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Cisco EXAM 642-813 Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks

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Question: 1 Which method of Layer 3 switching uses a forwarding information base (FIB)? A. Topology-based switching B. Demand-based switching C. Route caching D. Flow-based switching E. None of the other alternatives apply

Answer: A Explanation: The Layer 3 engine (essentially a router) maintains routing information, whether from static routes or dynamic routing protocols. Basically, the routing table is reformatted into an ordered list with the most specific route first, for each IP destination subnet in the table. The new format is called a Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and contains routing or forwarding information that the network prefix can reference. In other words, a route to 10.1.0.0/16 might be contained in the FIB, along with routes to 10.1.1.0/24 and 10.1.1.128/25, if those exist. Notice that these examples are increasingly more specific subnets. In the FIB, these would be ordered with the most specific, or longest match, first, followed by less specific subnets. When the switch receives a packet, it can easily examine the destination address and find the longest match entry in the FIB. The FIB also contains the nexthop address for each entry. When a longest match entry is found in the FIB, the Layer 3 next-hop address is found, too.

Question: 2 Which two statements are true about best practices in VLAN design? (Choose two.) A. Routing should occur at the access layer if voice VLANs are utilized. Otherwise, routing should occur at the distribution layer. B. Routing should always be performed at the distribution layer. C. VLANs should be localized to a switch. D. VLANs should be localized to a single switch unless voice VLANs are being utilized. E. Routing should not be performed between VLANs located on separate switches.

Answer: B,C Explanation: In the distribution layer, uplinks from all access layer devices are aggregated, or come together. The distribution layer switches must be capable of processing the total volume of traffic from all the connected devices. These switches should have a port density of high-speed links to support the collection of access layer switches. VLANs and broadcast domains converge at the distribution layer, requiring routing, filtering, and security. The switches at this layer must be capable of performing

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multilayer switching with high throughput. Only certain Catalyst switch models can provide multilayer switching; be sure to understand which ones can do this. A switched environment offers the technology to overcome flat network limitations. Switched networks can be subdivided into VLANs. By definition, a VLAN is a single broadcast domain. All devices connected to the VLAN receive broadcasts from other VLAN members. However, devices connected to a different VLAN will not receive those same broadcasts. (Naturally, VLAN members also receive unicast packets directed toward them from other VLAN members.) A VLAN consists of defined members communicating as a logical network segment. In contrast, a physical segment consists of devices that must be connected to a physical cable segment. A VLAN can have connected members located anywhere in the campus network, as long as VLAN connectivity is provided between all members. Layer 2 switches are configured with a VLAN mapping and provide the logical connectivity between the VLAN members.

Question: 3 Refer to the exhibit. On the basis of the information provided in the exhibit, which two sets of procedures are best practices for Layer 2 and 3 failover alignment? (Choose two.)

A. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for all VLANs. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the standby HSRP router and backup STP root for all VLANs. B. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the standby HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 11 and 110. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the standby HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 12 and 120. C. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 11 and 110. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for VLANs 12 and 120. D. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the active HSRP router and the STP root for all VLANs. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the standby HSRP router and backup STP root for all VLANs.

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E. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the active HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 11 and 110. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the active HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 12 and 120. F. Configure the D-SW1 switch as the standby HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 12 and 120. Configure the D-SW2 switch as the standby HSRP router and the backup STP root for VLANs 11 and 110.

