding and creating shelter for the community spaces below, and being the intersection for the water of the Gowanus canal to influence the public.

6. Cultural Display Center 7. Lecture and Display Space

2 7



4 5

Longitudinal Section Perspective

Structure Axon

The structure of the building takes shape through the principle steel truss system with the integration of the a solid concrete foundation that entwines into the pre-existing canal retaining wall. This basic structure is placed within a glass enclosure, granting views out into the canal. Internally, two staircases along the eastern façade, a slow stair and a fast stair, ascend north and south towards the formal lecture hall and the informal gathering space on the second floor. These stairs extend out of the exterior glazing wall and form a distinct separation of the eastern façade. The two separate façades are expressed differently, with the lower façade being expressed with a clear glass façade. The lower façade is divided into 5’ panels that are expressed vertically and rise unobstructed to the concrete stair divider. The clear glass allows for

unimpeded views out towards the canal walk and the waters edge. The upper eastern façade is part of a dual layered system, with the inner system being a clear glass curtain wall similar to the lower façade, and the outer element being the Kinetic Ripple Façade. 4” x 12” aluminum panels connected to a steel frame make up the ripple façade, allowing for the lightweight panels to effortlessly move in the wind. The panels not only create a dynamic moving façade, but also create a shimmering expression of water along the canal edge. The Kinetic façade also creates a rippling light quality on the interior program, allowing for a great amount of sun shading and heat reduction within the building. The concrete divider between the two facades allows for a clear differential between two lustrous surfaces, and softens the façade.

Contextually the Gowanus Water Treatment Facility sits at the mouth of the canal, adjacent to the Gowanus Bay, the East River, The Hudson River, and the Atlantic Ocean. This major confluence of bodies of water gives the site a strong presence of aquatic based design influence. The building will gleam in the morning and setting sun as visitors enter the canal, creating a representation of the new canal water quality and focus on sustainability. The kinetic ripple façade gives the building a character only found in the Gowanus Canal that reinforces its relationship with water and its artistic lineage. The façade gains influence from the artist Ned Kahn, whose works replicates the forms and forces of

Basement Plan

nature, such as the rippling surface of water. The masterplan takes shape as a procession from the tip of the canal to the mouth, following the flow of the water to highlight key features of the program. The overall concept of the canal is to reflect the new vision of the clean canal technologies and repercussions of those mechanisms. The water treatment process is of high importance as it is at the center of the new Gowanus Canal. Each step of the water treatment process is correlated to a feature of the masterplan. Rapid Mixing -> Water Flow and Eliminating Stagnation Flocculation, Sedimentation, and Filtration -> Removal of Waste Disinfection -> Cleanse of Toxins and Pathogens

These three elements are represented and implemented through different means. Water flow and eliminating stagnation is carried out through opening and maintaining the flushing tunnel. This allows the canal to keep constant current and reduce still water. The current opens up more opportunities, allowing the collection of renewable clean energy through the placement of tidal turbines. Removing the waste from the canal is operated through a new water treatment facility located at the mouth of the canal. This new facility will be discussed further in the chapter. The purification of toxins and pathogens in the canal will be achieved through the introduction of native plant species along some canal

Site Plan/Ground Level Plan

edges and throughout new waterfront parks. Plant life and ecology will absorb any remaining toxicity after the Superfund Cleanup and maintain safe water chemistry for the years to come. All three elements are further highlighted with the introduction of two small “Education Modules.” Modules placed along the canal will house small exhibition space that will promote and exemplify the different processes along Gowanus. Concurrently, modules will provide outdoor community gathering and park space, fostering the vibrant culture of the Gowanus neighborhood. The procession from the north following the canal ultimately concludes at the manifestation of all the ideals presented. The Gowanus

Water Treatment Facility terminates the processes of the canal, and acts as the gateway to a clean and vibrant water passage. In context with the master plan, the Gowanus Water Treatment Facility will emulate the process of the water treatment center below as discussed previously. In addition to the green garden emulations, the water treatment plant aims to give an unprecedented look at the water in which it is purifying. With the treatment plan located below sea level, it grants the opportunity for a visual connection into the neighboring canal water. Achieved by working with the current retaining wall of the canal, a crib bulkhead on piles system, a new canal retaining wall will allow

Second Floor Plan

for the viewing of the pretreated water while viewing the treatment process. In relationship to greater Brooklyn, the site sits adjacent to Red Hook, a neighborhood consisting of residential, mixed use and industrial zones. Sitting diagonally north of the site, Red Hook Recreation Center places parks and open ďŹ elds for sport activity and everyday park use. An additional park will connect to the Red Hook Recreation parks and allow for a waterfront green space aimed for relaxing social experience versus a recreational event. The park space will be part of a larger masterplan idea that will give the neighborhoods surrounding the canal a greater focus on green space and walkability.

