TECTONIC SYSTEMS JOSHUA MILLIST - 101 704 345
PART I: INITIAL STUDIES AND PROTOTYPING PRECEDENT STUDIES
- ENDOCASTING - QATAR NATIONAL CONVENTION CENTER, DOHA - FATTYSHELL BY KYLE STURGEON, CHRIS HOLZWART AND KELLY RACZKOWSKI - CAST THICKET BY CHRISTINE YOGIAMAN AND KEN TRACY
10 11 12 13
PROTOTYPING14 • PROTOTYPE ONE
• PROTOTYPE TWO
• DIGITAL MODELS
- CONTOURS - FIELDS - SURFACES
25 26 28
- PROTOTYPE ONE IDEA - CONSTRUCTION PROCESS - DURABILITY TEST - REFLECTION
- PROTOTYPE TWO IDEA - CONSTRUCTION PROCESS - DURABILITY TEST - REFLECTION
WEEK 4 TASK - INITIAL IDEAS - CONCEPT - DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION
16 16 17 17
19 19 20 20
30 32 32 33
PART II GROUP STUDIES AND PROTOTYPING
GROUP PERCEDENT STUDIES
• PRECEDENT STUDY - FABRIC CASTING
• DIGITAL REMODELLING
- STGILAT PAVILION - MARS PAVILION
- MARS PAVILION REMODELLING FINAL RESULT
PROTOTYPES46 • PROTOTYPE ONE
• PROTOTYPE TWO
• PROTOTYPE THREE
• PROTOTYPE FOUR
• PROTOTYPE FIVE
- FABRIC HOLDER - PROTOTYPE ONE FINAL - CONCRETE CAST WITH FABRIC - PROTOTYPE TWO FINAL - PATTERN - PROTOTYPE THREE FINAL
- JOINING METHOD 1 - PROTOTYPE FOUR FINAL
- JOINING METHOD 2 - PROTOTYPE FIVE FINAL
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
TESSELLATIONS58 • TESSELLATION60 - TESSELLATION ONE - TESSELLATION TWO - TESSELLATION THREE - TESSELLATION FOUR - TESSELLATION FIVE
60 61 63 64 65
PART III: IS BUILDING SITE VISIT • SITE VISIT - IS BUILDING
- EAST SIDE - NORTH SIDE - SOUTH SIDE - WEST SIDE - INTERIOR - WHAT WE LEARNED
70 71 72 73 74 75
ITERATIONS76 • SKETCHES
- FLOOR PLANS - SCULPTURAL PIECE ADDITION
• ITERATIONS80 - ITERATION 1 - ITERATION 2 - ITERATION 3 - ITERATION 4 - ITERATION 5 - ITERATION 6 - FLOOR PLAN ITERATION 1 - FLOOR PLAN ITERATION 2
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87
• IDEA REFINEMENT 88 • • REFLECTION90 • • FINAL FORM 92 •
PROTOTYPING94 • PROTOTYPE ONE
• FABRIC PROTOTYPING
- FABRIC CASTING BOX - PROTOTYPE ONE FINAL - POLYESTER - LYCRA - CANVAS
98 99 100
- GLASS FIBRES - CEMENT - REINFORCEMENT
101 102 103
PART IV: FINAL DESIGN FINAL PIECES
• DIGITAL TO PHYSICAL
- PROCESS - FINAL PIECES
• • • • • • • • • •
ROOF PLAN 118 FLOOR PLAN 119 EAST ELEVATION 120 NORTH ELEVATION 120 SECTION ONE 121 SECTION TWO 121 3D PERSPECTIVE 122 AXONOMETRIC123 JOINERY METHOD DETAIL 124 FABRIC CASTING DETAIL 125
RENDERS126 • • • • • •
STREET VIEW EAST FACADE NORTH FACADE INSIDE SCULPTURE INTERIOR IN THE MORNING INTERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON
128 129 130 131 132 133
INITIAL STUDIES AND PROTOTYPING
CAST THICKET BY CHRISTINE YOGIAMAN AND KEN TRACY
10 | 1.1 PRECEDENT STUDIES | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
I wanted to explore ant and termite endocasting which involves the pouring of molten metal, concrete or resin down a ant hill or termite mound. The surrounding hill is then scraped away revealing an extravagant and complexity of the pathways that ants create. This process creates an aesthetic shape in which, it starts off as an almost solid and, as it goes deeper down, it spreads out further and gets more and more complex. I want to explore other methods to achieve a similar aesthetic.