Answer: C,F Explanation: Basically, each of the routers that provides redundancy for a given gateway address is assigned to a common HSRP group. One router is elected as the primary, or active, HSRP router, another is elected as the standby HSRP router, and all the others remain in the listen HSRP state. The routers exchange HSRP hello messages at regular intervals, so they can remain aware of each other’s existence, as well as that of the active router. HSRP election is based on a priority value (0 to 255) that is configured on each router in the group. By default, the priority is 100. The router with the highest priority value (255 is highest) becomes the active router for the group. If all router priorities are equal or set to the default value, the router with the highest IP address on the HSRP interface becomes the active router. To set the priority, use the following interface configuration command: Switch(config-if)# standby group priority priority When HSRP is configured on an interface, the router progresses through a series of states before becoming active. This forces a router to listen for others in a group and see where it fits into the pecking order. The HSRP state sequence is Disabled, Init, Listen, Speak, Standby, and, finally, Active. You can configure a router to preempt or immediately take over the active role if its priority is the highest at any time. Use the following interface configuration command to allow preemption: Switch(config-if)# standby group preempt [delay seconds]

Question: 4 If you needed to transport traffic coming from multiple VLANs (connected between switches), and your CTO was insistent on using an open standard, which protocol would you use? A. 802.11B B. spanning-tree C. 802.1Q D. ISL E. VTP F. Q.921

Answer: C Explanation: The act involved in the above question is trunking. The two trunking protocols in the answer choices are: 802.1Q and ISL. ISL is Cisco proprietary and IEEE 802.1Q is based on an open standard. When non-Cisco switches are used along with Cisco switches and trunking is required, it is best to use the 802.1Q encapsulation.

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Question: 5 Under what circumstances should an administrator prefer local VLANs over end-to-end VLANs? A. Eighty percent of traffic on the network is destined for Internet sites. B. There are common sets of traffic filtering requirements for workgroups located in multiple buildings. C. Eighty percent of a workgroup’s traffic is to the workgroup’s own local server. D. Users are grouped into VLANs independent of physical location. E. None of the other alternatives apply

Answer: A Explanation: This geographic location can be as large as an entire building or as small as a single switch inside a wiring closet. In a geographic VLAN structure, it is typical to find 80 percent of the traffic remote to the user (server farms and so on) and 20 percent of the traffic local to the user (local server, printers, and so on). Reference: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (Cisco Press) page 93

Question: 6 What are some virtues of implementing end-to-end VLANs? (Choose two) A. End-to-end VLANs are easy to manage. B. Users are grouped into VLANs independent of a physical location. C. Each VLAN has a common set of security and resource requirements for all members. D. Resources are restricted to a single location.

Answer: B,C Explanation: In an end-to-end VLAN, users are grouped into VLANs independent of physical location and dependent on group or job function. Each VLAN has a common set of security requirements for all members.

Question: 7 Which of the following statements is true about the 80/20 rule (Select all that apply)? A. 20 percent of the traffic on a network segment should be local B. no more than 20 percent of the network traffic should be able to move across a backbone. C. no more than 80 percent of the network traffic should be able to move across a backbone. D. 80 percent of the traffic on a network segment should be local

Answer: B,D

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Explanation: The 80/20 rule in network design originated from the idea that most of the traffic should remain local to the LAN, since bandwidth is plentiful compared to WAN links, and a great deal of broadcast traffic that is evident at the LAN is not passed over the backbone. Note: With the availability of inexpensive bandwidth and centralized data centers, this rule appears to have become obsolete. In fact, most networks have taken on the 20/80 rules, as opposed to the legacy 80/20 rule.

Question: 8 The Company LAN is becoming saturated with broadcasts and multicast traffic. What could you do to help a network with many multicasts and broadcasts? A. Creating smaller broadcast domains by implementing VLANs. B. Separate nodes into different hubs. C. Creating larger broadcast domains by implementing VLANs. D. Separate nodes into different switches. E. All of the above.

Answer: A Explanation: Controlling broadcast propagation throughout the network is important to reduce the amount of overhead associated with these frames. Routers, which operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, provide broadcast domain segmentation for each interface. Switches can also provide broadcast domain segmentation using virtual LANs (VLANs). A VLAN is a group of switch ports, within a single or multiple switches, that is defined by the switch hardware and/or software as a single broadcast domain. A VLANs goal is to group devices connected to a switch into logical broadcast domains to control the effect that broadcasts have on other connected devices. A VLAN can be characterized as a logical network. Reference: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (Cisco Press) page 8 Section 2: Create a VLAN based implementation plan (3 Questions)

Question: 9 The Company LAN switches are being configured to support the use of Dynamic VLANs. Which of the following are true of dynamic VLAN membership? (Select all that apply) A. VLAN membership of a user always remains the same even when he/she is moved to another location. B. VLAN membership of a user always changes when he/she is moved to another location. C. Membership can be static or dynamic. D. Membership can be static only. E. None of the other alternatives apply.