Finished Metal Frame Finished Metal Parapet and Fascia Built Up Roof System Rigid Insulation Sloped to Drain Cant Strip Composite Concrete On Metal Deck Steel Girders Ceiling Insulation Finished Ceiling Panels

Insulated Glazing Unit Kinetic Metallic Panels System Pinned to Steel Facade Finished Steel Window Mullion Steel Pin Support System Main Steel Truss Structure

Finished Concrete Slab Finished Composite Concrete on Metal Deck Steel Cantilever Support System

Finished Concrete Floor Expansion Joint Soil/Earth/Grass Steel Girder Concrete Structure Wall

Finished Concrete Floor

Concrete Footing

West Facing Elevation

East Facing Elevation


EMBODIED METAPHORS AS NEUROLOGIC AL UNDERPINNINGS IN ARC HITEC TURE Joshua Ralls, M.Arch College of Architecture, Planning, and Design Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 U.S.A.

Professor Robert Condia, AIA College of Architecture, Planning, and Design Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 U.S.A.

‘… a body is like a building, and the building in turn is like the world. The metaphor returns in a more global similitude: the whole world is itself understood as a kind of body.” - Joseph Rykwert1 Abstract Embodied metaphors are arranged in architecture through the agency of mirror mechanisms as affordances.2 “Embodied” infers embodied simulation,3 where as “Metaphor” originates from the Greek metapherein - ‘to transfer,’4 referencing the transfer of ideas from one item to another, whether animate or inanimate. Human perception uses embodied metaphors to resonate the harmonies of human geometries into architectural forms. Intuitively the Greeks implanted these constructs into art and buildings with the intent for an aesthetic experience. This embodied foundation was recorded by the Roman architect Vitruvius5, and revived in the Renaissance with a renewed interest in the human body and the revealed divinity of harmonics. Current scientific revelations of the biology of the brain insist that proportion is hardwired into pre-reflective judgments of beauty and action. Insofar as architecture orders our being in the world, the geometry of the human body affords our participation in it, by encouraging (aesthetic) experience through embodied simulation. Geometry affords us the presence of order and proportion, and is seen with higher gravitas as they resonate with harmonics. Geometry in architecture is musical, with rhythm and consonance being the metaphorical equivalent of proportion and perfect geometry. Contemporaneously experiments suggest that perfect geometry activates the brain and creates embodied simulation.6 Through studies of embodied simulation by Di Dio, we know the brain understands intentional and unintentional touches between animate and inanimate objects through the same neural circuits7 (see figure 1). Architecture is the assembly of inanimate parts, which is understood as a body. Referring to neuroaesthetics, embodied simulation and aesthetic experience, studies done by Freedberg, Gallese, and Di Dio8 give scientific testimony to the symptomatic discovery of ancient Greeks, intuited by Romans, and Renaissance artists that the mind finds the body in simulation and proportion (see fig. 2 and 3). Embodied metaphor, the understanding of our potential ability to act into things, is experienced through embodied simulation and reinforced by the presence of perfect geometries and harmonics. (see figure 3) Historically architectural geometry is embodied as it metaphorically represents the human form, which is reinforced by the neurological studies of today.

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1. Joseph Rykwert, The Dancing Column: On Order in Architecture, MIT, 1999 2. Affordance (n.) An affordance may refer to a perceived affordance. Perceived affordances are a subset of affordances. A perceived affordance uses a more restrictive definition that requires an agent to be aware of the affordance, either through direct perception or experience. A perceived affordance is a possible action to an agent (Norman 1988). Unlike the traditional definition, a perceived affordance is primarily a relationship between an agent’s cognition and the environment. 3. Embodied Simulation (n.) “A functional mechanism through which the actions, emotions or sensations we see, activate our own internal representations of body states that are associated with these social stimuli, as if we are engaged in a similar action or experiencing a similar emotion or sensation.”7 4. “metaphor, n.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2015. Web. 15 December, 2015. 5. Pollio, Vitruvius, and M. H. Morgan. “Book I: Chapter I.” Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, 1960. N. page. Print. 6. Gibson, James J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979. 7. Freedberg, D. & Gallese, V. (2007). Motion, emotion and empathy in esthetic experience. In: TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 11(No. 5), 197-203. 8. Cinzia, Di Dio, and Gallese Vittorio. “Neuroaesthetics: A Review.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology (2009): 682- 87.À DEGLI STUDI DI PARMA. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. Acknowledgements Baumann, Matthew; Friesen, Tyler; and Ralls, Joshua. “Embodied Metaphors and Aesthetic Experience in Architecture” (2015). Unpublished Seminar Paper.