11 | 1.1 PRECEDENT STUDIES TECTONIC SYSTEMS TECTONIC SYSTEMS | 1.1 |PRECEDENT
QATAR NATIONAL CONVENTION CENTER, DOHA
I was very intrigued by the supports on the front canopy. The tree-like structure used to hold up the canopy strongly resembles the endocasting method. It provides an interesting take on an entrance separating from the norm. Although the construction method is not my aim, the result strongly resembles the pattern Iâ€™m looking for
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FATTYSHELL BY KYLE STURGEON, CHRIS HOLZWART AND KELLY RACZKOWSKI This project was created by a team of students at the University of Michigan. These students used a method of stitching together two sheets of rubber to create a mold which concrete was then poured in stages to fill up the sleeve. This method interests me as it can create abstract shapes with concrete that would be difficult with any other method
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CAST THICKET BY CHRISTINE YOGIAMAN AND KEN TRACY This structure was created with limestone aggregate, limestone powder and white fiber reinforcement. The designers used a plastic mold which deformed once filled to create a more aesthetic appearance and unique texture. A plastic mold could be effective in creating shape with smooth sides rather than a texture created from a fabric.
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PROTOTYPE ONE PROTOTYPE ONE IDEA For my first prototype, I wanted to see how a clear-casting solution mixed with a catalyst hardener and sand would hold once it had set after being curved. Testing the durability of resin and how it would hold its shape once set.
I used loose sand and water initially to try and figure out a shape to test. I wanted it to have thin parts to see how they would react once pressure is applied. Once I had an idea of my end goal, I placed pieces of wood to contain the resin once mixed with the catalyst hardener and sand. I put a cylindrical shape below a mat to get the curvature of the cast i was aiming for. After that, I used tools such as a Stanley knife and a spoon to carve out the desired shapes i wanted. This was a difficult method as the resin was very runny and the shape was hard to maintain. 24 hours later the mold had fully hardened and cured and there was a few fixes required such as edges and minor pieces that needed to be broken off and loose sand was brushed off resulting in a finished prototype.
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REFLECTION I was happy with the strength and durability of the final result and how i could make thin pieces that wouldn’t snap with pressure applied. The texture unfortunately came out rougher then i would’ve liked and the shape wasn’t quite what i was trying to achieve but with a proper molding procedure, this could be managed better. Resin and a catalyst hardener can also be quite an expensive product so to avoid large expenses in a larger scale, the clear-casting resin could be an outer coating on a cheaper material.
After the prototype had plenty of time to harden and cure, I wanted to test the durability to see how it would hold with a force applied. This was done by using a small weight and placing it on top of the model. It showed great flexibility and was left undamaged.
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PROTOTYPE TWO PROTOTYPE TWO IDEA I wanted to explore the idea of testing the fabric casting method used in the Fattyshell construction process. This involves using fabric or waterproof plastic sleeve with a seal on its edges to create a mold with more of a texture and easier to shape and manipulate.
I started the construction by first testing the waterproof plastic by applying a stitching and duct tape to see if there was leakage once water was put into the mold. They both worked perfectly but i decided to steer toward the duct tape seal as it is a much easier process. I changed to a more durable plastic to avoid punctures from the aggregate. The plastic was cut into the desired shape with two layers were used and they were stuck together with duct tape. I had to unfortunately make the end parts wider than I wouldâ€™ve liked to give it more strength and limit any cracking.
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REFLECTION The end result was not at all how I pictured it with a rough and messy texture and one piece completely broken off from the structure. Even after making the legs larger than desired, it still wasnâ€™t enough. However, the plastic method worked creating the exact shape that was intended without expanding or warping and resulted in minimal to no leakage.