Answer: A,C

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Explanation: Dynamic VLAN memberships are based on the users MAC address connected to the port. If you have VTP server, a VTP database file, a VTP client switch, and a dynamic port; regardless of where your physical location is, you can still remain in the same VLAN.

Question: 10 The Company LAN switches are being configured to support the use of Dynamic VLANs. What should be considered when implementing a dynamic VLAN solution? (Select two) A. Each switch port is assigned to a specific VLAN. B. Dynamic VLANs require a VLAN Membership Policy Server. C. Devices are in the same VLAN regardless of which port they attach to. D. Dynamic VLAN assignments are made through the command line interface.

Answer: B,C Explanation: With VLAN Membership Policy Server (VMPS), you can assign switch ports to VLANs dynamically, based on the source Media Access Control (MAC) address of the device connected to the port. When you move a host from a port on one switch in the network to a port on another switch in the network, the switch assigns the new port to the proper VLAN for that host dynamically. Note: There are two types of VLAN port configurations: static and dynamic. Incorrect Answers A:In a static VLAN, the administrator assigns switch ports to the VLAN, and the association does not change until the administrator changes the port assignment. However, this is not the case of dynamic VLANs. D:The Command Line Interface is not used for dynamic VLAN assignments. Reference: Cisco Online, Configuring Dynamic Port VLAN Membership with VMPS

Question: 11 In the three-layer hierarchical network design model; what’s associated with the access layer? (Select two) A. optimized transport structure B. high port density C. boundary definition D. data encryption E. local VLANs F. route summaries

Answer: B,E

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Explanation: The access layer is the outermost layer, and it is composed of the least sophisticated network equipment. The most important function of the access layer is high port density, since these devices connect the individual end users. The access layers are also where VLANs are implemented, since VLANs are assigned on a per-port basis. Section 3: Create a VLAN based verification plan (5 Questions)

Question: 12 You are assigning VLANs to the ports of switch R1. What VLAN number value is an assigned to the default VLAN? A. VLAN 1003 B. VLAN 1 C. VLAN ON D. VLAN A E. VLAN 0

Answer: B Explanation: The default VLAN is VLAN 1. Although this VLAN can be modified, it can not be deleted from the switch. The following VLANs are on by default for all Cisco Catalyst switches: VLAN 1 – Default VLAN VLAN 1002 – Default FDDI VLAN VLAN 1003 – Default Token Ring VLAN VLAN 1004 – Default FDDI Net VLAN VLAN 1005 – Default Token Ring Net VLAN

Question: 13 The VLANs in switch R1 are being modified. Which of the following are updated in R1 every time a VLAN is modified? (Select all that apply) A. Configuration revision number B. Configuration revision flag field C. Configuration revision reset switch D. Configuration revision database E. None of the other alternatives apply.

Answer: A,D Explanation: For accountability reasons, every time a VLAN is modified the revision number changes, as does the information in the configuration revision database (as that is where the VLAN information is stored).

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Question: 14 Given the above partial configuration, which two statements are true about VLAN traffic? (Choose two.)

A. VLANs 1-5 will use fa0/10 as a backup only. B. VLANs 6-10 will use fa0/10 as a backup only. C. VLANs 1-5 will be blocked if fa0/10 goes down. D. VLANs 1-10 are configured to load share between fa0/10 and fa0/12. E. VLANs 6-10 have a port priority of 128 on fa0/10.