Figures, Illustrations, Images

From left to right, Figure 1 shows how Di Dio’s and Gallese experiment corroborated the brains ability to discover alterations to “perfect geometry” and its preference towards it. Figure 2 exemplifies the importance of perfect or divine geometry as shown in the Villa La Rotunda by Andrea Palladio. Figure 3 shows a real world example of how architecture creates a world inhabited by the experiencer through embodied simulation, perfect geometry, and mood. St. Ivo Alla Sapienza. Image Citations Fig 1. Cinzia, Di Dio, and Gallese Vittorio. “Neuroaesthetics: A Review.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology (2009): 682- 87.À DEGLI STUDI DI PARMA. Web. 5 Dec. 2015. Fig 2. Digital image. Tumblr. Web. 10 Dec. 2015. < tumblr

./1a40c2d28591d0b203b21b778 3b202e5/tumblr_inline_n68yybJHKY1 serk8o.gif>. Fig 3. Credit Joshua Ralls

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Author Bio Joshua Ralls is a M.Arch student at Kansas State University who has spent his academic career in studying the value of perfect geometry and its effect on the human psyche through architecture. He is developing his thesis project under the Distinguished Regnier Visiting Professor Jay Seibenmorgen, AIA, LEED AP BD+C, on the sustainable redesigned master plan of the Gowanus Canal in Brooklyn, NY. He is currently developing an experiment in which analyzes human perception as one moves through thresholds and portals, and the degree to which it has an effect on the perception of the space that follows. He currently studies topics in neuroscience and architecture under Prof. Condia and has IRB certification. Bob Condia, AIA is a design partner with Condia+Ornelas Architects. A professor of architecture at Kansas State, (1989 – present) he teaches architecture as an art form, with serious consideration to: design process; structural determination; the ancient works of man; and, the thick perception of space. His publications range from architects’ monographs; articles on the experience of space; papers on creativity in design; and a catalogue of his surrealist illustrations. Since 2012 he has taught graduate seminars combining architectural theory, analytical philosophy and the neuroscience of aesthetic experience. He is IRB certified and runs a graduate lab to study emotional response to architectural space. Prof. Condia earned his Master in Architecture and Building Design at Columbia University 1983, and a Bachelor of Architecture at California Polytechnic State University, 1980.

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Entry Locations N

Site Plan

The Sunset Funeral Chapel based in Manhattan, KS is a design project aimed at creating a sense of peace and meaning for the city for the heavy emotional impact of death. Presented in a non denominational chapel, the architecture represents the ďŹ gurative passing between life and death and the ideas of passing from darkness into light, or the afterlife. Procession guides the build-

North Facing Elevation

ing form, as well as guides the users to pass through its many spaces, moving from dark enclosed spaces into large open bright spaces. The main structure of the building is a large masonry concrete wall that intersects through the building, guiding its patrons from program element. It begins as a dark hallways that opens up reecting the metaphorical passing into the light.

Floor Plan

Existing off of and through the main concrete wall, lie small chapels and gather areas. These support the main procession line for different type of funerals. Reflected from the interior spaces, outdoor chapels and processions emulate the same procession as the physical building. The enclosed concrete hallway is reflected by an allee of trees, that move down into a sunken outdoor cha-

pel space at its terminus. All main function are housed within the concrete wall, from the main procession, to the rest rooms, and the mechanical systems as well.

Chapel Section

The material make up relies heavily on the contrast between warmth and cool. The concrete wall space gives o the cold feel and texture, while the supporting spaces are constructed using large timber and wood, creating a sense of warmth. This is complemented with the large amount of light entering the main chapel spaces, and

Longitudinal Section

create an ethereal natural environment to celebrate the lives of the recently departed. The outdoor chapels and their relationship with the plant life and trees give a visual connection to life and returning back to the earth.

West Facing Elevation





Fourth Floor Plan

Third Floor Plan

Second Floor Plan

First Floor Plan

This urban infill project, located within the East Village of New York City embodies the urban fabric of the neighborhood around. “Blending” and dissolving from the neighbors facade, the museum is a part of the community. Giving an open public space in addition to its profound collection of art, this One Artist Museum incorporates the neighborhood culture, as well as the prolific art of Sol LeWitt. A centralized core allows for a simple circulation for the viewing of Sol LeWitt ’s works. A three story volume space in the lobby allows for the placement of his larger works, circulated to give the space a new appeal as time passes. The facade, a composite of a light steel frame and brick, melds into the neighboring buildings, then dissolves away unveiling a spectacular courtyard and an impressive view into the building proper. A false facade separates the main building of the museum from direct street access, yet still has a relationship with it as it allows for a communication of circulation. Allowing for the sidewalk and building to play off each other. Not only this, it creates an interior space on the exterior of the building, giving the patron a unique experience of being “within” the wall.

Structure Section Perspective



New skill sets were created when the design of a hypothetical pavilion was proposed at a park in Manhattan, KS. This pavilion had the speciďŹ c opportunity to amaze with its undulating roof and spiralling center piece. A signiďŹ cant amount of work was done in creating the central spiral, allow for the 3D modeling skills done

in Rhino and the skills to bring complex 3D forms into Revit. This skill were applied also in future projects and set up the skills to create rendered images.

Photoshop skills were also applied and used in creating and developing this project. The pavilion used these tools to express the values of the project, creating a sense of open space, wonder, and shelter simultaneously. The goal here was to create an idea of realism in the early stages of schematic design. As well as to see

how the schematic design process could be inuenced by the presence of these 3D modeling software. This is showing that in tandem with sketching and hand drawing methods digital software is a productive and highly regarded source of media representation.



Thank You

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Architecture Design Portfolio