Once the mold was made, the concrete was then mixed with 3 parts aggregate, 3 parts sand, 1 part cement and appropriate amount of water. This mix was then carefully placed into the mold and placed over a cylindrical object to get the desired curvature need to test the resilience of the concrete material. After a few days, the plastic was then cut off and removed from the cylindrical object. Upon examination, it did not come out in the desired texture being lumpy and looking brittle. There was also a noticeable crack on one of the side legs before i even touched it.
Even though the model was already broken, I still wanted to see if an applied force would cause any additional damage. Although it was brittle, there was no additional damage caused by the weight remaining unaffected.
21 | 1.2 PROTOTYPING | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
24 | 1.3 DIGITAL SKETCHBOOK | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
25 | 1.3 DIGITAL SKETCHBOOK | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
I wanted to explore the use of playing with contours onto a variety of curved surfaces representing movement of shapes and emphasizing the directions in which the shape is bending. The shape shows a 3D form without a solid fill colour needed.
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Evaluating the fields gives an interesting effect that expands curves from a focal point. This has the appearance of a tree branch and could make an interesting pavilion.
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I wanted to explore the use of different shapes onto different surfaces and curvatures and how the shapes alter in size while being stretched and twisted wrapping around and how they react at different angles.
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WEEK 4 TASK
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When we started designing, we were looking at different angles and shapes but decided it was too difficult to do such sharp angles and triangulations. If we proceeded with some of these structures, the construction wouldnâ€™t work.
After exploration into different concepts and ideas, our group wanted to look at the complexity of creating a fluid, organic form from geometric shapes. We explored a sold shape such as a rocky mountain and contrasted that form by creating triangle holes and allowing light to pass through in a beautiful way.
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DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION
When it was all put together, we had to bend and twist the project into the shape we created in Grasshopper. Since it was such a large structure, this was a difficult process resulting in some aluminum wire reinforcement needed to keep it upright and from collapsing.
Once the digital testing was done and we had a model we were all happy with developing, we unrolled all of the pieces in a format to be cut and exported it to Illustrator ready to be laser cut. The three sheets were laser cut with appropriate tabs and rivet holes to be easily assembled.
After all of the sheets were finished being laser cut, we then assembled the loose pieces with a pop rivet gun using pop rivets in the holes on the tabs created. To do this, we had numbers on each piece to cross-reference to the digital model so we knew which piece attached to which.
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FINAL RESULT AS A LIGHT SHADE
GROUP STUDIES AND PROTOTYPING
GROUP PRECEDENT STUDIES
MARS PAVILION BY FORM FOUND DESIGN
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PRECEDENT STUDY - FABRIC CASTING
The Stgilat Pavilion designed by Art Center College and Cloud 9 was created using an inflated balloon with a large sheet of laser cut fabric and pieces of wood draped over the top to shape the concrete once poured. While this method is intriguing and creates a highly aesthetic result, it is quite costly and impractical if something is broken during construction.
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The Mars Pavilion designed by Form Found Design was created using Kangaroo to create â€˜Yâ€™ shaped pieces formed with robot arms shaping laser cut lycra fabric for concrete to be poured into. The beautiful part of this is that the joining method used allows the structure to be easily assembled and disassembled. Other features taken from this method was the non-linear shape created and the Helix steel reinforcement used to create a stronger hold.
44 | 2.2 DIGITAL REMODELLING | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
MARS PAVILION REMODELLING
The Mars Pavilion creation method uses an extension on Grasshopper named Kangaroo to apply pressure and inflate a hexagonal grid and create an opening for access inside. This helps give an image on how the concrete would act once poured into the fabric.
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48 | 2.3 PROTOTYPING | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
For our first prototype, we wanted to look at creating a structure to hold the fabric in place as we do not have access to two robotic arms to shape and stabilize the fabric while the concrete is being poured in. One stem would be attached to the top and left unstitched for the concrete to be poured into. The other two would be tied to the sides to hold it in place.This initial prototype was create with just bolts, nuts and two end plates but was then developed into a shape to hold one of the ‘stems’ of the ‘Y’ shape.