Answer: B,D Explanation: Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that utilizes a special-purpose algorithm to discover physical loops in a network and effect a logical loop-free topology. STP creates a loopfree tree structure consisting of leaves and branches that span the entire Layer 2 network. The actual mechanics of how bridges communicate and how the STP algorithm works will be discussed at length in the following topics. Note that the terms bridge and switch are used interchangeably when discussing STP. In addition, unless otherwise indicated, connections between switches are assumed to be trunks. Load sharing can be accomplished using a couple of methods. The most common method of load sharing is through root bridge placement on a per-VLAN basis. This will distribute traffic for separate VLANs across separate paths to different root bridges. A separate method divides the bandwidth supplied by parallel trunks connecting switches. To avoid loops, STP normally blocks all but one parallel link between switches. Using load sharing, traffic can be divided between the links according to which VLAN the traffic belongs. Load sharing can be configured on trunk ports by using STP port priorities or STP path costs. For load sharing using STP port priorities, both loadsharing links must be connected to the same switch. For load sharing using STP path costs, each load-sharing link can be connected to the same switch or to two different switches.

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Load Sharing Using STP Port Priorities When two ports on the same switch form a loop, the STP port priority setting determines which port is enabled and which port is in a blocking state. The priorities on a parallel trunk port can be set so that the port carries all the traffic for a given VLAN. The trunk port with the higher priority (lower values) for a VLAN is forwarding traffic for that VLAN. The trunk port with the lower priority (higher values) for the same VLAN remains in a Blocking state for that VLAN. One trunk port sends or receives all traffic for the VLAN.

Question: 15 What is a characteristic of a static VLAN membership assignment? A. VMPS server lookup is required B. Easy to configure C. Easy of adds, moves, and changes D. Based on MAC address of the connected device

Answer: B Explanation: Static port VLAN membership on the switch is assigned manually by the administrator on a portbyport basis. Characteristics of static VLAN configurations include the following: 1. Secure 2. Easy to configure 3. Straight forward to monitor 4. Works well in networks where moves, adds, and changes are rare.

Question: 16 Static VLANs are being used on the Company network. What is true about static VLANs? A. Devices use DHCP to request their VLAN. B. Attached devices are unaware of any VLANs. C. Devices are assigned to VLANs based on their MAC addresses. D. Devices are in the same VLAN regardless of which port they attach to.

Answer: B Explanation: LAN port VLAN membership can be assigned manually on a port-by-port basis. When you assign LAN ports to VLANs using this method, it is known as port-based, or static, VLAN membership. Attached devices will be unaware of any VLANs. Reference: Configuring VLANs http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/121_8aex/swconfig/vlans.htm Section 4: Configure switch-to-switch connectivity for the VLAN based solution (36 Questions)

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Question: 17 Two Company switches are connected via a trunk using VTP. Which VTP information does a Catalyst switch advertise on its trunk ports when using VTP? (Select two) A. STP root status B. VTP mode C. Negotiation status D. Management domain E. Configuration revision number

Answer: D,E Explanation: The role of the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is to maintain VLAN configuration consistency across the entire network. VTP is a messaging protocol that uses Layer 2 trunk frames to manage the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis from a centralized switch that is in the VTP server mode. VTP is responsible for synchronizing VLAN information within a VTP domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN information on each switch. Using VTP, each Catalyst Family Switch advertises the following on its trunk ports:

Question: 18 The lack of which two prevents VTP information from propagating between switches? (Choose two.) A. A root VTP server B. A trunk port C. VTP priority D. VLAN 1 E. None of the other alternatives apply

Answer: B,D Explanation: In Switch tow types of links are available, access and trunk. The interface is in access mode can carry the information of only one VLAN and trunk can carry the information of more than one VLAN. VTP carry the information of more than one vlan so Switch port should be in trunk mode. VLAN1 is the default VLAN on Cisco Switch, by default all interface belongs to VLAN 1.

Question: 19 What is the default VTP advertisement for subset advertisements in Catalyst switches that are in server or client mode?

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A. 30 seconds B. 5 minutes C. 1 minute D. 10 seconds E. 5 seconds F. None of the other alternatives apply

Answer: B Explanation: Periodic ( default is 5 minutes) VTP advertisements are sent out each trunk port with the multicast destination MAC address 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CC. VTP advertisements contain the following configuration information:

Question: 20 Refer to the exhibit. VTP has been enabled on the trunk links between all switches within the TEST domain. An administrator has recently enabled VTP pruning. Port 1 on Switch 1 and port 2 on Switch 4 are assigned to VLAN 2. A broadcast is sent from the host connected to Switch 1. Where will the broadcast propagate?

A. Every switch in the network receives the broadcast and will forward it out all ports. B. Every switch in the network receives the broadcast, but only Switch 4 will forward it out port 2. C. Switches 1, 2, and 4 will receive the broadcast, but only Switch 4 will forward it out port 2. D. Only Switch 4 will receive the broadcast and will forward it out port 2.

Answer: C Explanation: The default behavior of a switch is to propagate broadcast and unknown packets across the network. This behavior results in a large amount of unnecessary traffic crossing the network. VTP pruning increases bandwidth efficiency by reducing unnecessary flooding of traffic, such as broadcast, multicast, unknown, and flooded unicast packets. VTP pruning increases available bandwidth by restricting flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use to access the appropriate

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network devices. By default, VTP pruning is disabled. Enabling VTP pruning on a VTP server enables pruning for the entire management domain. VTP pruning takes effect several seconds after it is enabled. By default, VLANs 2 through 1000 or 2 through 1001 are pruning eligible, depending upon the platform. VTP pruning does not prune traffic from VLANs that are pruning ineligible. VLAN 1 is always pruning ineligible and VLAN 1 cannot be removed from a trunk. However, the “VLAN 1 disable on trunk� feature available on Catalyst 4000, 5000, and 6000 family switches enables the pruning of user traffic, but not protocol traffic such as CDP and VTP, for VLAN 1 from a trunk. Use the vtp pruning command to make VLANs pruning eligible on a Cisco IOS-based switch. Switch(vlan)#vtp pruning Once pruning is enabled, use the switchport trunk pruning command to make a specific VLAN pruning ineligible. Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 0/3Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk pruning vlan remove vlan 5

Question: 21 What must be configured on a Cisco switch in order to advertise VLAN information? A. VTP mode B. VTP password C. VTP revision number D. VTP pruning E. VTP domain name F. None of the other alternatives apply

Answer: E Explanation: If the switch being installed is the first switch in the network, the management domain will need to be created. However, if the network has other switches running VTP, then the new switch will join an existing management domain. Verify the name of the management domain. If the management domain has been secured, verify and configure the password for the domain. To create a management domain or to add a switch to a management domain, use the vtp domain command in the global configuration mode or VLAN configuration mode. Switch(config)#vtp domain nameSwitch(vlan)#vtp domain

Question: 22 The Company switches have all been upgraded to use VTP version 2. What are two benefits provided in VTP Version 2 that are not available in VTP Version 1? (Select two) A. VTP version 2 supports Token Ring VLANs B. VTP version 2 allows VLAN consistency checks C. VTP version 2 allows active redundant links when used with spanning tree D. VTP version 2 reduces the amount of configuration necessary E. VTP version 2 saves VLAN configuration memory

Answer: A,B

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Explanation: Understanding VTP Version 2 If you use VTP in your network, you must decide whether to use VTP version 1 or version 2. Note: If you are using VTP in a Token Ring environment, you must use version 2. VTP version 2 supports the following features not supported in version 1: • Token Ring support—VTP version 2 supports Token Ring LAN switching and VLANs (Token Ring Bridge Relay Function [TrBRF] and Token Ring Concentrator Relay Function [TrCRF]). • Unrecognized Type-Length-Value (TLV) Support—A VTP server or client propagates configuration changes to its other trunks, even for TLVs it is not able to parse. The unrecognized TLV is saved in NVRAM. • Version-Dependent Transparent Mode—In VTP version 1, a VTP transparent network device inspects VTP messages for the domain name and version, and forwards a message only if the version and domain name match. Because only one domain is supported in the supervisor engine software, VTP version 2 forwards VTP messages in transparent mode without checking the version. • Consistency Checks—In VTP version 2, VLAN consistency checks (such as VLAN names and values) are performed only when you enter new information through the CLI or SNMP. Consistency checks are not performed when new information is obtained from a VTP message, or when information is read from NVRAM. If the digest on a received VTP message is correct, its information is accepted without consistency checks. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/ios/12.2ZY/configuration/guide/vtp.h tml#wp1020429

Question: 23 What action should a network administrator take to enable VTP pruning on an entire management domain? A. Enable VTP pruning on any switch in the management domain B. Enable VTP pruning on any client switch in the domain C. Enable VTP pruning on a VTP server in the management domain D. Enable VTP pruning on every switch in the domain

Answer: C Explanation: network. This behavior results in a large amount of unnecessary traffic crossing the network. VTP pruning increases bandwidth efficiency by reducing unnecessary flooding of traffic, such as broadcast, multicast, unknown, and flooded unicast packets. VTP pruning increases available bandwidth by restricting flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use to access the appropriate network devices. By default, VTP pruning is disabled. Enabling VTP pruning on a VTP server enables pruning for the entire management domain. VTP pruning takes effect several seconds after it is enabled. By default, VLANs 2 through 1000 or 2 through 1001 are pruning eligible, depending upon the platform. VTP pruning does not prune traffic from VLANs that are pruning ineligible. VLAN 1 is always pruning ineligible and VLAN 1 cannot be removed from a trunk. However, the “VLAN 1 disable on trunk” feature available on Catalyst 4000, 5000, and 6000 family switches

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enables the pruning of user traffic, but not protocol traffic such as CDP and VTP, for VLAN 1 from a trunk. Use the vtp pruning command to make VLANs pruning eligible on a Cisco IOS-based switch. Switch(vlan)#vtp pruning Once pruning is enabled, use the switchport trunk pruning command to make a specific VLAN pruning ineligible. Switch(config)#interface fastethernet 0/3Switch(configif)#switchport trunk pruning vlan remove vlan 5

Question: 24 What are two benefits provided in VTP Version 2 but NOT in VTP Version 1? (Choose two.) A. Supports Token Ring VLANs. B. Allows VLAN consistency checks. C. Saves VLAN configuration memory. D. Reduces the amount of configuration necessary. E. Allows active redundant links when used with spanning tree.

Answer: A,B Explanation: VTP Version 2 includes the following improvements: Token Ring VLAN support, TLV support, transparent mode, and Consistency checks.

Question: 25 The Company switches are configured to use VTP. What’s true about the VLAN trunking protocol (VTP)? (Select two) A. VTP messages will not be forwarded over nontrunk links. B. VTP domain names need to be identical. However, case doesn’t matter. C. A VTP enabled device which receives multiple advertisements will ignore advertisements with higher configuration revision numbers. D. A device in “transparent” VTP v.1 mode will not forward VTP messages. E. VTP pruning allows switches to prune VLANs that do not have any active ports associated with them.

Answer: A,D Explanation: VTP messages are only transmitted across trunk links. If the receiving switch is in transparent mode, the configuration is not changed. Switches in transparent mode do not participate in VTP. If you make VTP or VLAN configuration changes on a switch in transparent mode, the changes are not propagated to the other switches in the network.

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Question: 26 Switch R1 and R2 both belong to the Company VTP domain. What’s true about the switch operation in VTP domains? (Select all that apply) A. A switch can only reside in one management domain B. A switch is listening to VTP advertisements from their own domain only C. A switch is listening to VTP advertisements from multi domains D. A switch can reside in one or more domains E. VTP is no longer supported on Catalyst switches

Answer: A,B Explanation: A VTP domain is made up of one or more interconnected devices that share the same VTP domain name. A switch can be configured to be in only one VTP domain, and each VLAN has a name that is unique within a management domain. Typically, you use a VTP domain to ease administrative control of your network or to account for physical boundaries within your network. However, you can set up as many or as few VTP domains as are appropriate for your administrative needs. Consider that VTP is transmitted on all trunk connections, including ISL, IEEE 802.1Q, 802.10, and LANE. Switches can only belong to one management domain with common VLAN requirements, and they only care about the neighbors in their own domains. Reference: CCNP Switching Exam Certification Guide: David Hucaby & Tim Boyles, Cisco Press 2001, ISBN 1-58720 000-7 page 114

Question: 27 VTP devices in a network track the VTP revision number. What is a VTP configuration revision number? A. A number for identifying changes to the network switch. B. A number for identifying changes to the network router. C. A number for identifying changes to the network topology. D. None of the other alternatives apply.

Answer: C Explanation: The configuration revision number is a 32-bit number that indicates the level of revision for a VTP packet. Each VTP device tracks the VTP configuration revision number assigned to it, and most of the VTP packets contain the VTP configuration revision number of the sender. This information is used to determine whether the received information is more recent than the current version. Each time you make a VLAN change in a VTP device, the configuration revision is incremented by one. In order to reset the configuration revision of a switch, change the VTP domain name and then change it back to the original name. Reference: Understanding and Configuring VLAN trunk protocol (VTP) Document ID: 10558http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/473/21.html

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Question: 28 Switch R1 is configured to use the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). What does R1 advertise in its VTP domain? A. The VLAN ID of all known VLANs, the management domain name, and the total number of trunk links on the switch. B. The VLAN ID of all known VLANs, a 1-bit canonical format (CF1 Indicator), and the switch configuration revision number. C. The management domain name, the switch configuration revision number, the known VLANs, and their specific parameters. D. A 2-byte TPID with a fixed value of 0x8100 for the management domain number, the switch configuration revision number, the known VLANs, and their specific parameters. E. None of the other alternatives apply.

Answer: C Explanation: “Each switch participating in VTP advertises VLAN information, revision numbers, and VLAN parameters on its trunk ports to notify other switches in the management domain. VTP advertisements are sent as multicast frames. The switch intercepts frames sent to the VTP multicast address and processes them with its supervisory processor VTP frames are forwarded out trunk links as a special case. The following global configuration information is distributed in VTP advertisements: Reference: CCNP Switching Exam Certification Guide: page 115, David Hucaby & Tim Boyles, Cisco Press 2001, ISBN 1-58720 000-7

Question: 29 VTP switches use advertisements to exchange information with each other. Which of the following advertisement types are associated with VTP? (Select all that apply) A. Domain advertisements B. Advertisement requests from clients C. Subset advertisements D. Summary advertisements

Answer: B,C,D Explanation: VTP advertisements include: Reference: CCNP Switching Exam Certification Guide: pages 116-117 David Hucaby & Tim Boyles, Cisco Press 2001, ISBN 1-58720 000-7

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Question: 30 Switch R1 is part of the Company VTP domain. What’s true of VTP Pruning within this domain? (Select all that apply) A. It does not prune traffic from VLANs that are pruning-ineligible B. VLAN 1 is always pruning-eligible C. it will prune traffic from VLANs that are pruning-ineligible D. VLAN 2 is always pruning-ineligible E. None of the other alternatives apply.

Answer: A Explanation: By definition, pruning-ineligible VLANs can not be pruned. You can make specific VLANs pruning ineligible with the clear vtp pruneeligible vlan_range command. By default, VLANs 2-1000 are pruning-eligible. Since the default VLAN for any switch port in a Catalyst switch is VLAN 1, it is not eligible for pruning.

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