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PROTOTYPE ONE FINAL
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CONCRETE CAST WITH FABRIC
On this prototype we wanted to try and recreate the concrete ‘Y’ shaped stem by cutting canvas into shape and stitching the sides to seal the concrete in. We also wanted to test the helix steel rod reinforcement used in the Mars Pavilion by using nails and mixing them into the concrete mix. The result was a much stronger piece of concrete with tensioning being more unlikely to chip or break. The canvas gave an interesting
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PROTOTYPE TWO FINAL
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PATTERN For prototype we wanted to focus on the pattern and how it could be reinforced. We used a triangular pattern and tied the reinforcement together with wiring. This could then go on to be placed into a fabric sleeve for concrete to be shaped around. Although, with a pattern such as this, the pieces would be tied together differently as a piece like this would not be easily cast with fabric.
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PROTOTYPE THREE FINAL
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JOINING METHOD 1 For the third prototype we wanted to look at creating a way in which two pieces of concrete can be simply screwed together and assemble like a puzzle piece to form a pavilion. To create this we used two 3mm thick pieces of aluminum, a bolt, a nut with a long thread and a cardboard packing tube. Firstly we used a grinder and drill to get the end plate to the correct size and to allow the bolt to pass through. To keep the bolt in correct position we attached a sleeve and nut either side to make sure it doesnâ€™t move. Once both pieces were in place they were then duct taped to the packaging tube to create a seal and stopping the concrete from leaking out the bottom and keep everything secure. The concrete was then poured in and steel rods (coat hanger pieces) were used as reinforcement. Once the concrete was set, the cardboard was then peeled away. We decided not to use this joining system as it becomes too difficult to put the last pieces in place of a structure.
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PROTOTYPE FOUR FINAL
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JOINING METHOD 2 For this prototype we wanted to recreate the join used in the Mars Pavilion which allows three stems to be joined together. For the purposes of the prototyping stage we used timber to represent the steel and foam to represent the concrete. We drew the shape analyzed from the Mars Pavilion which is essentially a triangular prism with the corners cut off allowing the bolts to fit into the gaps and fastened into the concrete. The wood was laser cut into shape with the holes drilled into each side piece. Once the wood was laser cut and the bolts were in place, the foam (concrete) was attached to represent the stems connected by the join.
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PROTOTYPE FIVE FINAL
60 | 2.4 TESSELLATIONS | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
TESSELLATION ONE We wanted to explore a sharp edge tessellation to provide a unique and aesthetic look. After some thought, we realized these shapes will be quite difficult to cast with the fabric casting method and if it did work, the edges would become too narrow and prone to breakage.
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TESSELLATION TWO This tessellation is similar to the Mars Pavilion with hexagon shapes being cast with ‘Y’ shaped pieces. The idea was to have the hexagons turn into a circular shape with no sharp edges. These pieces would be easy to cast, can be easily joined at the three-point endings and durable with a dense centre.
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63 | 2.4 TESSELLATIONS | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
TESSELLATION THREE For these tessellations, we wanted to explore a different abstract of shapes from a triangular grid structure as the base. We played a rough with a more organic casting shape with less sharp edges and wanted to try and achieve a circular shape from the original grid shape. The pieces could be divided to be cast in fabric with a mixture of two-edge and three-edge joins. The joining methods would become a lot more difficult with this layout.
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TESSELLATION FOUR We wanted to experiment with the use of a square grid to create a diamond shape with four ends instead of three. These pieces could be cast quite easily but the joinery method becomes more complex with up to four ends meeting at certain points.
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TESSELLATION FIVE For this tessellation, we wanted to go back to the tri-grid concept but with separate pieces in the pattern rather than it all interconnecting. These pieces could be easily cast but many joins would need to be put in place with two-end joining the piece together and three-end joins joining each piece.
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SITE VISIT - IS BUILDING
EAST SIDE The Eastern side contains the access point to the site and access to the building on the facade with an average looking canopy. The overall shape of the building is quite interesting with three skillion pitched roofs dividing it into three. There is a quite beautiful tree that we want to keep as it adds character to the structure.
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NORTH SIDE The Northern side contains a large car park and a fenced off area with waste. The facade on North side is quite simple with only one window and a shed extension that doesnâ€™t match the rest of the structure. This side should be improved to look more interesting from the car park and nearby train station
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SOUTH SIDE The Southern side is built right up to a fence with an access way to another building and the site boundary preventing it from extending any further. The windows can be seen extending from one end to the other starting at the bottom of the roof pitch to allow a large amount of light to the inside.
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WEST SIDE The Western side is also built right up to the fence with a small outside patio available. The shed extension used as an equipment can be seen here with a quite average look. This could be better managed to blend better with the overall building.
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INTERIOR The Interior space was quite closed off with a narrow hallway through the middle of the building. The photography booth is quite interesting with its connection to the roof allowing light if necessary. There is a problem with storage. All of the storage and equipment rooms are filled equipment without much room for access or anything additional.
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WHAT WE LEARNED The building has many interesting qualities but could definitely be improved on the Eastern side. Other things to be considered in the improvement would be creating more storage space and improve the spacial quality by making it more of an open plan.
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FLOOR PLANS Initially we wanted to add some curves into the plan to give it a more organic flow and connect it with our sculptural piece we were intending to add. The photography booth was a good place to investigate as it really stands out when you walk into the room. We also wanted more curves on the Eastern side to add more character to the plain facade.
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SCULPTURAL PIECE ADDITION We wanted to add a sculptural piece to the eastern facade with a proposed new extension and entrance to allow a more ease of access when entering the building. At first, we looked at connecting the sculpture with the extension with pieces of glass in between the cast pieces but the fabric casting technique would have been too impracticable for that application.
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FLOOR PLAN ITERATION 1
BATH BATH KITCHENETTE
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FLOOR PLAN ITERATION 2
BATH BATH KITCHENETTE
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90 | 3.4 REFLECTION | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
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Through different form explorations and altercations of the floor plan, we decided to add an extra entrance on the Eastern facade while still maintaining the existing entrance. The floor plan seemed to work better as a functional space and to blend better with the exisitng structure by adding an extension with a geometric shape to match the existing rather than curving the wall. The sculptural piece worked better as a piece attaching to the building rather that using it as a structural wall as the fabric casting method was not the best casting method for this use. For the sculptural piece to be a functioning space, we wanted to connect the two entrances to allow clear direction to the street and car parking.
92 | 3.5 FINAL FORM | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
93 | 3.5 FINAL FORM | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
This design for the sculptural piece provides an interesting aesthetic with an ease of access from both the street and the car park. For the floor plan we decided to remove the curved wall to have a better use of space and provided a better appearance from the exterior acting as if it was already there. We still are looking into putting a light render over the brickwork and changing the roof to a darker colour instead of the existing brown colour.
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FABRIC CASTING BOX For the first prototype we wanted to create a box so we could tie the ends of the â€˜Yâ€™ stem to get the desired shape and leave an open top to pour the concrete into the sleeve. This was created by firstly laser cutting top and bottom pieces with a hole in the top to leave it open for the concrete pour. The side pieces were drilled with a series of evenly spaced holes to allow the sides to be fastened at different angles and heights to get an accurate shape. Smaller pieces were then laser cut to act a an end plate and allow the fabric sleeve to be compressed between the plate and side pieces of the box to prevent the concrete from leaking. We made three versions of this prototype at different scales to allow experimentation with different shapes.
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PROTOTYPE ONE FINAL
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POLYESTER The polyester experimentation came out as a smooth texture holding its shape very well when placed into the casting box. The creases added a nice character to the piece but were difficult to manage and control their appearance. Overall, the polyester sleeve was a success.
99 | 3.6 PROTOTYPING | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
LYCRA The Lycra casting didnâ€™t go too well with the fabric being too flexible causing all of the concrete to fall to the bottom and not set evenly. This may have been due no tension stretching the fabric to limit the excess expansion. The Lycra testing was a failure and was not explored any further.
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CANVAS The canvas experimentation went very well with the shape being maintained and minimal expansion once the concrete was poured in. The crease lines from the stitching came out perfectly and were easily managed. We also noticed, when taking off the fabric, that the canvas texture was left imprinted into the concrete adding an interesting aesthetic and showcasing the construction process rather than trying to hide it.
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GLASS FIBRES We gathered some glass fibres to allow for more flexibility in the pieces shape and to remove the aggregate to get a more aesthetic look. When mixing the fibre into the concrete, it was found that if we used too many fibres, they would all gather together providing a cotton ball appearance and a lumpy surface. It took many attempts to get the perfect ratio for the concrete mix. The best result we achieved was with: • • • •
1 part glass fibre 2 part white cement 3 part sand Approx. 2 part water
102 | 3.5 PROTOTYPING | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
CEMENT We looked at different coloured cement and sands as the regular cement provided a more dark grey colour (left) which did not match our final design. After getting white cement, after completing a cast, we noticed that the regular sand made a more yellow colour (middle) which also didnâ€™t match our design. After gathering white cement and white sand, we did a cast which turned out perfectly turning white.
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REINFORCEMENT The reinforcement became too difficult to create with just straight pieces seen in a standard slab. Instead we invested in some steel wire rope which was flexible and could be welded where necessary. This worked well but it was still difficult to keep in a curved position resulting in pieces sticking out the side.
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DIGITAL TO PHYSICAL
PROCESS To get the digital pieces to a physical concrete piece, we firstly selected a few pieces to recreate and isolated them from the model. After it was just the focused pieces, we gathered the measurements and scaled them to a 1:2 size allowing for a lighter and smaller final model. Once we had the new scaled dimensions, we printed out the piece to scale and used it as a guideline for cutting the canvas fabric. Unfortunately this piece was slightly small causing difficulty in getting the concrete to each of the end plates.
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The joint was also scaled and laser cut to size to be placed in the centre of the three pieces. Unfortunately we werenâ€™t able to get steel and did not have the knowledge to weld so we just used wood as an indicative material. To glue it together we used a mixture of baking powder and super glue which is a very strong bond and emulates a weld. The nut and reinforcement were welded together and glued to the join. After this was all done we could then attach it to the casting box and pour in the concrete mix.
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After the casting was done, we noticed a few flaws. The concrete didnâ€™t make it all the way to one of the end plates and the reinforcement ended up sticking out the side. We tried to patching up the pieces using a steel brush, more fabric and duct tape to isolate and compress certain areas. The look after the patching was done wasnâ€™t what we were looking for which resulted in us having to repeat the process with a slightly bigger and more simple shape. The result was three pieces that couple be easily assembled with a wrench or appropriate tool. Unfortunately some of the fabric got caught underneath the concrete in the process making it unable to be removed but we removed as much as we could resulting in a near perfect finish.
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114 | 4.2 1:100 MODEL | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
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118 | 4.3 DRAWING SET | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
119 | 4.3 DRAWING SET | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
MAIN ENTRANCE TO CANOPY
LOBBY SIDE ENTRANCE TO CANOPY
LOBBY SIDE ENTRANCE
DISABLED WC (UNISEX)
FLOOR PLAN JOSHUA MILLIST LACHLAN CURTIS NICHOLAS MILLIGAN LEIDY VARGAS ESCOBAR
IS BUILDING FLOOR PLAN CONCRETE SHELL
ARC - 20001 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO 2
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JOINERY METHOD DETAIL
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FABRIC CASTING DETAIL
128 | 4.2 1:100 128 MODEL | 4.3 | DRAWING TECTONIC SET SYSTEMS | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
129 | 4.2 1:100 129 MODEL | 4.3 | DRAWING TECTONICSET SYSTEMS | TECTONIC SYSTEMS
130 | 4.3 4.2 DRAWING 1:100 MODEL SET || TECTONIC TECTONICSYSTEMS SYSTEMS
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INTERIOR IN THE MORNING
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INTERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON