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C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ibn-Battuthayude Kallakkathakal (Malayalam) Author: C.K. Kareem Rights Reserved First Published : 2013 Cover & Layout : Mahin Printed at: color image, clt

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AIm-e-ØneW-™p-t]mb Fs‚ ktlm-Z-cn-am¿°v


C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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{]-km-[-I-hn-Nm-cw C-¥y-sb tem-I-Øn-\p ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv ap-kv-enw k-©m-cnI-fm-bn-cp-∂p. A-h¿ tem-I-sa-ºm-Spw k-©-cn-®p. ]Tn-®pw ]Tn-®-Xv ]d-™p-sIm-Sp-Øpw \-b-X-{¥ {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-bp-sam-s° A-h¿ temIw Np-‰n. Xo¿-Ym-S-I-s‚ hn-ip-≤n-tbm-sS-bm-Wv A-h¿ tem-Iw Np-‰n-bXv. A-h-cn¬ \n-s∂m-s° `n-∂-\m-bn-cp-∂p a-s‰m-cp A-d-_n k-©m-cnbm-bn-cp-∂ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø. kp-J-tem-ep-]-X am-{Xw ssI-ap-X-em°n bm-{X Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw A-k-Xy-ß-fpw A¿-[ k-Xy-ß-fpw Iq-´n°p-g-®v X-s‚ bm-{Xm-hn-h-c-Ww c-Nn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp _-Øq-Ø. ]s£, C-¥y-bn-se N-cn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-sf kw-_-‘n-t®-S-tØm-fw G‰-hpw B-[n-Im-cn-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-Wv _-Øq-Ø. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm{Xm hn-h-c-W-Øn-se A-k-Xy-ß-fpw A¿-[-k-Xy-ß-sf-bpw A-°m-esØ {]-ap-J-cm-b N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cp-sS c-N-\-I-fn-eq-sS hn-a¿-i-\ hnt[-b-am-°p-I-bm-Wv {]-ap-J N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b kn.--sI.-I-cow.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø H-cp Xo¿-Ym-S-I-t\m ]p-Wym-flm-thm B-bn-cp∂n-√. kp-Jw tX-Sn-X-S-∂ H-cp k-©m-cn am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p F-∂v Cu Ir-Xn \-sΩ t_m-[y-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. N-cn-{X-c-N-\-bn¬ kw-`-hn-® Zu¿`m-Ky-I-c-am-b H-cp Zp-c-¥-am-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c hn-h-c-Ww. F-t∏m-gp-a-s√-¶n-epw ]-e-t∏m-gpw C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-™-Xn-\p t\sc hn-]-co-X-am-bn-cp-∂p k-Xyw. C-Xn-\p-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv _n≥ Xp-•-°n-s\ kw-_-‘n-®v C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø sI-´n-®-a-® I-≈-°-YIƒ. Cu I-≈-°-Y-I-fn¬ \n-∂m-Wv a-lm-\m-b H-cp `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cnsb hn-Uv-Vn-bpw hn-th-I-iq-\y-\p-am-bn sh-≈-°m-c≥ h-c-s®-Sp-Ø-Xv. C-_v-\p-_-Øq-Ø-bp-sS t]-cn¬ k-Xy-hpw A¿-≤-k-Xy-hpw ]-®°-≈-hpw `m-h-\-I-fpw Iq-´n-°p-g-®p ]-e-cn¬ \n-∂p-am-bn tI-´ sI-´pI-Y-I-fn¬ Nm-en-®p sXm-Sp-Øp-hn-´ N-cn-{X-h-¶-Ø-sØ h-f-am-°n \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ-sIm-≠p ]-Wn-Xo¿-Ø H-cp A-b-Ym¿-Y N-cn-{X ku-[w, C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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A-Y-hm, N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ A-c-°n-√-sØ kq-£v-a-]-cn-tim-[-\ \-S-Øn `-kv-ao-I-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv X-s‚ A-\p-Kr-lo-X Xq-en-I-bn-eq-sS tUm. kn. sI I-cow sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. `m-hn N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿-°p Iq-Sn t\¿-h-gn-Im-´p-∂ N-cn-{X-Øn-se Cu h-gn-Øn-cn-hv th-≠-{X {i-≤n-°-s∏-Sm-sX t]m-I-cp-sX-∂p R-߃°p \n¿-_-‘-ap-≠v. B \n¿-_-‘w {]n-b hm-b-\-°m¿-°p-ap-≠m-Is´. A-ß-s\ G-Xp N-cn-{X-Øn-\pw H-cp a-dp-h-i-ap-s≠-∂pw N-cn-{XØn-s‚ a-dp-hm-b-\ Iq-Sm-sX N-cn-{X-]T-\w ]q¿-Øn-bm-hn-s√-∂pw `mhn N-cn-{X-hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-fpw N-cn-{X-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v ]mTy-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ X-øm-dm-°p-∂-h-cpw a-\- n-em-°n-bm¬ Cu Ir-Xn-bp-sS I¿-Øm-hn-s\t∏m-se {]-km-[-I-cpw Ir-Xm¿-Y-cm-bn. {]km[I¿


D≈-S°w H∂mw ]Xn-∏nse {]kvXm-h\ ......................................................... 9 c≠mw ]Xn-∏nse {]kvXm-h\....................................................... 10 1. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS ]pkvXIw ......................................... 11 2. k©m-cn-bmb _ØqØ ............................................................ 23 3. k©mcw k©m-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n. ............................................. 32 4. ap…nw cmjv{S-ß-fnse ÿnXn. ................................................ 42 5. kmaqly sshIr-X-߃ ............................................................. 48 6. _Øq-Øbpw Xp•°v apl-Ω-Zpw. ............................................ 59 7. Ip‰-I-c-amb Btcm-]-W-߃. ................................................... 67 8. Xe-ÿm\ am‰-Im-cyw-˛-Du-°≥ \pW. ................................... 78 9. ssN\okv B{I-a-Whpw Ncn-{X-h-¶Øw Xs∂ ............... 92 10. apl-ΩZv Xp•-°ns‚ c‡-Zmlw .............................................. 98 A\p-_-‘w-˛-_-Øq-Ø-bpsS kv{XoWm-©-Nn-Øw ......... 121


tUm: kn.-sI.- I-co-ans‚ IrXn-Iƒ C¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øn\v Hcp apJ-hpc Ncn-{X-Ønse KpW-]m-T-߃ apl-ΩZv Xp•-°v-˛-Hcp ]T\w C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ tIcf Ncn-{X-hn-Nmcw {^m≥kv Xncp-hnXmwIq¿ Ncn{Xw (X¿÷n-a) Ncn-{X-kw-th-Z\w Kerala under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan What Happened in Indian History Kerala and her culture-An introduction Indian History Part I and II


H∂mw ]Xn-∏nse {]kvXm-h\ C-_v-\p -_-Øq-Ø F-∂ hn-iz-{]-i-kv-X-\m-b k-©m-cn C-¥ym-Ncn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ-°v kp-]-cn-Nn-X-\m-Wv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ bm-{Xm-hnh-c-ß-fpw N-cn-{Xmw-i-߃ I-e¿-∂ {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-ß-fpw C-¥ym- N-cn{X-]-T-\-Øn¬ H-gn-®p-Iq-´m-\m-hm-Ø hn-j-b-am-bn-´m-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-®ph-cp-∂-Xv. a-e-bm-f-Øn¬ t]m-epw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-I-Y Ipsd-sbm-s° hn-h¿-Ø-\w sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. F-∂m¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø B-cm-bn-cp-∂p? A-t±-lØ - n-s‚ cm-jv{- So-b a-Xh - o-£W - ß - s - f-s¥m-s°? A-t±-lw Po-hn-® B Im-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h- hn-ti-j-ß-sf-s¥ms°? _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ ]p-kvX - I - ß - ƒ - F-gp-Xp-hm-\p-≠m-b km-lN - c - yß-tf-h? _-Øq-Øb - p-sS k-©m-ch - r-Øm-¥w F-{X-am-{Xw N-cn-{X-]T\-Øn-\v D-]t- bm-Ks - ∏-Sp-Ømw? C-Øc - w Im-cy-߃ N-cn-{X-Zr-jvS- ym CXp-hs - c A-]{- K-Y\ - h - n-t[-ba - m-°n-bn-´n-√. X-∑q-ew C-¥ym N-cn-{X-Øn¬ \n-ch - [ - n I-≈° - Y - I - ƒ I-S∂ - p-Iq-Sn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. C-hb - p-sS N-cn-{X- bmYm¿-Yy-߃ hn-iI - e - \ - w sN-øp-Ib - m-Wv Rm≥ sN-bvX - n-´p-≈X - v.N-cn-{X -hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ C-¥ym-N-cn-{Xw ]Tn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p am{Xw h-gn ]n-g-®p-t]m-Ip-∂ H-c-¤p-X ÿn-Xn-hn-ti-j-am-Wv \-ap-°p-≈Xv. N-cn-{X-Øn-\p km-[n-°p-∂ a-l-Xv-Ir-Xy-߃ C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ C-∂-sØ kw-hn-[m-\w aq-ew \n¿-h-ln-°¬ A-km-[y-am-Wv. AXn-\p-Im-c-Ww C-¥ym-N-cn-{Xw B-Zy-am-bn t{Im-Uo-I-cn-® Cw-•o-jv Fgp-Øp-Im-cp-sS Zp-cp-t±-iy-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xp a-\- n-em-°n hn-th-N-\]q¿-hw Im-cy-ß-sf Im-tW-≠-am-Xn-cn I-≠m¬ am-{X-ta \-ap-°v N-cn{X -{]-Xn-]m-Z-\w b-Ym¿-Y-am-°p-hm-s\m-°q. H-‰-sbm-‰-bm-b A-Ø-cw ]-cn-{i-a-ß-fn¬-s]-´ H-sc-fn-b- kw-cw-`-am-Wv Rm≥ \-S-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv. k-lr-Z-b-cp-sS-bpw N-cn-{X -Pn-⁄m-kp-°-fp-sS-bpw ap-ºn¬ Rm-\n-Xh-X-cn-∏n-°p-I-bm-Wv.Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw 15˛2˛1967

kn. -sI. I-cow


c≠mw ]Xn-∏nse {]kvXm-h\ Cu ]p-kv-X-Iw hn-‰-gn-™n-´v h-f-sc \m-fp-I-fm-bn. F¶n-epw C-Xv ]p-\x-{]-Im-i-\w \-S-Øp-hm≥ C-t∏mƒ am-{Xam-W-h-k-cw In-´n-b-Xv. C-Xn-s‚ {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-Øn¬ B-Zy]-Xn-∏n¬ \n-∂pw Im-cy-am-b am-‰-ß-sfm-∂pw h-cp-Øn-bn-´ns√-¶n-epw `m-jm-]-c-am-b sX-‰p-Iƒ ]-e-Xpw Xn-cp-Øp-hm\p-≈ {i-a-߃ sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. A-°m-cy-Øn¬ s{]m-^. \fn-\-Ip-am-cn-bp-sS k-lm-bw Rm≥ Ir-X-⁄-X-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn kv-a-cn-°p-∂p.]p-kv-X-I-Øn-s‚ ]p-\x-{]-kn-≤o-I-c-W-Øn-\v tI-c-fk¿-°m-cn¬ \n-∂pw [-\-k-lm-bw e-`n-®n-cp-∂p. \-μn-tbm-SpIq-Sn Rm≥ A-Xn-hn-sS kv-a-cn-®p-sIm-≈-s´. Cu ]-Xn-∏ns‚ A-®-Sn \n¿-h-ln-®p-X-∂ A-\p-]-a {]- v `m-c-hm-ln-Itfm-Sv Rm≥ Ir-X-⁄-\m-Wv. N-cn-{X-Ip-Xp-In-I-fpw Pn-⁄mkp-°-fp-am-b k-lr-Z-b-k-a-£w Rm-\o-]p-kv-X-Iw A-h-Xcn-∏n-®p-sIm-≈-s´.Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw 1˛5˛1980

tUm. kn.-sI. I-cow N-cn-{Xw ]-ªn-t°-j≥-kv

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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1 C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]p-kv-X-Iw A-dp-∂q-dv kw-h-’-c-߃-°p ap-ºv km-l-kn-I-\m-b H-cp k-©mcn sam-tdm-t°m-hn¬ Sm≥-Pn-b¿ F-∂ \-K-c-Øn¬ \n-∂pw C-d-ßnØn-cn-®p. A-t±-l-Øn-\v C-cp-]-sØm-∂v h-b- p am-{X-ta {]m-b-ap-≠mbn-cp-∂p-≈q. Ir-Xy-am-bn ]-d-™m¬ 1325 Pq¨ 14˛mw Xo-b-Xn hym-gmgv-N-bm-Wv Cu k-©m-cn-bp-sS t¢-i-I-c-am-b bm-{X- B-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xv. a-°-bn-se-Øn, ]p-Wy-I¿-aw sN-bv-Xv a-S-ßp-I-sb-∂-Xn¬ I-hn-™v as‰m-cm-{K-l-hpw A-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. ]-t£, c-≠p hym-g-h-´Øn-e-[n-Iw \o-≠p-\n-∂ Cu k-©m-cw a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ A-dn-bs∏-Sp-∂-Xn¬ sh-®v G-‰-hpw Zo¿-L-hpw hn-kv-a-b-P-\-I-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p. B-[p-\n-I N-cn-{X-hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-sf kw-_-‘n-t®-S-tØm-fw Iu-Xp-I-Ic-am-b ]-e kw-K-Xn-I-fpw sh-fn-®-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-∂p F-∂-Xn-\m¬ C_v-\p-_-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{X h-f-sc hn-e-s∏-´-Xm-Wv. H-cp Im-cyw Xo¿®-bm-Wv; X-ß-fp-sS A-c-a-\-bn¬ A-`-bw tX-Sp-I-bpw B-Xn-tY-b-Xzw A-\p-kyq-Xw A-\p-`-hn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X, A-\m-I¿-j-I-am-b B-Imc-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b, Cu sam-tdm-t°m-°m-c-s‚ hn-h-c-W-am-bn-cn-°pw, Xß-sf-°p-dn-®v h-cpw X-e-ap-d-bv-°v hn-[n-sb-gp-Xm-≥ B-[m-c-am-bn-Øocp-I-sb-∂v A-h-cm-cpw A-∂v Hm¿-Øn-cn-°p-I-bn-√. F-¶n¬ A-h¿ Iptd-°q-Sn t_m-[-]q¿-h-ta C-t±-l-tØm-Sv s]-cp-am-dp-am-bn-cp-∂p-≈p. 1304 s^-{_p-h-cn 24˛mw Xo-b-Xn Sm≥-Pn-b-dn¬ P-\n-®v 1368˛¬ sam-tdm-t°mbn¬ sh-®v a-cW - a - S- ™ B k-©m-cn, C-_v\ - p _-Øq-Ø F-∂ A-]c-\m-a-t[-b-Øm¬ A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂ A-_p A-_v-Zp-√m ap-l-Ω-Zv F-∂ km-lk - n-I\ - m-Wv. _-Øq-Ø F-∂X - v Ip-Spw-_t- ]-cm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu t]cn¬ A-dn-bs - ∏-Sp-∂ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kß - ƒ C-∂pw sam-tdm-t°m-hn-ep-≠v.C-¥y≥ hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-sf kw-_-‘n-t®-S-tØm-fw C-_v-\p _-ØqØ-bp-sS k-©m-c-°p-dn-∏v {]-I-S-am-b ]-e A-_-≤-[m-c-W-Iƒ-°pw C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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C-Sw sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv. H-´p h-f-sc Im-cy-߃ \-ap-°v _-ØqØ-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-Øn¬ \n-∂pw e-`n-°p-∂p-sh-∂-Xv k-t¥m-j-I-cam-sW-¶n-epw, N-cn-{X-]-T-\-Øn¬ \n-c-h-[n Io-dm-ap-´n-Iƒ-Iq-Sn C-Xp-aqew I-S-∂p-h-∂n-´p-≠v. X-∑q-ew _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{Xm-hn-h-c-Ww a-ebm-f-Øn-te-°v ]-cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\p-ap-ºp X-s∂ B-h-iy-am-b ]-cm-a¿-iw X¬-I¿-Øm-hn-s\-°p-dn-®p sN-tø-≠X - m-bn-´p-≠v. A-s√-¶n¬ Kp-W-tØ-°mƒ t{Zm-l-am-bn-cn-°pw C-¥ym- N-cn-{X- hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-tfmSp sN-øp-∂-Xv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{X-bp-sS B-¥-cn-tIm-t±i-hpw, A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ a-X-˛-km-aq-ln-I- ho-£-W-ß-fpw \n-›-b-ambpw ]T-\- hn-t[-b-am-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. A-Xp t]m-se- X-s∂ _-Øq-Ø Po-hn-®n-cp-∂ Im-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ {]-tXy-I-X-Iƒ Dƒ-s°m-≈p-hm≥ Ign-™n-s√-¶n¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS B-i-b- hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww D-]tbm-K-{]-Z-am-Ip-I-bp-an-√. 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n-se C-¥y≥ cm-Pm-°-∑m-sc Ip-dn-®p _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v. Cu cm-Py-Øv A-t±-lw I-≠Xpw ]-e-cn¬ \n-∂pw A-dn-™-Xp-am-b ]-e kw-K-Xn-I-fpw kp-Zo¿-Lam-bn Cu k-©m-cn {]-kv-Xm-hn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. {]-tXy-In-®pw tI-c-f-Ønse km-aq-ln-I cm-jv-{So-b k-{º-Zm-b-ß-sf- Ip-dn-®p-≈ C-_v-\p _Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-Ww N-cn-{X-an-√m-Ø Cu \m-´n¬ h-f-sc {]-tbmP-\-I-c-hp-am-Wv. F-∂m¬, C-¥y-bn¬ G-sXm-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS Hu-Zm-cy-Øn-em-tWm A-t±-lw kp-Zo¿-L-am-b F-´p-sIm-√w I-gn-™Xv, B N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb -Ip-dn-®p-≈ C-_v-\p-_-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]-cm-a¿-iß-fm-Wv G-‰-hpw ]-£-]m-X-]-c-am-bn-t∏m-b-Xv. X-s‚ hn-h-c-W-am-bncn-°pw B C-¥y≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb-°p-dn-®p-≈ B-[n-Im-cn-I-tc-J-sb∂v A-t±-lw H-cn-°-epw [-cn-®n-cn-°m-\p-an-S-bn-√. C-¥ym -N-cn-{X kwhn-[m-\-Øn¬ {_n-´o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-\v G-‰-hpw {]n-b-¶-c-am-bn F-SpØp s]-cp-am-dm≥ ]-‰n-b D-]-I-c-W-am-bn Xm≥ Xo-cp-sa-∂v _-Øq-Ø kz-]v-\-Øn¬-t]m-epw hn-Nm-cn-®n-cn-°p-I-bp-an-√. X-s‚ tIƒ-hn-°m-cpsS B-kz-m-Z-\-Øn-\v A-\p-tbm-Py-amw-hn-[w A-t±-lw I-≠-Xpw tI-´Xpw Iq-´n-°-e¿-Øn, A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n-bp-sS B-h-c-W-an-´-h-X-cn-∏n-s®∂p-am-{Xw. h-f-sc-tb-sd A-_-≤-ß-fpw ]-®-°-≈-ß-fpw km-l-kn-I\m-b G-sXm-cp k-©m-cn-bpw A-\p-h¿-Øn-°m-dp-≈X - p-am-Xn-cn A-t±-lhpw X-´n-hn-´p. X-s‚ tIƒ-hn-°m-sc c-kn-∏n-°p-Is - b-∂X - n¬ I-hn-™v H-cp-∂h - pw A-t±-lØ - n-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. kp-Zo¿-La - m-b C-cp-]s - Øm-ºXv sIm-√s - Ø bm-{Xm-\p-`h - w F-¥p-am-{Xw A-\p-`h - m-\p-`q-Xn-Iƒ - At±-lØ - n-ep-≠m-bn-cn-°m-sa-∂X - n¬ B¿-°pw kw-ib - Ø - n-\v C-Sa - n-√. ]e cm-Py-ßf - pw, ]-e `m-jm-`q-jm-Zn-If - pw, km-aq-ln-Ik - {- º-Zm-bß - f - pw, B-Nm-ca - c - ym-ZI - f - pw I-≠pw tI-´pw A-\p-`h - n-®d - n-bp-∂ Pn-⁄m-kp-hmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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b H-cp k-Xym-t\z-jI - ≥, A-aq-ey-am-b k-ºØ - m-Wv Cu A-\p-`h - ⁄ m\w kw-`m-h\ - - \-evI - p-I. ]-t£, _-Øq-Øb - p-sS Im-cy-Øn¬ A-{X-am{Xw Kp-WI - c - a - m-bn-cp-∂p-thm Cu ap-∏X - p sIm-√t- Øm-fa - p-≈ A-t±-lØn-s‚ k-©m-cw F-∂p kw-ib - n-t°-≠X - p-≠v._-Øq-Ø-bv-°p-ap-ºpw A-d-_n-tem-Iw \n-c-h-[n `q-an im-kv-{X-⁄∑m-sc-bpw N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-sc-bpw k-©m-c-Ip-Xp-In-I-sf-bpw tem-I-Øns‚ ap-∂n¬ A-h-X-cn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. A-h-cn-e-[n-I-hpw A-\¿-L-am-b apX¬-°q-´m-Wv- N-cn-{X- im-kv-{X- im-J-Iƒ-°p \-ev-In-bn-´p-≈-Xv. kpsse-am-s\-t∏m-se-tbm, A¬-_n-dq-\n-sb-t∏m-se-tbm G-sX-¶n-epw N{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-\m-bn-t´m, k-¥-X- k-l-Nm-cn-bm-bn-t´m H-s°-bm-Wv A-h-cn-e-[n-I-t]-cpw C-hn-sS h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. X-s‚ {]-Xn-]pcp-j-\m-bn A-b-°p-∂ Bƒ ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw tbm-Ky-\p-am-bn-cn-°p-I F-∂ {]m-Y-an-I-\-bw cm-Pm-°-∑m¿ F-¥n-s\-°m-fpw hn-e-a-Xn-®n-cp-∂Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv Cu ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS tN-X-\m-hn-em-k-hpw hn-⁄m\-Xr-j-vW-bpw hn-e-a-Xn-°m-s\m-°m-Ø hn-`-h-߃ hn-⁄m-\-`-Wv-UmKm-c-Øn-te-°p hn-f-ºn-s°m-Sp-Ø-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂-bm-Wv C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-c-N-\-bv-s°m-cp-ßn-b Cw-•o-jp-Im¿ Cu tc-J-I-sf B-h-Xpw tX-Sn-∏n-Sn-°p-hm-\m-bm-k-s∏-´-Xpw, X-∑q-ew {i-a-I-c-am-b N-cn-{X-c-N-\Ip-sd-sbm-s° A-\m-bm--k-am-bn-Øo-¿-∂-Xpw. F-∂m-epw C-\n-bpw F{X-tbm A-[n-Iw hn-e-s∏-´ ti-J-c-߃ A-d-_n, Xp¿-°n, t]¿-jy≥ ap-X-em-b `m-j-I-fn¬ H-fn-™pw sX-fn-™pw In-S-°p-∂p-≠v. ]-cn-{ian-I-fm-b K-th-j-I-cp-sS {i-≤-bpw-Im-Øv A-h hn-{i-aw sIm-≈p-I-bmWv. a-[y-Im-e C-¥ym-Nc - n-{Xw ]p-\:kw-hn-[m-\w \-SØ - p-tºmƒ C-\nbpw C-¥y≥ `m-jI - f - n-te-°p sh-fn-®w I-≠n-´n-√m-Ø [m-cm-fw {]-kn≤o-Ic - W - ß - ƒ tX-Sn-∏n-Sn-®p hn-h¿-Ø\ - w sN-bvs - X-Sp-t°-≠X - m-bp-≠v. F-∂m¬ am-{X-ta b-Ym¿-Ya - m-b H-cp hn-hc - W - w km-[y-am-Ip-Ib - p-≈p. A-tX k-μ¿-`Ø - n¬ ]-eX - n-t‚-bpw s\-√pw ]-Xn-cpw X-cw-Xn-cn-s®-Sp-°pI-bpw th-Ww. _-Øq-Øb - p-sS ]p-kvX - I - w A-Øc - Ø - n¬-s]-´, {i-≤m]q¿-hw ssI-Im-cyw sN-tø-≠ H-∂m-Wv. A-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv _-Øq-Øsb-°p-dn-®p kp-Zo¿-La - m-b H-cm-ap-JØ - n-s\m-cp-sº-Sp-∂X - p-Xs - ∂. _-Øq-Ø H-cp cm-Pm-hn-s‚-bpw {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-\m-bn-´-√ bm-{X -Xncn-®-Xv. kp-sse-am-s‚ bm-{Xm- {K-Ÿ-am-b kn¬-k-em-Øp¬ X-hm-coJv F-∂ {]-kn-≤-am-b A-d-_n- {K-Ÿw C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-sb C-¥y≥ tZ-im-S-\-Øn-\p k-lm-bn-®n-cn-°mw. C-cp-]-Øn H-∂m-a-sØ h-b- nem-Wv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]p-d-∏m-Sv. ]-Iz-a-Xn-bm-b H-cp ]-Wv-Un-X-s‚ Pn⁄m-k-tbm, hn-⁄m-\-Xr-jv-W-tbm, \n-K-a-\-ß-tfm H-∂pw h-i-ambn-cn-°p-hm-\n-S-bn-√m-Ø Cu {]m-b-Øn¬ bm-{X Xn-cn-® C-_v-\p _C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Øq-Ø-bn¬ \n-∂pw H-cp k-©m-cn-bp-sS Iu-Xp-I-I-c-am-b ho-£-Whn-ti-j-W-sa-∂-Xn¬-°-hn-™v, ssh-⁄m-\n-I {]-Xn-`m hn-em-kw {]Xo-£n-°p-∂-Xp i-cn-bm-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√.A-t±-lw t]-sc-Sp-Ø H-cp ]-Wv-Un-X-\m-bn-cp-∂n-√. ]-c-º-cm-K-Xam-bn a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS Ip-Spw-_-Øn-em-Wp Xm≥ P-\n-®-sX-∂v A-t±-lw {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xp hn-iz-kn-®m¬-X-s∂ A¬-_n-dq-\n-sbt∏m-se-tbm A-d-_n-tem-I-Øn-se {]-Xn-`m-k-º-∂-cm-b H-´-\-h-[n Ncn-{X- im-kv-{X-Im-c-∑m-sc-t]m-se-tbm C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø H-cn-°-epw A-dn-hn-s‚ Im-cy-Øn¬ F-Æ-s∏-´n-cp-∂n-s√-∂p-≈-Xp ]-c-am¿-Y-am-Wv. k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b C-¥y≥ ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿ A-t±-l-sØ-°p-dn-t®m, At±-lw ]-d-™p sIm-Sp-sØ-gp-Xn-b _r-l-Øm-b Cu {K-Ÿ-sØ-°pdn-t®m H-∂pw X-s∂ ]-cm-a¿-in-®-Xm-bn C-Xp-h-sc I-≠n-´n-√. _-ØqØ A-dn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂ H-cp ]-Wv-Un-X-\m-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂p k-a¿-Yn-°phm≥ C-Xp-X-s∂ a-Xn-bm-b sX-fn-hm-Wv. Cu hy-Xym-kw I-W-°n-seSp-Øn-s√-¶n¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-{K-Ÿ-Øn-s‚ ]-cn-anXn-Iƒ a-\- n-em-°¬ A-km-≤y-am-Ipw. _-Øq-Ø-sb C-hn-sS Imcy-am-bn hn-kv-X-cn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. h-f-sc Ip-d-hp-Iƒ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ bm-{Xm-{K-Ÿ-am-b In-Øm-_p-d-l-e F-∂ {K-Ÿ-Øn-\p-≠v.H-∂m-a-Xm-bn _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS sN-dp-{]m-bw, ]m-Wv-Un-Xy-°p-d-hv, cm-P-Io-b- t{]m-’m-l-\-Øn-s‚ A-`m-hw Xp-S-ßn-b-h I-W-°n-se-Sp°-Ww. ]n-∂o-Sv, _-Øq-Ø I-Y ]-d-™p-tIƒ-∏n-® k-aq-lw, ]-d-bm\p-≈ B-¥-cn-I-{]-tNm-Z-\w, A-h-km-\w ]p-kv-X-I-cq-]-Øn¬ B-teJyw sN-bv-X ÿn-Xn C-h-sbm-s° Hm¿-a -th-Ww. C-Xn-s\m-s° ]p-dsa A-t±-lw hn-h-cn-® ap-∏-Xp kw-h-’-c-°m-e-sØ Cu hn-h-c-߃ H-tcm¿-a-°p-dn-∏p-t]m-epw ssI-h-i-an-√m-sX-bm-sW-∂ Im-cy-hpw [m-cW-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww. am-{X-a-√, Xm≥ ]-d-bp-∂ Cu Im-cy-ß-fmbn-cn-°pw H-cn-°¬ N-cn-{X-hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-fp-sS hn-hm-Z-hn-j-b-am-bn-Øocp-I-sb-∂pw, {]-tXy-In-®v C-¥ym-N-cn-{X -{]-Xn-]m-Z-\-Øn¬ A-h C{X-am-{Xw Im-ep-jyw I-e¿-Øp-sa-∂pw A-t±-lw [-cn-®n-cn-°p-I-bp-an√. A-ß-s\ ]-e Ip-d-hp-I-fpw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS N-cn-{X-Øn-\p-≠v.ap-∏-Xp-sIm-√-Øn-\p-ap-ºv Xn-c-°p-]n-Sn-® H-cp ]-´-W-{]m-¥-Øn¬\n-∂pw {]-kn-≤-\-√m-Ø H-cmƒ \m-Sp-hn-t´m-Sn-t∏m-Ip-I; kp-Zo¿-L-amb Cu Im-e-b-f-hn¬ A-bm-sf-°p-dn-®p bm-sXm-cp hn-h-c-hpw k-a-Imen-I-tem-Iw A-dn-bm-Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-I; F-∂n-´p Im-e-Øn-s‚ I-ev-]-S-hp-Iƒ Ip-sd-b-[n-Iw I-b-dn a-dn-™-Xn-\p-ti-jw Xm≥ P-\n®p h-f¿-∂v hn-t´-®p t]m-∂ A-tX ÿ-e-Øv, H-cp kp-{]-`m-X-Øn¬ A-¤p-X-I-c-am-bn ]p-\-cm-K-an-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-I. k-a-Im-eo-\¿-°v CC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Xn¬-I-hn-™v H-cm-tam-Z-hpw hn-kv-a-b-hpw D-≠m-Im≥ a-s‰-¥p-th-Ww? 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n-em-Wv Cu I-Y \-S-°p-∂-sX-∂ Im-cy-hpw-Iq-Sn Hm¿°p-tºmƒ \m-S-I-Øn-s‚ ho-cy-Øn-\p am-‰p-Iq-Sp-I-bp-am-Wv. th-j-hn[m-\-hpw B-Im-c-ku-jvT-h-hpw s]-cp-am-‰-co-Xn-I-fp-sam-s°-Ø-s∂ hf-sc hy-Xym-k-s∏-´n-cn-°pw. Cu A-º-sØm-∂p-Im-c≥ \m-´n¬ Xn-cns®-Øn-b-t∏mƒ ]-e¿-°pw A-dn-™p-sIm-≈-W-sa-∂p X-s∂-bn-√. A¤p-X-Øn-s‚ H-cp am-bm-tem-Iw _-Øq-Ø A-dn-bm-sX-X-s∂ A-t±l-sØ B-h-c-Ww sN-bv-Xp-Im-Wpw. A-ß-s\ tI-´-dn-™pw Hm-Sn-°qSn-bpw F-Øn-b B-cm-[-I-kw-L-sØ c-kn-∏n-°p-hm≥ km-l-kn-I-k©m-cn-I-f-[n-I-hpw sN-øm-dp-≈-Xp-t]m-se A-t±-l-hpw I-≠-Xpw tI-´Xpw s]m-Sn-∏pw sXm-ß-epw tN¿-Øp ]-d-™p Im-Wpw. Cu A-¤p-XI-Y-Iƒ \m-´n-ep-S-\o-fw {]-N-cn-°p-I-bpw sam-tdm-t°m-hn-se cm-Pm-hv C-Xn¬ Xm-ev-]-cyw Im-Wn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-- ]-t£, _-Øq-Ø-sb hn-iz-kn-°p-hm≥ cm-Pm-hv X-øm-dm-bn-s√-∂m-Wv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-aIm-eo-\-\pw A-d-_n-tem-I-Øn-se A-\-iz-c-\p-am-b C-_v-\p J¬-Zq≥ Ip-dn-°p-∂-Xv.{]-kn-≤-\m-b Cu a-lm-]-Wv-Un-X≥ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-sb Ipdn-s®-gp-Xp-∂-Xp h-f-sc {i-≤m¿-l-am-Wv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ap-J-±n-a F∂ _r-l-Øm-b A-d-_n {K-Ÿw {]m≥-kv tdm-k-¥mƒ Introduction to History (N-cn-{X-Øn-s\m-cp ap-J-hp-c) F-∂ t]-cn¬ aq-∂p hm-ey-ßfm-bn Cw-•o-jn-te-°v hn-h¿-Ø-\w sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p. A-Xn¬ B-ZysØ `m-K-Øn¬ 369 ap-X¬ 371 h-sc-bp-≈ ]p-d-ß-fn-em-Wv _-ØqØ-sb-°p-dn-®p-≈ ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fp-≈-Xv. A-Xn-{]-Im-cw \-ap-°v hm-bn°mw: a-cn-\o-Uv kp¬-Øm≥ A-_q C-\m-an-s‚ Im-e-Øv Sm≥-Pn-bdn¬-\n-∂pw C-_v-\p-_-Øq-Ø F-s∂m-cp ssi-Jv a-K-vcn-_n¬ (samtdm-t°m-hn¬) Xn-cn-®p-h-∂p. C-cp-]-Xp sIm-√-߃-°p-ap-ºv In-g-°≥ cm-Py-ß-fn-te-°p Xn-cn-® A-t±-lw C-dm-Jv, b-a≥, C-¥y F-∂o cmPy-߃ k-μ¿-in-® ti-j-am-Wv a-S-ßn-h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. C-¥y≥ `-c-Wm[n-]-\m-b kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm `-cn-°p-∂ U¬-ln- \-K-c-Øn¬ A-t±-l-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm C-_v-\p _-ØqØ-sb h-f-sc _-lp-am-\n-°p-I-bpw H-cp P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS tPm-en \-ev-IpI-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-hn-sS-\n-∂pw A-t±-lw a-Kv-cn-_n-te-°p a-S-ßn. kp¬-Øm≥ A-_q C-\m-ap-am-bn k-º¿-°w ]p-e¿-Øn. hn-hn-[ cmPy-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw X-\n-°p-≠m-b A-\p-`-h-I-Y-I-tf-bpw, A-hn-S-ßfn-ep-≈ {]-tXy-I-X-I-tf-bpw A-t±-lw hn-kv-X-cn-®p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°m≥ Xp-S-ßn. C-¥y≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb-°p-dn-®m-W-[n-I-hpw A-t±-lw kwkm-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

15


tI-´-h¿-s°m-s° hn-kv-a-b-I-c-am-bn tXm-∂n-b A-hn-iz-k-\o-b-ßfm-b Im-cy-ß-fm-Wv A-t±-lw ]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn, Hcn-°¬ Cu kp¬-Øm≥ H-cp bm-{X-°v Xn-cn-®-t∏mƒ U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-sf ap-gp-s°-˛-B-Wpw, s]-Æpw, Ip-´n-I-fpw H-∂-S-¶w-˛-F-Æn-Øn´-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw A-h¿-s°m-s°-bpw B-dp-am-k-tØ-°p-≈ k-I-e A-h-iy-km-[-\-ß-fpw X-s‚ kz-¥-w sN-e-hn¬ \-ev-Ip-hm≥ I-ev-]n°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp-h-s{X! bm-{X I-gn-™v A-t±-lw Xn-cn-®p-h-∂-t∏mƒ A-sXm-cp D¬-k-h-Zn-h-k-am-bn-cp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ h-en-sbm-cp ]oTØn¬ I-b-dn-bn-cp-∂v kz¿-Ww, sh-≈n \m-W-b-߃ \n-d-® Nm-°pIƒ sI-´-gn-®v P-\-߃-°n-S-bn¬ hm-cn-hn-X-dn. \n-c-h-[n [-\w A-t±lw sIm-´m-c-Øn-se-Øp-tºm-tg-°pw sIm-Sp-Øp-I-gn-™n-cp-∂p.C-Xp-t]m-se A-\-h-[n I-Y-Iƒ A-t±-lw ]-d-™p-sh-¶n-epw Chn-sS-bp-≈ P-\-߃ A-t±-l-sØ \p-W-b≥ F-∂m-Wv hn-ti-jn-∏n®n-cp-∂-Xv. A-bmƒ ]-d-™-sXm-∂pw hn-iz-kn-°m≥ A-h¿ Iq-´m-°nbn-√. C-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ H-cp Zn-h-kw Rm≥ kp¬-Øm-s‚ a-{¥n-am-cn¬ {]-[m-\n-bm-b ^m-cn-Uv C-_v-\p hm-Zv-cm-dp-am-bn Cu k-©m-cn-sb-°p-dn®p kw-km-cn-®p. A-t∏m-gpw Rm-s\-s‚ A-`n-{]m-bw i-cn-bm-bn-´p-Xs∂ A-t±-l-tØm-Sp ]-d-™n-cp-∂p: "P-\-߃ s]m-Xp-sh C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-sb \p-W-b-\m-bm-Wp I-W-°m-°p-∂-sX-∂pw F-\n-°pw A-bmƒ ]-d-bp-∂ Im-cy-Øn-epw A-bm-fn-epw hn-izm-k-an-s√-∂pw Rm≥ A-t±-l-tØm-Sp Xp-d-∂p ]-d-™p.-.-.-.-.-.-' (Introduction to History, PP. 369371)

F-¶n-epw ]-Wv-Un-X t{i-jvT-\m-b Cu tbm-Ko-h-cy-s‚ ip-]m¿-ib-\p-k-cn-®m-Wv sam-tdm-t°m-hn-se kp¬-Øm≥ X-s‚ sk-{I-´-dn-amcn¬ H-cm-sf _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv F-gp-Xp-hm≥ G¿-]m-Sp-sN-bv-X-Xv. C-_v-\p Pq- m-bn F-∂ tZ-l-am-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-hr-Øm¥w Ip-dn-s®-Sp-Ø-Xv. ]p-kv-X-I cq-]-Øn¬ F-gp-X-s∏-Sp-sa-∂v H-cn-°epw _-Øq-Ø B-Zyw I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂n-√. Xm≥ ]-d-™p hn-iz-kn-∏n®p-t]m-∂ ]-e-Xpw A-ß-s\ ]p-kv-X-I-am-°n-b-t∏m-gpw A-Xn¬ I-S∂p-h-cm-sX \n-hr-Øn-bn-s√-∂p h-∂ K-Xn-tI-Sm-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-I-Y. H-cp N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿ-sa-∂ \n-e-°v A-Xn-s‚ a-lm-fly-sØ X-cw Xm-gv-Øp-∂-Xpw C-°m-c-W-Øm-em-Wv. N-cn-{X-]T-\-Øn-\v D-t±in-t®m, N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿ-am-bn-t´m A-√ _-Øq-Ø C-h hn-i-Zo-I-cn-®-XpX-s∂. N-cn-{X-an-√m-Ø Cu \m-´n¬ \-ap-°n-sXm-s° B-[n-Im-cn-I Ncn-{X-{K-Ÿ-am-Im-sX X-c-an-√-t√m! h-f-sc kq-£v-a-X-tbm-sS a-‰p-≈ ]pkv-X-I-߃ Iq-Sn F-Sp-Øp Xm-c-X-ay-]T-\w \-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Ir-{Xn-a-am-bn I-S-∂p-Iq-Sn-b ]-e-Xpw F-Sp-Øp-am-‰n ip-≤-am-b N-cn-{XmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

16


hn-jv-I-c-W-Øn-\v C-Xv D-]-I-cn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]-t£, _-Øq-Ø-sb B-[n-Im-cn-I h-‡m-hm-bn \-Ωp-sS N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ I-Æpw ]q-´n hniz-kn-®-Xm-Wv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-h-c-Ww C-¥ym N-cn-{X-Øn¬ Iq-SpX¬ I-ev-a-jw I-e¿-Øp-hm≥ Im-c-Ww. N-cn-{X c-N-\-°v D-]-tbm-Kn°m-hp-∂ H-c-kw-kv-Ir-X ]-Zm¿-Y-am-bn-´p am-{X-ta _-Øq-Ø-sb F-Sp°m≥ ]m-Sp-≈q. kw-kv-I-cn-s®-Sp-Ø X-¶-°-´-sb-t∂m-W-am-Wv \-ΩpsS N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ _-Øq-Ø-sb B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂-bm-Wv sX-‰pw i-cn-bpw hy-h-t—-Zn-®-dn-bm≥ C-t∏mgpw `-Ko-c-Y-{]-b-Xv-\w B-h-iy-am-bn h-cp-∂-Xv. C-Xn-\pw ]p-d-ta _Øq-Ø-bp-sS Cu ]p-kv-X-Iw H-c¿-Y-Øn¬ Xo¿-Øpw A-t±-l-Ønt‚-Xm-sW-∂v ]-d-bp-I km-[y-a-s√-∂m-Wv d-ln-e Cw-•o-jn-te-°p hnh¿-Ø-\w sN-bv-X F. B¿. Kn-∫v A-k-μn-Kv-[-am-bn {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂Xv. C-Xn-\v D-t]m-Zv-_-e-I-am-bn ]-e Im-c-W-ß-fpw A-t±-lw bp-‡nk-l-am-bn hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-ap-≠v: ""C-_v-\p Pq- m-bn A-ß-s\ _Øq-Ø hn-h-cn-®p-sIm-Sp-Ø-Xv H-∂n-∏n-s®-Sp-Øp. ^-e-am-I-s´, hy-Xykv-X kz-`m-h hn-ti-j-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b H-cp {K-Ÿ-hpw. _-Øq-Ø ]-d™p-sIm-Sp-Ø A-tX co-Xn-bn¬ Pq- m-bn F-gp-Xn-sb-Sp-Øp-sh-∂v hn-iz-kn-°m≥ X-c-an-√. ]-e ÿ-e-ß-fp-sS-bpw t]-cp-Iƒ i-cn-°pw tN¿-°p-∂-Xn¬ Pq- m-bn k-lm-bn-®n-´p-s≠-∂-Xv A-\p-tam-Z-\m¿-lam-Wv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚-X-s∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-bn¬ Cu Ir-Xn B-Zy-tØXn¬-\n-∂pw D-≈ H-cp {l-kz-cq-]-am-Wv. H-cp ]-t£, hn-i-Z-am-bn {]-kvXm-hn-®n-cp-∂ ]-e-Xpw kz-¥-am-bn Np-cp-°n I-f-™-Xm-hmw. kp-Zo¿L-am-bn {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cp-∂ ]-e kw-K-Xn-I-fpw Pq- m-bn hn-´p-I-f-bp-Ibpw, Im-e-Øn-s‚ hm-k-\-°-\p-tbm-Py-amw hn-[w B-e-¶m-cn-I `m-jbpw C-S-°n-S-°p I-hn-X-I-fpw Iq-´n-t®¿-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. AtX k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ A-t±-lw ap-∏-Xp-sIm-√w I-≠ tZ-i-ß-fpw, C-S-]-gIn-b P-\-ß-fpw, A-h-cp-sS Po-hn-X-k-{º-Zm-b-ß-fpw {]-tXy-I-X-I-fpw A-h X-∂n-ep-f-hm-°n-b {]-Xn-I-c-W-ß-fp-sam-s° Xn-cn-®v \m-´n-se-Øn B-h-iy-Øn-\p-th-≠n A-b-hn-d-°m-s\m-Ø-Xv k-Ω-Xn-°m-sX X-c-an√. F-∂m¬ A-tXm-sSm-∏w A-Xn-s‚ B-[n-Im-cn-Ik - z-`m-hw tNm¿-∂m¬ A-Xv tNm-Zyw sN-ø-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-am-Wv. ]-e A-_-≤-ß-fpw _-Øq-Ø°v kw-`-hn-®n-´p-≠v. ÿ-e-Im-e \n¿-W-b-ß-fn¬ ]-e ]n-i-Ipw ]n-W™n-cn-°p-∂p. A-ap-kv-enw -\m-a-ß-fpw ÿ-e-ß-fpw ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂ k-μ¿-`-ß-fn-e-[n-I-hpw _-Øq-Ø \-ev-Ip-∂ t]-cp-Iƒ an-°-Xpw i-cnb-√. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h¿-Ø-I-\m-b Kn-∫v ]-d-bp-∂-Xv tIƒ-°p-I: "bm-{X-bp-sS k-a-b-\n¿-W-bw sN-øp-∂ Im-cyw G-‰-hpw Zp¿-L-S-amWv. Xo-b-Xn-bp-sS kw-K-Xn-bn¬ H-´pw \n-jv-I¿-j C-√m-Xn-cp-∂-Xm-WnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

17


Xn-\p Im-c-Ww. H-∂p-In¬ F-gp-Øp-Im-c-s‚ \n¿-_-‘-Øn-\p hn-t[b-\m-b-t∏mƒ G-tXm sIm-√-߃ ]-d-™-Xm-hmw; A-Y-hm A-{i-≤sIm-≠p-am-bn-cn-°pw.-' "]-t£, A-h ]-cn-tim-[n-®v sX-‰p-Xn-cp-Øp-I-sb-∂ tPm-en h-fsc {i-a-I-c-am-sW-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p X-s∂ A-h-sb A-tX-]-Sn tN¿-°pI-tb X-c-ap-≈q.-'' (Selections from the Travels of Ibn Battuta P.13) C-Xn-s\m-s° ]p-d-ta, _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-{X ÿ-e-߃ A-t±lw k-μ¿-in-®-Xm-tWm F-∂ Im-cy-Øn-epw ]-e- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw kw-i-bm-ep-°-fm-Wv. {]-tXy-In-®v A-t±-lw hn-h-cn-°p-∂ tIm¨-Ãm‚nt\m-∏n-fpw ssN-\-bpw _-Øq-Ø I-≠n-cn-°p-I-bn-s√-∂pw a-[y-Im-e F-gp-Øp-Im¿ sN-øm-dp-≈-Xp t]m-se a-‰m-cp-sS-tbm bm-{Xm hn-h-c-Ww Np-cp-°n-sb-gp-Xn-b-Xm-bn-cn-°m-sa-∂pw hy-‡-am-°m≥ {]-bm-k-an-√. tIm¨-Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ _-Øq-Ø I-≠n-cn-°m-\n-S-bn-s√-∂p Nn-e hna¿-i-I¿ ]-d-bp-hm-\p-≈ Im-c-W-߃ c-≠m-Wv. H-∂m-a-Xv, A-t±-lw A-hn-sS t]m-Ip-hm-≥ D-]-tbm-Kn-s®-∂v ]-d-bp-∂ am¿-Kw H-cn-°-epw icn-bm-b-X-√. c-≠m-a-Xm-bn, A-hn-Sp-sØ ap≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-am-bn A`n-ap-J- kw-`m-j-Ww \-S-Øn-b-Xm-bpw ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø ap≥N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb I-s≠-s∂-gp-Xp-∂ h¿-j-Øn-\p ap-ºp-X-s∂ A-t±lw N-c-a-a-S-™n-cp-∂p. A-ß-s\ kw-i-b-I-c-am-b ]-e-Xpw C-hn-sS apg-®p -\n¬-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n-epw a-‰p Nn-e \ym-bo-I-c-W-߃ sIm-≠v _Øq-Ø-sb c-£-s∏-Sp-Øm-≥ I-gn-bpw. tIm¨-Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ Im-WmsX, a-‰p-≈-h-sc-gp-Xn-b bm-{Xm- Ip-dn-∏n-s\ B-[m-c-am-°n-bm-Wv _Øq-Ø C-X-Sn-®p-hn-´-sX-¶n¬ \n-›-b-am-bpw A-Xph-sc A-dn-b-s∏-SmØ-Xpw A-]-cn-Nn-X-am-b-Xp-am-b H-cp am¿-Kw H-cn-°-epw ]-d-bm-s\m°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. ap≥-N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-am-bp-≈ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-º¿°- I-Y-bp-sS Xo-b-Xn-bn¬ h-∂ ]n-i-Im-sW-∂p I-W-°m-°n-bm¬ am-{Xw a-Xn C-Xn-se A-kmw-K-Xyw C-√m-Xm-Ipw. _-Øq-Ø Xo-b-Xnbp-sS Im-cy-Øn¬ A-{X \n-jv-I¿-j Im-Wn-®n-´n-s√-∂v \mw ap-ºv {]kv-Xm-hn-®-Xp-am-Wv.F-∂m¬, A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ssN-\ k-μ¿-i-\w A-{X hn-izm-k-tbmKy-am-bn tXm-∂p-∂n-√. 1342˛¬ ssN-\-bn-te-°v X-s‚ {]-Xn-]p-cp-jIm-cym-e-b-sØ ]-d-™-b-°-W-sa-∂p hn-Nm-cn-® ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v _Øq-Ø-sb-bm-Wv kw-L -t\-Xm-hm-bn \n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp ap-X¬ h-f-sc-tb-sd A-¤p-X- km-l-k-߃°pw sIm-≈-b-Sn-°pw hn-t[-b-\m-bn-´m-Wv X-s‚ kw-L-tØ-bpw-sIm≠v ssN-\-bn-te-°v I-∏¬ I-b-dp-hm≥ _-Øq-Ø tIm-gn-t°m-s´-Øp∂-Xv. I-S-en¬ Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-∂p bm-{X D-t±-in-®n-cp-∂-Xv. \n¿-`m-Ky-I-cC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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sa-sa-∂v ]-d-b-s´, _-Øq-Ø I-b-dm-\p-t±-in-°p-∂ Hm-Sw sIm-Sp-¶m‰n¬-s∏-´v X-I-cp-I-bpw D-Sp-Xp-Wn H-gn-®p-≈ k-I-e-km-[-\-ß-fpw I-Sen-¬ \-jv-S-s∏-Sp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. Cu Zp-c-¥-hr-Øm-¥-hp-am-bn Xn-cnsI U¬-ln-bn-te-°v t]m-Ip-hm-t\m, kp¬-Øm-s\ Z¿-in-°p-hm-t\m A-t±-l-Øn-\p ss[-cy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. A-Xp-sIm-≠v ta-em¬ U¬ln-bn-te-°v t]m-tI-s≠-∂v Xo-cp-am-\n-®v tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw am-eZzo-]n-te-°v bm-{X- Xn-cn-®p. C-Xv 1345 H-Iv-tSm-_-dn-em-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. am-e-Zzo-]n¬ Ip-td-°m-ew A-hn-Sp-sØ Jm-kn-bp-sS ]-Z-hn-bn¬ I-gn™ _-Øq-Ø kn-tem-Wn-te-°m-Wv t]m-b-Xv. A-hn-sS-\n-∂v a-[p-c, sIm-√w Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ X-ßn-b-ti-jw tIm-gn-t°m-´v ho-≠pw Xn-cn-s®-Øp-∂p. C-sXm-s° I-gn-™m-Wv ssN-\-bn-te-°v ]p-d-s∏-Sp∂-Xv. 1346 ta-bv am-k-Øn-em-bn-cn-°-Ww C-Xv . ssN-\m k-μ¿-i-\w I-gn-™v 1347 P-\p-h-cn-bn¬ _-Øq-Ø sIm-√w- h-gn tIm-gn-t°m-´v Xs‚ G-gm-a-sØ k-μ¿-i-\-Øn-\v F-Øn-b-Xm-bn-´m-Wv hn-h-c-W-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw a-\- n-em-Ip-∂-Xv. tI-c-f-Øn-se ]-e ÿ-e-ß-fn-epw h-f-sc°m-ew Xm-a-kn-® _-Øq-Ø sF-Xn-lm-kn-I-ß-fm-b \n-c-h-[n Im-cy߃ Ip-dn-°p-∂p-≠v. C-sXm-s°- I-gn-™v 1347 P-\p-h-cn-bn-em-Wv At±-lw A-h-km-\-am-bn tI-c-f-tØm-Sp bm-{X-]-d-bp-∂-Xv.C-hn-sS kw-K-X-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ssN-\-bn-te-°p-≈ bm-{Xm-Im-e-hpw Xn-cn-®p-h-c-hp-am-Wv. A-t±-lw 1346 ta-bv-am-kw 18˛mw Xo-b-Xn-bm-Wv ssN-\-bn-te-°v ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. 1347 P-\p-h-cn-bn¬ At±-lw Xn-cn-s®-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-Xm-b-Xv tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw I-S¬-am¿-Kw kn-tem¨, kp-am-{X Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-߃ I-S-∂v tlmt¶m-ßn-epw, s]-°n-ßn-epw sN-∂v ssN-\-sb-°p-dn-®v In-´m-hp-∂ hn-hc-ß-fpw ti-J-cn-®v F-´p- am-k-Øn-\n-S-°v tIm-gn-t°m-t´-°v Xn-cn-®p-h∂p-h-s{X. F-s¥m-cp km-l-kn-I k-©m-cw! bm-{X-bp-sS ssZ¿-Lyhpw k-©m-cn-I-fp-sS k-hn-ti-j-kz-`m-h-hpw \-sΩ a-dn-®p-≈ \n-K-a-\Øn-em-sW-Øn-°p-∂-Xv. F-´p-am-k-Øn-\p-≈n¬ tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw ]p-d-s∏-´v _-Øq-Ø A-hn-sS-X-s∂ Xn-cn-s®-Øn-sb-∂v hn-iz-kn-°p∂-Xv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-e-®n¬ kz-`m-h-Øn-\v H-´pw \n-c-°m-Ø-XmWv. A-°m-e-sØ bm-{X- h-f-sc Zp¿-L-S-hpw A-ku-I-cy-߃ sIm≠v ¢n-jv-S-hpw B-bn-cp-s∂-∂ Im-cy-hpw Iq-Sn I-W-°n-se-Sp-°-Ww. Cu Np-cp-ßn-b Im-e-Øn-\n-S-°v ssN-\-bn¬-t]m-bn h-∂p-sh-∂v ]-dbp-∂-Xv H-∂p-In¬ Im-e-sØ-∏-‰n-bp-≈ A-⁄-X-sIm-t≠m A-Y-hm ]-e-cpw hn-iz-kn-°p-∂-Xp t]m-se km-[n-°m-Xn-cp-∂ H-cm-{K-l-Øn-\v `m-h-\m km-^-eyw \-ev-In-b-Xp-sIm-t≠m B-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. km[m-c-W ]-‰m-dp-≈-Xp-t]m-se Xo-b-Xn- ]n-i-In-b-Xm-bn-cn-°mw-C-sX-∂p C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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hn-iz-kn-°p-∂-Xpw ]-Yy-a-√. Im-c-Ww, _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-Øns‚ A-h-km-\-L-´-am-bn-cp-∂p C-Xv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ bm-{X-bp-sS BZy- Im-e-ß-fn-se ]-e-Xpw th-≠-Xp-t]m-se Hm¿-an-°m≥ I-gn-™ At±-l-Øn-\v X-s‚ bm-{X-bp-sS A-¥n-a- cw-K-ß-sf kv-ar-Xn-bn-ep-W¿Øm-≥ H-Øn-s√-∂p I-cp-Xp-∂-Xv Zp- m-[y-am-Wv.C-Xn-t\-°mƒ hn-Nn-{X-am-bn tXm-∂p-∂ a-s‰m-cp {]-[m-\ -Im-cyw _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ ssN-\m- k-μ¿-i-\ hr-Øm-¥-Øn-¬ Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Ønbn-´p-≠v. A-Xv, Xm≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb I-≠-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-\m-bn-´m-sW-∂m-Wv! 1342˛¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v ]-d-™-b® _-Øq-Ø-°v Hm-Sw I-S-en¬ X-I¿-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v t]m-Ip-hm-s\mØn-s√-∂pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-[n-Im-c-]-{X-apƒ-s∏-sS k-I-e- -km-[\-ß-fpw \-in-®v sh-dp-sam-cp {Su-k¿ am-{X-am-bm-Wv I-c-]-‰n-b-sX-∂pw \mw I-≠-Xm-Wv. Cu kw-`-h-Øn-\p-ti-jw kp-Zo¿-L-am-b \m-ep h¿j-Øn-\p -ti-j-am-Wv _-Øq-Ø ssN-\-bn-te-°v Xn-cn-®p-sh-∂v ]-dbp-∂-Xv. tem-I-Øn-se G-‰-hpw {]-Xm-]-im-en-bm-b tSm-K≥ Xn-aq-dmbn-cp-∂p A-∂v ssN-\-bn-se N-{I-h¿-Øn. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]-Xn-\n-[nIƒ A-°m-e-Øv U¬-ln-bn¬ ÿn-c-am-bn-´p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. 1326 ap-X¬ 1366 h-sc ssN-\o-kv {]-Xn-]p-cp-j- Im-cym-e-bw U¬-ln-bn¬ {]-h¿Øn-®n-cp-∂p. _-Øq-Ø bm-sXm-cp A-[n-Im-c-]-{X-hp-an-√m-sX ssN-\bn-te-°p I-S-∂v N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb I-≠p-sh-∂v I-cp-Xp-I {]-bm-k-amWv. A-°m-e-Øv hn-tZ-in-I-sf ssN-\-bn¬ I-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂n-√. a-‰p -tZi-ß-fn-se cm-Pm-°-∑m-cp-sS {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-∑m¿-°p am-{X-ta {]-th-i-\ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈p-sh-∂ ]-c-am¿-Yw _-Øq-Ø-°pw h-f-sc \n-›-b-ap≈-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xn-\m¬ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ssN-\o-kv k-μ¿-i-\w hf-sc kw-i-bm-kv-]-Z-am-Wv. tSm-K≥ Xn-aq¿ C-t±-l-sØ bm-sXm-cp A¶-em-t∏m kw-i-b-tam Iq-Sm-sX C-¥y-bp-sS {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-\m-bn kzoI-cn-®p-sh-∂v hn-iz-kn-°p-hm-≥ km-[n-°m-Ø-Xn-\m-epw hn-tZ-in-Iƒ-°v ssN-\-bn¬ {]-th-i-\w \n-tj-[n-®n-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠pw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ssN-\m -k-μ¿-i-\w H-cp I-≈-°-Y-bm-Im-t\ X-c-ap-≈p. C-Xn-s\m-s° D-t]m-Zv-_-e-I-am-Wv Np-cp-ßn-b Cu Im-e-b-f-hv. tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw ]p-d-s∏-´v F-´p am-k-Øn-\p-≈n¬ A-hn-sS Xn-cn-s®-Øn-sb-∂ {]-kvXm-hw H-cp-X-cw Pm-e-hn-Zy-°m-cp-sS am-kv-a-cn-I- i-‡n-{]-`m-h-Øn-\p am-{Xw km-[y-am-Ip-∂ A-¤p-X-am-b-h-ti-jn-°p-∂p. H-cn-°-epw H-cp sN-∏-Sn-hn-Zy-°m-c-\m-Wv Xm-s\-∂v _-Øq-Ø A-h-Im-i-s∏-´n-´p-an-√.C-Xn-\pw ]p-d-ta kp-am-{X, Pm-h Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-߃ h-gn h-enb H-cp km-{am-Py-am-b ssN-\-bn-se-Øn-b D-S-s\ a-S-ßn- t]m-tc-≠- Hc-Xym-h-iy-Im-cy-hp-an-√ _-Øq-Ø-°v. H-cp k-©m-cn-bp-sS k-hn-ti-j C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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-a-t\m-[¿-a-Øn-\v I-S-I-hn-cp-≤-hp-am-Wn-Xv. _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ \-ap-°v Xmev-]-cyw tXm-∂p-∂-Xp X-s∂ km-l-kn-I-\m-b H-cp bm-{Xm-Ip-Xp-In F-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-W-t√m. F-´p -am-k-Øn-\-Iw ssN-\-bn¬ t]m-bn a-Sßn-h-∂p-sh-∂v ]-d-bp-∂-Xv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS kz-`m-h-Øn-\p-X-s∂ hn]-co-X-am-Wv. Im-c-Ww, A-°m-e-Øv F-´p-am-kw sIm-≠v ssN-\-bn-¬ H-cp-]-t£ F-Øm≥ I-gn-™m-epw a-S-°-bm-{X-°p- th-sd k-a-bw th≠n-h-cp-am-bn-cp-∂p. bm-{X-°p-X-s∂ C-Xn-en-c-´n k-a-b-am-h-iy-ap-≈t∏mƒ H-cp k-©m-cn A-]-cn-Nn-X-am-b H-cp tZ-i-Øp sN-∂v H-cp an-\n‰p t]m-epw A-hn-sS \n¬-°m-sX C-d-ßn Hm-Sn-t∏m-∂p-sh-∂v hn-Nm-cn°p-∂-Xv i-cn-bm-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√. C-¥y-bn¬ \n-∂pw tem-I-Øn-se G‰-hpw h-en-b H-cp km-{am-Py-Øn-se-Øp-I-bpw, A-hn-Sp-sØ N-{I-h¿Øn X-s∂ kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-tºmƒ B cm-Py-sØ°p-dn-®p-≈ Iq-Sp-X¬ hn-h-c-߃ \mw B k-©m-cn-bn¬ \n-∂pw \n›-b-am-bpw {]-Xo-£n-®p-t]m-Ipw. C-¥y-sb-°p-dn-®v Xm≥ I-≠-Xn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ tI-´ Im-cy-߃ X-∑-b-Xz-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn ]-d-™p ^-en-∏n°p-hm≥ an-\-s°-´ _-Øq-Ø, ssN-\-sb-t∏m-ep-≈ H-cp a-lm-km-{amPy-Øn-s‚ I-Y F-{X-tbm hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]-t£, ssN-\sb-°p-dn-®p-≈ {]-Xn-]m-Z-\w Xp-temw {l-kz-am-Wv. A-hn-sS _-ØqØ-bp-sS hm-Nm-e-X \n-›-e-am-Ip-∂p; Pn-lzm I-\w Xq-ßn- Ip-g-™-v A-h-i-am-Ip-∂p.ssN-\o-kv -hym-]m-cn-I-fm-Wv Z-£n-tW-¥y-bp-sS In-g-t° Xp-d-apJ-ß-fn¬ k-ap-{Zm-[n-]-Xy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂-h¿. C-¥y-bpw hn-Zq-c-]u-c-kvXy-cm-Py-ß-fpw X-Ωn-ep-≈ hym-]m-c- hn-\n-a-bw an-°-hm-dpw ssN-\o-kv \m-hn-I- I-∏-ep-I-fm-Wv C-°m-e-ß-fn¬ \n¿-Δ-ln-®n-cp-∂-Xv. C-¥y-bn¬ H-cp ssN-\o-kv {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-Im-cym-e-b-Øn-s‚ {]-h¿-Ø-\w-X-s∂ kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv C-¥y-bpw ssN-\-bp-am-bn-´p-≠m-bn-cp-∂ \n-c-¥-c-k-º¿°-Øn-s‚ I-Y-I-fm-Wv. C-¥y-bn¬ h-f-sc-°m-ew Po-hn-°p-I-bpw C¥y-bp-sS {]-[m-\- Xp-d-ap-J-]-´-W-ß-fn¬ h-f-sc-tb-sd hn-tZ-i-hym-]mcn-I-fp-am-bn B-i-b-hn-\n-a-b-hpw k-º¿-°-hpw ]p-e¿-Øn-b _-ØqØ A-h-cn¬ \n-∂pw A-dn-™- Im-cy-߃ hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-bn A-h-Xcn-∏n-®p-sh-∂p am-{Xw [-cn-°p-hm-t\ X-c-ap-≈q. am-{X-hp-a-√, H-cn-°¬ k-I-e -k-÷o-I-c-W-ß-tfm-Spw cm-P-Io-b A-[n-Im-c-]-{X-tØm-Spw IqSn ssN-\-bn-te-°p ]p-d-s∏-´ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS B-im-ku-[w X-I¿-∂Sn-™ kw-K-Xn \mw a-\- n-em-°n-b-Xp-am-Wv. \n-cm-im-`-cn-X-am-b lr-Zb-hy-Y-sb km-¥z-\n-∏n-°m≥ A-t±-lw I-≠ D-]m-[n-bm-bn-cn-°mw Cu ssN-\o-kv hr-Øm-¥w. C-Xn-\pw ]p-d-ta ssN-\-bn-te-°p-≈ bm-{Xm-at[y- Xm-a-cq-]-bn¬(B-km-an¬) A-t±-lw C-d-ßn-b-Xm-bpw ssi-Jv PC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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em-ep-±o≥ F-∂ a-l¿-jn-h-cy-s\ I-≠-Xm-bpw a-‰pw ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. kntem¨, kp-am-{X Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-߃ Np-‰n B-km-an¬ C-d-ßn Ahn-sS \n-∂pw ssN-\-bn-te-°p-t]m-bn F-s∂m-s° ]-d-bp-tºmƒ B[p-\n-I bm-{Xm-ku-I-cy-߃-°p t]m-epw hn-kv-a-bw tXm-∂n-°p-∂ b-£n-°-Y-bm-bn am-dp-I-bm-Wn-h-sbm-s°. Np-cp-°-Øn¬ _-Øq-Øbp-sS ssN-\o-kv bm-{X sh-dp-sam-cp an-Yy-bm-sW-∂-Xm-Wv k-Xyw. I≠n-´n-√m-Ø H-cp ÿ-e-sØ-∏-‰n A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n I-e¿-Øn Zr-Iv-km£n- hn-h-c-W-Øn-s\m-cp-ßn-b kw-`m-j-W-{]n-b-\m-b H-cp a-\p-jy≥ I-≠-Xpw tI-´-Xp-am-b Im-cy-ß-fn¬ X-s‚ `m-h-\-°pw Im-e-tZ-im-ZnIƒ-°pw t{im-Xm-°ƒ-°pw ]-‰p-∂ hn-[w Ip-sd-b-[n-Iw \p-W-bpw ]d-™n-cn-°p-sa-∂-Xpw A-\p-‡-kn-≤-am-W-t√m. A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n-bp-sS A-Xn-{]-k-c-hpw, B-e-¶m-cn-I -`m-j-bp-sS A-Xn-`m-hp-I-Xz-hpw, {i-≤m]q¿-Δw Nn-I-™p-\o-°n N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ hy-h-tO-Zn-®p Xn-c-™p]n-Sn-°p-I F-∂-Xv {]-bm-k-ap-≈ ]-Wn-bm-Wv. A-Xp-sN-øm-sX C-Øcw Ir-Xn-Iƒ A-∏-Sn hn-gp-ßp-∂-Xv Z-l-\-Zq-jy-hpw, X-÷-\y-am-b hnjq-Nn-I, A-Xn-km-cw Xp-S-ßn-b \-io-I-c-W-tcm-K-ß-fpw D-≠m-°p-Ibpw sN-øp-∂p. \-Ωp-sS N-cn-{X {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-Øn¬ I-S-∂p Iq-Sn-bn-´p≈ Zq-c hym-]-I-am-b Zq-jyw Cu X-cw Xn-cn-®-dn-bm≥ an-\-s°-Sm-ØXn-t‚-Xm-Wv. [m-cm-f-I-W-°m-b A-Ø-cw N-cn-{X km-ln-Xy-ß-fn¬ G-sd kq-£v-a-X-tbm-sS ssI-Im-cyw sN-tø-≠ H-∂m-Wv _-Øq-Øbp-sS In-Øm-_p dm-ln-e F-∂ {K-Ÿw.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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2 k-©m-cn-bm-b _-Øq-Ø k-©m-c-Ip-Xp-In-bm-b _-Øq-Ø 1304 s^-{_p-h-cn 24˛mw Xo-bXn sam-tdm-t°m-hn-ep-≈ Sm≥-Pn-b¿ F-∂ \-K-c-Øn-em-Wv P-\n-®-Xv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]n-Xm-hv A-_v-Zp-√m a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-\m-bn-cp-∂p. 21˛m-asØ h-b- n-em-Wv _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ k-©m-cw B-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xv. tIm¨-Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ, kn-dn-b, ^-e-kv-Xo≥, A-td-_y, C-dm-Jv Xp-Sßn-b C-kv-em-an-I kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-tI-{μ-߃ k-μ¿-in-® _-Øq-Ø Zp¿-L-S-am-b ]-e L-´-ß-fpw kp-[o-cw A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v. C-¥ybp-sS h-S-°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ A-Xn¿-Øn- I-S-∂v 1333 Un-kw-_¿ 13˛mw Xo-b-Xn-bm-Wv A-t±-lw C-¥y-bn-te-°p I-S-°p-∂-Xv. kn-‘p-{]-tZ-iØp-\n-∂pw A-t±-lw U¬-ln-bn-te-°v I-S-∂-t∏mƒ N-{I-h¿-Øn apl-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v X-e-ÿm-\-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. F-¶n-epw A-d-_n-temI-Øp-\n-∂v h-∂ D¬-kp-I-\m-b Cu k-©m-cn-sb k¬-I-cn-°p-hm≥ A-c-a-\-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ cm-P-am-Xm-hv H-´pw A-am-¥n-®n-√. cm-P-Io-b D-S-bm-S-I-fpw, ]m¿-]n-S- ku-I-cy-hpw X¬-°m-e-s®-e-hn-\p-th-≠n 2,000 Zn-\m-dpw \-ev-In. (H-cp Zn-\m¿= 2.-1/2 D-dp-∏n-I*) kp¬-Øm≥ Xn-cn-®p-h∂-t∏mƒ 12,000 D-dp-∏n-I k-Ωm-\-am-bn \-ev-Ip-I-bpw A-{X-bpw Xp-I e-`n-°p-∂ H-cp Pm-Ko¿ C-\m-am-bn k-Ωm-\n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X-p. -]p-dta, cm-P-Io-bm-e-b-Øn¬ \n-∂v H-cp Ip-Xn-c-sb-bpw A-c-a-\-bn¬ \n∂pw ]-Øv ]-cn-Nm-cn-I-am-tc-bpw- sIm-Sp-Øp. C-Xn-\p-ti-jw U¬-lnbn-se Jm-kn-bm-bn (P-Uv-Pn-bm-bn) \n-b-an-®p _-lp-am-\n-°p-I-bpw sNbv-Xp. {]-Xn-am-kw 2,500 D-dp-∏n-I i-º-f-am-bn \n-›-bn-®-Xn-\p ]p-d-ta B h¿-j-sØ i-º-f-am-b 30,000 D-dp-∏n-I A-Uzm≥-km-bn \-ev-Ip-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-∂v _-Øq-Ø -X-s∂ Ip-dn-°p-∂p-≠v. ]-t£, [q¿Ø-\pw hn-j-b-e-º-S-\p-am-b _-Øq-Ø-°v Cu ]-W-sam-∂pw a-Xn-bmbn-cp-∂n-√. 1,12,500 D-dp-∏n-I-bp-sS I-S-_m-[y-X A-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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cp-∂-Xv kp¬-Øm-\m-Wv sIm-Sp-Øp- Xo¿-Ø-sX-∂v _-Øq-Ø- X-s∂ ]-d-bp-∂p. C-Xn-\n-S-°v A-kp-J-I-c-am-b H-cp kw-`-h-ap-≠m-bn. a-X-]-cam-b Nn-e ]-g-©≥ hn-izm-k-ß-fp-sS {]-t_m-[-I-\m-b H-cp ssi-Jpam-bn _-Øq-Ø kp¬-Øm-s‚ C-jv-S-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-bn-Ø-s∂ k-º¿°-Øn-te¿-s∏-´p. Cu h-I Im-cy-ß-fpw a-‰p kz-`m-h-ssh-Ir-X-ß-fpw Im-c-W-am-bn _-Øq-Ø kp¬-Øm-s‚ hn-tcm-[-Øn-\p ]m-{Xo-`q-X-\mIp-I-bpw, ho-´p-X-S-¶-en¬ Ip-td-Zn-h-kw I-gn-®p-Iq-t´-≠-n -h-cn-I-bpw sNbv-Xp. h-f-sc c-k-I-c-am-bn _-Øq-Ø Cu `m-Kw hn-h-cn-°p-∂p. cm-PIn-¶-c-∑m¿ X-s‚ Hm-tcm N-e-\-hpw k-kq-£v-aw ho-£n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂-Xpw, Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn A-©p Zn-h-kw Xm≥ \n-cm-lm-c- {h-X-a-\p-jvTn®-Xp-sam-s° H-cp t\m-h-en-se {]-Xn-]m-Zy-Øn-\p k-a-am-bn-´p-≠v. CsXm-s°- I-gn-™m-Wv 1342˛¬ ssN-\-bn-te-°v Aw-_m-k-U¿ F-∂ ]-Z-hn-bn¬ _-Øq-Ø-sb ]-d-™-b-°p-∂-Xv.ssN-\-bn-te-°v ]p-d-s∏-Sm≥ th-≠n _-Øq-Ø-bpw Iq-´-cpw tImgn-t°m-s´-Øn. ]-t£, sIm-Sp-¶m-‰n¬-s]-´v Hm-Sw X-I¿-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v F-√mw \-jv-S-s∏-´v G-I-\m-bn tIm-gn-t°m-´v X-tß-≠-Xm-bn- h-∂ I-Ybpw hn-hc - n-®n-´p-≠v. tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw am-eZ- zo-]n-te-°m-Wt- ±-lw t]mb-Xv. H-cp-sIm-√w A-hn-sS I-gn-®p-Iq-´n-b _-Øq-Ø P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS ]-Zhn A-e-¶-cn-®n-cp-∂p. 1345˛¬ A-t±-lw kn-tem¨ k-μ¿-in-°p-I-bpw a-S-ßn sX-s° C-¥y-bn¬ a-[p-c-bn-se-Øn Ip-td-°m-ew I-gn-®p-Iq-´pI-bpw sN-bv-Xp. tI-c-f-Øn-se {]-[m-\- ÿ-e-߃ ap-gp-h-\pw ]-e{]m-h-iyw A-t±-lw k-μ¿-in-®n-´p-≠v. C-Xn-\p- ti-j-am-Wv ssN-\-bnte-°v t]m-sb-∂p-]-d-bp-∂-Xpw Xn-cn-®v F-´p- am-k-Øn-\n-S-°v tIm-gnt°m-s´-Øn-sb-∂v hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xpw. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ssN-\o-kv bm{X-sb-°p-dn-®v Ip-e-¶-j-am-bn \mw ]-cn-tim-[n-®-Xm-Wv. G-Xm-bm-epw Ip-d-®p- I-gn-™v tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n-∂pw A-t±-lw a-°-bn-te-°p- bm-{Xbm-bn. A-hn-sS-\n-∂pw sam-tdm-t°m-bp-sS X-e-ÿm-\-am-b s^-Iv-kn¬ F-Øn-t®¿-∂p. C-Xv 1349 \-hw-_¿ 8˛mw Xo-b-Xn-bm-Wv. A-ev-]-Im-eØn-\p-ti-jw, 1353˛¬ kz-tZ-i-am-b sam-tdm-t°m-hn¬ ÿn-c- Xm-a-kam-bn. 1368˛¬ 64˛m-a-sØ h-b- n¬ _-Øq-Ø Zn-hw-K-X-\m-bn. kpZo¿-L-am-b H-cp bm-{X-bp-sS A-¥y-Øn-\v A-ß-s\ P-\n-® ÿ-ew Xs∂ km-£yw h-ln-®p._-Øq-Ø a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Øn-se G-‰-hpw D-∂-X-\m-b bm-{Xm-IpXp-In-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A-t±-l-Øn-\p- ap-ºpw \n-c-h-[n km-l-kn-I-cpw `qan-im-kv-{X-⁄-cpw N-cn-{X-˛-im-kv-{X-Im-c-∑m-cpw ]-e \m-Sp-Iƒ k-μ¿in-°p-I-bpw hn-h-c-߃ ti-J-cn-°p-I-bpw A-d-_n- tem-I-Øn-s‚ ssh⁄m-\n-I- N-{I-hm-fw hn-Im-kw sIm-≈n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. ]C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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t£, C-{X-bpw kp-Zo¿-L-am-bn bm-{X- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-h¿ _-Øq-Ø°p ap-ºv hn-c-f-am-Wv. G-I-tZ-iw 75,000 ssa-en¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ A-t±-lw k-©-cn-®n-cn-°p-sa-∂m-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥-sØ-°pdn-®v B-[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn A-`n-{]m-bw ]-d-bm-\-h-Im-i-ap-≈ s{]m-^-k¿ bq¬ {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv. bm-{¥n-I- Im-e-L-´-Øn-\p-ap-ºv C-{X-bpw Zq-cw k-©-cn-°p-I h-f-sc Zp-jv-I-c-am-bn-cp-∂-Xp-aq-ew _-Øq-Ø-°p ap-ºv B-cpw C-{X-b-[n-Iw Zq-cw k-©-cn-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂v ]-d-bmw. B-Zyta {]-kv-Xm-hn-®-Xp-t]m-se _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{X-bp-sS B-cw-`w l÷v I¿-aw \n¿-h-ln-°p-I F-∂ a-X-]-c-am-b D-t±-iyw H-∂p-am-{X-ambn-cp-∂p. C-kv-em-an-I- cm-Py-ß-fn¬ \n-∂v F-√m-s°m-√-hpw Xo¿-Ym-SI¿ a-°-bn¬ k-tΩ-fn-°p-∂p. km-aq-ln-I k-a-Xz-hpw km¿-h-eu-InI km-tlm-Z-cy-hpw D-Zv-tLm-jn-°p-∂ Cu A-Jn-e-tem-I-k-tΩ-f-\w ap-kv-enw P-\-X-bp-sS ssh-Im-cn-tIm-Zv-{K-Y-\w {]-Jym-]-\w sN-øp-∂ alm-kw-`-h-am-Wv. F-°m-e-hpw Xo¿-Ym-S-\-Øn-s\-Øp-∂-h¿-°v t{]m’m-l-\-hpw k-lm-b-hpw sN-bv-Xp-sIm-Sp-°p-hm≥ A-h-cp-sS am¿-Kß-fn¬ k-∂-≤-cm-bn \n¬-°p-∂ cm-£m-tk-\-I-fpw k-∂-≤-`-S-∑mcpw \n-bp-‡-cm-Im-dp-≠v. H-‰-°p Xn-cn-® _-Øq-Ø-°pw C-kv-em-an-Ikm-tlm-Z-cyw Xp-fp-ºp-∂ ku-lr-Zw F-√m-bn-S-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw A-°me-Øv \n¿-tem-`w e-`n-®-Xv A-kz-`m-hn-I-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. Im-e-L-´-Øns‚ kz-`m-h- hn-ti-j-am-W-Xv. km-º-Øn-I im-co-cn-I- ti-jn-bp-≈-h¿ a-°-bn-se-Øn Xo¿-Ym-S-\w \-S-Øp-I-sb-∂-Xv G-Xp cm-Py-sØ ap-kven-an-s\ kw-_-‘n-®pw \n¿-_-‘-am-b Im-cy-am-Wv. Po-hn-X-Øn-semcn-°-se-¶n-epw Cu a-l-Xv-I¿-aw \-S-Øm-s\m-°p-I-sb-∂-Xv B-flo-b\n¿-hr-Xn-bm-bn F-°m-e-hpw ap-kv-enw-Iƒ I-cp-Xn-t∏m-∂n-´p-≠v. a-X-]c-am-b Cu im-k-\ H-s´m-∂p-a-√ ap-kv-enw kv-{Xo ]p-cp-j-∑m-sc k©m-c-Ip-Xp-In-Iƒ Iq-Sn-bm-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv. a-[y-Im-e ss{I-kv-X-h-bq-tdm∏v a-X-{]-N-c-W-Øn-\pw an-j-W-dn {]-h¿-Ø-\-Øn-\pw D-’p-I-c-m-b F{X-tbm B-fp-I-sf ]-e Zn-°p-I-fn-te-°v A-b-®n-´p-≠v. F-∂m¬ A-Xns\-°m-sfm-s° B-fl{- ]-tNm-Zn-Xc - m-bn-cp-∂p tem-IØ - n-se k-Ie - tImWn¬ \n-∂pw a-°-bn-te-°v {]-h-ln-®n-cp-∂ Xo¿-Ym-S-I¿. sIm-√-Ønsem-cn-°¬ Iq-Sp-∂ e-t£m-]-e-£w Xo¿-Ym-S-I-cn¬ \n-›-b-am-bpw Ip-d-®p-t]-sc-¶n-epw Xp-d-∂ a-\-t m-Spw A-t\z-j-W-Xr-jv-W-tbm-SpwIq-Sn h-cp-∂ Pn-⁄m-kp-°-fm-hp-I kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-h-cp-sS c-N\m-fl-I-kn-≤n A-Xm-Xp-tZ-i-߃-°v an-I-hp-‰ kw-`m-h-\-Iƒ \-ev-Inbp-an-cn-°pw. A-t∏mƒ _-Øq-Ø-°pw a-°-h-sc t]m-Ip-hm-t\ B-{Kl-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈p-sh-¶n-epw a-°-bn¬ Xm≥ I-≠ hn-hn-[ tZ-i°m-tc-bpw `m-jm- `q-jm-Zn-I-sf-bpw t\-cn¬ I-≠-dn-b-W-sa-∂ {]-tNmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Z-\w D-¤-hn-®p-sh-∂-Xv ss\-k¿-Kn-I-am-Wv.l-÷v Xo¿-Ym-S-\w A-d-_n-tem-I-Øn-\v ]p-Xn-b ]p-Xn-b ta-®n¬ ÿ-e-߃ I-s≠-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw A-dn-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂ N-{I-hm-f- ko-a-Itf-bp-w D-√w-Ln-®v X-ß-fp-sS hym-h-km-bn-I k-º¿-°-hpw I-®-h-S-km[y-X-I-fpw B-cm-bp-∂-Xn-\pw, Iq-Sp-X¬ tI-{μ-߃ I-≠p-]n-Sn-®v hymh-km-bn-I A-`n-hr-≤n-bp-≠m-°p-∂-Xn-\pw k-lm-bn-®n-cp-∂p. B-{^n°≥-˛-G-jy≥ cm-Py-ß-fn-se I-S¬ am¿-tK-W-bp-≈ hy-h-km-b cw-K߃ ap-gp-s° a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ ap-kv-enw-I-fp-sS B-[n-]-Xy-Ønem-bn-cp-∂p. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-I-Y-Iƒ X-s∂ A-d_n hy-h-km-bm-[n-]-Xyw F-{X-am-{Xw hn-im-e-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v hn-hcn-°p-∂p-ap-≠v. Cu hy-h-km-bn-I-fp-sS kw-Lw H-s´m-∂p-a-√ k-©mcn-I-fm-b B-fp-I-fp-sS c-£m-k-t¶-X-ß-fm-bn- Xo¿-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. A-cmP-I-Xz th-f-I-fn¬ Cu h¿-Ø-I kw-L-߃ sIm-≈-b-Sn-°-s∏-Sm-dps≠-¶n-epw ]-e-t∏m-gpw A-h-cm-Wv bm-{Xm-Ip-Xp-In-Iƒ-°v A-`-bw \ev-Ip-I-bpw Aw-K-c-£-I-cm-bn-Øo-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-Xv. Cu A-d_n-hym-]m-cn-Iƒ A-∂-sØ kz-`m-h-ssh-in-jv-Sy-a-\p-k-cn-®v X-ß-fpsS c-£-bn≥ Io-gn¬ h-cp-∂-h¿-°v Hu-Zm-cy-]q¿-hw a-l-Ø-c-am-b tkh-\-߃ sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-°pw Cu h¿-Ø-I-kw-Lß-fp-sS k-lm-bw ]-e-t∏m-gpw e-`n-®n-´p-≠v.Xo¿-Ym-S-t\m-t±-i-Øn¬ I-hn-™ H-cp tN-tXm-hn-Im-c-hpw _-ØqØ-°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. B e-£y-hpw sh-®v Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-se-Øn-b At±-lw c-≠v b-Xn-h-cy-∑m-cp-am-bn ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sm-\n-S-h-∂p. C-hn-Sw ap-Xem-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-{]n-bw D-¤-hn-°p-∂-Xv. X-\n-s°m-cpt±-i-hpw D-∂-hpw tXm-∂p-∂-Xp-w C-°m-e-Øm-Wv. C-S-°n-S-°v X-s‚ Xo-cp-am-\-sØ-°p-dn-®v Nm-©-eyw tXm-∂m-dp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw Cu km-Xzn-I-cp-am-bp-≈ k-º¿-°w A-t±-l-Øn-\v \n-›-b-Zm¿-Vy-Øn-s‚ B-th-i-a-¶p-cn-∏n-®p. Cu-Pn-]v-Xv h-gn a-°-bn-te-°v t]m-Im-sa-∂ Xocp-am-\w A-ß-s\ A-t±-lw t`-Z-K-Xn- sN-bv-Xv, U-am-kv-I-kn¬ \n-∂pw h-∂ H-cp Xo¿-Ym-S-I-kw-L-hp-am-bn tbm-Pn-®p- ]p-d-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wp-≠mb-Xv. bm-{X-bp-sS ku-Jy-hpw k-©m-c-Iu-Xp-I-hpw _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ D-tØ-Pn-X-am-Ip-∂-Xpw C-hn-Sw ap-X-em-Wv. C-h¿-°v a-°-bn¬ F-Øphm≥ [m-cm-fw k-a-b-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xp sIm-≠v A-h-cp-sS k-Ω-X-hpw hm-ßn _-Øq-Ø kn-dn-b, G-jym-ssa-\¿ Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ Hcp {l-kz-ho-£-Ww \-S-Øn-b-Xn-\p-ti-jw Xn-cn-®p X-s‚ kw-L-Øn¬ F-Øn-t®¿-∂p. l-÷v I¿-aw I-gn-™-bp-S-s\-X-s∂ A-t±-lw C-dmJn-te-°p-t]m-bn. _m-Kv-Zm-Zn¬ A-ev-]-k-a-bw I-gn-®p-Iq-´n. ho-≠pw a°-bn-te-°p t]m-cm≥ a-\-kv sh-ºn. ]-hn-{X-am-b B ÿ-ew H-∂pC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Iq-Sn Im-Wp-I-bpw Xo¿-Ym-S-\w \-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-øp-I-sb-∂-Xv X-s∂bm-bn-cp-∂p C-{]m-h-iy-hpw D-t±-iyw. ]-t£, l-÷v-I-gn-™n-´pw BZy X-h-W-tØ-Xp-t]m-se A-t±-lw a-S-ßn-bn-√. k-ssY-cy-tØm-Sp-IqSn ]n-∂o-Sv aq-∂v kw-h-’-cw A-t±-lw a-°-bn¬ sN-e-h-gn-®p. C-Xn-\nS-°m-Wv C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ a-X-]-T-\w Iq-Sp-X¬ Im-cy-am-bn-s´Sp-°p-∂-Xv. aq-∂p sIm-√w C-…m-an-I kn-cm-tI-{μ-am-b a-°-bn¬ Xm-akn-®v a-X-]-T-\w \-S-Øp-I-sb-∂-Xv G-sXm-cp ap-kv-enw cm-Py-Øpw {]mam-Wyw t\-Sn-s°m-Sp-°p-∂ ]-Z-hn -X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]p-d-ta A-d-_nkm-ln-Xy-Øn¬ ÿn-c-{]-Xn-jvT- t\-Sn-b k-©m-cn-bm-b kp-sse-ams‚ A-d-_n -{K-Ÿw _-Øq-Ø-sb X-s‚ `m-Ky-]-co-£-W-Øn-\m-bn C-¥y-bn-te-°v h-cm≥ B-th-iw sIm-≈n-®p-an-cn-°pw. A-Xn-\p Iq-SpX¬ tbm-Ky-X- k-ºm-Zn-°m-\p-≈ kw-cw-`-am-bn-cp-∂p aq-∂p-sIm-√w a°-bn¬ Xm-a-kn-®v C-kv-em-an-I im-kv-{X-߃ ]Tn-°m-s\m-cp-ßn-b-Xns‚ ]n-∂n¬ F-∂v th-Ww Du-ln-°m≥.]T-\w ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n-b ti-jw Ip-d-®v A-\p-bm-bn-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn B-{^n-°-bp-sS In-g-t° Xo-c-Øp-≈ Xp-d-ap-J- ]-´-W-ß-fn-te-°v Xncn-s®-¶n-epw A-ev-]w I-gn-™v ho-≠pw a-°-bn-te-°v h-∂p. A-hn-sS\n-∂pw aq-∂m-a-Xpw ]p-Wy-I¿-aw \n¿-h-ln-®-ti-jw C-¥y-bn-te-°v ]p-d-s∏-Sm-sa-∂p-d-®p. ]-t£, Pn-±-bn¬ \n-∂pw I-∏-sem-∂pw In-´m-Xncp-∂-Xp aq-ew bm-{X Iq-Sp-X¬ Zo¿-L-hpw t¢-i-I-c-hp-am-bn-Øo¿-∂p. G-jym-ssa-\-dn¬ an-°-hm-dpw \-K-c-ß-fn¬ A-t±-lw {]-th-in-®p. tIm¨-Ãm‚n-t\m-∏n-fn¬ Iq-Sn I-S-∂-Im-cyw ]-d-bp-∂-Xp-an-hn-sS-bm-Wv. Jp-dm-km-\n¬ Ip-td-°m-ew sN-e-h-gn-® _-Øq-Ø A-h-km-\w h-S°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ Np-c-߃ h-gn C-¥y-bn-te-°v I-S-∂p._-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥w C-¥y≥ hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-sf kw_-‘n-®v {]m-[m-\y-a¿-ln-°p-∂-Xpw C-hn-Sw ap-X-em-Wv. km-l-kn-I\m-b Cu k-©m-cn-°m-I-s´ kp-Zo¿-L-am-b X-s‚ bm-{X-bn-se G-‰hpw kp-{]-[m-\-L-´-am-bn-cp-∂p C-¥y-bn¬ A-t±-lw I-gn-®p-Iq-´n-b Imew. A-Xn¿-Øn-bn¬ sh-®p-X-s∂ C-¥y≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-b ap-l-ΩZv Xp-•-°n-s‚ Hu-tZym-Kn-I hr-μ-hp-am-bn _-Øq-Ø k-º¿-°w ]pe¿-Øn. G-sXm-cp hn-tZ-in-bpw A-\p-`-hw Ip-Sm-sX a-s‰m-cp cm-PymXn¿-Øn I-S-°p-I km-[y-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. C-∂p ]-cn-jv-Ir-X -cm-Py-ßfn¬ A-\p-h¿-Øn-°m-dp-≈ \n-_-‘-\-Iƒ A-°m-e-ß-fn¬ \n-e-\n∂n-cp-∂n-s√-¶n-epw hn-tZ-in-b-cp-sS t]m-°p-h-c-hpw A-h-cp-sS kp-J-kuI-cy-ß-fpw {i-≤n-°m≥ Np-a-X-e-s∏-´ D-tZym-K-ÿc-- p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-sc a-dn-I-S-∂v H-cmƒ-°pw cm-Py-Øv {]-th-in-°p-hm-t\m, sskz-c-hnlm-cw \-S-Øp-hm-t\m H-°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. C-Xn-s\m-s°-∏p-d-sa G-sXmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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cp h-en-b ]-´-W-Øn-te-°pw I-S-°p-∂-Xn-\v \n¿-Zn-jv-S- bm-{Xm-\p-a-Xn]-{Xw th-W-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]-´-W-ß-f-{X-bpw h-en-b a-Xn-ep-Iƒ-°v -AI-Øm-bn-cp-∂p. h-en-b I-hm-S-ß-fpw Zzm-c-]m-e-I-∑m-cpw Ir-Xy-am-bn I-hm-S-߃ Xp-d-°p-I-bpw A-S-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-am-bn-cp-∂p. B¿-s°¶n-epw ]-´-W-Øn-te-°v h-c-W-sa-¶n¬ ap≥-Iq-´n A-\p-a-Xn hm-ßn-bncn-°-Ww. ]-´-W-hm-kn-bm-sW-¶n¬ A-bm-fp-sS ]-°-ep-≠m-bn-cn-t°≠ Xn-cn-®-dn-b¬ k¿-´n-^n-°-‰v Im-Wn-s®-¶n¬ am-{X-ta A-I-tØ-°v hn-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂p-≈q. H-cp bp-≤-tam ]-S-tbm-´-tam D-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ km[m-c-W sN-øp-∂ {]-Xn-tcm-[ G¿-]m-Sv \-K-c-ß-fp-sS I-hm-S-߃ _‘n-°p-I -F-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. B-{I-a-W- ssk-\y-Øn-\v Cu X-S- w i-‡n-]q¿-hw t\-cn-´-Xn-\p-ti-j-ta \-K-c-ß-fn¬ sIm-≈-b-Sn-°p-hm≥ km-[n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p-≈p. A-Xm-I-s´ F-fp-∏-hp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. Im-c-Ww, I-hm-S-a-S-®p-I-gn-™m¬ cm-Py-c-£-°p-≈ ssk-\y-߃ X-øm-sd-Sp-Øv Xm-h-f-ap-d-∏n-®n-cn-°pw. C-¥y-bn-se {]-[m-\ \-K-c-hm-Xn-ep-Iƒ c-‡cq-£n-X-am-b kw-L-´-\-ß-ƒ-°v ]-e-t∏m-gpw km-£yw h-ln-®n-´p-≈-hbm-Wv. cm-Py-Øn-\-I-Øp-≈ ]-´-W-ß-fp-sS ÿn-Xn-X-s∂ C-ß-s\ B-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ A-Xn¿-Øn kw-ÿm-\-ß-fn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ \n-jv-I¿j ]m-en-®n-cn-°p-sa-∂v hn-Nm-cn-°m-hp-∂-tX-bp-≈p. A-ß-s\ _-ØqØ-°v A-Xn¿-Øn-bn¬ sh-®p-X-s∂ cm-P-Io-b Zq-X-am-cp-am-bn ]-cn-Nb-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-bn-h-∂p._-Øq-Ø-bp-sS D-t±-iyw k-º-∂-am-b H-cp ]-Z-hn N-{I-h¿-Øn-bpsS Io-gn¬ A-\p-`-hn-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. sh-dp-sam-cp Zn-Iv k-©mcn-bm-bn am-{Xw Po-hn-Xw A-h-km-\n-∏n-°m≥ A-t±-lw X-øm-dm-bn-cp∂n-√. X-∑q-ew A-Xn¿-Øn-bn¬ sh-®v cm-P-In-¶-c-∑m-cp-am-bn k-º¿°-Øn-¬ G¿-s]-tS-≠-n-h-∂-t∏mƒ X-s∂ X-s‚ D-∂w C-∂-Xm-sW∂v _-Øq-Ø ]-d-™n-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. A-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv ]-©m-_ntem, kn-‘n-tem, apƒ-´m-Wn-tem X-ßm-sX t\-sc U¬-ln-bn-te-°v t]m-I-W-sa-∂v B-h-iy-s∏-´-Xv. hn-hn-[-\m-Sp-I-tf-bpw \m-´p-k-{º-Zm-bß-sf-bpw Im-Wp-hm-\pw A-dn-bp-hm-\pw D-≈ B-¥-cn-I-{]-tNm-Z-\-ambn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø-sb Cu km-l-kn-I Zn-Iv k-©m-c-Øn-\v t{]-cn-∏n®n-cp-∂-sX-¶n¬ \n-›-b-am-bpw B k-©m-cn h-S-°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ AXn¿-Øn -{]-tZ-i-߃ \-S-∂-dn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. F-∂m¬ C-¥y-bn-te-°v {]-th-in-® A-t±-lw A-Xn-\p Xp-\n-™n-s√-∂v am-{X-a-√, ]n-∂o-sSm-cn°-epw Cu {]-tZ-i-ß-fn-te-°v I-S-∂p-sN-∂-Xp-an-√. F-´p sIm-√-°mew U¬-ln-bn¬ kp-Jm-\p-`-h-ß-fn¬ \n¿-tem-`w ap-ßn-°p-fn-® _Øq-Ø Po-hn-X-ku-I-cy-߃-°p th-≠n-Ø-s∂-bm-Wv U¬-ln N{I-h¿-Øn-sb A-`-bw {]m-]n-®-Xv.C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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_-Øq-Ø {]-Xo-£n-®n-cp-∂ ]-Z-hn A-t±-l-Øn-\v ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•°v \-ev-Ip-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. U¬-ln-bn-se Jm-kn-am-cn¬ H-cm-fm-bn A-t±-lw \n-b-an-X-\m-bn. am-k-Øn¬ 2500 D-dp-∏n-I i-º-fw \n-›-bn®v A-\p-h-Zn-®-Xn-\p ]p-d-ta Xm-a-k-ku-I-cy-ß-fpw a-‰p- cm-P-Io-b B\p-Iq-ey-ß-fpw A-`w-Kp-cw \-ev-Ip-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp-. a-X- \n-b-a-߃ ]Tn°m≥ a-°-bn¬ aq-∂p-sIm-√w _-Øq-Ø hn-\n-tbm-Kn-®-Xv C-¥y-bn¬ \-√ H-cp D-tZym-K-e-_v-[n-°m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-W-sa-∂p \-ap-°v Du-ln-°mhp-∂-tX-bp-≈q. C-¥y-bn-te-°p I-S-∂ _-Øq-Ø t\-sc U¬-lnkp¬-Øm-s‚ A-c-a-\-bn-te-°p t]m-Ip-∂-Xpw H-cp- D-tZym-K-ÿ-\m-bn A-hn-sS Xm-a-kn-°p-∂-Xpw Iq-Sn H-∂n-∏n-®p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ \n-›-b-ambpw _-Øq-Ø H-cp-tZym-Km¿-Yn-bm-bn-´m-Wv C-¥y-bn-te-°p h-∂-sX∂v Im-Wm≥ {]-bm-k-an-√. C-Xn-\-\p-_-‘-am-bn A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k©m-c-K-Xn-bpw Iq-Sn \mw A-\p-[m-h-\w sN-øp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ a-\- nem-°m-hp-∂ ]-c-am¿-Yw, U¬-ln-bn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ Iogn¬ \n-∂pw H-gn-hm-b-Xn-\p-ti-jw am-{X-am-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥y≥ k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥w Iq-Sp-X¬ Im-cy-am-{X- {]-k-‡-hpw ho-c-km-ln-IX-bpw \n-d-™-Xm-hp-∂-Xp-X-s∂. k-©m-cw, k-©m-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n F∂ Hu-’p-Iy-]q¿-h-am-b tN-tXm-hn-Im-cw _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ cq-V-aq-eam-Ip-∂-Xv U¬-ln hn-´-Xn-\p-ti-j-am-sW-∂-Xn-\v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hnh-c-W-߃ am-{Xw a-Xn sX-fn-hm-bn-´v.A-t∏mƒ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ap-∏-Xp-sIm-√-tØm-f-sa-Øp-∂ bm-{Xsb aq-∂v L-´-ß-fm-bn- Xn-cn-°m-sa-∂v tXm-∂p-∂p. B-Zy-tØ-Xv, l÷v Xo¿-Ym-S-\-Øn-\m-bp-≈ bm-{X ˛ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS B-Zy-sIm-√ß-fn-em-bn-cp-∂p C-Xv. G-sXm-cp ap-kv-en-an-\pw ss\-k¿-Kn-I-am-bn D≠m-Im-hp-∂ hn-Im-cm-th-i-Øm¬ C-d-ßn-Øn-cn-°p-∂ bm-{X-bm-Wv l÷v bm-{X. C-°m-e-Øm-Wv, A-d-_n-km-ln-Xy-hpw k-©m-c-I-Y-Ifpw A-t±-l-sØ B-I¿-jn-°p-∂-Xv. A-d-_n-tem-Iw kw-`m-h-\-sN-bvX \n-c-h-[n a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS-bpw N-cn-{X `q-an-im-kv-{X k-©m-cnI-fp-sS-bpw ]p-kv-X-I-ß-fp-am-bn ]-cn-N-bw t\-Sp-∂-Xpw C-°m-e-ØmWv. C-¥y≥ kp¬-Øm-∑m¿ A-d-_n-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°v \-ev-Im-dp-≈ _-lp-a-Xn-I-sf-°p-dn-®v A-d-_n km-ln-Xy-Øn-s‚ kzm-[o-\w _-ØqØ-sb t_m-[-hm-\m-°n-bn-cn-°-Ww. A-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn-´m-Wv Po-hnXm-tbm-[-\-Øn-te-°v C-d-ßp-∂-Xn-\pw Po-hn-Xw hn-P-b-I-c-am-°p-∂Xn-\pw D-]-tbm-K-{]-Z-am-b hn-`-h-k-º-Øv I-c-ÿ-am-°p-hm≥ A-t±-lw Xp-\n-bp-∂-Xv. A-ß-s\-bm-Wv H-cp e-£y-hp-an-√m-Xn-cp-∂ _-Øq-Ø a-°-bn¬ Xm-a-kn-®v a-X-]-T-\w \-S-Øp-∂-Xv. C-kv-em-an-I {]-Xy-b-imkv-{X-ß-fpw th-Z-\n-b-a-ß-fpw lr-Zn-ÿ-am-°n-b _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ PoC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

29


hn-X-Øn-\v H-cp-t±-iy-hpw e-£y-hpw ap-∂n¬ I-≠p-sIm-≠m-Wv {]-bmW-am-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xv.C-¥y-bp-sS h-S-°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ A-Xn¿-Øn I-S-∂v `m-c-X-Øn-s‚ a-Æn¬ Im-ep-Ip-Øp-∂ _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ k-©m-c-Po-hn-X-Øn-se c≠mw-L-´-Øn-s‚ D-Xv-Lm-S-\w \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu Im-e-b-f-hn¬ _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ ap-¥n-\n-∂n-cp-∂ B-{K-lw Po-hn-X-Øn¬ D-∂-X-am-b ]-Z-hn I-c-ÿ-am-°p-I-bpw B-h-Xpw kp-J-k-ºq¿-W-am-b Po-hn-Xw \-bn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-I-sb-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. C-¥y-bn¬ I-S-°p-∂ Cu sam-tdm-t°m-°m-c-s‚ ]u-tcm-ln-Xy `m-h-hpw th-j-hp-sam-s° km[m-c-W ap-kv-enw hn-izm-kn-I-sf B-I¿-jn-®-Xn¬ A-]m-I-X-bn-√. AXn¿-Øn ap-X¬ U¬-ln A-c-a-\-bn¬ F-Øp-∂-Xp h-sc ap-kv-enw km-tlm-Z-cy-Øn-s‚ kv-t\-lm-Z-c-hp-Iƒ \n¿-tem-`w _-Øq-Ø-°p e`n-®p. N-{I-h¿-Øn- ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v X-e-ÿm-\-Øn-√m-Xn-cp-∂n-´pw cmP-am-Xm-hv hn-tZ-in-bm-b Cu A-d-_n-sb k¬-°-cn-°p-hm-\pw Z-bm-Imcp-Wy-߃ sIm-≠v A-\p-{K-ln-°p-hm-\pw a-d-∂n-√. A-Xp-h-sc Xm≥ A-\p-`-hn-°p-I-tbm tI-´-dn-bp-I-t]m-ep-tam sN-bv-Xn-´n-√m-Ø A-]m-cam-b Z-bm-hm-bv-]pw hm-’-ey- k-ºq¿-W-am-b kv-t\-l-km-tlm-Z-cy-hpw kp¬-Øm≥ Xn-cn-s®-Øn-b-t∏mƒ A-\p-`-hn-°m-≥ C-S-h-∂-Xm-bn _Øq-Ø X-s∂ F-gp-Xp-∂p-≠v. kp¬-Øm-s‚ ssI-b-b-® kw-`m-h-\I-fpw D-∂-X-am-b D-tZym-K-]-Z-hn-bpw X-∂n-e¿-]n-X-am-b-t∏mƒ _-ØqØ tIm-cn-Ø-cn-®n-cn-°-Ww. A-ß-s\ F-´p-sIm-√-tØm-fw (1333 apX¬ 1342 h-sc) kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ Io-gn¬ _-Øq-Ø tPm-en t\m-°n. Cu Im-e-Øp _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS [q¿-Ø-Sn-bpw Iq-´p-sI-´pw Cjv-S-s∏-Sm-Xn-cp-∂ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v A-t±-l-sØ Ip-td- Zn-h-kw X-S-¶en¬ ]m¿-]n-®p. cm-P-Io-b- hn-tZz-j-Øn-\v ]m-{Xo-`q-X-\m-bm-¬ D-≠mIm-hp-∂ `-hn-jy-Øv B-tc-°m-fpw A-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-∂ _-Øq-Ø Xs‚ sh-∏m-´n-I-sf Xn-cn-t®-ev-]n-°p-I-bpw ]m¿-]n-S-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ k-I-e- hn-e-s∏-´ h-kv-Xp-°-fpw ]-e¿-°m-bn Zm-\w \-ev-Ip-I-bpw sNbv-Xp. C-\n ap-X¬ H-cp X-]-kzn-bp-sS G-Im-¥-Po-hn-Xw \-bn-°m≥ t]m-Ip-∂p-sh-∂v _-Øq-Ø H-cp ]-c-ky-{]-Jym-]-\-hpw \-S-Øn. \n-cmlm-c-{h-X-ß-fpw a-Xm-Nm-c-\n¿-h-l-W-hp-sam-s°-bm-bn eu-In-I-Po-hnX-Øn¬ \n-∂pw A-t±-lw H-gn-™p-am-dn-\n-∂p. C-Xp- hn-Nm-cn-® ^-eap-≠m-°n-sb-∂-Xv kw-i-b-c-ln-X-am-Wv. kp¬-Øm-s‚ A-{]o-Xn kºm-Zn-®p-sIm-≠v U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw ]-cy-S-\-Øn-\p ]p-d-s∏-´n-cp-∂psh-¶n¬, Xo¿-®-bm-bpw _-Øq-Ø-sb-∂ k-©m-cn-bp-sS I-Y \mw Adn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. U¬-ln-bn¬-Ø-s∂ _-Øq-Ø ]-g-b Po-hn-X-hpam-bn I-gn-™p-Iq-Sn-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw ÿn-Xn a-s‰m-∂m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

30


G-Xm-bm-epw kp¬-Øm-s‚ \o-c-k-Øn≥ \n-∂pw ap-‡n-t\-Sm≥ G-‰hpw ]-‰n-b am¿-Kw Km¿-ln-I-hpw eu-In-I-hp-am-b H-∂n-epw Xm-ev-]-cyw Im-Wn-°m-sX k-\ym-k-Po-hn-Xw \-bn-°p-I-sb-∂-Xv am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p. _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ X-\n-°p-tXm-∂n-b A-kp-J-߃ A-ß-s\ B-fn-°Øm-sX X-Wp-Øp-d-bp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. X-∑q-ew 1342˛¬ tem-I-Ønse G-‰-hpw h-en-b km-{am-Py-Øn-s‚ A-[n-]-Xn-bpw amw-tKmƒ N-{Ih¿-Øn-bp-am-b tSm-K≥ Xn-aq-dn-s‚ A-Sp-°-te-°v H-cp Zu-Xy-kw-LsØ A-b-°p-hm≥ kp¬-Øm-\p-t±-in-®-t∏mƒ tem-I-]-cn-N-b- k-º∂-\m-bn kp¬-Øm-\p-tXm-∂n-b I-£n _-Øq-Ø X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v _-Øq-Ø-sb hn-fn-∏n-®v C-{]-Im-cw ]-d-™p: "\n߃-°v k-©m-cw sN-øp-∂-Xn¬ Iu-Xp-I-ap-s≠-∂v Rm≥ a-\- n-em°n-bn-´p-≠v. F-s‚ Zu-Xy-hp-am-bn ssN-\-bn-te-°v \n-߃ t]m-bm¬s°m-≈m-sa-∂v Rm-\m-{K-ln-°p-∂p. Cu kw-K-Xn-°m-Wv Rm≥ \nß-sf {]-tXy-Iw A-b-®p-h-cp-Øn-b-Xv.-'' (Selections from the Travels of Ibn Battuta P.213.) kp¬-Øm-s‚ \o-c-k-Øn-\v C-S-bm-b-Xp-sIm-≠v H-cp ^-°o-dn-s‚ th-j-hn-[m-\-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn [ym-\-hpw a-X-\n-jvT-I-fp-am-bn I-gn-™n-cp-∂ _-Øq-Ø-°v A-{]-Xo-£n-X-am-b Cu £-Ww ko-amXo-X-am-b B-\-μ-ap-≠m-°n-sb-∂-Xn¬ kw-i-b-an-√. H-´pw a-Sn-°m-sXX-s∂ A-t±-lw A-Xv kzo-I-cn-®p. t]m-Im-\p-≈ H-cp-°-߃ [r-X-KXn-bn¬ D-’m-l-]q¿-hw \-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-ß-s\-bm-Wv ho≠pw _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ \n¿-_-‘-k-\ym-k-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ \n-∂pw ap‡-\m-bn Iq-Sp-X¬ D-jm-tdm-Spw {]-k-cn-t∏m-Spw Iq-Sn "B-I-{a-tim-`-\k-ar-['am-b eu-In-I Po-hn-X-Øn-te-°v ho-≠pw C-d-ßn h-cp-∂-Xv.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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3 k-©m-cw, k-©m-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n ssN-\-bn¬ tSm-K≥ Xn-aq-dn-s‚ A-Sp-°-te-°v ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°-b°p-∂ {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-s\-∂ \n-e-°v H-cp h-en-b kw-Lw A-\p-bm-bn-Itfm-Sp-Iq-Sn ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂ _-Øq-Ø, X-s‚ bm-{Xm-\p-`-h-ß-fp-sS aq∂m-a-sØ L-´-Øn-te-°v {]-th-in-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬ U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw H-cp Zu-Xy-kw-L-Øn-s‚ \m-b-I-ÿm-\w G-s‰Sp-Øv, hn-tZ-i-]-cy-S-\-Øn-\v ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂ D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Xz-ap-≈ H-cp-b¿∂ D-tZym-K-ÿ-s‚ am-\-kn-I km-∂n-[y-tam, Np-a-X-em-t_m-[-tam H∂pw \mw U¬-ln-hn-Sp-∂ _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ Im-Wp-∂n-√. A-{]o-Xn-°¿l-\m-bn; in-£-b-\p-`-hn-°m-sX G-sX-¶n-epw hn-t[-\ kp¬-Øm-s‚ ]n-Sn-bn¬ \n-∂pw X-Sn-X-∏m-\p-≈ hy-{K-X _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ \n¿-Δn-i¶w {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂-Xn-\v a-Xn-bm-b sX-fn-hp-≠p-Xm-\pw. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp•-°v A-b-® Cu Zu-Xy-kw-L-Øn-s‚ {]m-[m-\yw A-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬ A-t±-lw ssN-\o-kv N-{I-h¿-Øn-°v sIm-Sp-Ø-b-® k-Ωm-\-ß-fp-sS I-W-°p-Iƒ am-{Xw ]-cn-tim-[n-®m¬ a-Xn. \-√-bn-\w \q-dv Ip-Xn-cIƒ, \q-dv A-Sn-a-Iƒ, ]m-´p-Im-cpw \¿-Ø-In-I-fp-am-b \q-dv s]¨-Ip´n-Iƒ, Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw \q-dv Zo-\m¿ ho-Xw hn-e-bp-≈ \q-dn-\w XpWn-Ø-c-߃, Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw \m-epw A-©pw h¿-W-ß-fp-≈ `wKn-tb-dn-b \q-dv J-kv ]-´p-Iƒ, \q-dv k-em-lo-b h-kv-{X-߃,\q-dv jncn≥-_m-lv Xp-Wn-Iƒ,\q-dv jm≥-_m-lv h-kv-{X-߃, I-dp-∏v, sh-fp∏v, Np-h-∏v, ]-®, \o-e F-∂o h¿-W-ß-fn-ep-≈ A-™-q-dv I-iv-ao¿ tcma-h-kv-{X-߃, c-Xv-\-߃ ]-Xn-® ]n-Sn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b ]-Øp hm-fp-Iƒ, kz¿-Ww, sh-≈n F-∂n-h-bm¬ D-≠m-°n-bn-´p-≈ X-fn-I-Iƒ, Iq-PIƒ, a-‰p-X-c-Øn-ep-≈ Iu-Xp-I-h-kv-Xp-°ƒ Xp-S-ßn-b-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p hn-e-s∏-´ B k-Ωm-\-߃.-' (Ibn Battuta travels. pp. 214, 215) _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂p: ""F-s‚ Io-gn-em-bn A-ao¿ k-lo-dp-±o-t\C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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bpw k-Ωm-\-ß-fp-sS ta¬-t\m-´w h-ln-°p-hm≥ Im-^q¿ F-∂ j-WvU-t\-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ \n-b-an-®n-cp-∂p. A-ao¿ k-lo-dp-±o-s\ F-\n°p \-t∂ ]n-Sn-®p. k¬-kz-`m-hn-bm-bn-cp-∂ H-cp ]-Wv-Un-X-\m-bn-cp∂p A-t±-lw. C-h¿-°p ]p-d-ta kp-c-£n-X-am-bn R-ß-sf Xp-d-ap-JsØ-Øn-°p-hm≥ No-\m-N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS Zu-Xy-kw-L-Øn¬-s]-´ ]cn-Nm-c-I-∑m-cpw R-ß-tfm-sSm-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. B {]-Xn-\n-[n kw-Lt\-Xm-hn-s‚ t]-cv Xp¿-kn F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p.-' (Ibn Battuta travels. pp. 214, 215) A-ß-s\ U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw ssN-\-bn-te-°v H-cp hn-tZ-i-Imcym-e-b-Øn-s‚ {]u-Vn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn bm-{X-]-d-™v ]n-cn-bp-∂ _-ØqØ A-ev-]- Zn-h-k-Øn-\-Iw X-s∂ X-s‚ Iq-´p-Im-cp-am-bn k-º¿-°-a‰v H-‰-°v sIm-≈-°m-cp-sS kw-L-Øn-e-I-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wv. C-∂v A-enK¿ F-∂v ]-d-bp-∂ "tIm-bn¬' F-∂ ÿ-e-sØ-Øn-b-t∏m-tg-°pw _-Øq-Ø X-\n-®m-Ip-∂p. A-Xn-\p-Im-c-Ww kz-¥w `m-Ky-]-co-£-WØn-\v hn-t[-b-\m-bn H-‰-°v k-©-cn-®-Xpw X-\n-®v ]-e ÿ-e-ß-fn-epw I-S-∂p-sN-∂-Xp-am-bn-cp-∂p. X-∂n-e¿-]n-X-am-b Np-a-X-e D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-XztØm-Sp-Iq-Sn \n¿-Δ-ln-°-W-sa-∂ D-t±-iyw A-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂psh-¶n¬ H-cn-°-epw X-s‚ A-I-º-Sn tk-h-I-sc-bpw a-‰p-≈ Aw-K-ßsf-bpw hn-´p-]n-cn-™v X-\n-®p-≈ H-cp bm-{X-°v A-t±-lw X-øm-dm-Ipam-bn-cp-∂n-√.k-Xy-Øn¬ C-hn-Sw ap-X-em-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ H-cp km-l-kn-I\m-b k-©m-cn ap-f-®p h-cp-∂-Xv. C-Xp-ap-X-ep-≈ k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥w i-cn-°pw H-cp bm-{Xm-Ip-Xp-In-bp-tS-Xm-Wv. A-td-_y-bn-se Xm-a-k-hpw U¬-ln-bn-se D-tZym-K-hp-sam-s° _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ D-≠m-°n-bn-cp-∂ {]-Xn-I-c-W-hpw, U¬-ln-bn¬-\n-∂pw F-¥pw- h-c-s´ F-∂p I-cp-Xn-bp≈ Zn-Iv-k-©m-c-hpw hy-Xy-ÿ-ta-J-e-I-fn-em-Wv hm-b-\-°m-c-s\ sIms≠-Øn-°p-∂-Xv. A-Xn-\v A-Xn-t‚-Xm-b Im-c-W-ß-fp-ap-≠v. C-¥ybn¬ h-∂v D-]-Po-h-\-Øn-\p-≈ \-√ H-cp tbm-Ky-X k-ºm-Zn-°p-I- F∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p- a-°-bn¬ I-gn-®p-Iq-´n-b Im-e-sØ D-t±-i-sa-¶n¬, U¬ln-bn-se Po-hn-X-am-I-s´ Hu-tZym-Kn-I-]-Z-hn-sb \n-e-\n¿-Øp-hm≥ th≠n-bp-≈ {i-a-am-bn-cp-∂p. H-cp hn-Zym¿-Yn a-s‰m-cp \m-´n¬ ]T-\-Øn\p-t]m-bn _n-cp-Z-hpw k-ºm-Zn-®p a-S-ßp-∂p F-¶n¬-Iq-Sn-bpw A-bmƒ°v B \m-Sn-s\-∏-‰n-bpw, Xm≥ C-S-]-g-In-b B-fp-I-sf-°p-dn-®pw Fs¥-¶n-ep-sam-s° ]-d-bm≥ Im-Wpw. A-tX ÿn-Xn-bm-Wv D-tZym-Kÿ-\m-b a-s‰m-cm-fp-sS-bpw. A-bmƒ tPm-en-°p-th-≠n hn-tZ-i-cm-PysØ-Øp-∂p. Ip-td-°m-e-Øn-\p-ti-jw tPm-en-bn¬-\n-∂v ]n-cn-tb-≠mb-Xm-bpw h-cp-∂p. Cu c-≠p- Iq-´-cp-sS-bpw A-Sn-ÿm-t\m-t±-i-߃ ]Tn-°p-I-bpw tPm-en-sN-øp-I-bpw B-sW-¶n-epw X-߃ I-≠ \m-SnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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s\-bpw \m-´p-Im-sc-bpw kw-_-‘n-®v Ip-td-°m-cy-߃ A-h¿-°pw ]d-bp-hm≥ Im-Wpw. ]-t£, Cu ÿ-e-߃-X-s∂ k-μ¿-in-°p-∂ Hcp k-©m-cn-bp-sS Hu-Xv-kp-Iy-hpw A-t\z-j-W-Xr-jv-W-bpw X-÷-\yam-b hn-h-c-W-ß-fpw H-cn-°-epw B-Zy-sØ c-≠p- Iq-´-cn¬-\n-∂pw {]Xo-£n-°p-I km-[y-a-√. Cu aq-∂v A-h-ÿm-hn-ti-j-hpw _-Øq-Øbp-sS bm-{Xm-hn-h-c-W I-Y-I-fn¬ Zr-iy-am-Wv.B-Zy-tØ-Xv, A-td-_y Xp-S-ßn-b cm-Py-ß-fp-sS hn-h-c-Ww. H-cp hn-Zym¿-Yn F-∂ \n-e-bn¬ A-t±-lw ]Tn-°m≥-t]m-b ÿ-e-sØ-°pdn-®v bm-Zr-—-bm D-≈ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fm-W-Xv. c-≠m-a-sØ-L-´w, a-dp\m-´n¬ D-tZym-K-hp-am-bn-°-gn-™v Ip-td-°m-e-Øn-\p-ti-jw Xn-cn-s®Øp-∂-bmƒ-°p ]-d-bm-\p-≈ A-\p-`-h-ß-fp-tS-Xn-∂p Xp-ey-am-b Nn-e k-a¿-∞-\-߃. tPm-en e-`n-°p-∂-Xn-\p-ap-ºp-≈ H-cp-h-s‚ am-\-kn-I A-¶-em-∏v, {]-Xo-£-bn¬ I-hn-™ Hu-Zm-cy-hpw Hu-tZym-Kn-I-]-Z-hnbpw th-Kw e-`n-°p-tºmƒ A-an-X-am-b B-\-\-μ-am-bn am-dp-∂ k-μ¿`-am-W-Xv. B Zn-h-k-ß-ƒ h-f-sc k-t¥m-j-tØm-sS Hm¿-Øp-t]m-hpI kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv i-cn-°pw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ÿnXn-bpw. X-\n-°p k-I-e-am-\ -kp-J-ku-I-cy-ß-fpw I-e-h-d -Iq-Sm-sX X-∂-\p-{K-ln-® kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ Zm-\-[¿-am-Zn-I-sf ]p-I-gv-Øp∂ _-Øq-Ø tem-I-sØm-cn-S-Øpw C-{X-°p Z-bm-ep-hpw I-cp-Wm-\n[n-bp-am-b H-cp `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-sb -Im-Wp-I {]-bm-k-am-sW-∂v F-gpXp-∂p-≠v. A-ß-s\ Hu-tZym-Kn-I- Im-e-Øn-s‚ B-Zy-`m-Kw h-en-b A\p-{K-l-am-bn G-sXm-cm-fpw Im-Wm-dp-≈-Xp-t]m-se-X-s∂ _-Øq-Øbpw Im-Wp-∂p. A-Xn-\p-Im-c-W-°m-cm-b-h-sc G-h-cpw hm-gv-Øm-dp-≈Xp-t]m-se _-Øq-Ø-bpw hm-gv-Øp-∂p. A-Xp-I-gn-™p X-s‚ ta-emf-s‚ A-{]o-Xn-°p hn-t[-b-\m-Ip-tºmƒ G-sXm-cp km-[m-c-W D-tZymK-ÿ-\pw sN-øm-dp-≈-Xp-t]m-se A-bm-sf ]-gn-°p-I-bpw ]n-cm-Ip-Ibpw sN-øp-∂ am-\-kn-I-hn-{In-b _-Øq-Ø-bpw A-\p-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p. A-ß-s\-bm-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s\-°p-dn-®v Xp-S-°-Øn¬ A-an-X-amb {]-iw-k-bpw C-S-°p-h-®v \n-μy-am-b B-`n-Nm-c-hm-°p-I-fpw \n¿-tem`w \n-c-Øn-sh-°p-∂-Xv. Np-cp-°-Øn¬ _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ \mw Im-Wp∂ Cu hy-Xym-k-߃ th¿-Xn-cn-®-dn-™n-s√-¶n¬ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-h-c-W-߃ N-cn-{X-hn-Zym¿-Yn-sb A-h-Xm-f-Øn-te-°m-bn-cn-°pw B\-bn-°p-I. C-cp-Ø-an-√m-Ø H-cp hn-Im-c-Po-hn-bm-bn-´m-Wv C-_v-\p _Øq-Ø-sb ]-e-t∏m-gpw tXm-∂p-I. G-Xm-bm-epw ]-Iz-a-Xn-bm-b H-cp ]-Wv-Un-X-s‚ am-\-kn-I-am-b h-ep-∏w C-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-s√∂v Xo¿-Øv ]-d-bm-≥ I-gn-bpw._-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{X-bp-sS aq-∂mw L-´-am-Wv b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬ kmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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l-kn-I-\m-b H-cp k-©m-cn-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-am-Ip-∂-Xv. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw ]p-d-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ-X-s∂ ssN-\-bn-te-°p t]m-I-cp-sX-∂p _Øq-Ø I-cp-Xn-bn-cn-°-W-sa-∂v hn-iz-kn-°m-\m-W-[n-Iw km-[y-X. _Øq-Ø-bp-sS ssN-\m k-μ¿-i-\w A-t±-lw ]-d-™-Xn¬ sh-®v G-‰hpw h-en-b \p-W-bm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v \mw t\-c-sØ {]-kv-Xm-hn-®-Xv Hm¿-a-bp-≠-t√m. C-Xn-\v -D-t]m¬-_-e-I-am-bn th-W-sa-¶n¬ _-ØqØ-bp-sS am-\-kn-I -ÿn-Xn-hn-ti-j-hpw ]n-∂o-Sp-≈ {]-hr-Øn-I-fpwIq-Sn I-W-°m-°p-hm-s\m-°pw. ssN-\-bn¬ t]m-Ip-hm≥ k-I-e kuI-cy-߃ e-`n-®n-´pw A-Xv th-≠-hn-[w D-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øm-sX \n-cpØ-c-hm-[n-bm-b H-cp-Ø-s\-t∏m-se H-‰-Xn-cn-™v, X-s‚ kw-L-sØ th-sd-hn-´v, ]p-Xn-b ]p-Xn-b ]-co-£-W-߃ \-S-Øp-hm≥ A-t±-lw an\-s°-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. C-sXm-s°-°-gn-™v tIm-gn-t°m-s´-Øp-∂ At±-l-hpw Iq-´-cpw I-b-dn-b Hm-Sw X-I¿-s∂-∂pw ssN-\-bn-te-°p-≈ bm-{X th-s≠-∂v sh-s®-∂pw \mw t\-c-sØ hn-h-cn-®n-´p-≠v. U¬-lnbn-te-°p-≈ a-S-ßn t]m-°v kp¬-Øm-s‚ tIm-]-Øn-\n-c-bm-Ip-sa-∂Xn-\m-em-bn-cn-°mw X-s‚ k-©m-c-hm-k-\ C-¥y-bp-sS sX-t° A-‰Øp-≈ ÿ-e-߃ k-μ¿-in-°p-hm-\pw A-d-_n-°-S¬ Zzo-]p-I-fn-epw kn-tem-Wn-epw a-‰p -{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-epw H-s° bm-{X-sN-øp-hm-\pw _Øq-Ø Xo-cp-am-\n-®-Xv.A-ß-s\ am-e-Zzo-]n¬ I-S-°p-∂ _-Øq-Ø h-f-sc A-¤p-X-I-YIƒ B \m-Sn-s\-°p-dn-s®-gp-Xp-∂p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø A-hn-Sp-sØ cm-PIp-Spw-_-Øn¬ \n-∂pw hn-hm-lw I-gn-°p-I-bpw A-hn-sS Jm-kn-bp-sS ]-Z-hn A-e-¶-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂-Xm-Wv {]-[m-\-kw-`-h-߃. ]-Xns\-´p am-k-°m-ew Cu Po-hn-X-hp-am-bn am-e-Zzo-]n¬ I-gn-bp-∂ _Øq-Ø-°v Zzo-]p-hm-kn-Iƒ A-\p-jvTn-®p-t]m-∂ ]-e A-‘-hn-izm-kß-sf-bpw No-Ø B-Nm-c-ß-sf-bpw sh-√p-hn-fn-°-W-sa-∂pw I-gn-hXpw A-h-sc ]-cn-jv-I-cn-°-W-sa-∂pw D-≈ A-¥x-{]-tNm-Z-\-ap-≠m-bn. C-Xp-aq-ew Zzo-]p-\n-hm-kn-I-fp-sS A-{]o-Xn-°p _-Øq-Ø ]m-{Xo-`q-X\m-t°-≠-Xm-bn h-∂p-. A-ß-s\ A-hn-sS \n-∂pw _-Øq-Ø _-lnjv-Ir-X-\m-bn. C-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn _-Øq-Ø-bn-ep-≈ ]p-tcm-ln-X≥ X-ebp-b¿-Øn. ho-≠pw H-cp a-Xm-Nm-cy-s‚ th-jw A-t±-lw A-Wn-™p. C-°m-e-Øm-Wv kn-tem-Wn-ep-≈ B-Zw a-e-bn¬ I-b-d-W-sa-∂ Bth-iw _-Øq-Ø-bn-e-¶p-cn-°p-∂-Xpw A-t±-lw kn-tem¨ k-μ¿-in°p-∂-Xpw. A-hn-sS-\n-∂pw a-S-ßn a-[p-c Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ Iptd-°m-ew X-ßn-b-ti-jw sIm-√w, tIm-gn-t°m-Sv Xp-S-ßn-b ÿ-e-߃ H-∂p-Iq-Sn \-S-∂p-I-≠ _-Øq-Ø, H-cn-°¬ Iq-Sn am-e-Zzo-]n-te-°v ]pd-s∏-´p. ]-t£, Im-cy-am-b kzo-I-c-Ww X-t±-i-hm-kn-I-fn¬ \n-t∂m C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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kp¬-Øm-\n¬ \n-t∂m e-`n-°m-Ø-Xv sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww A-ev-]-Imew I-gn-™-t∏m-tg-°pw _-Øq-Ø ho-≠pw tIm-gn-t°m-´v X-s∂ Xncn-s®-Øn.A-Xn-\p-ti-jw ssN-\-bn-te-°v t]m-sb-∂m-Wv _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp∂-Xv. A-Xv F-{X-tØm-fw hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-sW-∂ Im-cyw \mw hn-i-ZoI-cn-®-Xm-Wv. ssN-\-bn¬ \n-∂pw kp-am-{Xm -h-gn a-S-ßn tIm-gn-t°ms´-Øp-∂ _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ Zu-Xy-\n¿-h-l-W-Øn¬ B-Àm-Zw sIm≈p-I-tbm k-t¥m-j-I-c-am-b B hm¿-Ø U¬-ln-bn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ A-dn-bn-°p-I-tbm sN-øm-sX C-¥y-bn¬ \n-∂pw ÿ-ew hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv sN-bv-X-Xv. C-Xpw _-Øq-Ø ssN-\-bn¬ t]m-bn-´n-s√∂ \-Ωp-sS hm-Z-K-Xn-°v k-lm-b-I-am-bn \n¬-°p-∂ kw-K-Xn-bm-Wv. Ip-sd ssh-In-bm-sW-¶n-epw X-∂n-e¿-]n-® {]-bm-k-ta-dn-b ]-Wn \n-dth-‰m≥ I-gn-™n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ \n-›-b-am-bpw B hn-h-cw A-dn-bn-®v kw-Xr-]v-Xn-b-S-bp-hm≥ B¿-°pw Iq-Sp-X¬ k-t¥m-jw Im-Wpw. {]i-kv-Xn-bpw ]-Z-hn-bpw a-‰m-tc-°m-fpw _-Øq-Ø-bpw B-{K-ln-®n-cp-∂psh-∂v \mw ]-cm-a¿-in-®-Xp-am-Wv.ssN-\-bn¬ \n-∂pw Xn-cn-®p-h-∂ _-Øq-Ø A-[n-I-Im-ew C-hnsS In-S-∂p-I-d-ßm-sX X-s‚ a-S-°-bm-{X B-cw-`n-®p. tIm-gn-t°m-´p-\n∂v A-t±-lw I-∏¬ I-b-dn. A-°m-e-Øv A-d-_n-°-S-en-se hym-h-kmbn-I Ip-Ø-I A-d-_n-Iƒ-°m-bn-cp-∂p. X-∑q-ew G-sXm-cmƒ-°pw a[y-]u-c-kv-Xy-tZ-i-ß-fp-am-bp-≈ k-º¿-°w \n-jv-{]-bm-kw km-[y-ambn-cp-∂p. {]-tXy-In-®pw A-d-_n- tem-I-sØ H-cp k-©m-cn-°v X-s‚ k-tlm-Z-c -cm-Py-ß-fn-se I-®-h-S-kw-Lw k-I-e k-lm-b-ß-fpw ]-e k-μ¿-`-ß-fn-epw \n¿-tem-`w \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p F-∂ Im-cyw \mw t\-csØ ]-cm-a¿-in-®-Xm-Wv. B ku-I-cyw D-]-tbm-Kn-®v _-Øq-Ø tI-cf-tØm-Sp bm-{X-]-d-™v a-[y-]u-c-kv-Xy-cm-Py-߃ I-S-∂v sam-tdmt°m-hn-te-°v t]m-Im≥ sh-ºn. F-∂m¬ 1348˛-se Ip-{]-kn-≤-am-b C-cp-≠ a-c-W-ß-fp-sS Im-e-Øv A-t±-lw kn-dn-b-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂v Im-Wmw. kn-dn-b-bn-se tLm-c-am-b Cu \-io-I-c-W-hym-[n-bp-sS hym]v-Xn-bpw hn-\-bpw h-f-sc lr-Z-b-kv-]r-°m-bn _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xn-bn-´p≠v. Cu A-]-I-S-Øn-s‚ A-]m-b-I-c-am-b Im-c-W-ß-fpw A-Xp-aq-e-ap≠m-b {]-bm-k-ß-fpw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS N-cn-{X-Øn¬ \n-∂m-W-[n-Ihpw sh-fn-®-Øv h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv.Cu k-μ¿-`-ß-fn-sem-∂pw `m-hn- ]-cn-]m-Sn-I-sf-°p-dn-®v bm-sXm-cphn-[ B-kq-{X-W-tam Nn-¥-tbm A-t±-l-sØ A-e-´n-bn-cp-∂-Xm-bn ImWp-∂n-√. Cu Im-e-a-{X-bpw D-b¿-∂ ]-Z-hn-I-f-e-¶-cn-°p-I-bpw D-∂-Xcm-b hy-‡n-I-fp-am-bn k-º¿-°-Øn-en-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X _-ØqC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ø-°v H-∂pw _m-°n-bm-°p-hm-t\m, X-s‚ \m-´n¬ Xn-cn-s®-Øp-tºmƒ F-s¥-¶n-epw hn-es-- ∏-´-Xm-bn F-Sp-Øp-Im-´p-hm-t\m ssI-h-i-ap-≠m-bncp-∂n-√. am-\-kn-I-am-b Cu hym-Ip-e-X-bm-bn-cn-°mw kz-¥w \m-´n-te°v Xn-cn-®p-t]m-Im-\p-≈ hy-{K-X-Ip-d-bm-\p-≈ Im-c-Ww. _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ Cu hn-ti-jw ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-ß-s\-bm-Wv: "kp¬-Øm≥ A-_vZp¬ lp-ss -s‚-bpw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]p-{X≥ A-_v-Zp¬ C-\m-an-s‚bpw Io-gn¬ k-ar-≤-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂ sam-tdm-t°m-bp-sS ]p-tcmK-Xn a-\- n-em-°p-hm-\p-≈ G-I B-{K-l'am-W-t{X \m-´n-te-°v Xn-cn°p-hm-\p-≈ am-\-kn-I-t{]-c-W. km-[m-c-W-°m-c-\m-b G-sXm-cmƒ-°pw ss\-k¿-Kn-I-am-bp-≠m-tb-°m-hp-∂ t{]-c-W a-dn-®m-bn-cn-°pw. Xm≥ hn-t´-®p-t]m-∂ P-\n-® a-Æn¬ Ip-td-b-[n-Iw Im-e-Øn-\p-ti-jw a-Sßn-s®-√p-I-bpw ]-cn-Nn-X-ß-fm-b ap-J-ß-tf-bpw kv-t\-l-]-cn-em-f-\I-f-\p-`-hn-® _-‘p-an-{Xm-Zn-I-tf-bpw k¿-thm-]-cn P-\n-® ho-Sn-t\-bpw Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ß-sf-bpw Im-Wp-I-bpw hn-h-c-ß-f-dn-bp-I-bpw sN-øp-Isb-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw G-sXm-cp-Ø-s‚-bpw a-S-°-bm-{X-bp-sS tN-tXm-hnIm-cw. ]-t£, _-Øq-Ø-°v A-Ø-cw Ip-Spw-_-_-‘-tam kp-lr-Zv-he-bt- am H-∂pw Im-cy-am-bn-´p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v th-Ww hn-Nm-cn-°p-hm≥. H-cp ]-t£, cm-Py-Øn-s‚ hn-Im-k-hpw ]-cn-Wm-a-hpw a-\- n-em-°p-hm\p-≈ {]-kv-Xm-hw a-\x-]q¿-hw \-S-Øn-b-Xm-sW-∂p-sh-®m¬ X-s∂ A-Xn-e-S-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂ D-]-lm-k-kz-cw H-cp-X-cw kn-\n-°n-t‚-Xm-sW∂v ]-d-bm-sX X-c-an-√. F-∂m¬ sam-tdm-t°m-bp-sS X-e-ÿm-\-am-b s^-Iv-kn-se-Øp-∂ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]n-∂o-Sp-≈ {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ-Iq-Sn I-W-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]-kv-Xm-h\ -- i-cn-bm-sW-∂p hn-Nm-cn-°m-t\ \n-hr-Øn-bp-≈p. Im-c-Ww ]n-d-∂ a-Æn¬ I-S-∂-t∏mgm-Wv ho-≠pw X-s‚ Zu-Xyw ]q¿-W-am-bn-´n-s√-∂v A-t±-l-Øn-\v tXm∂p-∂-Xv. tem-I-Øp-≈ ap-kv-enw cm-Py-߃ ap-gp-s° k-μ¿-in-°p-Isb-∂ H-cp {]-Xn-⁄ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-©m-c-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ F-Sp-Øncp-t∂m F-∂-dn-bn-s√-¶n¬ Iq-Sn-bpw, Xm≥ _m-°n-bm-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xpw Iq-Sn \n¿-h-ln-°p-hm-\p-≈ hy-{K-X _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ Im-Wp-∂p-≠v. Hcp ]-t£, ]-e-cp-tS-bpw t{]-c-W-°v hn-t[-b-\m-bn-t´m, A-Xp-a-s√-¶n¬ tem-I-Øn-se k-I-e- ap-kv-enw cm-Py-ß-fpw k-μ¿-in-°p-∂ B-Zy-sØ k-©m-cn-sb-∂ Jym-Xn t\-Sp-hm-t\m F-∂p Xo¿-Øp ]-d-bm-s\m-°pI-bn-√, _-Øq-Ø t]m-Ip-hm≥ X-s∂ D-d-®p.ss\-Po-cn-b-bn-ep-≈ \o-t{Km-em‚pw B-¥-eq-kn-b-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p Ah-ti-jn-®n-cp-∂ c-≠v ap-kv-enw cm-Py-߃. A-ß-s\ Cu c-≠v ÿ-e߃ Iq-Sn k-μ¿-in-® _-Øq-Ø aq-∂v kw-h-’-cw A-Xn-\p-th-≠n sN-e-h-gn-®p. A-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn C-kv-em-an-I-tem-I-Øn-s‚ k-©m-cn FC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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∂ Io¿-Øn-ap-{Z-°v A¿-l-\m-Im≥ A-t±-l-Øn-\p km-[n-®p. b-Ym¿Y-Øn¬ a-lm-c-Y-∑m-cm-b \n-c-h-[n tem-I-k-©m-cn-Iƒ A-d-_n -cmPy-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw tZ-im-S-\-Øn-\n-d-ßn-bn-´p-≠v. im-kv-{X N-cn-{X-`q-anim-kv-{X hn-`m-K-߃-°v A-\¿-L-ß-fm-b kw-`m-h-\- A-h¿ \¬-Inbn-´p-ap-≠v. ]-t£, H-cp Im-cy-Øn¬ A-h-sc-°m-sfm-s° a-l-Xz-Øns‚ Xn-e-I-hp-a-Wn-™v _-Øq-Ø \n¬-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ Im-c-W-sa-¥mWv? F-√m ap-kv-enw cm-Py-ß-fpw k-μ¿-in-® k-©m-cn-sb-∂v A-h-Imi-s∏-Sm≥ km-[n-®-Xv A-t±-l-Øn-\p- am-{X-am-sW-∂-Xm-Wv A-Xn-s‚ Im-c-Ww._-Øq-Ø-bp-sS kp-Zo¿-L-am-b Cu k-©m-c-th-f-bn¬ A-t±-lsØ I-≠-h-cp-sS bm-sXm-cp A-`n-{]m-b-hpw C-Xp-h-sc I-≠p-In-´n-bn´n-s√-∂p-≈-Xv hn-kv-a-b-P-\y-am-sW-∂-Xn-te-sd \n¿-`m-Ky-hpw Iq-Sn-bmWv. Cu bm-{X-°m-c-s\-°p-dn-®v k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b a-‰p k-©m-cn-I-tfm, N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-tcm F-¥m-Wv tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-sX-∂-dn-bm≥ CXp-h-sc I-gn-™n-´n-√. km-[m-c-W k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥-sa-gp-Xp-∂-h¿, A-h¿ Hm-tcm ÿ-e-Øp-sh-®v C-S-]-g-Ip-I-bpw Im-Wp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn´p-≈ hn-tZ-in-I-fm-b k-l-Po-hn-I-sf-°p-dn-®pw A-h-cp-sS t]m-°p-h-chn-s\ kw-_-‘n-®pw a-‰pw hn-i-Z-am-bn {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°p-I ]-Xn-hm-Wv. F-∂m¬, {]-kn-≤-ß-fm-b cm-Py-ß-fn-ep-S-\o-fw ap-∏-Xp sIm-√-Øn-tesd A-kq-bm¿-l-am-b ]-Z-hn-b-e-¶-cn-® _-Øq-Ø-sb-°p-dn-®v B-cpw ]-d-™p- Im-Wm-Ø-Xv A-¤p-X-am-bn-Ø-s∂ A-h-ti-jn-°p-∂p. AtXm-sSm-∏w _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-ß-fp-sS B-[n-Im-cn-I-X-sb IqSn-bpw A-Xv km-c-am-bn _m-[n-°p-∂p-≠v. C-Ø-cw k-a-Im-en-I tc-JI-fp-sS A-`m-h-Øn¬ A-t±-lw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv A-∏-Sn i-cn-tbm sX-t‰m F-∂v hy-h-tO-Zn-®v X-cw-Xn-cn-°p-I t]m-epw Zp-jv-I-c-am-bn-Øo¿-∂n-cn°p-∂p. \-ap-°v A-hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-b ]-e kw-K-Xn-I-fpw _-Øq-Øbp-sS hn-h-c-W-Øn-ep-S-\o-f-ap-≠v. A-h-sb sIm-≈p-∂-h-cpw X-≈p-∂h-cpw N-cn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-fn¬ Im-Wmw. ]-t£, Xm¿-°n-I-am-b H-cp kw-K-Xn F-∂-Xn¬ I-hn-™v A-¥n-a-am-bn Xo-cp-am-\-Øn-se-Øn-°-gn™ H-cp Im-cy-a-√m-Ø-Xp -sIm-≠p-X-s∂ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W߃ a-‰p k-lm-b-{K-Ÿ-ß-tfm-sSm-∏-ta hm-bn-°m≥ I-gn-bp-I-bp-≈p. F-¶n¬ am-{X-ta A-Xv {]-tbm-P-\-Øn-se-Øp-I-bp--≈p.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {K-Ÿw B-Zy-am-bn ]-cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øp∂-Xv 1829˛-em-Wv. tUm-Iv-S¿ km-ap-h¬ eo-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-Xp \n¿-hln-®-Xv. Ip-td -sIm-√-߃-°p ti-jw _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-I-Ybp-sS ]q¿-W-cq-]w B-Zy-am-bn sh-fn-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv {^-©p- `m-j-bn-em-Wv. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]p-kv-X-Iw ]-I¿-Øp-I-bpw A-Xn¬ kz-¥-am-bn ]-eC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Xpw Iq-´n-t®¿-°p-I-tbm hn-´p-I-f-bp-I-tbm ]-cn-jv-I-cn-°p-I-tbm sX‰p-Xn-cp-Øp-I-tbm H-s° sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈ sam-tdm-t°m kp¬-Øm-s‚ sk{I-´-dn-am-cn¬ H-cm-fm-b C-_n-Pq-km-bn-bp-sS ssI-sbm-t∏m-Sp-Iq-Sn-bp≈ Cu {]-Xn-bm-Wv G-‰-hpw hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-bn I-W-°m-°p-∂-Xv. Un-{^n-sa-dn-bpw km≥-Pq-s\-‰n-bpw kw-bp-‡-am-bm-Wv C-Xv {^-©p`m-j-bn-te-°v hn-h¿-Ø-\w sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-Xv. Cu ]-cn-`m-j h-f-sc-tbsd {]-iw-km-¿-l-am-sW-¶n¬-°q-Sn-bpw B-h-iy-am-b t\m-´p-I-tfm hni-Zo-I-c-W-ß-tfm H-∂pw hn-h¿-Ø-I¿ \-ev-Im-Ø-Xv h-en-b H-cp Ip-dhm-bn-´m-Wv F-√m F-gp-Øp-Im-cpw Nq-≠n-°m-´n-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Hm-tcm tZ-i°m-cpw A-h-c-h-cp-sS cm-Py-sØ-Ip-dn-®p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-´p-≈ Im-cy-ßsf hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-hm≥ H-‰-sbm-‰-bm-b {i-a-߃ \-S-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. F∂m-epw C-\n-bpw [m-cm-fw `m-Kw Iq-Sp-X¬ sh-fn-®-hpw hn-h-c-W-hpw {]-Xo-£n-®p I-gn-bp-I-bm-sW-∂-Xm-Wp ]-c-am¿-Yw. F-®v. F. B¿. Kn-∫v _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-{K-Ÿ-sØ I-gn-h-Xpw Np-cp-°n Cw-•ojn-te-°p hn-h¿-Ø-\w sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. F-en-b-´pw Uu-k-\pw A-Xy-mh-iy-`m-Kß -- ƒ Cw-•o-jn-te-°p ]-cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. C-h¿ A-d_n-bn¬ \n-∂p -X-s∂-bm-Wv X¿-P-a- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-Xv._-Øq-Ø-bp-sS bm-{Xm-{K-Ÿ-am-b In-Xm-_p d-ln-e ]-e \n-e°pw {]-tbm-P-\-ap-≈ ]p-kv-X-I-am-sW-¶n-epw, C-¥ym- N-cn-{X-kw-hn[m-\-Øn¬ A-Xv h-f-sc {]-bm-k-ß-fm-Wp kr-j-Sn-®n-´p-≈-Xv. _-ØqØ-bp-sS a-X-cm-j-{So-b-Nm-bv-hp-I-tf-bpw hn-izm-k-ß-tf-bpw A-t±-lw Po-hn-®-n-cp-∂ B Im-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ {]-tXy-I-X-I-tf-bpw i-cn-°pw a-\ n-em-°m-sX I-≠-]m-Sp sh-´n-hn-gp-ßn-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv C-Xp kw-`hn-®-Xv. s\-√pw ]-Xn-cpw X-cw-Xn-cn-°p-hm-\p-≈ {i-aw \-S-Øm-Xn-cp-∂Xm-Wv Cu Ip-g-∏-Øn-\p Im-c-Ww. Rm-\n-hn-sS \-S-Øp-∂ {i-aw _Øq-Ø k-©-cn-® C-kv-em-an-I-cm-Py-ß-fn-se cm-jv-{So-b- ÿn-Xn-K-XnI-sf ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-hm-\m-Wv. A-Xv _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ F-{X-am-{Xw kzm[o-\w sN-ep-Øn-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂pw C-¥y≥ ÿn-Xn-K-Xn-I-sf hn-h-cn-°ptºmƒ X-s‚ lr-Z-b-Øn-ep-√o-V-am-bn In-S-∂n-cp-∂ Cu A-\p-`-h-߃ F-ß-s\ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p F-∂pw a-\- n-em-°m≥ C-Xp {]-tbm-P\-s∏-Spw._m-Kv-Zm-Zn-te-bpw U-am-kv-I-kn-te-bpw J-eo-^-am-cp-sS Io-gn-ep-≠mbn-cp-∂ C-kv-em-an-I-km-{am-Pyw 14˛mw \q-‰m-t≠m-Sp-Iq-Sn A-Xn-s‚ BIr-Xn-bn-epw hn-kv-Xr-Xn-bn-epw hn-`n-∂-am-bn-Øo-¿-∂p. 8˛mw \q-‰m-≠nse J-eo-^-am-cp-sS cm-P-Io-bm¿-`m-S-ß-fpw {]u-Vn-bpw A-tX-]-Sn-tbm A-Xn¬ Iq-Sp-X-tem ap-kv-enw A-c-a-\-I-fn¬ A-\p-jv-Sn-®p t]m-∂n-cp∂p F-∂-Xp i-cn-X-s∂. F-∂m¬ kv-s]-bn-\pw kn-kn-en-bpw C-kv-emC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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an-I-tem-I-tØm-Sp bm-{X-]-d-™p ]n-cn-™n-cp-∂p. sIm¿-tZm-h-bp-sS am-lm-flyw ]-d-bm-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p F-∂-√m-sX 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n¬ bqtdm-]y≥ cm-Py-ß-fn¬ C-kv-em-an-I- i-‡n-{]-`m-hw \n-e-®n-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ bq-tdm-]n¬ ]-‰n-b Cu \-jv-Sw C-¥y-bn-epw a-te-jy-bn-epw apkv-enw-Iƒ-°v {]-th-i-\w e-`n-®-tXm-sS A-h¿ \n-I-Øn-sb-Sp-Øp. bqtdm-]y≥ i-‡n-I-sf In-Sn-ew sIm-≈n-°m-\p-≈ i-‡n-bm¿-Pn-®p sIm≠p-X-s∂ Hm-t´m-a≥ km-{am-Py-hpw hn-Im-kw sIm-≈p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. {]-Xy-£-Øn¬ G-sXm-cmƒ-°pw tXm-∂p-am-bn-cp-∂ C-kv-em-an-I cmjv-{So-bm-[n-\n-th-iØ - n-s‚ h-f¿-®, ]-s£, B-¥c - n-Ia - m-bn A-Xn-s‚ Zp¿-_-e-X-sb aq-Sn-sh-°m≥ am-{Xw i-‡-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. ]p-d-ta F-{X {]-`m-hw Im-Wn-®m-epw B-`y-¥c - ß - f - m-b Ip-g∏ - ß - f - pw cm-jv{- S-ic - o-cØ - nse A¿-_p-Zß - f - pw lr-Zb - t- Ø-bpw izm-kt- Im-it- Ø-bpw I-c≠ - p-Xn∂p-hm≥ am-{Xw aq¿-On-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂v Im-Wp-hm≥ {]-bm-ka - n-√.c-≠p \q-‰m-≠p Im-e-sØ c-‡-]-¶n-e-am-b Ip-cn-ip-bp-≤w kn-dnb Xp-S-ßn-b ap-kv-enw- cm-jv-{S-ß-fp-sS ssN-X-\y-sØ- Ip-d-s®m-∂p-a-√ I-c-≠p-Xn-∂-Xv. Cu £o-Ww Xo-cp-∂-Xn-\p-ap-ºp-X-s∂ A-[n-Im-c-Zp¿tam-l-Øn-s‚ kzm¿-Y-X \n-c-h-[n B-`y-¥-c-I-e-l-߃-°v tl-Xphm-bn-Øo¿-∂p. Xp¿-°n-I-fp-sS bp-≤-s°m-Xn-bpw A-[n-Im-c-tam-l-hpw A-d-_n, t]¿-jy≥ P-\-X-bp-sS hn-Im-k-tØ-bpw k-ar-≤n-tb-bpw h√m-sX _m-[n-®p. Cu £o-Ww Xo-cp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºp-X-s∂ "kw-kv-Imc-ß-fp-sS kw-lm-c-I-cm-b' aw-tKm-fn-b-cp-sS B-{I-a-W-Øn-\v C-kv-eman-I-tI-{μ-ß-sfm-s° km-£n-bm-bn. A-cp-a-bm-bn- I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂ ]-eXpw A-·n-°n-c-bm-bn. kw-kv-Im-c-Øn-s‚ tkm-]-\-ß-fm-b k¿-h-Iem-im-e-I-fpw sse-{_-dn-I-fpw Np-´p-Nm-º-em-°-s∏-´p. \n-c-h-[n \q-‰m≠p-Im-e-sØ ssh-⁄m-\n-I- Zm¿-i-\n-I- I-e-h-d-Iƒ I-Øn-t∏m-bn. ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw Xm-Xzn-I-cpw Po-h-\pw sIm-t≠m-Sn. `-bm-\-I-hpw Ac-£n-X-hp-am-b Cu Np-‰p-]m-Sn¬ \n-∂pw c-£m-k-t¶-Xw I-s≠-tØ≠-Xv C-hc - p-sS-sb-√mw \n-e\ - n-ev] - n-s‚ X-s∂ {]-iv\ - a - m-bn-cp-∂p. A-ßs\ aw-tKm-fm-{I-aW - w \n-ch - [ - n ]-WvU - n-X∑ - m-tc-bpw im-kv{- X-⁄∑ - mtc-bpw N-cn-{X-Im-c∑ - m-tc-bpw C-kve - m-an-I \-Kc - ß - f - n¬ \n-∂pw {]m-Wc - £m¿-Yw a-‰n-Sß - f - n¬ A-`b - w tX-Sp-hm≥ \n¿-_‘ - n-Xc - m-°n. A-hc - {X-bpw I-≠ G-Ic - £ - m-tI-{μw `m-cX - a - m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂X - m-Wv {]-[m-\w.A-ß-s\ t\m-°p-tºmƒ D¿-h-io-im-]w t]m-se-bm-Wv \-sΩ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØm-fw C-X-\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. Im-c-Ww 1453˛¬ tIm¨Ãm‚n-t\m-∏nƒ B-{I-an-®p Io-g-S-°n-b-t∏mƒ Po-h-\pw sIm-t≠m-Sn-b b-h-\ tdm-a≥ Xm-Xzn-I-cpw ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-am-Wv bq-tdm-]y≥ cm-PyC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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ß-fn¬ \-thm-Ym-\-Øn-s‚ hn-Øp-]m-In-b-Xv. A-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn bqtdm-]n¬ \-ho-\-ß-fm-b ]-e am-‰-ß-fp-ap-≠m-bn. a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Ønse C-cp-≠ kz-`m-h-Øn-\v b-h-\n-I-bn-Sp-hm-\pw ]p-Xp-bp-K-Øn-s‚ ]pe-cn-°v kn-μq-c-a-Wn-bn-°p-hm-\pw A-Xp-aq-ew km-[n-®p. bq-tdm-]n-s‚ ap-J-Om-b- X-s∂ am-dn. tem-Im-[n-]X - y-Øn-\pw km-{am-Py-ÿm-]\ - Ø - n\pw C-sXm-s° k-lm-bn-®p. A-tX {]-{In-bX - s - ∂-bm-Wv aw-tKm-fm-{I-aW-sØ `-b∂ - v C-kve - m-an-I cm-jv{- S-ßf - n¬ \n-∂pw Hm-Sn C-¥y-bn¬ h∂p c-£s - ]-´ ]-WvU - n-Xh - ¿-Kh - pw sN-bvX - X - v. ]p-Ø≥ {]-Im-iØ - n-s‚ Zo-]i - n-J sIm-fp-Øp-hm-\pw ssh-⁄m-\n-I {]-kc - w {]-^p-√a - m-°p-hm\pw A-h¿-°v km-[n-®p. A-ßs - \ C-¥y-bn¬ ]p-Xn-b H-cp ]-cn-Wm-a{- ]{In-b° - v B-ap-Js - a-gp-Xp-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p aw-tKmƒ B-{I-aW - w.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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4 ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{S-ß-fn-se ÿn-Xn 1325˛¬ _-Øq-Ø bm-{X- Xn-cn-°p-∂ k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ a-t‰-sXm-cpA-h-k-c-tØ-°m-fpw D-d-® K-h¨-sa‚p-I-fm-Wv ap-kv-enw cm-Py-ß-fn¬ D-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. bm-{X-°m¿-°v Iq-Sp-X¬ kp-c-£n-X-Xzw D-≠m-bncp-∂ Im-e-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. B-kmw ap-X¬ kn-kn-en- -h-sc Cu-Pn]v-jy≥ J-eo-^-bp-sS A-[n-Im-cw tNm-Zyw sN-ø-s∏-´n-cp-∂n-√. C-dmJpw C-dm-\pw aw-tKmƒ `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn-em-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw aw-tKmƒ N-{I-h¿-Øn C-√-Iv-Jm≥ ap-kv-en-am-bn-Øo¿-∂n-cp-∂p. A-\-t´m-fn-b-bnepw A-^v-Km-\n-ÿm-\n-epw C-¥y≥ k-ap-{Z Xo-c-ß-fn-epw kz-X-{¥ cm-P-hw-i-ß-fpw \-hm-_p-am-cp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-epw A-h-cm-cpw Ckv-em-an-I km-{am-Py-sØ(Jn-em-^-Øv) A-h-K-Wn-°m≥ am-{Xw i-‡cm-bn-cp-∂n-√. C-¥ym D-]-`q-J-Wv-U-Øn-em-I-s´ `q-cn-]-£w cm-Py-ßfpw X-s‚ A-[o-\-X-bn¬ sIm-≠p-h-cm≥ I-gn-™ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v sIm-Sn-Ip-Øn hm-gp-∂ Im-e-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p. Ip-cn-ip-bp-≤w A-gn-®p-hn-´ hn-\-bn¬ \n-∂pw hy-h-km-b-hpw hm-Wn-Py-hpw kp-c-£n-X-am-bn I-c]-‰p-I-bpw Iq-Sp-X¬ D-tØ-Pn-X-am-bn hn-Im-kw sIm-≈p-I-bpw sN-bvX-Xv Cu cm-Py-ß-fp-sS-sbm-s° km-º-Øn-Im-`n-hr-≤n-°v \n-Zm-\-amIp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p.cm-jv-{So-b `-{Z-X-bp-sS s]m-en-a A-ß-s\ F-√m cm-Py-ß-fn-epw C°m-e-Øv _m-ly-am-bn Zr-iy-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-epw 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n-se ap-kv-enw k-aq-l-Øn-s‚ {]-tXy-I-X a-s‰m-∂m-bn-cp-∂p. 10˛mw \q-‰m≠n¬ I-≠n-cp-∂ G-I-Xm-\-X-tbm kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-k-a-Xz-tam _p-≤n]-c-am-b h-f¿-N-tbm F-√m cm-Py-߃-°pw H-cp-t]m-se e-`y-am-bn-cp∂n-√. _p-≤n-]-c-am-b A-k-a-Xz-hpw kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-am-b \n-›-e-X-bpw C-°m-e-Øv ap-kv-enw k-aq-l-sØ _m-[n-®n-cp-∂ h-en-b im-]-am-bn-cp∂p. A-‰v-em‚n-Iv ap-X¬ a-[y-G-jy-h-sc ]-S¿-∂v ]-¥-en-®n-cp-∂ C-kvC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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em-an-I kw-kv-Im-cw F-√m cm-Py-ß-fn-epw k-a-Xp-en-X-am-bn-Ø-s∂ ]Ømw \q-‰m-≠v h-sc {]-tim-`n-®n-cp-∂p. ]-t£, _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Ime-am-b-t∏m-tg-°pw Hm-tcm cm-Py-hpw A-hn-Sp-sØ P-\-ß-fpw A-h-cptS-Xm-b k-{º-Zm-b-ß-fpw B-Nm-c-ß-fpw ]p-e¿-Øn-t∏m-∂-h-cm-bn-cp∂p-sh-∂v _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-ß-sf kq-£v-a-am-bn \n-co-£n-°ptºmƒ \-ap-°v a-\- n-em-°m≥ {]-bm-k-an-√.A-d-_n-Iƒ a-Kv-cn-_v F-∂p hn-fn-®n-cp-∂ h-S-°p- ]-Sn-™m-d≥ B{^n-°≥ tZ-i-߃ kv-s]-bn-\pƒ-s∏-sS H-cp h-en-b km-{am-Py-am-bn. A-h 12˛mw \q-‰m-≠n¬ A¬-sam-dm-hn-Xp-I-fp-tS-bpw A¬ sam-lm-Zp-Ifp-tS-bpw t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kw-L-Sn-X-am-b H-cp h-en-b km-{am-Py-am-bn {]-tim-`n-®n-cp-∂p. ]-t£, 13˛mw \q-‰m-t≠m-Sp-Iq-Sn A-h aq-∂v cm-P-hwi-ß-fm-bn hn-`-Pn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw Xp-S¿-∂v Cu cm-Py-߃ X-Ωn¬ \nc-¥-cw bp-≤-ß-fpw I-cm-dp-I-fpw \-S-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. cm-Py-Øn-s‚ hn-`-h-߃ ap-gp-s° A-\m-h-iy-am-b k-a-c-k-∂m-l-߃-°pw B-]Xv-I-c-am-b bp-≤-߃-°pw th-≠n hn-\n-tbm-Kn-®-Xv aq-ew cm-jv-{Sw timjn-°p-I-bpw A-h-cp-sS hy-h-km-b-hpw Ir-jn-bpw X-I-cp-I-bpw sN-bvXp. km-º-Øn-I t¢-i-߃ t\-cn-Sp-∂ G-Xp K-h¨-sa‚p-Iƒ-°pw A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t°-≠-n h-cp-∂ {]-iv-\-߃ C-hn-sS-bpw D-¤-hn-®p. kwÿm-\- K-h¿-W¿-am-cp-sS Iq-dp- \-jv-S-s∏-Sp-I-bpw cm-jv-{S-Øn-s‚ Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ß-fm-tI-≠ {]-hn-iy-Iƒ kz-X-{¥ cm-P-ÿm-\-ß-fmbn -Xo-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. Cu aq-∂p- cm-P-hw-i-ß-fn¬ {]-[m-\-am-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø P-\n® sam-tdm-t°m-hn-se a-cn-\n-Uv cm-P-hw-iw. G-‰-hpw ^-e-`q-bn-jvT-amb ÿ-e-߃ Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂ Cu {]-tZ-i-Øn-\v s]m-Xp-th a-Kv-cn-_v cm-Py-߃-°p-≠m-b hn-]-Øn¬ \n-∂pw H-‰-s∏-´v c-£-t\-Sm-s\m-Øncp-∂n-√. bp-≤-hpw kw-L-´-\-hpw \n-Xy-kw-`-h-ß-fm-bn-Øo¿-∂n-cp-∂p. cm-Pm-°-∑m¿-t°m {]-`p-°ƒ-t°m bm-sXm-cp c-£-bp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. cm-Pm-[n-Im-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n cm-P-]p-{X-∑m¿ I-e-l-hpw c-‡-s®m-cn®n-epw \-S-Øn-. A-tX-k-a-bw Iq-Sp-X¬ ÿ-e-Øn-\pw ]-Z-hn-°pw th≠n- {]-`p-°-∑m¿ X-Ωn¬ Ip-ip-ºpw Ip-g-∏-hpw \n-e-\n-ev-°p-I-bpw sNbv-Xp. Cu cm-P-hw-iw A-Xn-s‚ {]-Xm-]-Øn-s‚ ]m-c-ay-Øn-se-Øp∂-Xv A-_v-Zp¬ l- -s‚-bpw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ a-I≥ A-_v-Zp¬ C-am\n-s‚-bpw Im-e-ß-fn-em-bn-cp-∂p. A-_v-Zp¬ l- ≥ 1331 ap-X¬ 1348 h-sc-bpw A-_v-Zp¬ C-am≥ 1348 ap-X¬ 1358 h-tc-bp-am-Wv sam-tdmt°m-hn-se N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-bn-cp-∂-Xv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]p-kvX-I-Øn-s‚ A-h-km-\-`m-K-Øv C-h-cn-cp-h-tc-bpw Ip-dn-®p-≈ ]-cm-a¿iw [m-cm-f-ap-≠v. C-h-cp-sS `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn-epw c-‡-s®m-cn-®n-epw C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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I-em-]-hpw h-f-sc-tb-sd \-S-Øn-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw a-‰p- ]-e \n-e-°pw cm-Py-Øn-\p A-`n-hr-≤n-bpw {]-i-kv-Xn-bpw D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. in¬-]-Iem- ssh-Z-Kv-[yw hn-fn-t®m-Xp-∂ [m-cm-fw sIm-´m-c-ß-fpw a-Wn-ku-[ß-fpw C-°m-e-Øv sam-tdm-t°m \-K-c-sØ A-e-¶-cn-®p. A-_v-Zp¬ C-am-\n-s‚ `-c-W-ss\-]p-Wy-sØ _-Øq-Ø A-tß-b-‰w {]-iw-kn°p-∂-Xn-s‚ {]-[m-\ Im-c-Ww C-Xp-am-{X-am-Ip-hm-t\ X-c-ap-≈p. At±-l-Øn-s‚ `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn-epw A-k-am-[m-\-hpw A-cm-P-I-Xz-hpw sam-tdm-t°m-hn¬ \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂p.sam-tdm-t°m `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-sb A-an-X-am-b {]-iw-k-°v ]m-{Xo`q-X-\m-°p-∂ _-Øq-Ø, C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{S-ß-fn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ k-º∂-hpw k-ar-≤-hpw Xm-c-X-tay-\ k-am-[m-\-]-c-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ Cu-Pn-]vXn-s\-°p-dn-®v Iq-Sp-X-sem-∂pw ]-d-bp-∂n-s√-∂-Xv A¿-Y-h-Øm-Wv. Atd-_y-sb am-‰n- \n¿-Øn-bm¬ a-t‰-sXm-cp ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{S-tØ-°mfpw k-º-∂-am-b cm-Py-hpw k-ºp-jv-S-am-b kw-kv-Im-c-hpw ss\-en-s‚ cm-Py-Øv Hm-fw Xp-fp-ºn-bn-cp-∂ Im-e-am-W-Xv. a-lm-\m-b k-em-lp±o≥ ÿm-]n-® B cm-P-hw-iw {]-`p-°-fm-b aw-eq-°p-I-fp-sS Io-gn¬ 1260 ap-X¬ 1341 h-sc h¿-[-am-\-am-b k-ar-≤n-bn¬ X-s∂ I-gn-bp-ambn-cp-∂p. In-g-°p-\n-∂p-≈ aw-tKmƒ A-{I-an-Iƒ cm-Py-Øn-s‚ A-Xn¿Øn-hs - c F-Øn-\n-∂v `o-jW - n-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn--´pw Jn-em-^Ø - n-s‚ B-ÿm\-hpw Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-∂ ss\-en-s‚ ]p-{Xn hm-Sn-Ø-f¿-∂n-s√-∂v am-{X-a√ i-cn-°pw h-f¿-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xn-s‚ Im-c-W߃ {]-[m-\-am-bpw 1260 ap-X¬ 1341 h-sc In-co-S-[m-c-Ww sN-bv-X Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-se cm-Pm-°-∑m-c-{X-bpw A-K-ay-{]-`m--h-∑m-cm-b `-c-W-]-Sp°-fm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂X - pw a-[y-Im-eL - ´- Ø - n-se ap-kve - nw `-cW - I - q-SØ - n¬ G-‰-hpw i-‡-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂-Xp-am-Wv. A-Xn-\p-]p-d-ta, C-¥y-bp-ambp-≈ hym-h-km-bn-I Ip-Ø-I ap-gp-s° Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-\m-bn-cp-∂p F-∂Xv A-h-cp-sS hym-h-km-bn-I-˛-km-º-Øn-I h-f¿-®-°v \n-Zm-\-am-Ip-Ibpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p. aw-eq-°v kp¬-Øm-∑m¿-°v kn-dn-b-bn-se aw-tKmfn-b¿-s°-Xn-cm-bn {]-Xn-tcm-[-\n-c kp-c-£n-X-am-°p-hm-s\m-Øp F-∂Xn-\p-]p-d-ta \yq-_n-bm-bpw, A-\-t´m-en-bm-bpw, {Sn-t∏m-fn-bpw Iq-Sn Xß-fp-sS A-[o-\-X-bn¬ sIm-≠p-h-cm-\pw km-[n-®p. C-{X-bpw {]-[m-\am-b Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-s\-°p-dn-®v _-Øq-Ø h-f-sc Ip-d-t® ]-d-™n-´p-≈q.C-dm-Jn-te-bpw C-dm-\n-te-bpw ÿn-Xn-bpw C-tX-am-Xn-cn- X-s∂-sb∂v Im-Wmw. H-cp Im-e-Øv _m-ev-°v \-K-c-ß-fn¬ sh-®v I-a-\o-b-am-b \-K-c-hpw hy-h-km-b-tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ sh-®v hy-h-km-b -tI-{μ-hp-am-bn {]tim-`n-®n-cp-∂p Cu {]-tZ-iw. 1218 \pw 1260 \pw C-S-°p-≈ aw-tKmƒ B-{I-a-W-߃ Cu \-K-c-ß-tf-bpw A-h {]-Im-in-∏n-®n-cp-∂ kw-kvC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Im-c k-º-Øn-t\-bpw in-Yn-eo-I-cn-®p-I-f-™p. aw-tKm-fn-b¿ C-kv-eman-te-°v ]-cn-h¿-Ø-\w sN-ø-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºv C-dm-Jn-se P-\-߃ A-h-cp-sS `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn¬ {Iq-c-am-b a-X-]o-T-\-߃-°v hn-t[-bcm-tI-≠-n h-∂n-´p-≠v. ]-t£, 1295˛¬ Km-k≥-Jm≥ C-kv-emw kzo-Icn-®-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn C-dm-Jn-s‚ N-cn-{Xw ho-≠pw {]-Im-i-am-\-am-bn.-- A-ev]-kz-ev-]w B-`y-¥-c- Ip-g-∏-߃ H-s° \-S-am-Sn-bn-cp-∂-X-√m-sX 1305 ap-X¬ 1335 h-sc C-dm-Jn¬ k-am-[m-\-hpw k-¥p-jv-Sn-bpw s]m-Xp-sh Zr-iy-am-bn-cp-∂p.t]¿-jy-bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b- `m-K-t[-bw ]-e-t∏m-gpw aw-tKm-fm-{I-a-WØn¬ D-e-bp-I-bpw Nn-e-t∏mƒ X-I-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-s≠-¶n¬ IqSn-bpw, t]¿-jy-bp-sS X-\-Xm-b kw-kv-Im-c-hpw \m-K-cn-I-X-bpw \n-e\n¿-Øm≥ A-h¿-°v km-[n-®n-cp-∂p-. _p-Jm-d-bpw k-a¿-J-¥pw A-\h-[n \q-‰m-≠p-Im-ew C-kv-em-an-I tem-I-Øn-s‚ kmw-kv-Im-cn-I kncm-tI-{μ-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. \n¿-`m-Ky-sa-∂p ]-d-b-s´, tem-I-Øn-se GsXm-cp \-K-c-tØm-Spw In-S-]n-Sn-°m≥ sI-ev-]p-≠m-bn-cp-∂ Cu \-K-cß-fm-Wv A-]-cn-jv-Ir-X-cpw \n-Ir-jv-S-cp-am-b aw-tKm-fn-b-∑m-cp-sS In-cmX- Xm-Wv-U-h-Øn-\v C-c-bm-b-Xv. C-\n H-cn-°-epw Xn-cn-s®-Sp-°-m-s\m°m-Ø hn-[w A-h-bp-sS h-f¿-®-bpw X-I¿-∂v X-cn-∏-W-am-bn. 1219 \pw 1220 \pw C-S-°p-≠m-b `o-I-c-hpw am-c-I-hp-am-b aw-tKmƒ B-{I-aW-am-bn-cp-∂p A-Xn-s‚ Im-c-Ww. F-∂m¬, C-¥y-bp-sS ÿn-Xn-bn¬ km-c-am-b am-‰-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. 8˛mw \q-‰m-t≠m-Sp- Iq-Sn-Ø-s∂ kn-‘v Jn-em-^-Øn-s‚ A-[o-\-X-bn¬ h-s∂-¶n-epw i-cn-°pw ap-kv-enw N-{Ih¿-Øn-am-cp-sS `-c-Ww Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv 13˛mw \q-‰m-≠p ap-X-em-sW-∂v Iq-´-Ww. Ip-Ø-_v-Zo≥ sF-_-Iv (1206˛1211) A-Sn-a-hw-iw ÿm-]n-®Xp-ap-X¬ {_n-´o-jv A-[n-\n-th-iw-h-sc am-dn- am-dn ]-e cm-P-Ip-Spw-_ß-fpw C-hn-sS `-c-Ww \-S-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥y-bn¬ {]-_p-≤-am-b H-cp k-aq-lw k-t¥m-j-hm-∑m-cm-bn I-gn-™n-cp-∂p. apl-Ω-Zv Xp-•-s°-∂ Zm¿-i-\n-I-\m-b N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-bn-cp-∂p `-c-Wm[n-]≥. aw-tKmƒ \-io-I-c-W-Øn¬ \n-∂pw c-£-t\-Sn F-Øn-b ]-WvUn-X-∑m-cpw X-Xz-⁄m-\n-I-fpw kq-^n-I-fpw k-\ym-kn-am-cpw a-‰pw U¬ln-bn-em-Wv h-s∂-Øn-b-Xv. A-ß-s\ C-°m-e-am-b-t∏m-tg-°pw U¬ln-bm-bn-cp-∂p C-kv-em-an-I X-Xz-⁄m-\n-I-fp-tS-bpw kn-≤-∑m-cp-tS-bpw a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-tS-bpw B-hm-k-tI-{μw. _m¬-°pw _p-Jm-d-bpw k-a¿-J-¥pw hn-´n-S-Øp-\n-∂v kmw-kv-Im-cn-I \-thm-Ym-\-Øn-s‚ ]-Sl-[z-\n A-hn-cm-aw ap-gp-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv U¬-ln-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-kv-em-anI tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ ap-gp-s° _p-≤n-]-c-am-b h-f¿-®-bn-epw km-aq-ln-I kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-epw [m-cm-fw G-‰-°p-d-®n-ep-Iƒ I-S-∂p-Iq-Sn-b k-μ¿C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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`-am-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-th-f.sam-tdm-t°m-hn¬ \n-∂pw C-¥y-bpƒ-s]-tS-bp-≈ In-g-°≥ Zn-°pI-fn-te-°v Xn-cn-® _-Øq-Ø I-≠ cm-jv-{So-b kw-hn-[m-\-ß-fm-Wv apI-fn¬ hn-h-cn-®-Xv. ]-t£, H-cn-cp-]-Xv sIm-√-Øn-\p-ti-jw ho-≠pw Cu k-©m-cn X-s‚ a-S-°-bm-{X-bn¬ C-kv-em-an-I cm-Py-ß-fn¬ I≠ hy-Xym-kw ko-am-Xo-X-am-bn-cp-∂p. a-[y-]u-c-kv-Xy-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ apgp-s° A-cm-P-I-Xz-hpw X-÷-\y-am-b {]-bm-k-ß-fpw ]-Xn-bn-cp-∂n-cp∂p. C-dm-\n-epw C-dm-Jn-epw A-h¿-W-\o-b-amw hn-[w I-em-]-ß-fpw sIm-≈-b-Sn-I-fpw \n-Xy-kw-`-h-ß-fm-bn-Øo-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p.a-t‰-sXm-cp cm-Py-tØ-°m-fpw Xm-c-X-tay-\ k-º-∂-am-bn-cp-∂ CuPn-]v-Xpw Cu s]m-Xp-hn-]-Øn¬ \n-∂pw c-£-s]-´n-√. kp¬-Øm≥ \m-kn¿ 1341 ¬ a-c-W-a-S-™-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn Xp-S-ßn-b Dƒ-t]m-cpw ÿm\m-tcm-l-W bp-≤-ß-fpw cm-Py-sØ A-cm-P-I-Xz-Øn-em-Wv sIm-s≠Øn-®-Xv. 1341 \pw 1351 \p-an-S-°v kp¬-Øm≥ \m-kn-dn-s‚ F-´p ]p-{X∑m¿ am-dn-am-dn `-c-W-km-c-Yyw h-ln-®p. ]-I-bpw ]-S-bpw aq-ew P-\߃-°v A-h-cp-sS sXm-gn-epw k-º-Øpw \-jv-S-s∏-´p. `-c-Wm-[n-]-∑mcn-ep-≈ hn-izm-kw P-\-߃-°v \-jv-S-am-Ip-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.C-h-s°m-s° a-Ip-Sw Nm¿-Øp-∂ a-s‰m-cm-]-Øpw Cu cm-Py-߃s°m-s° A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t°-≠-n h-∂p. Iq-\n-t∑¬-°p-cp-sh-∂v ]-dbm-dp-≈-Xv t]m-se, B-`y-¥-c-I-em-]-ß-fpw A-kzm-ÿy-hpw s]-cp-Inb Cu k-μ¿-`-Øn-em-Wv G-‰-hpw am-c-I-am-b ]-I¿-N-hym-[n Cu cmPy-ß-fn-sem-s° ]-c-∂-Xv.1348 se I-dp-Ø a-c-Ww F-∂ Ip-{]-kn-≤-am-b Cu kw-`-hw e£-°-W-°n-\p P-\-ß-sf sIm-s∂m-Sp-°n. U-a-kv-°-kn¬ H-cp Zn-hkw Np-cp-ßn-b-Xv B-bn-cw t]-sc-¶n-epw tπ-Kp-aq-ew a-cn-®n-cp-∂p-sh∂m-Wv C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. Km-k-bn¬ 1100 t]¿ Zn-\w-{]Xn a-cn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw sI-bv-tdm-hn-¬ H-cp- Zn-h-kw am-{Xw 21,000˛-Øn¬ Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cp-∂p- a-c-W-kw-Jy-sb-∂pw _-Øq-Ø Xp-S¿-s∂-gp-Xp-∂p. ]-I¿-N-hym-[n-bpw ]n-∂o-Sp-≠m-b ]-´n-Wn-bpw Iq-Sn a-[y-]u-c-kv-Xycm-Py-ß-sf ap-gp-s° sh-Æo-dm-°n am-‰n-. C-Xn-s‚ £o-Ww am-dp-∂Xn-\p- ap-ºp-X-s∂ Cu ]-I¿-N-hym-[n A-Xn-s‚ hn-j-∏-Øn H-∂p-IqSn ]-c-Øn Ip-Sn-e-\r-Øw N-hn-´n. A-Xn-s\m-c-\p-_-‘-sa-t∂m-Ww, a[y G-jy-bn-se G-‰-hpw ]-cm-{I-a-im-en-bpw c-‡-c-£-kp-am-b Xn-aqdn-s‚ B-{I-a-W-hpw A-s°m-√w X-s∂ (1381) Cu cm-Py-߃-°p IÆo-tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn I-≠p-\n¬-t°-≠-n h-∂p. U¬-ln- ap-X¬ U-a-kv-I-kv h-sc-bp-≈ C-kv-em-an-I kmw-kv-Im-cn-I tI-{μ-߃ ap-gp-s° Cu A{I-an Np-´p-I-cn-®v Nm-º-em-°n. am-{X-hp-a-√, \n-c-h-[n tNm-c-∏p-g-Iƒ CC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

46


hn-S-ß-fn-sem-gp-°p-I- Iq-Sn sN-bv-Xp. c-≠v `-b-¶-c-ß-fm-b ]-I¿-Nm tcm-K-߃-°pw A-Xn-\p- ap-ºp-≠m-bn-´p-≈ aw-tKm-fm-{I-a-W-Øn-\pw Iq-´m-bn sN-øp-hm≥ km-[n-®-Xn-t\-°mƒ ]-Xn-∑-S-ßv H-cp ap-kv-en-amb Cu c-‡-Zm-ln-°p X-s‚ kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-[m-c-bp-sS D-d-hn-Sw X-s∂ A-f-ap-´n-°p-hm≥ km-[n-®p F-∂-Xv N-cn-{Xm-h¿-Ø-\w am-{X-am-tWm? "kz-¥-w hm-fm¬ kz-bw sh-´n-a-cn-∏q a¿-Øy¿' F-∂-Xv -C-°m-cy-Øn¬ F-{X-tbm ]-c-am-¿-Y-am-Wv.cm-jv-{So-b-am-b Cu ]m-›m-Ø-e- hn-h-c-W-Øn-s‚ B-h-iyw _Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]p-kv-X-I-]m-cm-b-W-Øn-\m-h-iy-am-Wv. _-Øq-Ø ]p-ds∏-Sp-tºm-gp-≈ ap-kv-enw cm-Py-ß-fn-se ÿn-Xn-bpw A-Xp-I-gn-™v aS-ßn-sb-Øn-b-t∏m-gp-≈ A-h-ÿ-bpw F-¥p-am-{Xw am-\-kn-I-hy-Y _Øq-Ø-bn¬ D-≠m-°n-bn-cn-°-Ww. X-s‚ a-X-cm-jv-{So-b hn-izm-k-߃°v D-e-®n¬ X-´p-∂ k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ ITn-\-am-b i-Im-c-h¿-jw t]m-epw \-S-Øm≥ a-Sn-°m-Ø _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ B-I-∏m-sS-bp-≈ Cu X-I¿-® h-√m-Ø t£m-`-Øn-\pw A-kzm-ÿy-Øn-\pw C-Sw sIm-Sp-Øp-Im-Wpw. B-`y-¥-c-am-b sI-´p-d-∏n-√m-bv-a-bm-Wv {]-[m-\-am-bpw Cu cm-Py-ß-fnsem-s° ]-‰n-b X-I-cm-dv. a-s‰m-∂v _p-≤n-Po-hn-I-fp-sS A-`m-h-hpw kn≤-∑m-cpw tbm-Kn-I-fpw C-√m-Xm-b-Xp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. cm-Pm-°-∑m¿ X∂n-jv-S-°m-cm-bn am-dm-\p-≈ {]-[m-\-tl-Xp A-h-sc \n-b-{¥n-°m-t\m D-]-tZ-in-°m-t\m \n-kzm¿-Y-cpw {]-K-¤-cp-am-b ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS Ipd-hm-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°mw. _-Øq-Ø hm-Nm-e-am-bn-Ø-s∂ C-Ø-cw Im-cy߃ hy-h-l-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. F-∂m¬, _p-≤n-tI-{μ-am-b C-¥y-bn¬ Ckv-em-an-I tem-I-Øm-I-am-\-ap-≠m-b X-I¿-® A-\p-`-h-s∏-´n-s√-∂p am{X-a-√, Xp-•-°n-s‚ Im-e-ti-j-hpw C-hn-sS {I-am-\p-K-X-am-b D-Xv-I¿j-hpw D-b¿-®-bp-am-Wv D-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv. _-Øq-Ø hn-h-cn-°p-∂ cmPy-ß-fp-sS cm-jv-{So-b ]-›m-Ø-ew a-\- n-em-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv h-f-sc D-]-Im-c-{]-Z-am-Wv.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

47


5 km-aq-ly ssh-Ir-X-߃ _-Øq-Ø I-≠ tZ-i-ß-tf-bpw P-\-ß-tf-bpw Ip-dn-®v A-t±-lw \-ev-Ip-∂ hn-h-c-W-Øn¬ ap-¥n-\n¬-°p-∂-Xv A-Xm-Xp -cm-Py-Øv Xm≥ I-≠ kn-≤-∑m-cpw ssj-Jp-I-fpw k-\ym-kn-am-cp-am-bp-≈ X-s‚ C-S-]g-I-en-s\ Ip-dn-®m-Wv. C-Xn-\p {]-tXy-I Im-c-Wa-- p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø-bpsS a-X-ho-£-Ww {]-Xn-^-en-∏n-°p-∂-Xpw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-h-c-Wß-fn¬ ]-£-]m-X-]-c-am-b B-`n-Nm-c-hm-°p-Iƒ I-S-∂p-Iq-Sm-\n-S-h-cpØn-b-Xp-am-b ]-e kw-K-Xn-I-fp-≠v. _-Øq-Ø G-Xv `-c-Wm-[n-]-\pw h-f-sc \-√-h-\pw k¬-kz-`m-hn-bpw {]-Pm-X-ev-]-c-\pw H-s°-bm-sW-∂v ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-s‚ c-Xv-\-®p-cp-°w C-ß-s\ kw-{K-ln-°mw: B N-{I-h¿Øn ap-kv-enw a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-sc \n¿-tem-`w k-lm-bn-®n-cp-∂p. A-hcp-sS D-]-tZ-i-߃ B-cm-bp-I-bpw A-h-sc {]o-Wn-∏n-°m≥ th-≠n hn-e-s∏-´ k-Ωm-\-߃ \-ev-Ip-I-bpw D-b¿-∂ ]-Z-hn-Iƒ I-ev-]n-®p-sImSp-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p. ]p-d-ta A-h-c-{X-bpw bm-Ym-ÿn-Xn-I kp∂n-ap-k¬-am-∑m-cp-sS hn-`m-K-Øn¬ -s]-´-h-cp-am-bn-cn-°pw. G-sd-°p-sd G-sXm-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb-°p-dn-®pw _-Øq-Ø hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-∂-Xv Cu k-¶p-Nn-X a-X-ho-£-W-Øn¬ Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-s∂-∂v Im-Wmw. Cu CSp-ßn-b a-\x-ÿn-Xn Ip-d-s®m-∂p-a-√ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-h-c-W-ß-sf G-I-]-£o-b-am-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv. N-cn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ-°v ¢n-jv-S-X-c-hpw Zp-jv-I-c-hp-am-°n-Øo¿-Øn-´p-≠v _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Cu hn-`m-Ko-b Nn¥m-K-Xn. C-¥ym-N-cn-{X- {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-Øn¬ _-Øq-Ø-sb h-f-sc {i≤m-]q¿-h-ta ssI-Im-cyw sN-øm-hq F-∂v B-ap-J-am-bn ]-d-bm-\p-≈ Im-c-W-hpw C-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv. I-gn-™ A-[ym-b-Øn¬ C-kv-em-an-Item-I-Øv B-I-am-\-ap-≠m-b `u-Xn-I-hpw ]m-c-{Xn-I-hp-am-b X-I¿-®bp-sS Im-c-W-߃ \mw I-≠p. Cu kw-`-h-߃ ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{S-ßfn¬ A-Xp-h-sc ]p-e¿-Øn-t∏m-∂n-cp-∂ _p-≤n-]-c-am-b G-I-Xm-\-XC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

48


tb-bpw k-a-Xp-en-X- ÿn-Xn-hn-ti-j-tØ-bpw A-]-I-S-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-∂pw \mw {]-kv-Xm-hn-®-Xm-Wv. A-tX k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ U¬-ln-bn-te-°v A\p-kyq-Xw {]-h-ln-® ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw kq-^n-Zm¿-i-\n-I-cp-sa-√mw U¬ln-sb {]-[m-\ C-kv-em-an-I kmw-kv-Im-cn-I tI-{μ-am-°n-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂pw \mw t\-c-sØ {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-´p-≠v. A-ß-s\ hn-`n-∂m-Z¿-i-ß-fpw hn-hn-[ Nn-¥m-[m-c-I-fpw Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂ H-cp h-en-b ]-Wv-Un-X-k-aqlw U¬-ln-sb A-e-¶-cn-®n-cp-∂p. A-hn-tS-°m-Wv _-Øq-Ø I-S-∂ph-cp-∂-Xv. X-∑q-ew A-d-_n-tem-I-Øp \n-∂pw H-‰ -Xn-cn-s™-Øn-bmep-≠m-Ip-∂ h-en-b kzo-I-c-W-sam-∂pw Cu a-lm-]-Wv-Un-X-hyq-lw _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ A¿-∏n-®n-cn-°m-\pw C-S-bn-√. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v A-t±l-tØ-bpw _-lp-am-\n-®v Jm-kn-bp-sS ]-Z-hn \-ev-In-bn-cp-s∂-∂-Xv icn-X-s∂. ]-t£, hn-tZ-in-I-fm-b ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-sc B-I¿-jn-°m≥ th≠n kp¬-Øm≥ \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂ ]m-cn-tXm-jn-I-ß-fp-tS-bpw A-I-a-gn™ {]-iw-k-I-fp-tS-bpw A-cn-I-sØ-ßp-w _-Øq-Ø-bn-e¿-]n-® kvt\-lm-Z-c-hp-Iƒ F-Øp-I-bn-s√-∂-Xn-\v _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS- X-s∂ hn-iZo-I-c-Ww Xn-I-™ sX-fn-hm-Wv.G-‰-hpw Iq-Sp-X¬ ap-kv-enw ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw kn-≤-∑m-cpw Xp-•°v kp¬-Øm-s‚ Im-e-Øv Cu cm-Py-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\v ]-e Im-cW-ß-fp-≠v. H-∂m-a-Xm-bn, D-Zm-c-a-Xn-bpw A-dn-hv F-¥p -hn-e-sIm-SpØpw kzo-I-cn-°p-hm-\pw k-∂-≤-\m-bn-cp-∂p Zm¿-i-\n-I N-{I-h¿-Ønbm-b ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v. c-≠m-a-Xm-bn, C-kv-em-an-I cm-Py-ß-fn-ep-≠mb X-I¿-®-bpw X-∑q-e-ap-≠m-b ]-e ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS-bpw {]-bm-Whpw. aw-tKmƒ B-{I-a-W-ß-fpw tπ-Kv _m-[-bpw ap-kv-enw tI-{μ-ßsf ap-gp-s° X-I¿-Øp X-cn-∏-W-am-°n-b k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ Po-h-\pw sImt≠m-Sn-b ]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-Kw c-£m-tI-{μ-am-bn I-s≠-Øn-b-Xv U¬-lnsb B-bn-cp-∂p. 13˛mw \q-‰m-≠p ap-X¬ Xp-S-ßn-b Cu {]-hm-lw apl-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ B-I¿-j-I-\-bw sIm-≠v Iq-Sp-X¬ [-\y-am-bn. apkv-enw cm-Py-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw h-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-sc kp¬Øm≥ kzo-I-cn-®n-cp-∂ co-Xn-bpw A-h-cn¬ A¿-]n-®n-cp-∂ k-º-Øpw _-Øq-Ø h-f-sc {]-I-S-am-bn {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂p-≠v. A-\y-cm-Py-ßfn¬ \n-∂pw hn-⁄m-\n-I-sf A-c-a-\-I-fn-te-°v £-Wn-°p-hm≥ Xs‚ {]-Xn-]p-cp-j Im-cym-e-b-sØ kp¬-Øm≥ Np-a-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-bncp-∂p. \n-tXy-\-sb-t∂m-Ww h-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ C-h-sc F-√m-h-tc-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ kw-Xr-]v-X-cm-°n. -A-Xp-h-gn U¬-ln-sb tem-tIm-Ø-cam-b H-cp kmw-kv-Im-cn-I tI-{μ-am-°n- A-t±-lw am-‰n.A-°m-e-ß-fn¬ a-[y-]u-c-kv-Xy-cm-Py-ß-fn-se {K-Ÿ-Im-c-∑m¿ Ah-cp-sS ]p-kv-X-I-߃-°pw A-h¿-°pw Aw-Ko-Im-cw e-`n-°p-hm≥ BC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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{i-bn-®n-cp-∂ tI-{μ-hpw U¬-ln-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-kv-em-an-I Z¿-i-\-ßfn-tem kn-≤m-¥-ß-fn-tem G-sX-¶n-epw B-fp-Iƒ-°v kw-i-bw tXm∂p-∂p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xv Zp-co-I-cn-°m≥ Cu tI-{μ-ß-sfm-s° t\m-°nbn-cp-∂ ÿ-e-hpw U¬-ln-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A-ß-s\ \n-c-h-[n ]-Wv-Un-X∑m-cp-tS-bpw Zm¿-i-\n-I-∑m-cp-tS-bpw a-[y-Øn-te-°m-Wv _-Øq-Ø hcp-∂-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p- X-s∂-bm-Wv _-Øq-Ø-°v X-s‚ hy-‡n-Xzw F-Sp-Øp-Im-´m≥ km-[y-am-Im-Xn-cp-∂X - v. ssh-⁄m-\n-I a-WvU - e - Ø - n¬ hy-‡n-ap-{Z ] - X - n-® \n-ch - [ - n a-lm-∑m-cp-sS a-[y-Øn¬ _p-≤n-]c - a - m-bn Hcp a-[y-h¿-Øn-am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø. U¬-ln-bn¬ Xm-ak - n-®n-cp∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ km-ln-Xy-N-cn-{X kw-_-‘-am-b ]-cn-{i-a-ß-fn-sem∂pw _-Øq-Ø {i-≤ sN-ep-Øm-Xn-cp-∂X - v A-°m-cW - Ø - m-em-bn-cn-°mw.U¬-ln-bn-se _p-≤n-cm-£-k-cpw Xm-Xzn-I-cpw F-gp-Xn-°q-´n-b hen-b km-ln-Xy kw-`m-h-\-I-fn-sem-∂pw _-Øq-Ø ]-cm-a¿-in-°-s∏Sm-Xn-cn-°m-\p-≈ Im-cW - h - pw C-Xp X - s - ∂-bm-bn-cn-°W - w. Np-cp-°Ø - n¬ Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ s]-cp-∏n-®p ]-d-bp-∂ _p-≤n-ssh-`-h-tam hn⁄m-\u-Xv-kp-Iy-tam _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS F-gp-Øn¬ Im-Wp-∂n-s√-∂Xm-Wv ]-c-am¿-Yw. ap-l-Ω-Zv K-kv-\n-bp-sS Iq-sS C-¥y-bn¬ h-cn-I-bpw A-\-h-[n-Im-ew C-hn-sS Xm-a-kn-®v ssl-μ-h- Z¿-i-\-ß-fpw th-Z-ßfpw ]Tn-°p-I-bpw C-¥y-bn¬ \n-∂pw e-`n-°m-hp-∂ ]m-Wv-Un-Xyw apgp-s° k-ºm-Zn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X Nn-¥-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p A¬-_n-dq-\n. A-d-_n-tem-I-Øn-s‚ hn-⁄m-\-I-e-h-d-bn¬ I-cp-Øp-‰ ap-X¬-Iq-´p \-S-Øn-b A-t±-lw N-cn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ-s°-∂-√ Pn-⁄m-kp-hm-b G-sXm-cp K-th-j-I-\pw A-\¿-L-ß-fm-b A-dn-hn-s‚ hn-`-h-߃ hnf-ºn-Ø-∂ A-K-ay-{]-`m-h-\m-Wv. A-Xp-t]m-se X-s∂, ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•°n-s‚ Im-e-Øv C-hn-sS h-cn-I-bpw {K-Ÿ-c-N-\ \-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-bvXn-´p-≈ U¬-l-hn-bpw A¬ D-a-dn-bpw _-Z¿-Nm-®-bpw ap¬-Øm-\n-bpsam-s° {]-Xn-`m k-º-∂-cm-b a-l-Øp-°-fm-bn-cp-∂p. C-ß-s\-sb-√map-≈ \n-c-h-[n \n-]p-W-∑m-cp-sS a-[y-Øn¬ _-Øq-Ø B-cp-a-√m-Xncp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xn-¬ A-¤p-X-s∏-Sm-s\m-∂p-an-√.C-Xn-\p ]p-d-ta, ap-kv-enw ]-Wv-Un-X hn-`m-Kw h-f-sc-tb-sd A-hm¥-c-hn-`m-K-߃ kz-bw kr-jv-Sn-®n-cp-∂p. kp-∂n-˛-in-bm- hn-`m-K-߃ X-Ωn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ A-I-ev-N-bpw kw-L¿-j-hp-ap-≠m-hp-I ]-Xn-hm-bncp-∂p. F-hn-sS Iq-Sp-X¬ hn-Z-Kv-[-∑m¿ H-tc hn-j-bw ssI-Im-cyw sNøm-\p-≠m-Ip-tam \n-›-b-am-bpw A-hn-sS Iq-Sp-X¬ kw-L¿-j-hpw ]m¿´n-I-fpw D-≠m-hp-I kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-ß-s\ U¬-ln-bn¬ h-∂pIq-Sn-b a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿ X-Ωn¬ X-Ωn¬ tN-cn-Xn-cn-hpw h-°m-Whpw \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂ Im-e-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø-bp-tS-Xv. a-X-]-WvC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Un-X-∑m-cn¬ \n-∂m-Wv Jm-kn-I-sf (P-Uv-Pn) Xn-c-s™-Sp-Øn-cp-∂-Xv. F-∂m¬, `u-Xn-Im¿-`m-S-ß-fn-tem eu-In-I-kp-J-ß-fn-tem C-S-]-g-ImsX k-\ym-k-hpw [ym-\-hp-am-bn I-gn-™n-cp-∂ a-lm-∑m-cm-b H-cp-hn`m-Kw kn-≤-∑m-cpw kq-^n-I-fpw Cu Im-e-L-´-Øn-se ap-kv-enw k-aql-Øn¬ \n¿-Wm-b-I-ÿm-\w h-ln-®n-cp-∂p. kq-^o k-\ym-kn-I-fpw a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw ]-e Im-cy-ß-fn-epw hn-tbm-Pn-∏n-em-bn-cp-∂p. c≠m-a-sØ Iq-´¿ cm-Py-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ C-S-s]-Sp-I-bpw D-tZym-K-߃ kzoI-cn-°p-I-bpw eu-In-I-kp-J-ku-I-cy-ß-sf hn-e-sh-°p-I-bpw sN-bvX-t∏mƒ B-Zy-sØ Iq-´¿ A-h-sb \n-cm-I-cn-°p-I-bpw G-Im-¥-Po-hnX-hpw X-t]m-hr-Øn-bpw Po-hn-X-{h-X-am-bn kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bvXp-. C-Xn-\p-]p-d-ta, A-¤p-X-I-c-ß-fm-b am-kv-a-c-hn-Zy-Iƒ Im-´n a-\pjy-sc A-‘m-fn-∏n-°p-I-bpw km-[m-c-W-°m¿-°v hn-kv-a-b-hpw `-b-`‡n-bpw A-¶p-cn-∏n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂ ssi-Jp-I-fpw kn-≤-∑m-cpw A-°m-eØ - v H-t´-sd A-[n-hk - n-®n-cp-∂p. A-hc - p-sS B-cm-[y-kw-Lß - ƒ C-h-cp-sS a-c-W-ti-jw tZ-hm-e-b-߃ ]-Wn-Xv ]q-P-bpw t\¿-®-bpw \-S-Øp-I ]-Xn-hm-Wv. A-Ø-cw kn-≤-∑m-cp-sS i-h-Ip-So-c-߃ C-∂pw Xo¿-Ym-S-\-tI-{μ-ß-fm-Wv. hn-{K-lm-cm-[-\-bp-sS ]-cn-[n-h-sc \o-ßp-∂ Cu {]-h-W-X-sb A-tß-b-‰w F-Xn¿-°p-I F-∂-Xv bm-Ym-ÿn-Xn-I hn-izm-kn-I-ƒ A-h-cp-sS I¿-Ø-hy-am-bn I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂p. X-∑q-ew, ]Wv-Un-X hn-`m-K-hpw kq-^n-k-\ym-kn hn-`m-K-hpw X-Ωn¬ kw-L-´-\߃ ]-e-t∏m-gpw \-S-∂n-´p--≠v. ]-t£, hn-kv-a-b-I-c-am-b A-Xn-i-b߃ Im-Wn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ Cu tbm-Ko-h-cy-∑m¿-°v km-[m-c-W P-\ß-fp-sS ]n-¥p-W h¿-[n-®p- h-∂-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn ap-kv-enw ]p-tcm-ln-X- ]Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°v C-h-cp-am-bn k-‘n-sN-øm-sX \n¿-Δm-l-an-s√-∂m-bn.A-ß-s\ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Im-e-am-b-t∏m-tg-°pw ap-kv-enw ]u-tcmln-Xy-hpw kq-^n-Zm¿-i-\n-I-cpw X-Ωn¬ G-I-tZ-iw H-cp {]-Xn-]-£_-lp-am-\-tØm-f-sa-Øp-∂ _-‘w \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂p. Xp-d-∂ kw-L-´\-߃ an-°-hm-dpw H-gn-hm-°-s∏-´p. C-Xn-s\m-s° ]p-d-ta kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cn¬ ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw Zm¿-i-\n-I-cn¬ Zm¿-i-\n-I\p-am-bn-cp-∂p. X-∑q-ew ]-g-©≥ ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s‚ ap-c-Sn-® `m-jysam-∂pw A-t±-lw sN-hn-s°m-≠n--√. D-Zm-Ø-am-b H-cm-Z¿-i-tem-I-sØ kz-]v-\w I-≠n-cp-∂ B am-Xr-Im N-{I-h¿-Øn a-\p-jy-cp-sS ssZ-hn-I{]-I-S-\-ß-fn¬ hn-{`-an-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂n-√. A-ß-s\ ap-kv-enw ]-Wv-Un-X-hn-`m-K-Øn¬-s]-´ F-√m B-fp-I-fp-tS-bpw ]-gn-°p hn-t[-b\m-tI-≠ K-Xn-tI-Sv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-\p-≠m-bn. A-Xm-Wv C-∂pw N-cn{X-Øn-s‚ Xm-fp-I-fn¬ k-l-Xm-]m¿-l-\m-bn G-‰-hpw Iq-Sp-X¬ sX‰n-≤-cn-°-s∏-´v A-t±-lw Im-Wp-∂-Xv. _-Øq-Ø-bpw Cu s]m-Xp-kzC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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`m-h-Øn-\v H-c-]-hm-Z-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. ]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-K-Øn¬ s]-´ A-t±lw a-‰p a-X-{`m-¥-∑m-cp-sS C-Sp-ßn-b Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°v hn-t[-b-\m-Ip-Ibpw kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ I-cn-tX-°p-∂-Xn¬ kz-¥w ]-¶p- \n¿h-ln-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p-≠v. Ip-Sp- m-b Cu ]p-tcm-ln-X-hr-Ø-Øn¬ \n-∂pw I-S-∂p-h-cm≥ _-Øq-Ø-°v A-km-[y-am-bn-cp-∂p. Im-c-Ww At±-lw X-s∂ a-X-{`m-¥-∑m-cp-sS A-k-ln-jv-Wp-X-°v t{]m-’m-l-\w \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂ A-h-cp-sS {]m-tW-Xm-hm-Wv.]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-K-Øn-s‚ kw-L-Sn-X-am-b F-Xn¿-∏m-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp•-°n-\v t\-cn-tS-≠-n h-∂ hn-]-Øv. kp¬-Øm≥ k-I-e a-X-ß-tf-bpw am-\n-°p-I-bpw F-√m kw-kv-Im-c-ß-tf-bpw hn-e- sh-°p-I-bpw sN-bvXn-cp-∂ a-lm-a-\-kv-I-\m-Wv. hn-hn-[ kw-kv-Im-c-ß-fp-sS k-¶-e-\-Øn\p-th-≠n B-in-°p-I-bpw a-l-Ø-c-am-b B \-thm-Ym-\-Øn-\p t\Xr-Xzw sIm-Sp-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-I-aq-ew ap-kv-enw ]u-tcm-ln-Xyw A-t±l-Øn-s\-Xn-sc ]-S-hm-sf-Sp-Øp. a-dp-h-i-Øv kq-^n-k-\ym-kn-I-fpw kn≤-∑m-cpw eu-In-I-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw hn-c-‡-cm-bn I-gn-™p-Iq-Sn. F-∂m¬ A-h-cp-sS {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ km-[m-c-W P-\-ß-sf cm-P-hm-gv-Ns°-Xn-sc k-a-c-k-∂-≤-cm-°pw hn-[-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p. ]p-d-ta am-kv-a-cnI-hn-Zy-I-fpw A-¤p-X-ß-fpw Im-´n A-h¿ A¿-[-ssZ-h-ß-fm-bn `m-hn°p-I Iq-Sn sN-bv-Xp. C-Ø-cw [m-cm-fw k-\ym-kn-am-cp-sS ho-c-Ir-Xyß-tf-bpw hn-kv-a-b-P-\y-am-b {]-hr-Øn-I-tf-bpw _-Øq-Ø A-Xn-ibw tXm-∂p-∂-hn-[w A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. C-h¿ kp¬-Øm-s‚ I-ev]-\-Iƒ [n-°-cn-°p-I-am-{X-a-√, A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf-s°m-≠v A-h A-\pk-cn-∏n-°m-Xn-cn-°m-\pw {i-≤n-®n-cp-∂p. Np-cp-°-Øn¬ Cu c-≠p hn`m-Kw ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-sc-s°m-≠pw th-≠-Xn-te-sd D-]-{Z-h-hpw {]-bmk-hpw `-c-W-]-c-am-b Im-cy-ß-fn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-\v t\-cn-tS≠-Xm-bn- h-∂n-´p-≠v. cm-Py-Xm-ev-]-cyw h-ep-Xm-bn I-W-°m-°n-bn-cp∂ I¿-Ø-hy-\n-c-X-\m-b kp¬-Øm≥ Cu c-≠p hn-`m-Kw ap-kv-enw ]Wv-Un-X-∑m-tc-bpw \n-e-°p \n¿-Øm≥ {i-an-®p. ap-kv-enw ]p-tcm-ln-Xcm-I-am-\w kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-sc k-Zm-k-a-b-hpw k-a-c-k-∂-≤-am-bn-cp-∂p F-∂v k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn F-gp-Xp-∂p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø ]p-tcm-ln-X-h¿-K-Øn¬-s∏-´ B-fpw Cu hn-`m-K-Øns‚ k-¥-X-k-l-Nm-cn-bpw {]-ap-J-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p. X-∑q-ew _-Øq-Ø kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\-°p-dn-®v hn-h-cn-°p-∂-X-{X-bpw ]-I-bpw hntZz-j-hpw aq-e-am-Wv. C-Xv Xn-cn-®-dn-bm-Ø-Xm-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v C∂pw {`m-¥-\m-bn \n¬-°p-hm≥ Im-c-Ww.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS tZ-im-S-\-Øn-\n-S-°v ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{S-ßfn-em-I-am-\w kw-`-hn-® cm-jv-{So-b-˛-km-º-Øn-I X-I¿-N-bp-sS Im-cC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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W-ß-sf kw-_-‘n-®p hn-hc-- n-°p-hm≥ ap≥ A-[ym-b-ß-fn¬ {i-an-®n´p-≠v. A-{X-bpw X-s∂ {]m-[m-\yw ap-kv-enw km-aq-ln-I k-{º-Zm-bØn¬ h-∂ am-‰-߃-°pw I-ev-]n-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-hm≥ X-øm-dm-tI-≠Xm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]p-Xn-b H-cp a-X-hpw H-cp cm-jv-{S-hpw ÿm-]n-°m≥ am-{X-a-√ {]-hm-N-I-\p km-[n-®-Xv. G-‰-hpw a-l-Øm-b km-aq-ln-I hnπ-h-Øn-s‚ th-en-tb-‰-Øn¬ ]-g-b-Xn-\v D-∑q-e-\m-iw h-cp-Øn \-ho\-am-b H-cp ]p-Ø≥ k-aq-l-sØ k-a-Xz-kp-μ-c-am-bn kw-hn-[m-\w sNøm-≥ I-gn-™p F-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p B h-en-b hn-P-bw. C-¥y-bn¬ PmXn-k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-\pw km-aq-ln-I-am-b a-‰-\-h-[n A-\o-Xn-Iƒ-°pw FXn-cm-bn tIm-fn-f-°w kr-jv-Sn-® _u-≤-ap-\n-°p k-am-\-am-Wv B {]hm-N-I≥. A-td-_y-bn¬ \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂ tKm-{X-h¿-K- kw-L-´-\-sØ C-√m-bv-a- sN-bv-Xv H-cp \-√ km-aq-ly k-{º-Zm-bw s\-bv-sX-Sp-Ø {]hm-N-I≥ \q-X-\-am-b H-cp {]-kv-Ym-\-Øn-s‚ {]-tW-Xm-hp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. F-∂m¬ Im-e-∏-g-°-Øm¬ G-sXm-cp kw-K-Xn-bn-epw hy-Xym-k-߃ I-S-∂p-Iq-Sp-I ss\-k¿-Kn-I-am-Wv. A-Xv C-kv-em-an-I k-{º-Zm-b-ß-fnepw kw-`-hn-®p. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Im-e-am-b-t∏m-tg-°pw ]-e A-\m-Nmc-ß-fp-w C-kv-em-an-I hn-izm-k-Øn-s‚ `m-Ka-- m-bn- Xo¿-∂n-cp-∂p. k-aXz-hpw km-tlm-Z-cy-hpw {]-tLm-j-Ww sN-bv-Xv A-Xp-h-sc I-≠n-´n√m-Ø \-√ H-cp hy-h-ÿ kr-jv-Sn-® C-kv-em-an-Im-th-iw sI-´-S-ßm≥ Xp-S-ßn-. F-∂p-am-{X-a-√, kzm¿-Y-a-Xn-I-fm-b cm-Pm-°-∑m-cp-tS-bpw {]`p-°-∑m-cp-tS-bpw ssI-øn¬ A-h-cp-sS ku-I-cy-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp∂-Xpw F-fp-∏w hn-e-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xp-am-b H-cp \-thym-]-I-c-W-am-bn- a-Xw am-dn. ]u-tcm-ln-Xyw C-kv-emw Aw-Ko-I-cn-®n-cp-∂n-√. Hm-tcm ap-kv-enapw A-h-\-h-s‚ X-s∂ ]p-tcm-ln-X-\m-Wv. a-X-im-k-\-Iƒ ]p-tcm-lnX h¿-Kw hn-I-e-am-°m-Xn-cn-°m-\p-≈ ap≥-I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ H-s° X-I-cpI-bpw ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-an-√m-Ø C-kv-em-an¬ ]p-tcm-ln-X-∑m¿-°v {]m-[m\yw h-cn-I-bpw sN-bv-X k-μ¿-`-am-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. A-\-h-[n A-\m-Nm-c߃ hn-izm-km-\p-jvTm-\-ß-fp-sS `m-K-am-bn-Ø-s∂ C-gp-In-t®-¿-∂p. \-ap-°n-∂v B-›-cyw tXm-∂p-∂ ]-e Im-cy-ß-fpw km-[m-c-Wo-I-cn-®v _-Øq-Ø {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-tºmƒ, C-°m-cy-߃ Hm¿-a-bn-ep-s≠-¶n¬ Ip-sd {]-bm-k-߃ Ip-d-bp-sa-∂-Xv \n-›-b-am-Wv.A-tX k-μ¿-`-Øn¬, a-X-am-bn-cp-∂p -tem-I-sØ-ºm-Sp-ap-≈- ap-kvenw-I-sf ssh-Im-cn-I-am-bn G-tIm-]n-∏n-®n-cp-∂ L-S-Iw. a-X-Øn-s‚ kzm-[o-\-X- X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p tem-I-Øp-≈ F-√m ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°pw s]m-Xp-hm-b H-cm-i-b-hn-\n-a-b- `m-j-°v C-Sw sIm-Sp-Ø-Xv. A-d-_n-`mj-°v tem-Im-[n-]-Xyw e-`n-°m-\n-S-h-∂-Xpw C-Xp-sIm-≠v X-s∂-bmbn-cp-∂p. A-Xp-t]m-se, Zm-b-{I-a-Øn-s‚ Im-cy-Øn-epw Po-hn-X-ØnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

53


se a-s‰-√m hy-h-lm-c-ß-fn-epw a-X-im-k-\-I-fpw \n-b-a-ß-fp-am-bn-cp∂p F-ßpw B-N-cn-®p- -t]m-∂n-cp-∂-Xv. C-Xn-s\-√mw ]p-d-ta km¿-heu-In-I -km-tlm-Z-cy-sa-∂ D-Zm-Ø-am-b B-Z¿-iw ap-kv-enw- P-\-X-bpsS D-Zv-{K-Y-\-Øn-\v D-t]m¬-_-e-I-hp-am-bn-Øo¿-∂p. Np-cp-°-Øn¬ kºq¿-W-sa-∂p ]-d-bm-hp-∂ Po-hn-X-hy-h-ÿ-bpw A-h-°v \n-bm-a-I-amb im-k-\-I-fpw \n-km-c-am-bn tXm-∂m-hp-∂ kw-K-Xn-I-fn¬-°q-Sn-bpw ^-e-h-Øm-bn {]m-h¿-Øn-I-am-°n-b-t∏mƒ a-X-hpw a-\p-jy-\pw A-hn`m-Py-amw-h-Æw H-∂m-bn-Øo¿-∂p. A-t∏mƒ \o-°p-t]m-°n-\pw hy-‡nI-fp-sS hm-k-\-°pw hn-t[-b-am-bn am-‰-ß-fpw A-b-hp-I-fpw h-cn-I kzm`m-hn-I-am-W-t√m. A-ß-s\ F-√m-am-bn-cp-∂ a-Xw Im-e-{I-a-Øn¬ "]men¬ sh-≈w tN¿-Øp tN¿-Øv sh-≈-Øn¬ ]m-ep tN¿-Øm'e-sØ ÿn-Xn- h-sc F-Øn-b k-μ¿-`-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv _-Øq-Ø-°v Cu h-I km-aq-ln-I ssh-I-ey-ß-sf X-s‚ ]u-tcmln-Xy-`m-jy-Øn-\p tIm-´w X-´m-sX X-s∂ ku-I-cy-am-bn \n¿-tem-`w A-\p-`-hn-°m-s\m-Ø-Xv.Np-cp-°-Øn¬ a-[y-Im-e ap-kv-enw k-ap-Zm-bw B-N-cn-®n-cp-∂ kmaq-ly-ssh-Ir-X-ß-sf C-kv-em-an-I im-k-\-ß-fp-sS `m-K-am-bn \ym-boI-cn-°m-\pw A-h ku-I-cy-]q¿-hw A-\p-`-hn-°m-\pw ]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-Kw X-øm-dm-bn. A-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn C-kv-emw X-s∂ sX-‰n-≤-cn-°-s∏-´p. A-Xn-s‚ A-\p-jvTm-\-ß-sf Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw tbm-Pn-®-hn-[w A-Xn`m-hp-I-Xzw \-ev-In {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-I-Iq-Sn sN-bv-Xp. hn-a-X-kv-Y-cm-b Fgp-Øp-Im-cpw k-t¥m-j-]q¿-Δw A-\p-jvTn-®-Xv Cu ]-Wn-bm-Wv. Aß-s\ hn-hm-l-tØ-bpw hn-hm-l-tam-N-\-tØ-bpw A-Sn-a-I-tf-bpw sh∏m-´n-I-tf-bpw H-s° kw-_-‘n-® _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]-cm-a¿-i-߃ AXn-i-tbm-‡n-bm-bn-´v H-cp-]-t£ C-∂p tXm-∂p-sa-¶n-epw A-°m-e-Øv \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ Im-cy-ß-ƒ X-s∂-bm-Wv.D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn, _-Øq-Ø-°v U¬-ln- kp¬-Øm-s‚ k-Ωm-\ß-fn¬ ]-Øv ]-cn-Nm-c-I-∑m-cp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v A-t±-lw Ip-dn-°p∂p-≠v. C-¥y-bn-se Xm-a-k-Øn-\n-S-°v ]-e hn-hm-l-ß-fpw I-gn-®-Xmbn A-t±-lw F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. B-Zy-`m-cy-am-sc-°p-dn-t®m A-h-cn-ep≠m-tb-°m-hp-∂ Ip-´n-I-sf kw-_-‘n-t®m _-Øq-Ø \n-i-_v-Z-\mWv. \n-›-b-am-bpw A-h-sc-√m-h-cpw H-cp k-a-b-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°bn-√. hn-hm-l-tam-N-\-hpw hn-hm-l-hp-sam-s°-bm-bn I-W-°n-te-sd FØn-® _-Øq-Ø B Im-e-L-´-Øn-se km-aq-ly-ssh-Ir-X-Øn-s‚ Po-h-\p-≈ ]n-d-hn-bm-Wv.H-tc k-a-b-Øv \m-ev `m-cy-am-sc H-∏w ]p-e¿-Øp-hm-\pw A-{Xtbm A-Xn-te-sd-tbm sh-∏m-´n-I-sf kq-£n-°p-hm-\pw G-sXm-cp apC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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kv-en-an-\pw a-X-]-c-am-bn-Ø-s∂ A-h-Im-i-ap-s≠-∂v ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-thZn-bn-te-°p-b¿-∂p-h-∂ a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿ ku-I-cy-]q¿-hw {]-N-cn-∏n®-Xv C-kv-em-an-I im-k-\-bp-sS B-flm-hn-s\-Ø-s∂ I-c-≠p-Xn-∂p-∂ {]-hr-Øn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]-t£, _-Øq-Ø-tbm-sSm-∏-ap-≈-h¿-°v C-Øcw \n-b-a-߃ X-ß-fp-sS Zp-jv-{]-hr-Øn-bp-sS \ym-bo-I-c-W-Øn-\m-hiy-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]-e-bn-S-ß-fn-epw _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ kp-μ-cn-I-fm-b ASn-a-s]¨-sIm-Sn-I-sf-°p-dn-®pw `m-cy-am-cm-bn kzo-I-cn-®n-cp-∂ C-¥y≥ ku-μ-cy-[m-a-ß-sf-°p-dn-®pw Ip-sd-sbm-s° A-`n-am-\-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn- ]cm-a¿-in-°p-∂p-≠v. k-Zm-Nm-c- k-∑m¿-Km-h-t_m-[-sØ ]-®-bm-bn A]-l-kn-°p-∂p-sh-∂v C-∂v \-ap-°v tXm-∂n-tb-°m-hp-∂ A-Ø-cw {]kv-Xm-h-߃, I-gn-®- `-£-W-]m-\o-b-ß-sf-°p-dn-®v H-cmƒ ]-d-bp-∂Xn-e-[n-I-am-bn H-cp {]-tXy-I-X-bpw A-°m-e-Øv I-ev-]n-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂p≈-Xm-Wv ]-c-am¿-Yw. F-√m tbm-Ky-∑m-cpw Cu A-h-ÿm-hn-ti-j-sØ B-thm-f-am-kz-Zn-®n-´p-≈-h-cm-Wv. cm-Pm-hpw {]-`p-hpw ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw ]ma-c-\pw F-√mw X-s∂ Im-e-Øn-s‚ Cu tIm-ew sI-´-en¬ A-h-c-h-cpsS `m-Kw h-f-sc X-∑-b-Xz-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn A-`n-\-bn-®n-cp-∂p- F-∂m-Wv \mw a-\- n-em-°p-∂-Xv. A-t∏mƒ Cu km-aq-ln-I A-\m-Nm-c-߃ Ckv-em-an-I hn-izm-k-{]-am-W-Øn-s‚ `m-K-am-sW-∂v h-cp-Øp-I a-X-]Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpƒ-s∏-sS C-Xn-s\ Xm-tem-en-®n-cp-∂-h¿-°v A-\n-hm-cy-ambn h-∂ K-Xn-tI-Sm-bm-Wv \mw Im-Wp-∂-Xv.a-s‰m-cp km-aq-ln-I k-hn-ti-j-X A-Sn-a-hym-]m-cw A-`w-Kp-cw F√m \m-Sp-I-fn-epw \-S-am-Sn-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂-Xm-Wv. tem-I-sØ-ºm-Spw ASn-a-k-{º-Zm-bw \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂p. G-Xp-X-cw km-[-\-hpw ]-W-ap-s≠¶n¬ s]m-Xp-hn-]-Wn-bn¬ \n-∂v e-`n-°p-∂-Xp t]m-se G-Xp-X-cw a\p-jy-tc-bpw-˛B - W - n-t\-bpw s]-Æn-t\-bpw-˛t- em-IØ - p-≈ F-√m I-tºmf-ß-fn-epw hn-ev-]-\ N-c-°n-s‚ Iq-´-Øn¬ e-`y-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu A-Sna-I-sf c-£n-°m-\pw in-£n-°m-\p-ap-≈ A-h-Im-iw b-P-am-\-∑m¿-°mbn-cp-∂p. A-h-cp-sS ssI-h-i-ap-≈ A-Sn-a-I-sf kz-Øp `m-Kn-s®-Sp-°p∂ Iq-´-Øn¬ A-h-Im-in-Iƒ ho-Xn-s®-Sp-°p-I ]-Xn-hm-Wv. A-dp-]-Xv, F-gp-]-Xp sIm-√w ap-ºp h-sc tI-c-f-Øn¬ t]m-epw Cu k-{º-Zm-bw \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂-Xn-\v sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v. (`m-Km-[m-c-tØm-sSm-∏w A-Sn-aI-tf-bpw ho-Xn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈ hn¬-]-{X-߃ Rm≥ I-≠n-´p-≠v.-) C-{X-bpw X-d-∏n-®p ]-d-bp-∂-Xv tem-I-sØ-√m-bn-S-Øpw ^yq-U¬ k{º-Zm-b-tØm-sSm-∏w h-f¿-∂p-h-∂ H-cp ÿm-]-\-am-Wv A-Sn-a hy-hÿ-sb-∂v kq-Nn-∏n-°m-\m-Wv.F-∂m¬, C-kv-emw k-a-Xz-km-tlm-Z-cy-Øn-s‚ A-Sn-Ø-d ]m-In. A-Sn-a-bpw D-S-a-bpw X-Ωn¬ km-aq-ly-cm-jv-{So-b Im-cy-ß-fn-sem-∂pw C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

55


bm-sXm-cp G-‰-°p-dn-®n-epw C-kv-emw Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p--∂n-√. X-∑q-ew Ckv-em-an-se A-Sn-a-k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-\v a-‰p \m-Sp-I-fn-te-Xp-am-bn [m-cm-fw hy-Xym-k-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. A-Sn-a-I-sf kz-X-{¥-am-°p-∂-Xv G-‰-hpw hen-b ]p-Wy-I¿-a-am-bn Jp¿-B-\pw {]-hm-N-I-\pw D¬-tLm-j-Ww sNbv-Xp. A-Sn-a-I-sf hm-ßn kq-£n-®n-´p-≈-h¿-°v bm-sXm-cp-h-I Ip-d-hpI-fpw A-Xp-aq-ew k-aq-lw I-W-°m-°n-bn-cp-∂n-√. am-{X-a-√, I-gn-hp≈ A-Sn-a-Iƒ b-P-am-\-s‚ Ip-Spw-_-hp-am-bn hn-hm-l-_-‘-Øn-te¿s]-Sp-I-bpw km-aq-ly- B-tLm-j-ß-fn¬ kz-X-{¥-hy-‡n-I-sf t]mse k-k-t¥m-jw kw-_-‘n-°p-∂-Xpw km-[m-c-W-am-bn-cp-∂p. C-¥ybn-se H-cp h-en-b cm-P-hw-i-Øn-s‚ ÿm-]-I-cpw A-Xn-se {]-[m-\s∏-´ kp¬-Øm-∑m-cpw A-Sn-a-I-fm-bn-cp-∂p-. C-°m-cyw Iq-Sn ]-cn-K-Wn°p-tºmƒ A-i-c-W-cpw A-\m-Y-cp-am-b Ip-´n-Iƒ-°v A-h-cp-sS hm-k\-sb hn-I-kn-∏n-°p-hm-\pw I-gn-hn-s\m-Øp-b-cp-hm-\pw km-[n-®n-cp-∂ H-cp-]m-[n-bm-bn-cp-∂p C-kv-em-an-se A-Sn-a-hy-h-ÿ-sb-∂v Im-Wmw.F-∂m¬, Cu ÿm-]-\-hpw Im-e-∏-g-°-Øn¬ A-[x-]-Xn-°p-Ibp-≠m-bn. k-a-Xz-km-tlm-Z-cyw sh-dpw H-cm-i-bw am-{X-am-bn-Øo¿-∂p. X-d-hm-´p a-l-Xz-hpw h¿-K-a-ln-a-bpw ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°n-S-bn¬ h-en-b s]mcp-Ø-t°-Sp-≠m-°n. A-Sn-a-Iƒ G-sd-°p-sd A-Sn-a-Iƒ X-s∂-bm-bnØo¿-∂n-cp-∂p. C-ß-s\ Cu k-{º-Zm-b-hpw A-[x-]-Xn-∏n-® k-μ¿-`am-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-a-bw. F-{X A-Sn-a-I-sf th-W-sa-¶nepw B¿-°pw hm-ßm-am-bn-cp-∂p. ÿm-h-c-Pw-K-a-h-kv-Xp-°ƒ-°v kaw A-h-sc {I-b-hn-{I-bw sN-øp-I-tbm C-jv-Sm-\p-kr-Xw ssI-Im-cyw sN-øp-I-tbm sN-øm≥ ]-‰p-am-bn-cp-∂p. sh-dpw D-]-t`m-‡r -h-kv-Xp-°fm-bn am-{Xw a-\p-jy≥ X-cw Xm-gv-∂ k-a-b-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p C-Xv. C-kvem-an-Im-i-b-Øn-s‚ Po-h≥ A-ß-s\ kzm¿-Y-tam-ln-I-fm-b a-X-]-WvUn-X-∑m-cp-sS Ip-Sp- m-b a-\- n-s‚ Ip-cp-°n¬ In-S-∂v ]n-S-™p. H-‰ a-X-t\-Xm-hpw [m¿-an-I-am-b Cu A-t[m-K-Xn-s°-Xn-cm-bn Nq-≠p-hn-c¬ D-b¿-Øn-bn-cp-∂n-√. F-∂p-am-{X-a-√, I-gn-hp-≈n-S-tØm-fw Cu kp-Jku-I-cy-߃ B-kz-Zn-°p-I-bm-Wv sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂-Xv. B-flo-b-\n¿-hrXn F-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ a-X-sØ `u-Xn-Im-\-μ-Øn-s‚ ^-e-h-Øm-b D]m-[n-bm-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂ ]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-Kw sNbv-X-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p X-s∂-bm-Wv F-hn-sS-bm-bm-epw A-hn-sS-\n-∂pw s]-Æp-sI-´p-hm-\pw A-Sn-a-s]¨-In-Sm-ß-sf B-thm-fw \p-I-cp-hm-\pw Xm-Sn-bpw X-e-∏m-hpw [-cn-®v ]u-tcm-ln-Xy th-j-hn-[m-\-hpw A-Wn™p \-S-∂n-cp-∂ _-Øq-Ø-°pw \n-jv-{]-bm-kw km-[n-®-Xv.C-Xn-s\m-s° a-Ip-Sw Nm¿-Øp-∂ a-s‰m-cp k-{º-Zm-b-am-bn-cp-∂p A-c-a-\-I-fn-epw {]-`p h-k-Xn-I-fn-epw H-c-e-¶m-c-sa-t∂m-Ww kq-£nC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

56


®n-cp-∂ kv-{Xo-Iƒ. C-h¿ Xm-a-kn-®n-cp-∂ sIm-´m-c-s°-´n-s\ l-cw(A¥x-]p-cw) F-∂m-Wv hn-ti-jn-∏n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. Hm-tcm cm-Pm-hpw {]-`p-hpw X-ß-fp-sS ]-Z-hn \n¿-W-bn-®n-cp-∂-Xv A-h-cp-sS l-c-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS F-Æ-sØ I-W-°m-°n-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-°m-cyw Iq-SpX¬ hn-i-Z-am-t°-≠ k-μ¿-`-ap-≈-Xp-sIm-≠v C-hn-sS A-Xn-\p Xp-\nbp-∂n-√. Cu kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\pw kq-£n-∏n-\p-sam-s°-bm-bn H-cp-]-‰w j-Wv-U-∑m-sc B-bn-cp-∂p \n-tbm-Kn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. \-ap-°v ssewKn-I ssh-Nn-{X-am-bn tXm-∂m-hp-∂ Cu \-]pw-k-I-߃ Hm-tcm sIm´m-c-Øn-epw {]-`p -`-h-\-Øn-epw A-\-h-[n-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. A-Sn-a-°-tºmf-Øn¬ G-‰-hpw hn-e -Iq-Sn-b a-\p-jy-h-kv-Xp j-Wv-U-\m-bn-cp-∂p. ssii-h-{]m-b-Øn¬ X-s∂ hr-j-W-߃ D-S-®v h-f-cp-tºm-tg-°pw ssewKn-Im-k-‡n-bn-√m-Ø H-cp X-cw a-\p-jy-sc kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂ Cu k-{ºZm-bw D-gp-hm-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ Im-f-I-sf "I-∏m-kn-Sp-∂' co-Xn-°p ka-am-bn-cp-∂p. {Iq-c-am-bn tXm-∂m-sa-¶n-epw A-°m-e-L-´-Øn¬ C-°q´¿-°m-Wv Iq-Sp-X¬ hn-e I-tºm-f-ß-fn¬ e-`n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. A-Xn-\p Imc-Ww b-P-am-\-∑m-tcm-Sv Iq-dpw hn-iz-kv-X-X-bpw C-h¿-°-[n-I-am-bn-cn°p-sa-∂-Xpw a-s‰m-cp X-c-Øn-epw A-h-cp-sS {i-≤ kzm¿-Y-X-bn-te-°v Xn-cn-bp-I-bn-√- F-∂-Xp-am-bn-cp-∂p. s]-Æn-\pw s]m-∂n-\pw th-≠n Zml-an-√m-Ø C-°q-´¿-°v Po-hn-X-e-£yw X-s‚ b-P-am-\-s\ tk-hn-°pI-sb-∂-Xp am-{X-am-Wv. C-Ø-cw Iq-´-sc-bm-Wv l-c-Øn-s‚ Im-h¬°m-cm-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv. t`m-Km-k-‡-\m-b H-cp-Ø-\v A-h-s‚ hn-t\m-Z-amb amw-k-Zm-l-Øn-\v km-aq-ln-Imw-Ko-Im-cw C-Xn¬ I-hn-™v e-`n-t°≠-Xp-t≠m? C-kv-em-an-s\-∏-‰n ÿm-\-Øpw A-ÿm-\-Øpw B-t{Imiw \-S-Øp-∂ a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿ Xp-S-ßn km-[m-c-W hn-izm-kn-h-sc C-Ø-cw ssew-Kn-I A-cm-P-I-Xz-tØ-tbm ssh-Ir-X-ß-tf-tbm A-]e-]n-®-Xm-bn A-[n-Iw tc-J-I-fn-√. t\-tc-a-dn-®v, Cu k-{º-Zm-b-sØ Xm-tem-en-°p-I-bpw A-Xn-s\ A-c-°n-´p-d-∏n-°m≥ B-bm-k-s∏-Sp-I-bpw sN-øp-∂ {]m-tW-Xm-°-fm-bn-´m-Wv C-h-c-{X-bpw {]-Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. h-b- p-Im-e-Øv _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ C-Ø-cw Im-cy-߃ \m-´n¬ sN∂v A-b-hn-d-°p-tºmƒ Iq-Sn-bpw, \m-hn¬ tX≥ Du-dp-∂-Xv G-sXm-cp hm-b-\-°m-c-\pw Zr-iy-am-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.C-Xn-s\-°m-sfm-s° \n-jn-≤-am-b a-s‰m-cp kw-K-Xn km¿-h-{Xn-Iam-bn-cp-∂ a-Zy-]m-\-am-Wv. ho-™p \n-d-® kv-^-Sn-I-N-j-Iw A-cn-IØn-√m-sX-bpw kp-μ-cn-bm-b Im-an-\n ho-W -hm-bn-®p-sIm-≠v k-hn-[Øn¬ C-cn-°m-sX-bp-ap-≈ H-‰ Nn-{X-hpw A-°m-e-sØ cm-Pm-°-∑m-cpsS-tbm {]-`p-°-∑m-cp-sS-tbm I-≠p-In-´p-I-bn-√. ho-™pw ho-W-bpw hn-em-kn-\n-am-cpw Ip-Ø-gn-™ km-aq-ln-I -{I-a-Øn-s‚ \n-e-bv-s°mC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

57


Ø tam-l-[m-c-bm-bn-cp-∂p. a-Zy-]m-\w \n-jn-≤-am-°n-b C-kv-em-an-s‚ A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- Ip-dn-®m-Wv C-Xp-]-d-bp-∂-Xv F-∂-Xp-Iq-Sn I-W-°nse-Sp-°p-tºmƒ F-¥p-am-{Xw hn-tcm-[m-`m-k-am-Wv \-S-∂n-cp-∂-Xv F∂ Im-cyw G-sd-°p-sd hy-‡-am-hp-a-t√m. eu-In-I kp-J-t`m-K-ß-fn¬ I-hn-s™m-cp tN-tXm-hn-Im-c-hpw a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-¿-°p-t]m-epw C-√msX h-∂-t∏mƒ N-{I-h¿-Øn-am-cp-sS-bpw {]-`p-°-∑m-cp-sS-bpw Im-cyw ]-c-bm-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv t`-Zw. Im-c-Ww, A-h¿ a-X-Øn-s‚ kw-c-£I-tcm a-X-{]-t_m-[-I-tcm B-bn-cp-∂n-√-t√m? a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS ÿn-Xn C-Xm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ kp¬-Øm-∑m-cp-sS Im-cyw I-W-°p-Iq´p-hm≥ H-´pw {]-bm-kw h-cn-I-bp-an-√. C-Ø-cw hy-‡n-I-sf-bm-Wv a-X{]-Nm-c-I-∑m-cm-bn Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ hn-ti-jn-∏n-®n-cp-∂-Xv F∂ h-kv-Xp-X c-k-I-c-am-Wv.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

58


6 _-Øq-Ø-bpw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zpw ss\-Xn-I km-∑m¿-Kn-I-aq-ey-ß-sf A-K-Wy-tIm-Sn-bn¬ X-≈n-bncp-∂ a-[y-Im-e-k-aq-l-Øn-s‚ {]-tXy-I kz-`m-h-Zq-jy-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw hn-`n-∂-am-b H-cp tX-tPm-tKm-fw C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øn¬ am-bm-sX a-ßmsX tim-`n-°p-∂p-≠v. Im-e-Øn-s‚ Zp-jn-® {]-h-W-X-Iƒ-°pw \o-N{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ-°pw A-Xo-X-am-bn X-e- D-b¿-Øn \n¬-°p-∂ A-Zr-iy{]-`m-h-\m-b B a-lm-\m-Wv Zm¿-i-\n-I N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-b ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v. Im-e-Øn-\p {K-ln-°m≥ I-gn-bm-sX-t]m-b _r-l-Øm-b B kw-kvI - m-ct- I-Zm-cw a-[y-Im-eL - ´- Ø - n-se k-Zm-Nm-c k-∑m¿-Km-Nm-cß - ƒ°v H-c-]-hm-Z-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xp-sIm-≠p X-s∂-bm-Wv k-a-Im-en-I tcJ-I-f-{X-bpw Cu kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bn B-te-Jyw sN-ø-s∏-´-Xv. AXp-sIm-≠p X-s∂-bm-Wv C-∂pw C-¥ym N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ C-cp-f-S-™ Xm-fp-I-fn¬ B tX-Px-]p-Rv-Pw A¿-ln-°p-∂ ÿm-\w e-`n-°m-sX lr-Z-b-ap-≈ a-\p-jy-cp-sS k-l-Xm-]w am-{Xw ssI-ap-X-em-°n G-‰hpw sX-‰n-≤-cn-°-s∏-´p a-™-fn-®p I-gn-bp-∂-Xpw.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥ym-cm-Py-N-cn-{Xw H-s´m-∂p-a-√ \-ΩpsS N-cn-{X-]-T-\-Øn¬ a-jn-I-e¿-Øn hn-Ir-X-am-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv. F-¥psIm-≠m-Wv tem-ssI-I-h-μy-\m-b H-cp a-lm-N-{I-h¿-Øn {`m-¥-\pw {Iq-c-\p-sam-s°-bm-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-sX-∂v a-\- n-em-°W-sa-¶n¬ \n-›-b-am-bpw B Im-e-L-´-Øn-se km-aq-ln-I km-∑m¿Kn-I k-{º-Zm-b-ß-fp-sS G-I-tZ-i-cq-]-sa-¶n-epw [-cn-®n-cn-°-Ww. _lp-`¿-Xr-Xz-Øn-\pw A¿-[-\-·-X-°p-sa-Xn-cm-bn hn-fw-_-cw ]p-d-s∏-Sphn-°p-I-bpw \n-jv-Ir-jv-S-am-b k-Zm-Nm-c-co-Xn ]p-e¿-Øp-hm≥ I-ev-]n°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X Sn-∏p-kp¬-Øm≥ C-∂pw \-ap-s°m-cp t]-Sn-kz-]v-\am-W-t√m. sh-dpw 150 sIm-√-w-ap-ºm-Wv C-°-Y \-S-∂-sX-∂ bm-Ym¿Yy-hpw Iq-Sn Hm¿-Ωn-°p-tºm-gm-Wv Im-cy-Øn-s‚ ho-cyw Iq-Sp-∂-Xv. CC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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∂pw Sn-∏p-hn-s‚ a-e-_m¿ hn-fw-_-cw A-t±-l-sØ I-cn-]p-c-´p-hm-\pw a-X-[zw-k-I-\m-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°p-hm-\pw \-Ωp-sS F-√m N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑mcpw D-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ, 650 sIm-√-Øn-\p-ap-ºv a-lm-\m-b H-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn h-en-b H-cp km-{am-Py-Øn¬ \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ sshI-ey-ß-tf-bpw ssh-Ir-X-ß-sf-bpw \n-b-aw aq-ew \n-tcm-[n-®m¬ D≠m-Im-hp-∂ A-a¿-j-hpw ]-I-bpw A-\p-‡-kn-≤-am-W-t√m. A-XmWv C-¥ym N-cn-{X-Øn¬ A-tim-I-t\-°m-fpw A-Iv-_-td-°m-fpw Adn-hn-s‚-bpw a-l-Xz-Øn-s‚-bpw Im-cy-Øn¬ A-K-ay-\m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp•-°v k-a-Im-en-I-cm¬ A-[n-t£-]n-°-s∏-´v, ]n≥-X-e-ap-d-°m-cm¬ sX‰n-≤-cn-°-s∏-´v N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ Xm-fp-I-fn¬ Iq-Sn Z-bm-Zm-£n-Wy-Øn\p-th-≠n bm-Nn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ Im-c-Ww. a-‰m-cp-tS-Xn-t\-°m-fpw _-ØqØ-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-am-Wv {Iq-c-hpw ]-£m-]-X-]-c-hp-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv. AXp-sIm-≠p X-s∂-bm-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s\-°p-dn-®p-≈ N-cn-{X-Øn\v Cw-•o-jp-Im-¿-°v _-Øq-Ø {]n-b-¶-c-\m-b N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-bn-Øocp-∂-Xv. X-∑q-ew _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥ym N-cn-{Xw ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn-\p apºv \-ap-°o-h-I hn-h-c-߃ D-≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠-Xv A-Xym-h-iy-am-bn- Xo¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p.F-¥p-sIm-≠m-Wv C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-s‚ {]n-b-s∏-´ A-tXm-dn-‰n-bm-b-Xv F-∂ Im-cyw \mw t\-c-tØ kq-Nn-∏n-®Xm-Wv. s]m-Sn-∏pw sXm-ß-epw tN¿-Øv A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn Xp•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ C-¥y-sb-°p-dn-®v Iq-Sp-X¬ {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-´p-≈-Xv _Øq-Ø X-s∂-bm-Wv. A-°m-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ {]-Xo-I-am-b _-Øq-Ø I-≠-Xpw A-∂p Po-hn-®n-cp-∂ ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cn¬ \n-∂pw tI-´-Xp-am-b Im-cy-ß-fm-Wv F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS kz-`m-h-hn-tijw ap-ºv hn-i-Zo-I-cn-®-Xm-Wv. A-∂-sØ a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-hyq-l-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h-ssh-Ir-X-ß-fpw ho-£-W hn-ti-j-ß-fpw Iq-e-¶-j-am-bn \mw N¿-®- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. C-h-c-{X-bpw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ \n-jv-Ir-jv-Sam-b k-Zm-Nm-c- k-∑m¿-K -]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn-s‚ \n-b-a-Z-Wv-Up-Iƒ-°v hnt[-b-cm-bn-´p-≈-h¿ Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. amw-k-c-‡-ß-fp-sS a-Zm-‘-am-b t`mtK-O-bpw, eu-In-Im¿-`m-S-ß-fn-ep-≈ \n-e-°m-Ø Zm-l-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p C-h-cp-sS-sbm-s° \n¿-Wm-b-I hn-Im-cw. C-Xn¬ \n-∂v H-‰-s∏-´v a-l\o-b-am-b H-cp kw-kv-Im-c-Øn-s‚ in-em-ÿm-]-\w \-S-Øn-b kp¬Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v, C-h¿-s°m-s° H-cp X-e-th-Z-\-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-…m-an-s‚ i-cn-bm-b B-flm-hv Dƒ-s°m-≠ a-lm-\m-bn-cp-∂p kp¬Øm≥ Xp-•-°v. a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS C-kv-em-an-I-a-√m-Ø {]-h¿-Ø\-߃-°v I-Sn-™m-Wn-Sp-I-bpw km-aq-ly-t{Zm-l-߃-°v A-dp-Xn hcp-Øm≥ {i-an-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp A-t±-lw. A-Xn-\v B-flm¿-Y-am-bn C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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]-cn-{i-an-®-t∏mƒ A-Xp-h-sc A-`w-Kp-cw C-h-sbm-s° B-kz-Zn-®n-cp-∂ B-fp-Iƒ A-t±-K-sØ F-Xn¿-°m-s\m-cp-sº-´p. kp¬-Øm-\m-b ap-lΩ-Zv B h-I F-Xn¿-]p-I-sf km-aq-tlym-≤m-c-W e-£yw sh-®p-sIm≠p X-s∂ i-‡n-bm-bn A-Sn-®-a¿-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-C-Ø-cw {i-a-ß-sf Nq-≠n k-a-Im-en-I-N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b kn-bmhp-±o≥ _¿-Wn ]-d-bp-∂-Xv "A-\-h-[n ssi-Jp-I-fp-tS-bpw hn-izm-knI-fp-tS-bpw c-‡w sIm-≠v tNm-c-∏p-g-I-sfm-gp-°m-sX Cu kp¬-Øm\v Xr-]v-Xn-bp-≠m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-√' F-∂m-Wv (Tarikh-i-Firoz shai-Eng. Trans. pp.236, 238) a-\p-jy¿ Iq-Sp-X¬ [m¿-an-I-am-bn A-[-:]-Xn-®-Xp-aq-ew Ah-sc in-£n-°p-h≥ ssZ-h-a-b-® c-‡-c-£-km-Wv Cu kp¬-Øm≥ F-∂m-Wv th-sdm-cp N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b C- m-an hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv. a-X-]Wv-Un-X-∑m-sc-∂p ]-d-™v A-l-¶-cn-®p \-S-∂n-cp-∂ [m-cm-fw I-]-S-\mSy-°m-sc kp¬-Øm≥ \n-jv-I-cp-Ww A-Sn-®-a¿-Øn. km-aq-ln-I sshIr-X-ß-tf-bpw ssew-Kn-I A-cm-P-I-Xz-tØ-bpw tNm-Zyw sN-bv-X kp¬Øm≥ A-h A-\p-kyq-Xw A-\p-`-hn-®n-cp-∂-h-cp-sS ]-gn-°pw im-]-Øn∂pw hn-t[-b-\m-sb-¶n¬ A-Xp a-\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-tX-bp-≈p.-- F-∂m¬ C-{X-tb-sd `-c-W-]-cn-jv-Im-c-ß-fpw km-aq-ln-I- \-thm-Ym-\-hpw sN-bvX kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ ]-º-c-hn-Uv-Vn-bm-bpw {`m-¥-\m-bpw C∂pw hy-h-l-cn-®p t]m-cp-∂ ÿn-Xn ]p-\¿-Nn-¥-°p hn-t[-b-am-t°-≠Xm-Wv.Cu ]-Wv-Un-X-h¿-§-Øn¬-s∏-´ B-fm-bn-cp-∂p- _-Øq-Ø. C-Øc-°m-cp-sS s]m-Xp-kz-`m-h-Zq-jy-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw A-bmƒ H-´pw hy-Xykv-X-\p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. A-t±-lw kp¬-Øm-s\-Ip-dn-®p tI-´ Im-cy-ß-f[n-I-hpw A-hn-sS-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂ C-Ø-cw ]-Wv-Un-X-cn¬ \n-∂p-am-Wv. kp¬-Øm-s\-Ip-dn-®v A-an-X-am-b A-a¿-j-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ C-°q-´¿ am\-kn-Im-iz-m-k-Øn-\p- th-≠n-sb-¶n-epw X-ß-fp-sS Iq-´-Øn¬ F-√m\n-e-°pw A-en-™p-tN¿-∂ _-Øq-Ø-tbm-Sp kp¬-Øm-s\-°p-dn-®pv ]-d-™n-cn-°p-I G-Xp-hn-[-am-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂v Du-ln-°m-hp-∂-tX-bp-≈p. A-ß-s\ kz-¥w am-\-kn-I -ssh-I-eyw-sIm-≠v I-≠-Xpw a-‰p-≈-h-cpsS ]-I-sIm-≠p tI-´-Xpw, c-≠pw ]-£-]m-X-]-c-am-bn-t∏m-bn F-∂-XmWv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS N-cn-{X-m-h-tem-I-\w I¬-a-jw I-e¿-∂p In-S-°m≥ Im-c-Ww. ]p-d-ta- k-Xym-t\z-j-W- Xr-jv-W-tbm Pn-⁄m-kp-hn-s‚ ho£-W ssh-Z-Kv-[y-tam H-∂pw _-Øq-Ø-°v B-h-iy-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. Imc-Ww X-s‚ a-\- n-\pw hn-izm-k-Øn-\pw tbm-Pn-®-hn-[w- I-≠ Im-cyß-fn¬-Iq-Sn hn-I-e-X kr-jv-Sn-® _-Øq-Ø, lr-Z-b-Øn-s\m-Ø-hn-[w a-‰p-≈-h¿ ]-d-™-Xp-Iq-Sn cp-Nn-I-c-am-bn kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-bXv. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS km-aq-ln-I-ho-£-W-hpw A-∂-sØ U¬-ln ]C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS k-ao-]-\-hpw X-Ωn¬ A-{X-am-{Xw km-ay-hpw sFIy-hp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-\v G-‰hpw k-t¥m-j-]q¿-hw kzo-I-cn-°m≥ I-gn-™ B-[n-Im-cn-I h-‡mhm-bn-Øo¿-∂p C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø. A-h-sc ]n≥-]-‰n N-cn-{X-c-N-\ sNbv-X-h-cm-cpw- X-s∂ _-Øq-Ø Po-hn-® Im-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h-hpw Zm¿-i-\n-I-cn¬ Zm¿-i-I-\n-I-\m-b Xp-Kv-f-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ am-Xy-I-]-cam-b co-Xn-bpw X-Ωn¬ X-´n-®p-t\m-°n ]-£-]m-X-]-c-am-bn F-gp-Xn- ]nSn-∏n-®- N-cn-{Xm-`m-k-ß-sf {In-bm-fl-I-am-bn ]p-\:kw-hn-[m-\w sN-øm≥ ]-cn-{i-an-®n-s√-∂p-≈-Xp I-\-Ø ]m-X-I-am-Wv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂bm-Wv G-sXm-cp a-≠-Ø-c-Øn-\pw cm-j-{So-b-]m-∏-c-Ø-Øn-\pw ]-I-cam-bn C-∂pw "Xp-Kv-f-°n-s‚ ]-cn-jv-Im-cw t]m-se' F-∂v {]-tbm-Kn-°p∂-Xv._-Øq-Ø-sb B-[n-Im-cn-I- h-‡m-hm-bn Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ a-\:]q¿-Δ-w- kzo-I-cn-°m-\p-≠m-b Im-c-W-߃ Hm¿-a-bn¬ sh-®p-sIm≠p-th-Ww Xp-S¿-∂p-≈ hm-b-\ ap-t∂m-´p-t]m-tI-≠-Xv. c-N-\m-fl-Iam-b N-cn-{X-c-N-\-°v \n-c-°m-Ø {]-hr-Øn-bm-sW-∂-dn-™p-sIm-≠pX-s∂ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥y-sb A-tX-]-Sn ]-I¿-Øn {]-N-cn-∏n-® Bw-t•-b N-cn-{X-Im-c≥, A-h-s‚ cm-jv-{So-b-_p-≤n-bn¬ hn-cn-™ \nμy-am-b H-cp-]-Pm-]w A-Xn-eq-sS \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]-t£, A-hsc ]n≥-]-‰n-b C-¥y≥ F-gp-Øp-Im¿ Cw-•o-jp-Im-cp-sS Zp-cp-t±-iyw a\- n-em-°n-bn-cp-∂n-´p-Iq-Sn-bpw, C-¥y-N-cn-{X-Øn-se G-‰-hpw tim-`-\am-b Cu Im-e-b-f-hn-s\ C-cp-fn¬-X-s∂ I-gn-™p-Iq-Sm≥ hn-´n-cn-°p∂-Xv \-tΩm-Sp-X-s∂ sN-øp-∂ I-\-Ø A-]-cm-[-am-Wv. Im-e-L-´-Øns‚ kw-kv-Im-cn-I -{]-tLm-j-I-c-m-b Cu a-lm-flm-°-sf A-h-K-Wn°p-I-sb-∂-Xn-s‚ A¿-Yw, Cu cm-Py-Øn-se P-\-ß-fp-sS kmw-kv-Imcn-I- N-cn-{X-sØ B-ew-_-an-√m-sX X-cw-Xm-gv-Øn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°p-I-sb∂-Xp- am-{X-am-Wv. Im-c-Ww N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ G-Sp-I-fn¬ am-bm-Ø hy‡n-ap-{Z ]-Xn-∏n-® A-h¿ Im-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-Wv. A-hcn¬ Iq-Sn-bm-Wv cm-Py-Øn-s‚-bpw P-\-X-bp-sS-bpw N-cn-{Xw \mw a-\ n-em-°p-∂-Xv.-- A-Ø-cw a-lm-flm-°-sf \n¿-±m-£n-Wyw ]p-On-On-®pX-≈p-∂-Xn¬ c-kw Im-Wp-∂-Xv A-]-Iz-am-b am-\-kn-Im-h-ÿ - -sIm≠m--hm-t\- X-c-ap-≈p. A-Ø-cw Nn-¥m-K-Xn-Iƒ am-dn b-Ym¿-Y-am-bn Ncn-{X-hn-jv-Im-cw \-S-Øn-bm-te Cu \m-´n-s‚-bpw \m-´p-Im-cp-sS-bpw kmaq-ly-˛-kmw-kv-Im-cn-I K-Xn-hn-K-Xn-I-fpw k-¶-c-ß-fpw k-a-\z-bn-°p--Ibp-≈p. ssh-Im-cn-tIm-Zv-{K-Y-\-Øn¬ N-cn-{X-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-\p-≈ ÿm\w \n-kv-Xp-e-am-sW-∂ Im-cyw \mw kv-a-cn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.sX-‰p sX-‰m-sW-∂p ]-d-bm-\p-≈ N-¶q-‰-hpw \-√-Xp \-√-Xm-sWC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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∂p {]-Jym-]n-°m-\p-≈ kw-kv-Im-c-hpw N-cn-{X-Im-c-\p-≠m-tb Xo-cq. A-√m-sX X-s‚ ssI-bn¬ In-´n-b H-cp tc-J X-¶-s∏-´-Xm-sW-∂v Al-¶-cn-®v A-Xn-s‚ Kp-W-tZm-j- hn-th-N-\w \-S-Øm-sX A-∏-Sn {]-N-cn∏n-°p-∂-Xv h-f-sc A-_-≤-am-bn-cn-°pw. A-Ø-cw h-en-b A-_-≤-ßfn¬ H-∂m-Wv C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS C-¥ym-N-cn-{Xw A-tX-]-Sn kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xpw A-Xn-\p-th-≠n \ym-b-hm-Zw \-S-Øm≥ H-cp-sº-Sp-∂-Xpw.F-¥p- {]-hr-Øn sN-øp-∂-Xn-epw \ym-bo-I-c-W-Øn-s‚ X-Xz-imkv-{Xw I-≠p-]n-Sn-®v A-Xn-s\ {]-]-©-\w sN-øm-\p-≈ {]-h-W-X F°m-e-hpw a-\p-jy- kz-`m-h-Øn-¬ H-´n-t®¿-∂-Xm-Wv. `n-∂n-∏n-®p `-cn°p-I F-∂ cm-jv-{So-b-X-{¥w hn-P-b-I-c-am-bn {]m-h¿-Øn-I-am-°m-\p≈ {i-a-Øn¬ Cw-•o-jp-Im¿-°v h-f-sc X-∑-b-Xz-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn D-]-tbmKn-°m≥ km-[n-® h-{Pm-bp-[-am-bn-cp-∂p C-¥ym N-cn-{X-w. ln-μp-- ˛-ap-kvenw k-tlm-Z-c-ß-sf h¿-Ko-b hn-jw Ip-Øn-sh-®v ]-c-kv-]-cw i-{Xp°-fm-°p-I F-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p {_n-´o-jp-Im-cp-sS Zp-jv-S-em-°v. A-Xv ^e-h-Øm-bn \-S-∏n-em-°n-b-t∏mƒ ln-μp-hpw ap-k¬-am-\pw X-Ωn¬ hntcm-[n-I-fm-bn X-Ωn-e-Sn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. cm-jv-{So-b-am-b \n-e-\n-ev]n-\p th-≠n Cw-•o-jp-Im¿ D-]-tbm-Kn-® Cu Ip-X-{¥w \-ap-°p a-\ n-em-hm-sX t]m-b-Xm-Wv km-ap-Zm-bn-I kw-L¿-j-ß-fpw i-{Xp-X-bpw C-∂pw \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ Im-c-Ww. ]-I-bpw h¿-Ko-b a-t\m-`m-hhpw am-‰n \-√ H-cp X-e-ap-d-sb hm¿-sØ-Sp-°-W-sa-¶n¬ I¬-a-j-ta¬°m-Ø C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ ]p-\x-kw-hn-[m-\w A-Xym-h-iy-am-Wv. AXn-\p-≈ kw-cw-`-߃ \-S-Øp-tºmƒ ]-e B-[n-Im-cn-I h-‡m-°-fptS-bpw X-\n-\n-dw ]p-d-Øp sIm-≠p-h-cm-sX \n-hr-Øn-bn-√. _-ØqØ-bp-sS I-Y C-h-bn¬ {]-[m-\-s∏-´-Xm-Wv.kz-¥w Xm-ev-]-cy-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bm-sW-¶n-epw Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Imc≥ \-S-Øn-b Cu Zp-jv-{]-h¿-Øn-°p hn-Z-Kv-[-am-bn \ym-bo-I-c-W-w \S-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv sIm-≠m-Wv s]m-Xp-hm-b Nn-e kw-K-Xn-Iƒ B-ap-Jam-bn ]-d-bm≥ Im-c-Ww. t_mw-s_ -K-h¿-W-dm-bn-cp-∂ N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ F¬-^n≥ tÃm¨ _-Øq-Ø-sb F-¥p-sIm-≠v hn-iz-kn-°m-sa-∂Xn-s\-°p-dn-®v h-f-sc Zo¿-L-am-bn ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂p-≠v.A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS ]p-kvX-Iw C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-]-T-\-Øn-\v A-Xym-h-iy-am-b D-]-I-c-W-am-Wv. AXn-s‚ Im-c-W-߃ A-t±-lw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv C-{]-Im-cw kw-{K-ln-°mw.1. _-Øq-Ø ]p-kv-X-I-c-N-\ \-S-Øp-∂-Xv C-¥y-bn¬ \n-∂pw a-Sßn kz-¥w tZ-i-Øv sN-∂-Xn-\p-ti-j-am-Wv. X-∑q-ew ]-£-]m-X-]-cam-bn X-s‚ bm-{Xm -hn-h-c-Ww {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-°m≥ C-S-bn-√.2. {]-iw-kn-®-Xp sIm-≠v {]-tXy-I B-\p-Iq-eyw H-∂pw e-`n-°pC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

63


sa-∂v {]-Xo-£n-°m-s\m-°m-Ø ÿ-e-Øpw Im-e-Øp-am-Wv Cu ]pkv-X-I c-N-\ \-S-∂-Xv.3. \-√- Im-cy-ß-f-s√-¶n¬ Iq-Sn-bpw D-≈-Xv D-≈-Xp-t]m-se {]-Imin-∏n-°p-∂ Xp-d-∂ a-\x-ÿn-Xn-°m-c-\m-Wv _-Øq-Ø. kz-¥w Ip-dhp-I-fpw ho-gv-N-Iƒ-Iq-Sn-bpw A-t±-lw H-cp k-t¶m-N-hpw Iq-Sm-sX Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv X-s∂ Cu hm-Z-K-Xn-°v D-t]m¬-_-e-I-am-Wv.4. kp¬-Øm-s\-°p-dn-t®m a-‰m-sc-sb-¶n-epw ]-cm-a¿-in-t®m a-\-]q¿hw B-`n-Nm-c-hm-°p-Iƒ F-gp-tX-≠ Im-cyw A-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp∂n-√. Im-c-Ww, kz-tZ-i-Øp h-∂v hn-{i-aw sIm-≈p-∂ Cu k-©m-cn a-‰p-≈-h-tcm-Sv ]-I-h-®p ]p-e¿-Øp-∂ A-]m-I-X Im-´p-hm≥ \n¿-hm-lan-√.5. kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\-°p-dn-®p-≈ {]-kv-Xm-h-ß-fn-e-[n-I-hpw a-‰v k-a-Im-en-I -tc-J-I-fp-am-bn s]m-cp-Ø-s∏-Sp-∂ co-Xn-bn-em-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠v _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-Ww X-≈n-°-f-tb-≠ Im-cy-an-√. A-ß-s\-sb-¶n¬ k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-sc an-°-hm-dpw \-ap-°v C-°m-cy-Øn¬ D-t]-£n-t°-≠-Xm-bn h-cpw.6. kp¬-Øm-s\ {]-iw-kn-®-Xp sIm-≠v Iq-Sp-X¬ k-lm-b-tam ]gn-®-Xp-aq-ew in-£-tbm In-´p-I-bn-s√-∂v t_m-[y-ap-≈ kp-c-£n-X-amb ÿ-e-Øn-cp-∂m-bn-cp-∂p _-Øq-Ø ]p-kv-X-I-sa-gp-Xn-b-Xv. A-XpIm-c-Ww \-S-∂ Im-cy-߃ \n¿-`-b-am-bn A-tX-]-Sn F-gp-Xn-sb-∂v thWw hn-Nm-cn-°p-hm≥. C-sXm-s°-bm-Wv Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-\v _Øq-Ø-sb kzo-I-cn-°m-\p-≈ Im-c-W-am-bn _p-≤n-]q¿-hw F-Sp-ØpIm-´m-hp-∂ Im-cy-߃.H-‰-t\m-´-Øn¬ \q-dp-i-X-am-\-hpw i-cn-sb-∂v tXm-∂n-°p-∂ bp-‡nk-la-- m-b \n-K-a-\-߃ kw-i-b-Øn-\v C-Sw-sIm-Sp-°m-Ø hn-[w _Øq-Ø-bp-sS B-[n-Im-cn-I-X-bn-ep-≈ hn-izm-kw N-cn-{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-Ifn¬ cq-V-aq-e-am-Ipw. F-∂n-´v N-cn-{X-Øn-se A-h-km-\-hm-°m-bn _Øq-Ø-bp-sS D-≤-c-Wn-I-fp-am-bn \mw A-¶w-sh-´m-\n-d-ßpw. _-ØqØ C-ß-s\ ]-d-bp-∂p F-∂p ]-d-™m¬ ]n-s∂ A-Xn-\-∏p-d-sam-∂pan-s√-∂p-≈ Nn-¥m-K-Xn-h-sc \-Ωn¬ cq-V-aq-e-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. A-XpsIm-≠p X-s∂-bm-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS N-cn-{X-Øn-te-°v {]-th-in-°p∂-Xn-\p ap-ºp-X-s∂ C-{X-bpw Zo¿-L-am-b H-cp ap-J-hp-c-°v H-cp-sº-Sp∂-Xv. _-Øq-Ø ]p-kv-X-I-sa-gp-Xm≥ hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-∂n-√. U¬-ln-bnse Xm-a-k-hpw A-hn-sS I-≠ _p-≤n-cm-£-k-∑m-cp-am-bp-≈ k-º¿°-hpw ]p-kv-X-I- c-N-\-sb-∂ Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°p-t]m-epw _-Øq-Ø-bn¬ ÿm-\w sIm-Sp-Øn-cp-∂n-√. _p-≤n-]-c-am-bpw ssh-⁄m-\n-I-am-bpw shdpw H-cp a-[y-h¿-Øn am-{X-am-b _-Øq-Ø \n-›-b-am-bpw A-]-I¿-jC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

64


Xm- t_m-[-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cn-°-Ww {K-Ÿ-c-N-\-bp-sS B-i-bw Xs∂ D-t]-£n-®-Xv. \m-´n¬ sN-∂n-´m-Im-sa-∂v B-{K-l-h-ap-≠m-bn-cps∂-¶n¬ A-Xn-\p-≈ km-a-{Kn-Iƒ A-t±-lw kz-c-°q-´n-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°Ww. ]p-kv-X-Iw F-gp-Xp-∂-Xv kw-_-‘-am-bn X-s‚ ssI-h-iw bmsXm-cp tc-J-bp-a-h-ti-jn-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂v _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ k-Ω-Xn-°pI-bpw sN-øp-∂p-≠v.G-sX-√mw k-Ω¿-Z-Øn-\v hn-t[-b-\m-bn-´m-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {KŸ-c-N-\ \-S-°p-∂-sX-s∂m-s° \mw A-]-{K-Yn-°m≥ {i-an-®n-´p-≈-XmWv. h-f-sc-°m-e-Øn-\p ti-j-ap-≈ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS a-S-ßn h-c-hv \K-c-Øn¬ H-cp h-en-b kw-km-c-hn-j-b-am-Ip-∂p. ]-e-cpw hn-kv-a-b-tØmSp Iq-Sn X-ß-fp-sS ]-g-b k-Xo¿-Yy-s\ Im-Wp-hm≥ Iq-Sp-∂p. I-YIƒ B-cm-bp-∂p. Cu ]-cn-Xx-ÿn-Xn-bn¬ X-s∂ {]-iw-kn-°p-hm-\pw X-s‚ ho-c-km-l-k-ß-sf ]p-I-gv-Øp-hm-\pw Iq-Sn-bn-cp-∂ B-kzm-Z-Isc {]o-Wn-∏n-°m≥ A-h¿-°v c-kn-°-Ø-° cq-]-Øn¬ A-\-h-[n IY-Iƒ _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂p. ]-e-cpw A-hn-iz-kn-®p. sa-tdm-t°m-hnse kp¬-Øm≥ t]m-epw _-Øq-Ø h-en-b \p-W-b-\m-sW-∂pw Abmƒ-°p-th-≠n sN-e-h-gn-°p-∂ k-a-bw hr-Ym-hn-em-sW-∂pw ]-d-bpI-bp-≠m-bn. A-h-km-\w C-_v-\p J¬-Zq≥ F-∂ ]-Wv-Un-X-s‚ t{]-cW-°p hn-t[-b-\m-bm-Wv cm-Pm-hv Pq-km-bn F-∂ X-s‚ sk-{I-´-dn-sb _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv F-gp-Xn-sb-Sp-°m-≥ G-ev-]n-®-Xv. A-ß-s\ hmsam-gn-bm-bn A-Sn-®p-hn-´ ]-e \p-W-bpw F-gp-tX-≠n h-∂-t∏mƒ am-‰na-dn-°m≥ ]-‰m-Xm-b K-Xn-tI-Sm-Wv _-Øq-Ø-°v ]n-W-™-Xv. Im-cWw, C-Xp tI-´ A-\-h-[n B-fp-I-fp-sS a-[y-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p A-t±lw. ]-d-™p-t]m-b I-≈-°-Y-Iƒ-°v F-Xn-cm-bn sam-gn-sIm-Sp-t°-≠Xm-bn h-∂m¬ Xm-\-Xp-h-sc kr-jv-Sn-® am-bm-tem-Iw X-I¿-∂p X-cn-∏W-am-Ipw. F-∂p am-{X-a-√, F-√m B-fp-I-fpw X-s∂ \p-W-b-\m-bpw hn-iz-kn-°m-≥ sIm-≈m-Ø-h-s\-∂pw a-ap-{Z Ip-Øp-sa-∂pw _-Øq-Ø a-\- n-em-°n. F-¥p-am-I-s´- F-∂p I-cp-Xn _-Øq-Ø X-s‚ k-©m-chr-Øm-¥w Ip-dn-°m-s\m-cp-ßn.A-tXm-sSm-∏w _-Øq-Ø Dƒ-s∏-´n-cp-∂ ]-Wv-Un-X-k-aq-l-Øn-s‚ cm-jv-{So-b-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-bpw km-aq-ln-I ssh-Ir-X-ß-fpw kw-kv-Im-cn-Im[x-]-X-\-hpw Iq-Sn H-∂n-∏n-®p-th-Ww ]p-kv-X-I-Øn-te-°v I-S-°p-hm≥. Cu h-I [m-c-W-Iƒ B-Zy-ta- X-s∂ lr-Zn-ÿ-am-°n-bm-te h-f-sc°m-e-am-bn ]-d-™p- t]m-∂n-cp-∂ ]-e Im-cy-ß-fpw tNm-Zyw sN-tø≠-n h-cp-tºmƒ \mw A-‘m-fn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-bp-≈q. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS N-cn-{X-Øn¬ I-S-∂p h-∂n-´p-≈p I-≈-°-Y-I-sf A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ `mj-bn¬ X-s∂ ]-d-bp-I-bpw A-h-sb N-cn-{X-tc-J-I-fp-sS ]-›m-Ø-eC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

65


Øn¬ A-]-{K-Y-\- hn-t[-b-am-°p-I-bp-am-Wv F-s‚ D-t±-iyw. _-ØqØ-bp-sS bm-{Xm- hn-h-c-Ww Ip-td-s»-bm-bn-s´-¶n-epw a-e-bm-f-Øn-te°v X¿-÷-a- sN-ø-s∏-´n-´p-≠v A-Xp-sIm-≠v ]-cn-`m-j- \-S-Øp-∂ F-fp∏-am¿-Kw Rm≥ A-h-ew-_n-°p-∂n-√. G-‰-hpw D-]-{Z-h-I-c-am-b _-ØqØ-bp-sS Nn-cn-{X-`m-K-߃ am-{Xw D-≤-cn-®v k-Xym-t\z-j-W Xr-jv-Wtbm-Sp-Iq-Sn Kp-W-tZm-j- hn-th-N-\w \-S-Øp-I-sb-∂-Xm-Wv e-£yw. AXn-\v F-s∂ ]n-¥p-S¿-∂p- h-cp-∂ k-lr-Z-b-cm-b hm-b-\-°m¿-°v Imcy-£-a-am-bn C-Xv a-\- n-em-I-W-sa-¶n¬ C-Xp-h-sc kp-Zo¿-L-am-bn F-gp-Xn-b B-ap-J-Øn¬ ]-cm-a¿-in-® Im-cy-߃ Hm¿-a-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cn°-Ww F-∂-Xv \n¿-_-‘-am-Wv.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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`m-Kw c-≠v

7 Ip-‰-I-c-am-b B-tcm-]-W-߃ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø U¬-ln-bn¬ F-Øp-∂ k-μ¿-`-tØ-bpw U¬ln-bp-sS D-∂-X-]-Z-hn-tb-bpw a-‰pw ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂ Iq-´-Øn¬ Kn-bmkp-±o≥ Xp-•-°n-s\-°p-dn-®pw A-ev-]w Nn-e Im-cy-߃ ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ ]n-Xm-hpw Xp-•-°v hw-i-ÿm-]-I-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ Xp-•-°v. 1320 ap-X¬ 1325 h-sc-bm-Wv Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ cmPy-`-c-Ww \-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-b ]n-Xm-hn-s\ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v [n-°-cn-® H-cp I-Y km-μ¿-`n-I-am-bn-s´-t∂m-Ww _-Øq-Ø hn-h-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. A-Xn-{]-Im-cw hm-bn-°mw: "cm-Pyw X-s‚ A-[n-Im-cØn¬ h-∂-Xn-\p-ti-jw A-Xn-s‚ hn-kv-Xr-Xn h¿-[n-∏n-°m-\m-bn-cp-∂p A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ B-i. Cu D-t±-i-tØm-sS h-en-b H-cp tk-\-bp-sS A-I-º-Sn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn X-s‚ a-I-\m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv jm-sb sX-ep-¶m-\-bnte-°-b-®p. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw aq-∂p-am-k-sØ bm-{X-sIm-t≠ sXep-¶m-\-bn-se-Øp-I-bp-≈p. sX-ep-¶m-\-bn-se-Øn-b D-S-s\ X-s‚ Hcp kv-t\-ln-X-\m-b D-ss_-Zn-s\-s°m-≠v kp¬-Øm≥ Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ a-c-W-a-S-™p F-∂ I-≈-hm¿-Ø {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-I-bpw kp¬-Øm-s\Xn-cm-b H-cp \n-e-]m-Sv kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bp-am-Wv -ap-l-Ω-Zv jm sN-bv-X-Xv. N-{I-h¿-Øn a-cn-®p-sh-∂-dn-™m¬ F-√m-h-cpw X-s∂ kp¬-Øm-\mbn Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p ap-l-Ω-Zv jm hn-Nm-cn-®-sX-¶n-epw adn-®m-Wv kw-`-hn-®-Xv. ssk-\y-߃ Hm-tcm t\-Xr-Xz-Øn≥ Io-gn¬ kw-L-Sn-®v I-em-]-Øn-\v X-øm-dm-Ip-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. `q-cn-`m-K-hpw At±-l-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-bn. k-lm-b-Øn-\v B-cpw ti-jn-®n-√. ap-l-Ω-Zv jmsb sIm-√m-\p-≈ Kq-Vm-tem-N-\-bm-Wv ]n-∂o-Sv \-S-∂-Xv. A-Xn¬ \n∂pw c-£n-®-Xv am-en-Iv Xm-aq-dm-Wv. ]-Øv Ip-Xn-c-∏-S-bm-fn-I-fp-sS AC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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I-º-Sn-tbm-Sp Iq-Sn A-t±-lw Hm-Sn- c-£-s]-´v ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ A-Sp-°¬ A-`-bw {]m-]n-®p. X-s‚ A-Sp-°-se-Øn-b a-I-\v B-h-iy-am-b [-\hpw Iq-Sp-X¬ ssk-\y-ß-fpw \-ev-In sX-ep-¶m-\-bn-te-°v t]m-Ip-hm\m-Wv ]n-Xm-hv D-Ø-c-hn-´-Xv. A-ß-s\ ho-≠pw sX-ep-¶m-\-bn-se-Ønb ap-l-Ω-Zv jm X-\n-s°-Xn-cm-bn Kq-Vm-tem-N-\ \-S-Øn-b-h-sc \n-jvI-cp-Ww h-[n-®p.-' (Ibn Battuta pp. 208-210) C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø C-¥y-bn¬ h-cp-∂-Xv 1333˛¬ am-{X-am-Wv. 1322˛em-Wv X-s‚ a-I-\pw In-co-Sm-h-Im-in-bp-am-b ^-°-dp-±o≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Pq\m-Jm-s\ (C-Xm-bn-cp-∂p N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xn-\p-ap-ºp-≈ ap-l-ΩZv Xp-•-°n-s‚ t]-cv) hm-d-¶¬ F-∂ tZ-i-tØ-°v kp¬-Øm≥ Kn-bmkp-±o≥ ssk-\y-hp-am-bn A-b-°p-∂-Xv. A-em-hp-±o-s‚ a-c-W-Øn-\p ti-j-ap-≠m-b cm-jv-{So-b- \n-›-e-Xz-hpw I-em-]-hpw sX-s° C-¥y-bnse cm-Pm-°-∑m¿-°v U¬-ln-bp-sS A-[o-i-Xz-Øn¬ \n-∂pw Ip-X-dnam-dn kz-X-{¥-cm-jv-{S-߃ ÿm-]n-°m-≥ A-h-k-cw \-ev-In-. A-ß-s\ {]-Xm-]-cp-{Z-tZ-h≥ c-≠m-a-s‚ Io-gn¬ hm-d-¶¬ X-e-ÿm-\-am-°n ImI-´n-bm cm-P-hw-iw kz-X-{¥-am-bn-Øo¿-∂p. C-Xv a-‰p km-a-¥-cm-Pyß-fpw A-\p-h¿-Øn-®m-ep-≠m-hp-∂ A-h-ÿ U¬-ln-bp-sS ]-Z-hn-°pw k-º-Øn-\pw C-Sn-hp- h-cp-Øp-sa-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-bn c-≠p sIm-√w I-gn-bp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºp X-s∂ Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ sX-°≥ cmPy-ß-sf Io-g-S-°p-hm≥ X-s‚ a-I-s\ A-b-°p-∂-Xv. F-∂m¬ ssk\ym-[n-]-∑m-cpw cm-P-Ip-am-c-\p-am-bn tbm-Pn-®v kw-L-Sn-X-am-b k-a-c-apt∂-‰w \-S-ج A-km-[y-am-bn-Øo¿-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv jm Cu hn-h-cw ]n-Xm-hn-s\ I-≠v t\-cn-´p-W¿-Øp-hm≥ U¬-ln-bn-te-°v Xn-cn-®-Xv. \m-ep-am-kw I-gn-™v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ X-s∂ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ A-\p-k-c-W-bpw hn-izm-k-hp-ap-≈ tbm-≤m-°-fp-sS k-lm-b-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn ho-≠pw hm-d-¶-en-te-°v t]m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv jm cm-P-Ip-am-c-\v ImI-´n-bm -cm-Pm-hm-b {]-Xm-]-cp-{Z-s\ \n-jv-{]-bm-kw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-Øphm≥ km-[n-®p. hn-P-bn-bm-bn Xn-cn-s®-Øn-b a-I-s\ h-f-sc B¿-`m-StØm-Sp Iq-Sn-bm-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ X-e-ÿm-\-\-K-cn-bn¬ kzo-I-cn-®-Xv.hm-d-¶¬ B-{I-a-W-sØ kw-_-‘n-®v C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp∂ Cu `m-jyw k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b a-‰v N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p∂n-√. kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿ-am-b Xm-coJn ^n-tdm-kv-jm-bv F-∂ ]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬ ]-d-bp-∂-Xv ""ssk-\n-I t\Xm-°-∑m¿ X-Ωn¬ kz-c-tN¿-® C-√m-Ø-Xn-\m-em-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv jm U¬ln-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn-h-∂-sX''∂m-Wv. b-ln-bm C-_v-\p A-l-Ω-Zv F-∂ k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ ""ssk-\n-I t\-Xm-°-∑m-cp-sS Kq-Vm-temN-\-bp-sS ^-e-am-bn-´m-Wv B-Zy-sØ b-Xv-\-Øn¬-Ø-s∂ hm-d-¶-enC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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s\ F-Xn-cn-Sp-hm≥ km-[n-°m-sX-h-∂-sX-∂m-Wv'' A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]kn-≤-am-b Xm-co-Jn ap-_m-d-°v jm-bv F-∂ N-cn-{X-]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬ A-k-μn-Kv-[-am-bn {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv. C-h-cm-cpw X-s∂ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp•-°n-s‚ kv-Xp-Xn-]m-T-I-∑m-cm-bn-cp-∂n-√. F-∂p am-{X-a-√, A-t±-l-Øns‚ Ip-d-hp-I-sf A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n-tbm-Sp Iq-Sn A-]-e-]-\-hn-t[-b-am°n-b-h-cp-am-Wv. k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b C-h-cp-sS {]-kv-Xm-h-\ C-°m-cy-Øn¬ hn-iz-kn-°m-hp-∂-tX D-≈q. C-h¿-°p ti-jw N-cn-{X-c-N-\ sN-bv-Xn-´p≈ \n-km-ap-±o≥ A-l-Ω-Zpw A-_v-Zpƒ Im-Z¿ _-sZm-Wn-bpw A-_pƒ ^m-k-epw ^-cn-jvT-bp-sam-∂pw ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s\-Xn-cm-bn Cu H-cp B-tcm-]-Ww D-∂-bn-°p-∂n-√.1322 ¬ \-S-∂ H-cp kw-K-Xn-sb-°p-dn-®v 1333 ¬ am-{Xw C-hn-sS hcn-I-bpw 1354 \p ti-jw Hm¿-a-bn¬ \n-∂pw F-s¥m-s°-tbm F-gp-XpI-bpw sN-bv-X C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø am-{X-am-Wv Cu Kq-Vm-tem-N-\ IY-sb-°p-dn-®v F-gp-Xn-b-Xv. C-Xv N-cn-{X-Øn-t\m bp-‡n-t°m \n-c-°mØ-Xm-sW-∂v sX-fn-bn-°p-hm-\-[n-Iw {]-bm-k-an-√. H-∂m-a-sØ kwK-Xn, ssk-\n-I¿ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ Zp-cp-t±-iw a-\- n-em-°n I-em-]-Øns∂m-cp-ßn- F-∂-Xm-W-t√m. A-ß-s\-sb-¶n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ A-Sp-°-te-°v X-s∂ a-S-ßn-s®-√p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√ F-∂-Xv Xo¿-®-b-t√? ssk-\n-I k-∂m-l-ß-fp-am-bn bp-≤-Øn-\-b-°p-tºmƒ Hm-tcm a-Wn-°q-dn-epw hn-h-c-߃ U¬-ln-bn-se-Øn-°p-hm-\p-≈ hm¿Øm-ku-I-cy-ß-ƒ A-°m-e-Øv D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ]-´m-f-°m¿-°n-S-bn-epw bp-≤-Øn-\n-S-°p-ap-≈ F-√m Im-cy-ß-fpw A-∏-t∏mƒ A-dn-bm-\p-≈ kw-hn-[m-\w kp¬-Øm-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xn-\p-≈ Nm-c-hr-μ-hpw hm¿Øm G-P≥-kn-I-fpw \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p F-∂v _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ Ip-dn-°p-∂p-≠v. A-t∏mƒ kp¬-Øm≥ a-cn-®p-t]m-bn F-∂ I-≈-°-Y {]-N-cn-∏n-® Im-cyw kp¬-Øm≥ A-dn-bm-Xn-cn-°p-I-bn-√. A-ß-s\ Zpjv-S-am-b {]-h¿-Øn-s°m-cp-ßn-b a-I≥ Xn-cn-®p-h-∂v F-¥p-h-en-b \pW ]-d-™m-epw A-bm-sf hn-iz-kn-®v Iq-Sp-X¬ [-\-hpw k-∂m-l-ßfpw sIm-Sp-Ø-b-°p-I A-km-[y-am-Wv. ]p-d-ta cm-P-Ip-am-c-s‚ bp-‡n°pw \o-Xn-\n-jvT-°pw \n-Zm-\-am-bn I-em-]-Im-cn-I-sf in-£n-°m-\p≈ A-[n-Im-cw \-ev-Ip-I-sb-∂-Xv B-cpw sN-øm-Ø kw-K-Xn-bm-Wv. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS `m-h-\-bn¬ ap-f-® Cu I-≈-°-Y Xm≥ ]-d-bm≥ t]m-Ip-∂ a-‰-\-h-[n Du-°≥ \p-W-Iƒ-s°m-cp ap-J-hp-c am-{X-am-bncp-∂p. A-h X-∑-b-Xz-am-bn A-h-X-cn-∏n-°m-\p-≈ H-cp ]-›m-Ø-e krjv-Sn \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p Cu Kq-Vm-tem-N-\-bp-tS-bpw lo-\-Ir-XyØn-s‚-bpw I-Y-sIm-≠v _-Øq-Ø D-t±-in-®n-cp-∂-Xv F-∂ kw-K-Xn Xp-S¿-∂p-≈ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw kn-≤-am-Wv.C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cm-cpw i-_v-Zn-®n-´p-t]m-ep-an-√m-Ø Cu I-Y C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø am-{X-am-sW-gp-Xp-∂-Xv. Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c∑m-cm-b tXm-a-kv, k¿-hqƒ kn-en-tl-Kv Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿ C-_v-\p _Øq-Ø-bp-sS A-`n-{]m-b-tØm-Sp tbm-Pn-®m-Wv A-h-cp-sS N-cn-{X-{]Xn-]m-Z-\-ß-fn¬ Cu I-Y {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv. ÿm-\-Øpw A-ÿm\-Øpw C-¥y≥ cm-Pm-°-∑m-sc-bpw C-¥y≥ k-aq-l-tØ-bpw I-cn hm-cn tX-°m≥ a-\x-]q¿-hw B-bm-k-s∏-Sp-∂ C-°q-´¿-°v G-‰-hpw {]nb-¶-c-\m-bn-Øo¿-∂p _-Øq-Ø F-∂-Xn¬ A-Xn-i-b-Øn-\v A-h-Imi-an-√. tXm-a- v X-s‚ t{Im-Wn-°nƒ-kv Hm-^v Zn ]-Øm≥ In-Mv-kv F-∂ ]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬ _-Øq-Ø ]-d-™ I-Y A-tX-]-Sn ]-I¿-Ønbn-´p-≠v. Cu I-Y-bp-sS s]m-≈-Ø-cw bp-‡n-k-l-am-bn D-cn-®p-Im-´phm≥ tUm-Iv-S¿ Cu-iz-cn-{]-km-Zv {i-an-®n-´p-≠v. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Øsb ]n≥ ]-‰p-∂ Cw-•o-jv-˛-C-¥y≥ N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cp-sS A-bp-‡n-Iam-b \n-K-a-\-ß-sf tNm-Zyw sN-øp-I-bpw _-Øq-Ø ]-d-™ Cu IY sh-dpw Zp-cp-t±-iy-]-c-am-sW-∂v A-t±-lw k-a¿-Yn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp∂p-. (History of Quraunah Turks, pp. 30-32) k-Xy-Øn¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-s\ A-Xn-c-‰v kv-t\-ln°p-I-bpw A-an-X-am-bn _-lp-am-\n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p. h-tbm-[nI-\m-b A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ _p-≤n km-a¿-Yy-Øn-epw I-gn-hn-epw I-e-h-dbn-√m-Ø hn-izm-kw ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. (U¬-ln-bn-se A-cm-P-I- ÿn-Xn-hn-ti-jw Kn-bm-kp-±o-s\ A-dn-bn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zv jm-bm-bn-cp-∂p.-) Ip-{kp-hn-s‚ `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn¬ \-S-∂ncp-∂ A-{I-a-ß-tf-bpw A-Xn-s\ t\-cn-tS-≠ co-Xn-tb-bpw Ip-dn-®v X° k-a-b-ß-fn¬ Kn-bm-kp-±o-\p hn-h-cw sIm-Sp-Øp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-Xpw X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-\p N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-Im-\p-≈ km-l-N-cy-߃ kr-jv-Sn®-Xpw U¬-ln-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A-ß-s\ ]n-Xm-hn-s\ kv-t\-ln-°p-I-bpw B-Z-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈ Np-cp°w cm-P-Ip-am-c-∑m-cn¬ A-Zzn-Xo-b-\m-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v. C-Ø-cØn-ep-≈ H-cm-sf Ip-dn-®m-Wv C-Ø-cw I-Y-Iƒ ]-d-bp-∂-Xv F-∂ hkv-Xp-X Nn-¥n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. A-h¿-s°m-s° C-Xn-t\-°mƒ \o-N-amb {]-hr-Øn ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v F-∂v Xp-S¿-∂p ]-d-bm\p-≈-Xp sIm-≠m-Wv A-Xn-\p ku-I-cy-am-bn hm-b-\-°m-cp-sS am-\kn-Im-h-ÿ A-\p-Iq-e-am-°m-\p-≈ I-≈-°-Y-Iƒ ap≥-Iq-´n ]-d-bp∂-Xv X-s∂.Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ _w-Km-fn-te-°v ssk-\y-sØ \-bn-°p-∂ a-s‰m-cp kw-`-h-hpw Iq-Sn _-Øq-Ø Xp-S¿-∂v hn-h-cn-°p-∂p: "kp¬-Øm≥ bp≤-Øn-\m-bn e-Iv-t\m-hn-te-°v ]p-d-s∏-´p. Xm-\n-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ Hu-tZymC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Kn-I- Im-cy-߃ \n¿-h-ln-°m≥ kz-]p-{X-s\-bm-Wv Xp-•-°v Np-a-X-es∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv.-' ]n-Xm-hv a-cn-s®-∂v I-≈w {]-N-cn-∏n-®v ssk-\n-I-cp-sS tk-h-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-Im≥ A-Xym¿-Øn-Im-Wn-s®-∂v _Øq-Øm ]-d-bp-∂ Cu ]p-{X-s\- X-s∂-bm-W-t{X Xm-\n-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ cm-Py-Im-cy-ß-fp-sS Np-a-X-e ]n-Xm-hv G-ev-]n-®-Xv. ]n-Xm-hn-s\ [n-°-cn®v N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-I-W-sa-∂v ap-l-Ω-Zv-jm B-{K-ln-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ C-Xn¬-I-hn-™v a-s‰m-cp k-μ¿-`w F-ß-s\ e-`n-°m-\m-Wv. F-∂n-´pw A-t±-lw-kz-bw N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-bn {]-Jy-]n-°m≥ Xp-\n-™n-s√-∂p am-{X-a-√; ]n-Xm-hv X-∂n-e¿-]n-® hn-izm-k-hpw `m-c-s∏-´ tPm-en-bpw `wKn-bm-bn \n¿-h-ln-°p-I-bp-am-Wp sN-bv-X-sX-∂ Im-cyw \n-kv-X¿-°am-Wv. A-t∏mƒ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂ Cu I-Y Zp-cp-]-Zn-jv-Shpw Xp-S¿-s∂-gp-Xm≥ t]m-Ip-∂ h-en-b \p-W-I-fp-sS B-ap-J-hpw am{X-am-sW-∂v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ bm-{X-hn-h-c-W-Øn-se Xp-S¿-∂p-≈ {]Xn-]m-Zy-߃ km-£n \n¬-°pw. ho-≠pw _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂p: "Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ Xp-•-°v X-s‚ hnP-b-I-c-am-b bp-≤-Øn-\p ti-jw X-e-ÿm-\-sØ-Øn-b-t∏mƒ A-^vKm≥ t]m¿ F-∂ ÿ-e-Øv X-\n-°p-th-≠n H-cp Xm¬-°m-en-I sIm´m-cw ]-Wn-bn-°p-hm≥ a-I-t\m-Sv I-ev-]n-®p. aq-∂p Zn-h-kw sIm-≠p-Xs∂ _w-•m-hn-s‚ ]-Wn a-I≥ ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. k-a-X-e-Øn¬ \n-∂v Ip-sd D-b-c-Øn-em-bn a-c-Ø-Sn-Iƒ D-d-∏n-®v A-Xn-s‚ ap-I-fn-em-Wv CXv \n¿-an-®n-cp-∂-Xv. a-cw am-{X-am-Wv C-Xn-\p- D-]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. Cu sI-´n-S-Øn-s‚ {]-[m-\ in-ev-]n-bpw kw-hn-[m-b-I-\pw am-en-Iv km-Z F∂ hy-‡n-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-t±-l-Øn-s‚ i-cn-bm-b \m-aw A-l-Ω-Zv C_v-\p A-bm-kv F-∂m-Wv. ap-l-Ω-Zv jm kp¬-Øm-\m-b-t∏mƒ C-t±l-sØ a-{¥n-bm-°n. A-∂-sØ `-h-\-\n¿-am-W hn-Z-Kv-[-cn¬ {]-ap-J\m-bn-cp-∂p C-t±-lw. h-f-sc _p-≤n-]q¿-h-am-Wv Cu sI-´n-Sw \n¿-an-®ncp-∂-Xv. t\m-°n-bm¬ h-f-sc D-d-∏pw `w-Kn-bpw tXm-∂p-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw H-cp {]-tXy-I ÿm-\-Øv B-\ N-hp-´n-bm¬ sI-´n-S-am-sI X-cn-∏W-am-Ipw. A-Xm-bn-cp-∂p kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-s‚ kq-{Xw. Cu X-{¥w B¿°pw a-\- n-em-bn-cp-∂n-√. Xp-•-°pw ]-cn-hm-c-ß-fpw sI-´n-S-Øn¬ {]th-in-®p. bm-{X hn-P-b-]q¿-hw ]-cy-h-km-\n-®-Xn-\p-≈ B-tam-Zw tcJ-∏-Sp-Øm≥-th-≠n hn-`-h k-ar-≤-am-b H-cp k¬-°m-cw G¿-∏m-Sp- sNbv-Xn-cp-∂p. hn-cp-∂n¬ F-√m {]-ap-J-cpw k-∂n-ln-X-cm-bn-cp-∂p. k-Zysb-√mw I-gn-™v £-Wn-°-s∏-´ A-Xn-Yn-I-sf-√mw t]m-bn. ]n-Xm-hns‚ ap-ºn¬ B-\-I-sf {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°p-hm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv jm A-\p-hm-Zam-cm-™p. A-t±-lw A-\p-h-Zn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' ""Cu kw-`-h-Øn-\p Zr-Iv-km-£n-bm-b ssi-Jv cp-Iv-\p-±o≥ F-∂ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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am-\y≥ F-t∂m-Sp ]-d-™ Im-cy-߃ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hm-°p-I-fn¬ X-s∂ ]-I¿-Ømw: "B A-h-k-c-Øn¬ Rm≥ kp¬-Øm-\p-am-bn kwkm-cn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Xp-•-°n-s‚ hm-’-ey-]p-{X-\m-b a-l-aq-Zpw A-Sp-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. B A-h-k-c-Øn-em-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv jm A-Sp-Øp h-∂-Xv. ""{]-t`m! km-bm-” {]m¿-Y-\-°p-≈ k-a-b-am-bn. t]m-bn \-a-kv-I-cn-®p-h-∂m-epw'' F-∂p cm-P-Ip-am-c≥ _-lp-am-\-tØmSp Iq-Sn F-t∂m-Sp ]-d-™p. A-X-\p-k-cn-®v Rm-\-hn-sS \n-∂pw t]m∂p. ap≥-Iq-´n Xo-cp-am-\n-®n-cp-∂-X-\p-k-cn-®v A-e-¶-cn-® B-\-Iƒ Fgp-∂-≈n-°-s∏-´p. A-h Im-se-Sp-Øv sh-t°-≠ Xm-a-kw sI-´n-Sw ap-gps° X-I¿-∂p ho-Wp. kp¬-Øm-\pw a-l-aq-Zpw A-Xn-\-Sn-bn-em-bn. Cu H-®-bpw _-l-f-hpw tI-´-tXm-sS \n-kv-I-cn-°m-sX Rm≥ Hm-Sn-sb-Øn. sI-´n-Sw B-I∏ - m-sS s]m-fn-™p-In-S° - p-∂ Z-b\ - o-bÿ n-Xn-bm-Wv Rm≥ I-≠-Xv. A-Xn-\-Sn-bn¬-s]-´-h-cp-sS Zo-\-tcm-Z-\-ß-fpw tIƒ-°m-am-bncp-∂p. A-Xv s]m-fn-®v \o-°w sN-øp-hm≥ cm-P-Ip-am-c≥ I-ev-]n-®p. cm{Xn-bn¬ am-{X-ta sI-´n-S-Øn-s‚ X-I¿-∂ `m-K-߃ \o-°w sN-tø≠-Xp-≈q-sh-∂v A-t±-lw c-l-ky-\n¿-t±-i-hpw \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂p. A-X\p-k-cn-®v kq-cym-kv-X-a-b-Øn-\p-ti-j-ta Cu ]-Wn B-cw-`n-®p-≈q. aI-s‚ Po-h≥ c-£n-°m≥ Xp-•-°v X-s‚ i-co-cw D-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Ønb-Xm-bn-´m-Wv Im-Wm≥ I-gn-™-Xv. Xp-•-°n-s\ ]p-d-sØ-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Po-h-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw C-s√-∂pw c-≠-`n-{]m-b-ap-≠v. i-h-i-co-c߃ a-‰m-tc-bpw Im-Wn-®n-√. [r-Xn-bn¬ a-X-I¿-a-ß-fpw A-t¥ym-]Nm-c-ß-fpw \-S-Øn Xp-•-°m-_m-Zn¬ kw-kv-I-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' (Ibn Battuta, pp. 199-201)

{]-kn-≤-am-b Ip-cp-t£-{X-bp-≤w ap-X¬ cm-P-Io-bm-[n-Im-c-Øn-\pth-≠n {Iq-c-am-b ]-e-Xpw cm-Pm-°-∑m¿ sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-Xn-s‚ I-Y-Iƒ Nn-cn-{X-Øn-¬ A-\-h-[n-bm-Wv. a-t[y-¥y-bp-sS I-Y-bpw hn-`n-∂-a-√. ap-kv-enw `-c-W-Øn≥ Io-gn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ an-°-hm-dpw F-√m cm-P-hwi-ß-fp-sS-bpw N-cn-Xw A-[n-Im-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp-≈ h-Sw-h-en-bp-tS-XmWv. k-tlm-Z-c≥ k-tlm-Z-c-s\-bpw ]n-Xm-hv a-I-s\-bpw a-I≥ ]n-Xmhn-s\-bpw \n-jvTq-c-am-bn lnw-kn-®-Xn-s‚ I-dp-Ø I-Y-Iƒ sIm-≠v \n-d-™-Xm-Wv B N-cn-{X-߃. _m¬-_-\pw A-em-hp-±o-\pw Cu {]hr-Øn-Iƒ sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v. C¬-Øp-an-jn-s‚ a-c-W-Øn-\p ti-jw \mkn-ap-±o≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xv h-sc-bp-≈ ]-Øv sIm-√-°m-e-Øn\n-S-°v (1236 ap-X¬ 1246 h-sc) A-\-h-[n cm-P-Ip-am-c-∑m-cp-sS Np-Sp-c‡w ho-Wv Cu a-Æv a-eo-a-k-am-bn-´p-≠v. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-\p- ap-ºpw ti-j-hpw A-[n-Im-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n cm-Pm-°-∑m¿ \n-c-h-[n Ip-cp-Xn-°f-߃ kr-jv-Sn-®n-´p-≠v. ]n-Xm-hn-s\ sIm-∂v cm-Py-`m-cw G-s‰-Sp-ØpC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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F-∂-Xp- sIm-≠p- am-{Xw B-cp-tS-bpw cq-£-am-b ]-gn-°v C-h-cm-cpw ]m-{Xo-`q-X-cm-bn-´n-√. cm-Pm-[n-Im-c-Øn-\p-th-≠n G-Xp cm-Py-Øpw F°m-e-Øpw kz-k-tlm-Z-c-߃ X-Ωn-epw ]n-Xm-hpw a-I-\pw X-Ωn-epw kw-L-´-\-߃ \-S-∂n--´p-≠v. B-bp-[-_-ew sIm-≠v F-Xn¿-i-‡n-Isf ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-Øm-s\m-Ø-h¿ X-s‚ i-{Xp-°-sf A-h¿ B-cm-bncp--∂m-epw h-I-h-cp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. C-sXm-s° km-[m-c-W-bm-sW-¶n-epw A-—-s\ sIm-∂v cm-Pm-hm-b a-I-s\ B-cp kv-Xp-Xn-°p-I-bn-s√-∂p am{X-a-√ hm-s\m-cp-ßp-I-bn-s√-∂v am-{X-a-√ A-bm-fp-sS Zp-jv-S a-\x-ÿnXn-sb A-I-ta ]n-cm-Ip-I-bpw sN-øp-w. Np-cp-°-Øn¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•°n-s\-°p-dn-®v Iq-Sp-X¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ c-‡-Zm-l-Øn-s‚-bpw {`m-¥n-s‚bpw I-Y-Iƒ ]-d-b-W-sa-∂v \n¿-_-‘-ap-≈-h¿-°v A-t±-l-sØ ]nXm-hn-s‚ Lm-X-I-\m-bn X-s∂-th-Ww A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-hm≥. F-∂m¬ am-{X-ta A-h-cp-sS I-≈-°-Y-Iƒ ^-e-h-Øm-bn a-\- n¬ X-d-∏n-°phm-\pw kw-i-b-te-i-sa-t\y Aw-Ko-I-cn-∏n-°p-hm-\pw km-[n-°p-I-bp≈p. A-Xn-\p-≈ lo-\-{]-hr-Øn-bm-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n¬ B-tcm-]nX-am-bn-´p-≈ Cu ]n-Xr-l-Xy-bp-sS I-Y-bpw. N-{I-h¿-Øn-tbm cm-P-Ip-am-c-∑m-tcm hn-P-b-I-c-am-b H-cp ]-cy-S-\Øn-\p ti-jw a-S-ßn X-e-ÿm-\-sØ-Øp-tºmƒ kzo-I-c-W-߃ \ev-Ip-∂ ]-Xn-hv ]-≠p-ap-X-te \n-e-hn-ep-≈-Xm-Wv. _w-Km-fn¬ \n-∂p bp-≤w I-gn-™v hn-P-b-{io-em-fn-X-\m-bn Xn-cn-s®-Øn-b Kn-bm-kp-±o-\pw a-I≥ cm-P-Io-b-am-b H-cp kzo-I-c-Ww \-ev-In. Cu B-h-iy-Øn-\m-bn U¬-ln-bn¬-\n-∂pw A-©p-\m-gn-I Zq-c-Øp-≈ A-^v-Km≥-t]m¿ F-∂ ÿ-e-Øv H-cp ]-¥¬ \n¿-an-®p. kzo-I-c-Ww I-gn-bp-∂ k-a-b-Øp≠m-b {]-Ir-Xn-t£m-`w aq-ew ]-¥¬ \n-ew-]-Xn-°p-I-bpw Kn-bm-kp±o-\pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ Zzn-Xo-b-]p-{X≥ a-l-aq-Zpw a-‰p- Nn-e-cpw a-c-W-aS-bp-I-bp-am-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. Cu kw-`-h-sØ-bm-Wv kz-X- n-≤-am-b ssien-bn¬ _-Øq-Ø ]n-Xr-l-Xy-bp-sS \o-N-hpw \n-Ir-jv-S-hp-am-b Btcm-]-Ww ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ X-e-bn¬ sI-´n-sh-°p-∂-Xv. Cu k¬-°m-cØn¬ `m-K-`m-°p-I-fm-bn-cp-∂ N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cm-b kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿Wn-tb-bpw b-ln-bm C-_v\ - p A-lΩ - Z- v k¿-ln-μn-tb-bpw C-°m-cy-Øn¬ Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ B-{i-bn-°p-∂n-s√-∂-Xv A¿-Y-h-Øm-Wv. AtX k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ 1325 sk-]v-Xw-_-dn¬ \-S-∂ \n¿-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b H-cp kw-`-h-Øn-s‚ B-[n-Im-cn-I- h-‡m-hm-°p-∂-Xv 1333 ¬ am-{Xw C-¥ybn-te-°p h-∂ _-Øq-Ø-tb-bm-Wv F-∂ kw-K-Xn hn-Nn-{Xw X-s∂bm-Wv. _¿-Wn-bpw k¿-ln-μn-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ hn-tcm[n-I-fm-bn-cp-∂p. F-∂n-´p-t]m-epw ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v hn-Z-Kv-[-am-bn Bkq-{X-Ww-sN-bv-Xp ]n-Xm-hn-s\ sIm-∂-Xm-sW-∂v H-cn-°¬-t]m-epw CC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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h¿ ]-d-bp-∂n-√. _¿-Wn F-gp-Xp-∂-Xv: "C-Sn-sh-´v G-‰-Xp-aq-e-am-Wv Cu B-]-Øp kw-`-hn-®-Xv' F-∂m-Wv. k¿-ln-μn-bm-I-s´ "ssZ-h-\n-›-bam-Wv B A-]-I-S-Øn-s‚ tl-Xp' F-∂m-sW-gp-Xp-∂-Xv. k-a-Im-en-Icm-b Cu F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-sS \n-jv-]-£-am-b {]-kv-Xm-h-\-Iƒ kzo-I-cn°m-sX h-f-sc-s°m-√-Øn-\p ti-jw C-hn-sS h-cn-I-bpw tI-´p-tIƒ-hnbp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-epw X-s‚ tIƒ-hn-°m-cp-sS hm-k-\-°pw cp-Nn°pw A-\p-kr-X-am-bpw ho-≠p-hn-Nm-c-Øn-s‚ B-h-iy-an-√m-sX-bpw Fgp-Xn-°q-´n-b C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-kv-Xm-h-\ A-tX-]-Sn kzo-Icn-®v \mw \-Ωp-sS `-c-Wm-[n-]-∑m-cp-sS ap-J-Øp I-cn hm-cn- ]p-c-´p-Ibm-Wp sN-øp-∂-Xv. A-_pƒ-^-k-epw _-Zu-Wn-bpw ^-cn-jv-S-bp-sa-√mw C-Ø-cw H-cp Im-cyw H-cn-°-epw X-d-∏n-®p-]-d-bp-∂n-√. _-Øq-Ø am{X-am-Wv C-Xv A-k-μn-Kv-Z-am-bn {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-Xn-]m-Z-\w {i-≤n-®p hm-bn-®m¬-Øs∂ C-Xp Ir-{Xn-X-a-am-bp-≠m-°n-b-Xm-sW-∂pw X-s‚ tIƒ-hn-°m-cpsS B-kz-m-Z-\-Øn-\p th-≠n- am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw a-\- n-em-°m≥ A-[n-Iw _p-≤n-ap-´p -t\-cn-Sp-I-bn-√. B-\ H-cp {]-tXy-I- ÿ-e-Øp Nhn-´p-tºm-tg-°pw X-I¿-∂p- ho-gp-∂ kw-hn-[m-\-hpw, ]-¥-en¬ \n-∂pw a-‰p-≈-h-scm-gn-™ X-°w-t\m-°n B-\-I-sf A-Wn-\n-c-Øn ]-¥¬ X-I¿-Ø-Xp-sam-s° H-c-d-_n-°-Y-bn-se {]-Xn-]m-Z-\ -co-Xn-sb-∂-Xn¬ I-hn-™p N-cn-{X-am-Ip-I-bn-√. kw-`-hn-®-Xn-ß-s\-bm-Ip-hm-s\ X-c-ap≈p: B-\-I-sf \n-c-Øp-tºmƒ kp¬-Øm-\pw Zp¿-√-`w ]-cn-Nm-c-I-∑mcp-sam-gn-®v a-‰m-cpw ]-¥-en¬ C-cp-∂n-´p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°p-I-bn-√. K-Pho-c-∑m-cp-sS ]-tc-Up \-S-°p-tºmƒ A-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ B-k-\-ÿ-cm-Iphm-\m-cpw ss[-cy-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√-t√m. kp¬-Øm-\p {]-tXy-I-am-bn C-cn∏n-Sw k-÷-am-°n-bn-cp-∂n-´p-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww. A-Xn¬ A-t±-l-hpw aI-\pw Np-cp-°w B-{in-X-∑m-cp-sam-gn-sI-bp-≈-h¿ ]-¥-en¬-\n-∂pw ]pd-Øp t]m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. A-t∏m-gm-Wv A-]m-b-I-c-am-b C-Sn-sh-´p≠m-Ip-∂-Xpw kp¬-Øm-s‚ a-c-W-Øn-\v C-S-h-∂-Xpw. A-√m-sX hn-ZKv-Z-am-b H-cp Kq-Vm-tem-N-\- sIm-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√ Cu Zp-c-¥w. ]-¥¬ s]m-fn-™p ho-W-t∏mƒ A-Xn-s‚ A-h-in-jv-S-ß-sf-Sp-Øp \o-°m≥ I-ev-]n-® ap-l-Ω-Zv jm kz-Im-cy-am-b th-sd Nn-e \n¿-t±-i-߃ sImSp-Øp-sh-∂pw A-X-\p-k-cn-®v C-h \o-°w sN-øm≥ Xm-a-kn-®p-sh-∂pw a-‰p-ap-≈ kw-K-Xn-Iƒ a-\x-]q¿-hw I-Y-bp-sS ho-c-ky-Øn-\p th-≠n G-®p-Iq-´n-b-Xm-hm-t\ X-c-ap-≈q. C-cp-´n-b-Xn-\p ti-j-ta s]m-fn-™ ]-¥-en-s‚ A-h-in-jv-Sw \o-°n A-Xn-\-Sn-bn¬-s∏-´-h-sc \o-°m≥ {ian-®p-≈p F-∂p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂p. A-Xv i-cn-bm-Im-t\ X-c-ap-≈q. Im-c-Ww, ""k-‘ym \-a-kv-Im-c-Øn-\p k-a-b-am-bn, t]m-bn \n-kv-I-cnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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®n-´p-h-cq'' F-∂p ]-d-™m-W-t√m cp-Iv-\p-±o≥ F-∂ am-\y-s\ ap-l-ΩZv jm ]-d-™-b-°p-∂-Xm-bn _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂-Xv. A-t±-lw t]mb-Xn-\p ti-j-am-Wv B-\-I-sf A-Wn-bn-s®m-cp-°n F-gp-∂-≈n-°p-∂Xpw Cu A-]-I-Sw kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xpw. A-Xm-b-Xp k-‘ym \-a-kv-Imcw kq-cym-kv-X-a-b-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn-bm-Wp \-S-Øp-∂-Xv. kq-cy≥ A-kv-Xan-®p I-gn-™m¬ C-cp-´m-Ip-sa-∂v B¿-°p-a-dn-bm-Ø-X-√. Zp-cq-l-am-b \n-μym-tcm-]-Ww F-∂-Xn¬-I-hn-™p N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ Aw-iw t]m-epw C-Xn-en-s√-∂-Xm-Wp ]-c-am¿-Yw.Kn-bm-kp-±o≥ h-f-sc {]m-bw-sN-∂ tZ-l-am-bn-cp-∂p. F¨-]-Xp hb- p- I-gn-™n-cp-∂p A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]m-bw. hr-≤-\m-b ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ a-c-Ww-h-sc Im-Øn-cn-°m≥ a-I≥ a-Sn-Im-Wn-®p-sh-∂p h-cp-Øn-°q-´Ww. F-∂m¬ h-kv-Xp-\n-jvT-am-b k-a-Im-en-I tc-J-Iƒ Ip-dn-°p-∂ sX-fn-hp-Iƒ C-h-sb-√mw A-Sn-ÿm-\-c-ln-X-am-b ]-®-°-≈-am-°n am‰p-∂-h-bm-Wv. ap-l-Ω-Zv jm X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hm-b kp¬-Øm≥ a-cn-s®-∂p {]-N-cn-∏n-s®-∂pw A-Xn-s‚ Zp-cp-t±-iyw a-\- n-em-°n ssk-\n-I t\Xm-°-∑m¿ I-em-]w kr-jv-Sn-°p-I-bpw A-t±-l-sØ h-[n-°m≥ KqVm-tem-N-\ \-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-sX-∂pw ap-ºp-X-s∂ _-Øp-Ø Fgp-Xn-b-Xv Hm¿-an-°p-a-t√m. Cu {]-kv-Xm-hw i-cn-bm-sW-¶n¬ kz-¥w ]n-Xm-hn-s\ kq-{X-Øn¬ sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-b a-I-s\ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bmbn Aw-Ko-I-cn-°m≥ G-Xp tk-\m-\n X-øm-dm-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂p! \m-´n¬ B-`y-¥-c-am-b Ip-g-∏-ß-fpw c-‡-s®m-cn-®n-ep-w B-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°p-I-bt√ C-Xn-s‚ Xn-‡-^-ew? t\-tc-a-dn-®v H-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS a-c-Wti-jw bm-sXm-cp-h-I ÿm-\m-tcm-l-W-X¿-°-tam bp-≤-tam C-√m-sX k-am-[m-\-]-c-am-bn Io-cn-S-[m-c-Ww sN-bv-X Zp¿-√-`w N-{I-h¿-Øn-amcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v. ]n-Xm-hn-s\ sIm-√p-I-sb-∂ \o-NIr-Xy-Øn-\p ti-j-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ H-cn-°-epw k-am-[m-\-Øn-s‚ A-¥-co-£-Øn¬ A-t±-l-Øn-\v ÿm-\-tcm-l-Ww sN-øm≥ km-[n°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂-Xp Xo¿-®-bm-Wv. _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ F-gp-Xp-∂p: ""Xp-•-°n-s‚ a-c-W-Øn-\p ti-jw In-co-Sm-h-Im-in-sb kw-_-‘n-®v X¿°-tam F-Xn¿-t]m C-√m-Xn-cp-∂-Xp sIm-≠v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ a-I-\m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv jm-bn¬ cm-Pm-[n-Im-cw \n-£n-]v-X-am-bn.-''(Ibn Battuta, pp. 202203) a-‰p k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cpw k-am-[m-\-]-c-am-b Cu ]n¥p-S¿-®-sb {]-iw-kn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv.C-Xn-\pw ]p-d-ta a-s‰m-cp {]-[m-\-kw-K-Xn-Iq-Sn I-W-°n-se-Sp-t°≠-Xp-≠v. ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ a-c-W-Øn¬ Zpx-Jm¿-Ø-\m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv jm kpZo¿-L-am-b \m-ev-]-Xp \m-fp-Iƒ Zpx-Jm-N-c-Ww A-\p-jvTn-®-Xn-\p-tijw am-{X-am-Wv U¬-ln-bn-se-Øn N-{I-h¿-Øn-]-Zw G-s‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xv. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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]n-Xm-hn-s\ h-©-\-sIm-≠v h-[n-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-tem cm-Pm-[n-Im-c-Øn\p-th-≠n A-an-X-am-b Zp-c-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-tem ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ N-caw I-gn-™v \n-an-j-߃-°-Iw ÿm-\-tcm-l-Ww sN-øp-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-em-hp-±o≥ Jn¬-Pn X-s‚ A-Ωm-h-s\ sIm-∂ D-S-s\-X-s∂ N-{Ih¿-Øn-bm-bn {]-Jym-]n-°p-I-bpw D-S-en¬ \n-∂pw th¿-s]-Sp-Øn-b N{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS X-e ssk-\n-I-cp-sS hn-izm-k-Øn-\p th-≠n {]-Z¿-in∏n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-X-Xm-bn \-ap-°-dn-bmw. B-cpw Im-cyw t\-Sn-°-gn™m¬ ]n-s∂ D-±n-jv-S-^-e-kn-≤n-°m-bn hr-Ym-k-a-bw I-f-bm-dn-√. apl-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ Cu Zpx-Jm-N-c-W-hpw km-h-Im-i-hpw kw-i-b-tei-sa-t\y {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂-Xv X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ a-c-W-Øn-\v H-cn-°epw Xm≥ tl-Xp-hm-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v X-s∂-bm-Wv.kp¬-Øm-\m-b-Xn-\p ti-jw A-t±-lw A-Sn-®n-d-°n-b \m-W-b-ßfn¬ H-∂v X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ kv-a-c-W-sb \n-e-\n¿-Øp-hm≥ th-≠nbp-≈-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. B \m-W-b-Øn¬ X-s‚ ]n-Xm-hn-s\ A-»-lo-Zv (c‡-km-£n) F-∂m-Wv hn-ti-jn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv (The Coins of India-C. J.Brown). C-Xp-sIm-≠v ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v D-t±-in-®n-cp-∂-Xv Ir-Xy-\n¿-hl-W-Øn¬ A-h-km-\w h-sc _-≤-{i-≤-\m-bn-cp-∂ H-cp N-{I-h¿-Ønbp-sS A-¥yw A-Xn-\p tbm-Pn-® ]-Zw sIm-≠p-X-s∂ tc-J-s∏-Sp-ØpI-sb-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww. Xm≥ N-Xn-®p -sIm-∂-Xm-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ c-‡km-£n-sb-∂v A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-øp-I-tbm A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ kv-a-cW-sb A-b-hn-d-°m≥ kv-am-c-I-ap-{Z-I-fn-d-°p-I-tbm sN-øp-I-bn-√m-bncp-∂p. kzm¿-Y Xm-ev-]-cy-Øn-\p th-≠n-bm-sW-¶n-epw H-cp lo-\-IrXyw sN-bv-X hy-‡n H-cn-°-epw B k-μ¿-`-sØ Hm¿-an-∏n-°p-hm≥ Xp-\n-bp-I-bn-s√-∂-Xv a-\x-im-kv-{X-Øn-s‚ _m-e-]m-T-am-Wv. kz-¥w ]n-Xm-hn-s\ lnw-kn-® H-cp-Ø≥ H-cn-°-epw X-s‚ a-\x-k-am-[m-\w Ae-t¶m-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂ B A-[ym-bw Hm¿-an-°m-s\m-cp-sº-Sp-sa-∂v I-cpXp-∂-Xv bp-‡n-t°m a-\x-im-kv-{X-Øn-s‚ _m-e-]m-T-Øn-t\m ]-‰n-bXm-bn tXm-∂p-∂n-√.P-\-߃ X-s∂ kw-i-bn-°p-∂p-≠v F-∂ hn-izm-kw sIm-≠m-Wv C-Xp-sN-bv-X-sX-∂v hn-Nm-cn-°p-∂-Xpw ]-Yy-a-√. Im-c-Ww A-Ø-cw Hcp lo-\-Ir-Xyw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xv C-√m-bv-a-sN-øp-hm≥ shdpw H-cp \m-W-b-Øn-se en-Jn-Xw sIm-≠v km-[y-am-Ip-sa-∂v hn-Nm-cn°-Ø-° aq-V-\m-bn-cp-∂n-√ A-t±-lw. X-s‚ \n-c-]-cm-[n-Xzw sh-fn-hmt°-≠ km-l-N-cy-sam-∂pw A-t∏m-g-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. P-\ß-fp-sS ]n-¥p-W-bpw i-‡n-bpw D-≠m-b-Xn-\p ti-j-am-Wv Cu \mW-bw A-t±-lw A-®-Sn-°p-∂-Xv. a-‰m-sc-sb-¶n-epw {]o-Wn-∏n-°m-t\m ]p-Xn-b G-sX-¶n-epw Im-cyw t\-Sm-t\m D-t±-in-®m-bn-cp-∂n-√ Cu {]C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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hr-Øn-sb-∂v A-t∏mƒ hy-‡-am-W-t√m. {]-Xyp-X, X-s‚ a-lm-\m-b ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ kv-t\-l-kv-a-c-W ]p-e¿-Øm≥ th-≠n am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂pF-∂m-Wv \-ap-°v Du-ln-°m≥ km-[n-°p-∂-Xv. A-Xp-am-{X-am-Wv bp‡n-°pw \o-Xn-°pw \n-c-°p-∂- \n-K-a-\w.F-∂m¬ Cu h-I Zq-jym-tcm-]-W-ß-sf-bpw I-≈-°-Y-I-tf-bpw kq-£v-a-am-bn ]-cn-tim-[n-°m≥ A-[n-I-am-cpw ]-Wn-s∏-Sm-Øp-sIm-≠mWv C-∂pw C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-]-T-\w Iq-Sp-X¬ Zp¿-L-S-hpw ¢n-jv-S-hp-am-bn In-S-°p-∂-Xv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-sb-t∏m-se [m-cm-fw t]¿ A-h-cp-sS am-\-kn-I-ÿn-Xn-hn-ti-j-hpw hn-tZz-j-hpw ]-I-bpw H-s°- sIm-≠v ]e N-cn-{X h-kv-Xp-X-I-tf-bpw hn-I-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. a-[y-Im-e N-cn{X-sØ G-sX-¶n-epw hn-t[-\ I-cn-]p-c-´-W-sa-∂v a-\x-]q¿-Δw D-t±-in®v t¢-in-®n-cp-∂ {_n-´o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ Cu h-I ]-®-°-≈-߃-°v N-cn-{X-Øn-s‚ {]m-[m-\yw \-ev-In {]-N-cn-∏n-®-Xm-Wv C-{X-bpw A-]-IS-Øn-\p Im-c-Ww. A-h-sb I-Æp-]q-´n ]n-¥p-S-cp-hm-\p-≈ \-Ωp-sS hmk-\ C-h-s°m-s° a-Ip-Sw Nm¿-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. X-∑q-ew c-N-\mfl-I-am-b N-cn-{Xm-hn-jv-I-c-Ww Iq-Sp-X¬ t¢-i-tØm-Sp- Iq-Sn-bm-Wv Cu I-≈-°-Y-I-sf \-Ωn¬ A-Sn-t®-ev-]n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. tNm-Zyw sN-ø-s∏Sm-sX h-f-sc-°m-ew D-cp-hn-´-Xp-sIm-≠v A-h k-Xy-tØ-°mƒ h-en-b k-Xy-am-bn-Øo¿-∂n-cn-°p-∂ hn-tcm-[m-`m-k-am-Wv \-ap-°v Im-Wm-s\m°p-I. X-∑q-ew Aw-Ko-Ir-X N-cn-{X- k-Xy-am-bn C-h {]-]-©-\w sN-øs∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. A-Xp-Im-c-Ww C-h-sb tNm-Zyw sN-øm≥ an-\-s°-Sp∂ Pn-⁄m-kp-hn-\v t\-cn-tS-≠-Xm-b Zp¿-L-S-߃ \n-c-h-[n-bm-Wv. `Ko-c-Y {- ]-bX - v\ - Ø - n-\p ti-ja - m-sW-¶n-epw k-Xyw k-Xy-am-bn A-hX - cn-∏n-®m¬ X-s∂ A-Xn-\v km¿-h{- Xn-Ia - m-b Aw-Ko-Im-cw e-`n-°p-I £n{]-km-[y-a√ - . Hm-tcm N-cn-{X-hk - vX - p-XI - f - pw Iq-e¶ - j - a - m-b \n-co-£W - Øn-\p ti-jt- a Aw-Ko-Ic - n-°m-hq F-∂ \n-eb - m-Wv C-¥ym-Nc - n-{X-Ønep-≈X - v. ]-eX - pw tNm-Zyw sN-øs - ∏-tS-≠X - m-bpw h-cpw. A-Øc - w I-√psh-® \p-WI - f - p-sS H-cp Iq-ºm-cw X-s∂-sb-∂p ]-db - mw C-_v\ - p _Øq-Øb - p-sS ap-lΩ - Z- v Xp-•° - n-s\-°p-dn-®p-≈ {]-Xn-]m-Z\ - w.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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8 X-e-ÿm-\-am-‰-°m-cyw-˛-Du-°≥ \p-W C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-™-Xn¬ sh-t®-‰-hpw h-en-b \p-W, kp¬Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv X-s‚ X-e-ÿm-\w U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw tZ-h-Kn-cn-bnte-°v am-‰n-sb-∂-Xpw, U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-sf ap-gp-h-\pw ]p-Xn-b Cu X-e-ÿm-\-tØ-°v \n¿-_-‘-]q¿-hw ]-d-™-b-®p F-∂-Xp-am-Wv. Cu I-Y-°v C-¥ym- N-cn-{X-Øn¬ e-`n-®n-´p-≈ km¿-h-{Xn-I-am-b AwKo-Im-cw -X-s∂ F-{X-am-{Xw C-Xp P-\-ß-fp-sS a-\- n-te-°v am-™pt]m-Im-Ø hn-[w I-S-Øn-hn-´n-cn-°p-∂p -F-∂-Xn-s‚ a-Xn-bm-b sX-fnhm-Wv. C-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn B-[p-\n-I-cm-b N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-scm-s°-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv {`m-¥-\m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂ F¬-^n≥ tÃm-Wn-s‚ A-`n-{]m-b-tØm-Sv tbm-Pn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv. G-sXm-cp cm-jv-{So-b-h-¶-ØØn-\pw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-∂ ]-≤-Xn-Iƒ-°pw "Xp-•-°n-s‚ ]-cn-jv-Im-c߃ t]m-se' F-∂ D-]-a k¿-h-{X D-]-tbm-K-Øn¬ h-cn-I-bpw sN-bvXp. "k-aq-l-Øn-se Xp-•-°p-am¿' F-∂ kw-⁄ -sIm-≠p-t±-in-°p∂-h-cm-I-s´ Im-Sp-I-b-dn-b ]-cn-jv-Im-c-{`-a-tØ-bpw tXm¬-hn-b-S-bp-∂ ]p-tcm-K-a-\m-i-b-sØ-bpw sh-®p-]p-e¿-Øp-∂-h¿ F-∂-t{X! Np-cp-°Øn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ ]-cn-jv-Im-c-ß-tf-bpw A-t±-l-tØbpw A-{]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-b aq-V-Xz-߃-°v ]-cym-b-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂p. Cu X-e-ÿm-\-am-‰-Øn-s‚ I-≈-°-Y-Iƒ P-\-lr-Z-b-Øn¬ A{X-am-{Xw cq-V-aq-e-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Cu {]-am-Z-am-b N-cn-{X-h-¶-Øw bmZr-›n-I-am-bn I-S-∂p-h-∂-X-√. Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ C-On-®-Xv C_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-Øn¬ Iq-Sn A-h¿-°v e-`y-am-b-t∏mƒ, A-Xn-s\ i-cn-°pw ap-X-se-Sp-Ø-Xn-s‚ Xn-‡-^-e-am-Wn-Xv.ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ X-e-ÿm-\-am-‰-sØ kw-_-‘n-®v C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø C-ß-s\ tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn: "kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bp-≈ {]-am-Zß-fm-b B-tcm-]-W-ß-fn¬ {]-[m-\-am-b-Xv U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-sf C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

78


\-K-c-Øn¬ \n-∂pw am-dn-t∏m-Ip-hm≥ \n¿-_-‘n-®p- F-∂-Xm-Wv. C-Xn\p Im-c-W-sa-s¥-∂m¬ C-h¿ kp¬-Øm-s\ B-t£-]n-®pw ]p-e-`yw ]-d-™pw sIm-≠p-≈ [m-cm-fw Du-a-°-Øp-Iƒ cm-{Xn Im-e-ß-fn¬ sIm-´m-cØ - n-se k-`m-aμ - n-cØ - n¬ C-Sp-I- ]-Xn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. ""kp¬-Øm≥ am-{Xw hm-bn-°p-hm≥'' F-∂p {]-tXy-I-am-bn A-h-bn-se-gp-Xn-bn-cn-°pI-bpw sN-øpw. s]m-´n-®v hm-bn-°p-tºm-gm-Is - ´ kp¬-Øm-s\-°p-dn-®p≈ Zq-jym-tcm-]W - ß - f - pw ]-gn-bp-am-bn-cn-°pw \n-ds - b. X-∑q-ew U¬-lnsb \-in-∏n-°p-hm≥ A-t±-lw D-d® - p. P-\ß - f - p-sS ssI-hi - a - p-≠m-bn-cp∂ sI-´n-Sß - f - pw kz-Øp-sa-√mw A-t±-lw hn-eb - v° - p hm-ßn-b ti-jw A-ht- cm-sSm-s° Zu-eØ - m-_m-Zn-te-°v t]m-Ip-hm-\m-⁄m-]n-®p.""P-\-ß-ƒ-°n-Xp k-Ω-X-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂-Xp sIm-≠v B-Zy-am-Zyw A-h¿ am-dm≥ Iq-´m-°n-bn-√. C-Xp a-\- n-em-°n-b kp¬-Øm≥ aq∂p cm-{Xn I-gn-™m¬ U¬-ln-bn¬ H-cm-fpw Im-Wm≥ ]m-Sn-√m F∂ A-¥y-im-k-\w cm-P-Zq-X-∑m¿ ap-tJ-\ hn-fw-_-cw sN-bv-Xp. `q-cn-]£-hpw Cu I-ev-]-\-sb am-\n-®p ÿ-ew hn-´p. ]-t£, Nn-e¿ ho-Sp-Ifn-¬ H-fn-®n-cp-∂p. ¢n-]v-X-k-a-bw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ B-sc-¶n-epw H-fn-®ncn-°p-∂p-t≠m F-∂d - n-bm≥ kp¬-Øm≥ X-s‚ D-tZym-Kÿ ∑ - m-sc-s°m≠v A-t\z-j-Ww \-S-Øn-®p.-- C-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn c-≠p t]-sc I-≠p In-´n ˛ H-cmƒ ap-S-¥-\pw A-]-c≥ Ip-cp-S-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p. C-h-sc kp¬Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ lm-P-cm-°n. ap-S-¥-s\ Np-g-‰n-sb-dn-™p sIm-√p-hm\pw Ip-cp-S-s\ U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw \m-ev-]-Xp-ssa¬ Zq-c-ap-≈ Zu-eØm-_m-Zn-te-°p Ip-Xn-c-bp-sS Im-en¬ sI-´n h-en-®n-g-°p-hm-\p-am-Wp kp¬-Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®-Xv. Ip-cp-S-s‚ i-co-c-`m-K-߃ A-hn-sS-bpw C-hnsS-bp-am-bn sX-dn-®p Nn-¥n. Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn¬ F-Øp-tºmƒ A-h-tijn-®-Xv Ip-Xn-c-°m-en-t\m-Sp tN¿-Øp _-‘n-®n-cp-∂ A-bm-fp-sS Imen-s‚ Aw-iw am-{X-am-Wv.-'' ""ss]-im-Nn-I-am-b Cu Ir-Xyw \-S-∂-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn P-\-߃ \-Kcw -hn-t´m-Sn-t∏m-bn. A-h-cp-sS ho-´p-km-[-\-ß-fpw a-‰p h-kv-Xp-°-fpw Dt]-£n-°-s∏-´p. A-ß-s\ \-K-cw X-cn-im-bn-Øo¿-∂p.-'' F-\n-°p hnizm-k-ap-≈ H-cp kp-lr-Øv F-t∂m-Sp ]-d-™ hn-h-cw C-{]-Im-c-amWv: ""H-cp cm-{Xn-bn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ X-s‚ sIm-´m-c-Øn-s‚ a-´p-∏m-hn¬ I-b-dn-\n-∂v U¬-ln-sb H-cp hn-l-K-ho-£-Ww \-S-Øn. Xo-tbm ]p-Itbm hn-f-t°m C-√m-Xn-cp-∂ B \-K-c-sØ t\m-°n A-t±-lw C-ßs\ B-fl-K-Xw sN-bv-Xp: "C-t∏mƒ F-s‚ a-\-kv kz-ÿ-am-bn; F-s‚ tZ-jyw A-h-km-\n-®p'. C-Xn-\p-ti-jw a-‰p \-K-c-ß-fn-se P-\-߃ U¬-ln-bn¬ h-∂v Xm-a-k-am-°p-hm≥ kp¬-Øm≥ B-⁄m-]n-®p. A-h-cp-sS \-K-c-ß-sf \-in-∏n-°m≥ km-[n-®p-sh-∂-√m-sX U¬-lnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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sb P-\-\n-_n-U-am-°p-hm-s\m-Øn-√. A-{X -h-en-b H-cp \-K-c-am-Wv U¬-ln. F-¥n-\v tem-I-Øn¬ sh-®v G-‰-hpw h-en-b \-K-c-am-Wn-Xv F-∂v hn-ti-jn-∏n-°-Ww. Cu A-h-ÿ-bn-em-Wv R-߃ h-cp-tºmƒ U¬-ln-sb Im-Wm-\n-S-bm-b-Xv. Ip-d-®v P-\-ß-sf H-gn-®m¬ U¬-lnhn-P-\-hpw P-\-Xm-a-k-an-√m-Ø-Xp-am-bn-cp-∂p A-t∏mƒ.-'' (Selections from the Travels of Ibn Battuta, pp. 204-205)

C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hm-Nm-e-am-b Cu {]-kv-Xm-h-\-bm-Wv Cw•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cp-sS A-h-ew-_w. A-tXm-sSm-∏w kp¬-Øm-s‚ i-{Xp-°-fm-bn-cp-∂ kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-bp-sS-bpw C-km-an-bp-sS-bpw N-cn-{X-߃ C-Xn-\v D-t]m-Zv-_-e-I-am-bn A-h¿ D-b¿-Øn-∏n-Sn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ k-a-Im-en-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn. `q-hp-S-a-I-fp-sS-bpw ap-kv-enw a-X-{`m-¥-∑m-cp-sS-bpw h-‡m-hmbn-´m-Wv A-t±-lw {]-Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. kp¬-Øm-s\-°p-dn-®v _¿-Wn°p-≈ B-t£-]-ß-fn¬ h-ep-Xv, ""A-t±-lw A-\-h-[n ap-kv-enw ]-WvUn-X-∑m-tc-bpw ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw \n¿-±-bw lnw-kn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw, bYm¿-Y-hn-izm-kn-I-sf (ap-kv-enw-I-sf) sIm-√¬ H-cp {h-X-am-bn Aw-KoI-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p' F-∂-Xn-\m-em-Wv. (Tarikh-i-Firoz shai-pp. 236-237) ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ a-X-k-ln-jv-W-p-X-bpw kmw-kv-Im-cn-I kw-Lm-X-Øn-\p- th-≠n-bp-≈ D-Zm-Ø-am-b {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fpw _¿Wn-tb-bpw Iq-´-tc-bpw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-tcm-[n-I-fm-°n. hn-`n-∂-am-b B-i-b-ß-fp-sS s]m-cp-Ø-s∏-Sm-s\m-°m-Ø ÿn-Xn hn-ti-j-hpw X÷-\y-am-b kw-L¿-j-hp-am-Wv Cu ap-kv-enw N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ Xp-•°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ Im-cy-Øn¬ A-\p-h¿-Øn-°p-hm≥ \n¿-_-‘-n-X-cmb-Xv. A-Xp-sIm-≠v A-h-cp-sS N-cn-{Xw ]-£-t`-Zw sIm-≠v I-cn-]p-c≠-Xm-bn am-dn. th-sdm-cp N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b C-km-an-°v kp¬-Øm-t\mSp-≈ ]-cn-`-hw a-s‰m-∂m-bn-cp-∂p. Im-em-Im-e-am-bn U¬-ln-bn¬ I-gn™n-cp-∂ C-km-an-tbm-Sv Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v t]m-Ip-hm≥ kp¬Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®p. A-∂v A-t±-l-Øn-\v ]-Xn-\m-dv h-b- p-am-{X-ta {]mb-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈q. Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°p-≈ bm-{Xm-a-t[y X-s‚ apØ-—≥ C-kp-±o≥ C-km-an hm¿-[-Iy-k-l-P-am-b kp-J-t°-Sp-aq-ew ar-Xn-b-S-™p. Cu Zp-c-¥-Øn-s‚ Im-c-W-°m-c-\m-b kp¬-Øm-t\m-Sv C-km-an-°v ITn-\-am-b A-a¿-j-ap-≠m-bn. A-t±-lw N-cn-{X-c-N-\ \-SØn-b-t∏mƒ B ]p-kv-X-Iw k-a¿-]n-®-Xv `m-an-\n cm-P-hw-i-ÿm-]-I\m-b A-em-hp-±o-\m-bn-cp-∂p. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ ssh-t{km-bn-am-cnsem-cm-fm-bn-cp-∂p `m-an-\n km-{am-Py-ÿm-]-I≥. U¬-ln-km-{am-PytØm-Sv I-em-]w \-S-Øn kz-X-{¥-am-bn ÿm-]n-® cm-P-hw-i-am-Wv `man-\n km-{am-Pyw. B cm-Pm-hn-\m-Wv C-km-an X-s‚ ]p-kv-X-Iw k-a¿C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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]n-®-Xv. C-Xn¬ \n-s∂-√mw C-km-an-bp-sS N-cn-{X-hpw Xp-•-°v ap-l-ΩZn-s\ kw-_-‘n-®v C-km-an \n-in-X-hn-a¿-i-\w \-S-Øm-\p-≈ Im-c-Whpw a-\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-tX D-≈q.C-Xn-s\m-s° ]p-d-ta kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-bp-sS-bpw a-‰pw ho£-W-Øn¬ C-¥y-bn-se P-\-e-£-߃ H-cn-°-epw H-cp ÿm-\-hpw A-e-¶-cn-®n-cp-∂n-√. a-[y-Im-e- N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ "P-\-߃' F-∂ ]-Zw sIm-≠¿-Y-am-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv k-aq-l-Øn-se ta-te-X-e-∏-Øp-≈ P-∑nI-tf-bpw {]-`p-°-tf-bpw am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p. km-[m-c-W-°m¿-°v a-\p-jycp-sS ]-Z-hn-sIm-Sp-°m-t\m a-\p-jym-h-Im-i-ß-f-\p-`-hn-°m-t\m A-\ph-Zn-°m-Xn-cp-∂ H-cp Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ km-aq-ln-I-˛-cm-jv-{So-b-X-e-ß-fn¬ {]m-ho-Wyw t\-Sn-b-h¿ am-{Xw "P-\-ß-fm'hp-I- kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. CXv a-\- n-em-°m-sX-bm-Wv _¿-Wn-bp-tS-bpw a-‰pw C-Xp-kw-_-‘-amb {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-߃ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-kv-Xm-h-\-°v k-lm-b-I-am-bn N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ ap-X-se-Sp-°p-∂-Xv."Un-tbm-Ko-dn-s\ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zv F-∂v \m-a-I-c-Ww sN-bv-Xv A-hntS-°v X-e-ÿm-\w am-‰n-b-Xp-sIm-≠v U¬-ln \-in-°p-I-bpw A-hn-sSbp-≠m-bn-cp-∂ {]-[m-\-s∏-´ B-fp-Iƒ-°v {]-bm-k-߃ t\-cn-Sp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp' F-∂m-Wv "Xm-co-Jn ^n-tdm-kv-jm-bv F-∂ ]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬ kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- (Barni-Elliot Vol. III, p. 239) A-t±lw Xp-S-¿-∂v tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xm-I-s´, "F-√mw \-in-∏n-®p. H-cp ]-´ntbm ]q-®-tbm U¬-ln-bn-se ho-Sp-I-fn-tem sIm-´m-c-ß-fn-tem A-hti-jn-®n-cp-∂n-√. P-\-߃ A-h-cp-sS Ip-Spw-_-ß-tfm-Spw _-‘p-°tfm-Spw `r-Xy-∑m-tcm-Spw-Iq-Sn ÿ-ew am-dn-t∏m-Im≥ \n¿-_-‘n-X-cm-bn. Zpx-J-`m-c-Øm¬ A-h-i-cm-b ap-kv-enw-Iƒ A-‘-hn-izm-k-ß-fp-sS \m´n¬ A-¥y-hn-{i-aw sIm-t≈-≠-Xm-bn-h-∂p. h-f-sc Zp¿-√-`w-t]-tc Zpcn-X-]q¿-W-am-b Cu I-Y ]-d-bm≥ A-h-ti-jn-®p-≈q.-'(Barni-Elliot and Dwson Vol. III, p. 239)

_-Øq-Ø-bp-sS A-Xyp-‡n-]-c-am-b {]-kv-Xm-h-Øn-\p k-lm-b-Iam-bn k-a-Im-en-I tc-J-Iƒ-Iq-Sn \n¬-°p-tºmƒ F-¥n-\v _-Øq-Øsb A-hn-iz-kn-°-W-sa-∂ \ym-b-hm-Z-am-Wv tUm-Iv-S¿ kv-an-Øv, F¬^n≥ tÃm¨ Xp-S-ßn-b Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-sØ A-tX-]-Sn ]-I¿-Øn-°m-´n-b-Xv. F-∂m¬ C-_v-\p _Øq-Ø-bp-sS A-Xn-`m-hp-I-Xz-tØm-Sp- Iq-Sn-bp-≈ k-©m-c-I-Y-bp-sS i-cn-bm-b hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-hpw k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b _¿-Wn, C-km-an Xp-Sßn-b-h-cp-sS hn-tZz-j-Øn-s‚ Im-c-W-ß-fpw I-≠p-]n-Sn-°p-hm≥ A¬]w B-bm-k-s∏-s´-¶n¬ C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øn-se e-÷m-I-c-am-b Cu Xe-ÿm-\-am-‰-Øn-s‚ s]m-≈-Ø-cw sh-fn-s∏-Sp-Øm-s\m-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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_-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-kv-Xm-h-\-bn-ep-≈ A-kmw-K-Xy-sØ-°p-dn-®v \-ap°m-Zyw {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°mw. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ U¬-lnsb \-in-∏n-°m-\pw A-hn-S-sØ P-\-ß-sf in-£n-°m-\pw th-≠n Icp-Xn-°q-´n \-S-Øn-b H-cp {]-Xn-Im-c \-S-]-Sn-bm-Wv U¬-ln-bn¬ \n∂p Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°p-≈ X-e-ÿm-\-am-‰w. Cu B-tcm-]-Ww F{X-am-{Xw k-Xy-am-sW-∂v \-ap-°v B-Zy-ta ]-cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-tfm-Sv hn-tZz-jw tXm-∂n-b-Xp sIm-≠v bmsXm-cp ho-≠p- hn-Nm-c-hp-an-√m-sX-bm-Wv A-h-tcm-Sv Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te°v t]m-Im-\m-h-iy-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv F-¶n¬ C-{X-bpw P-\-ß-sf ]p-Xn-b H-cp ÿ-e-Øv Ip-Sn-bn-cp-Øp-I-sb-∂ Zu¿-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b _p-≤n-ap-´v kp¬-Øm-s\ A-e-´n-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°p-I-bn-t√? H-cp ]-t£, D-∑m-Zn-bm-b Xp-•-°n-\v P-\-ß-fp-sS I-jv-S-∏m-Sn-s\-°p-dn-®v Nn-¥n-®v A-kz-ÿ-\mtI-≠ B-h-iy-an-s√-∂m-bn-cn-°mw! F-∂m¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø Xs∂ Zu-eØ - m-_m-Zn-s\-°p-dn-s®-gp-Xp-∂X - v C-ßs - \-bm-Wv: "_o-lm-dn¬ \n-∂pw R-߃ D-÷-bn-\n-bn-te-°v bm-{X-bm-bn. A-Xv \-√ `w-Kn-bpw P-\-km-{μ-X-bp-ap-≈ ]-´-W-am-Wv. A-hn-sS-\n-∂pw Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te°m-Wv t]m-b-Xv. X-e-ÿm-\-am-b U¬-ln-sb-t∏m-epw sh-√p-∂ a-t\ml-c-hpw hn-im-e-hp-am-b H-cp \-K-c-am-Wn-Xv. A-Xn-\p Im-c-Ww Cu \K-c-Øn-s‚ B-kq-{X-W-ssh-in-jv-Sy-hpw h-ep-∏-hp-am-Wv. Cu \-K-cnsb aq-∂m-bn hn-`-Pn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. H-∂v Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zv F-∂p ]-d-bp-∂ ÿ-ew X-s∂. C-hn-Sw kp¬-Øm-\pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ssk-\y-߃°pw th-≠n {]-tXy-Iw k-÷-am-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv. c-≠m-a-sØ `m-KsØ I-Sm-Im F-∂p hn-fn-°p-∂p. aq-∂m-a-tØ-Xm-Wv \-K-c-Øn-s‚ {][m-\ B-ÿm-\w. A-Xn-s\ Un-tbm-Ko¿ F-∂p ]-d-bp-∂p. Cu \-K-cØn-s‚ i-‡n-tb-bpw ta-∑-tb-bpw I-h-®p-sh-°m≥ a-s‰m-∂pw tem-IØn-√.-' "cm-P-Kp-cp-hpw A-ao-dp-am-b Ip-Øp-e-Iv-Jm-\m-Wv C-hn-S-sØ `-cWm-[n-]-\pw N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS {]-Xn-\n-[n-bpw. A-t±-lw sX-ep-¶m-\bpw A-Xn-s‚ A-Xn¿-Øn- cm-Py-ß-fpw `-c-Ww \-S-Øp-∂ hy-‡n-bmWv. Cu cm-Py-Øn-s‚ A-Xn¿-Øn-bn-se-Øm≥ aq-∂p am-k-sØ k©m-c-am-h-iy-am-Wv. P-\-߃ Xn-ßn-∏m¿-°p-∂ Cu ÿ-e-Øn-s‚ `c-W-`m-cw C-t±-l-am-Wv \-S-Øp-∂-Xv. tZ-h-Kn-cn-bn-ep-≈ tIm-´-bm-I-s´ G-‰-hpw i-‡-am-Wv. h-en-b H-cp ]m-d-s°-´n-em-W-Xv ÿn-Xn- sN-øp-∂Xv. D-{K-am-b Cu ]m-d- Xp-c-∂v A-Xn-s‚ ap-Iƒ-]-c-∏n¬ a-t\m-l-c-amb-l¿-ayw ]-Wn-Xo¿-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. A-Xn-te-°p-≈ {]-th-i-\w Xp-I¬ sIm-≠p-≠m-°n-b H-cp tIm-h-Wn-bn¬ Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. cm-{Xn -Im-e-ßfn¬ C-Xv \o-°w sN-øp-∂p. Cu tIm-´-°-I-Øp-≈ P-bn-en¬ X-S-hpC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Im-cm-°p-∂-Xv I-\-Ø in-£ -\-ev-Ip-∂-h-sc-bm-Wv. P-bn-en-\-I-Øv ]q-®-tb-°mƒ h-en-b F-en-I-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. ]q-®-Iƒ Cu F-en-I-sf `b-s∏-´p -hn-c-fp-∂-Xv Rm≥ I-≠n-´p-≠v. X-∑q-ew C-h-sb \-in-∏n-°phm≥ sI-Wn-sh-°p-I-bm-Wv sN-øp-∂-Xv. F-\n-°v A-h-sb I-≠-t∏mƒ A-¤p-Xw tXm-∂n.-' "Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-se P-\-߃ a-dm-Ø-°m-cm-Wv. A-h-cp-sS kv-{XoI-fp-sS ]p-cn-I-hpw \m-kn-I-bpw a-t\m-l-c-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ssZ-hw C-hcn¬ ku-μ-cyw \n¿-t√m-`w A-\p-{K-ln-®p \-ev-In-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Cu \K-c-hm-kn-I-f-[n-I-hpw A-hn-izm-kn-I-fm-Wv(ln-μp-°ƒ). A-h¿ kz¿W hym-]m-c-am-W-[n-I-hpw \-S-Øp-∂-Xv. h-f-sc [-\n-I-∑m-cm-Wv C-hscm-s°-bpw. Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn¬ a-t\m-l-c-hpw hn-im-e-hp-am-b H-cp _km¿ D-≠v. A-hn-sS Km-b-I-∑m-cpw Km-bn-I-I-fpw kp-e-`-am-Wv. Hm-tcm ]o-Sn-I-bpw A-h-bn¬- Hm-tcm hm-Xn-ep-I-fpw Im-Wmw. A-Xv I-S-∂p-sN∂m¬ F-Øp-∂ ÿ-ew Cu I-S-I-fp-sS D-S-a-ÿ-∑m-cp-sS Kr-l-ß-fnem-Wv. Cu I-S-Iƒ `w-Kn-tb-dn-b ]-c-h-Xm-\n-Iƒ-sIm-≠v A-e-¶-cn-®ncn-°pw. ap-dn-bp-sS \-Sp-hn¬ sXm-´n¬-t]m-se-bp-≈ H-cp hn-Xm-\-Ønem-Wv Km-bn-I-am¿ C-cn-°p-∂-Xpw ]m-Sp-∂-Xpw. A-h¿ k¿-hm-`-c-W hn-`q-jn-XI - f - m-Wv. ]m-´p-]m-Sn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-tºmƒ A-hc - n-cn-°p-∂ sXm´n-em-´p-hm≥ A-\p-N-c-∑m¿ D-≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Cu _-km-dn-s‚ H-Ø \Sp-hn-¬ hn-Xm-\n-® H-cp ]-¥-ep-≠v. km-bm-”-{]m¿-Y-\-°v ti-jw F√m hym-gm-gv-N-bpw \-K-c-Øn-se {]-[m-\ Km-b-I≥ A-hn-sS B-K-X-\mbn-cn-°pw. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]-cn-Nm-c-I-∑m-cpw A-Sn-a-I-fpw ap≥-]-¥n-bn¬ C-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-w. Km-bn-I-am¿ Iq-´w Iq-´-am-bn A-hn-sS k-∂n-lnX-cm-hp-I-bpw ]m-Sp-I-bpw B-Sp-I-bpw sN-øp-∂-Xv ]-Xn-hm-Wv. C-Xv {]m¿-Y-\m-k-a-bw h-sc Xp-S-cp-∂p. {]m¿-Y-\-°m-bn B-fp-Iƒ ]n-cn-bptºm-gm-Wv Cu ]m-´pw ta-f-hpw A-h-km-\n-°p-∂-Xv. C-tX _-km-dn¬X-s∂ {]m¿-Y-\-°p-≈ ]-≈n-I-fp-ap-≠v. C-hn-S-sØ H-cp ln-μp-cm-Pm-hv Cu _-km-dn¬-Iq-Sn I-S-∂p-t]m-Ip-tºmƒ Cu ]-¥-en¬ B-k-\-ÿ\m-bn ]m-´pw \-S-\-hpw Im-Wp-I km-[m-c-W-bm-Wv. H-cp ap-kv-enw cmPm-hpw A-Xp-X-s∂ sN-øp-∂-Xm-bn-´-dn-bmw.-' (Travels of Ibn Battuta, pp. 227-228)

C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂-bm-Wv Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-s\-°p-dn-®v ta-ep≤-cn-® hn-h-c-Ww \-ev-Ip-∂-Xv. Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-s\ a-t\m-l-c-am-b H-cp \-K-c-am-°n kp¬-Øm≥ am-‰n-bn-cn-°p-s∂-∂pw kp-Zo¿-L-am-b ]-cymtem-N-\-°pw [m-cm-f-Øn-te-sd-bp-≈ B-kq-{Xn-X {]-b-Xv-\-߃-°pw ti-jw hn-Z-Kv-[-am-bn \n¿-an-®-Xm-Wv Cu \-K-c-sa-∂p-am-Wv C-Xn¬ \n∂pw a-\- n-em-°m≥ km-[n-°p-∂-Xv. s]-s´-∂v tZ-jyw I-b-dn P-\-ßC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

83


sf in-£n-®-Xm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn¬ k-÷o-I-cn-®n-cp∂ ku-I-cy-߃ A-\m-h-iy-am-bn-cp-t∂-t\.C-Xn-t\m-S-\p-_-‘-am-bn a-s‰m-cp k-a-Im-en-I ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw k©m-cn-bpw B-b A¬ D-a-dn \¬-Ip-∂ hn-h-c-hpw Iq-Sn k-a-\z-bn-∏n-®v ]T-\w \-S-Øn-bm¬ \-ap-°v Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-s\-°p-dn-®v H-cp G-I-tZ-i⁄m-\w In-´pw. A-t±-l-sa-gp-Xp-∂p: "C-¥y-bp-sS X-e-ÿm-\w U¬ln \-K-c-am-Wv. C-Xp I-gn-™m¬ ]n-∂-sØ {]-[m-\ \-K-cw tZ-h-Ko¿ F-∂-Xpw. Cu \-K-cw C-t∏m-g-sØ kp¬-Øm≥ ÿm-]n-®-Xm-Wv. At±-l-a-Xn-\v "I-A-_-Øp¬ C-kv-emw' A-Y-hm "C-kv-em-an-s‚ ap-JytI-{μw' F-∂m-Wv t]-cn-´-Xv. Rm≥ B-dp-sIm-√-߃-°p ap-ºv B ÿ-e-Øp-\n-∂v t]m-cp-tºmƒ sI-´n-S-ß-sf-√mw ]q¿-Øn-bm-bn-´p-≠mbn-cp-∂n-√. kp¬-Øm≥ Cu \-K-c-sØ Hm-tcm hn-`m-K-Øn-epw s]-´ tPm-en-°m¿-°p-th-≠n {]-tXy-Iw {]-tXy-Iw hn-`-Pn-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. ssk-\n-I¿, Jm-kn-Iƒ, ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿, ssi-Jp-Iƒ, ap-^v-Xn-Iƒ XpS-ßn Hm-tcm X-c-°m¿-°pw th-sd-th-sd ÿ-e-ß-fm-Wv B-kq-{X-Ww sN-bv-Xv kw-hn-[m-\n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. Hm-tcm {]-tXy-I L-S-I-߃-°pw Bh-iy-am-b ku-I-cy-ß-fpw G¿-∏m-Sm-°n-bn-´p-≠v. ]-≈n, N-¥, I-fn-ÿew, In-W-dp-Iƒ, A-Sp-∏p-Iƒ ap-X-em-b-h-bpw sIm-√-∑m¿ Xp-S-ßn-b G-Xp-X-cw tPm-en-°m-sc-bpw A-hn-sS Xm-a-kn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. A-hn-sSbp-≈-h¿-°v {I-b-hn-{I-b-߃-t°m a-s‰-s¥-¶n-epw B-h-iy-Øn-t\m ]p-d-sa t]m-tI-≠-Xm-b B-h-iy-ta D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Cu Hm-tcm hn-`Pn-X-hn-`m-K-hpw kz-bw ]-cym-]v-X-ß-fm-b Hm-tcm sIm-®p \-K-c-ß-fmbn am-dp-I-bm-Wv.-' "cm-Py-sØ c-≠p {]-[m-\-s∏-´ \-K-c-ß-fm-b U¬-ln-°pw Zn-tbmKo-dn-\p-an-S-°v A-Sp-Ø-Sp-Ø ÿ-e-ß-fn-em-bn X-tº-d-Sn-°p-hm-≥ G¿∏m-Sv sN-bv-Xn-´p-≈-Xv. F-s¥-¶n-epw H-cp kw-`-hw \-S-∂m¬ D-S-s\ Xtº-d-Sn-°p-∂p. H-cp ÿ-e-Øp \n-∂pw A-Xn-s‚ i-_v-Zw tI-´m¬ Hmtcm t]m-Ãn¬ \n-∂pw Xp-S¿-∂v i-_v-Z-ap-≠m-°p-∂p. X-∑q-ew Cu c≠v ÿ-eØ - n-\p-an-S° - v F-¥p kw-`h - n-®m-epw H-´pw Xm-ak - n-bm-sX kp¬Øm-\v \n-jv-{]-bm-kw A-dn-hp e-`n-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p. C-Xp-Im-c-Ww Cu \-K-c-ß-fn-se sK-bn-‰p-Iƒ F-t∏mƒ Xp-d-°p-∂p F-t∏mƒ A-S°p-∂p F-∂X - p Iq-Sn A-dn-bm≥ kp¬-Øm-s\m-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p.-' (Masalikul Abgar-Alumeri)

17˛mw \q-‰m-≠n¬ C-hn-sS F-Øn-b k-©m-cn-Iƒ ap-gp-s° Zu-eØm-_m-Zn-s‚ h¿-[-am-\-am-b s]m-en-a-sb ]-cm-a¿-in-®n-´p-≠v. jm-Plm-s‚ Im-e-sØ N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b A-_v-Zp¬ l-ao-Zv em-tlm-cn-bpw a-‰pw F-¥p-am-{Xw {]-iw-k-bm-Wv Zn-tbm-Ko-dn-s\ kw-_-‘n-®v sNm-cnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

84


™n-´p-≈-Xv. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw 700 ssa¬ A-I-se-bp-≈ Zu-eØm-_m-Zn¬ Cu \-K-c-kw-hn-[m-\w H-cp-°n-b-tXm-Sp Iq-Sn U¬-ln-apX¬ Cu ÿ-ew h-sc \-√ H-cp tdm-Up-≠m-°p-I-bpw tdm-Un-s‚ Ccp h-i-ß-fn-epw hr-£-߃ \-´p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-- ]p-d-ta, io-{L-X-bpw Im-cy-£-a-X-bp-ap-≈ H-cp X-]m¬ k¿-ho-kv \-S-∏n-em°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp- F-∂v k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b a-‰-\-h-[n F-gp-Øp-Im¿ ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. kp¬-Øm-s\ A-[n-t£-]n-°p-∂-Xn¬ ap-º-\m-bn-cp-∂ _¿Wn ]-d-bp-∂p: ""U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw t]m-b-h¿-°v F-√m bm-{Xm kuI-cy-ß-fpw ]-W-hpw \-ev-Ip-∂-Xn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ h-f-sc a-lm-a-\-kvI-X Im-Wn-®n-´p-≠v.-'' Np-cp-°-Øn¬ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xpt]m-se, U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-߃ X-s∂ B-t£-]n-®v I-sØ-gp-Xn-bXp-sIm-≠v tIm-]m-{Im-¥-\m-bn P-\-ß-sf in-£n-°p-hm≥ th-≠n Hcp kp-{]-`m-X-Øn¬ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v ]-d-™-b-®-X-√. Zo¿-L-amb H-cm-kq-{Xn-X- ]-≤-Xn-bp-tS-bpw kp-Nn-¥n-X-am-b \n¿-am-Wm-fl-I- {]h¿-Ø-\-Øn-s‚-bpw ]-cn-k-am-]v-Xn-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-kv-Xm-h-\ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ Zn-tbm-Ko¿ hn-h-c-Ww sIm-≠p-X-s∂ s]mfn-s®-gp-X-s∏-´p. A¬ D-a-dn ]-d-bp-∂ Hm-tcm {]-tXy-I tPm-en-°m¿°p th-≠n-bp-≈ \-K-c-hn-`-P-\w X-s∂-bm-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Km-bnIm- Km-b-I-∑m-cp-sS _-km-dn-s\-°p-dn-®p-≈ ]-cm-a¿-i-hpw. A-t±-l-Øns‚ hm-k-\-°pw cp-Nn-°p-a-\p-k-cn-®v Im-cyw Iq-Sp-X¬ a-t\m-l-c-am-bn hn-h-cn-®p-sh-∂p-am-{Xw. Np-cp-°n-∏-d-™m¬ h-f-sc {]-b-Xv-\-hpw ]-Whpw sN-e-hp-sN-bv-Xm-Wv Cu a-lm-\-K-cn kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv ]-WnI-gn-∏n-®-Xv.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS a-s‰m-cm-t£-]w P-\-ß-sf ap-gp-s° \n¿_-‘n-®v U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v ]-d-™-b-®p-sh∂m-Wv. A-Xv A-hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-b H-cp Im-cy-hpw N-cn-{X bm-Ym¿-YyØn-\p hn-]-co-X-hp-am-Wv. kw-`-hn-®-Xn-ß-s\-bm-Imw: Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn¬ H-cp ]p-Xn-b \-K-cw \n¿-an-® kp¬-Øm≥ U¬-ln-bn-se X-s‚ Ip-sd D-tZym-K-ÿt-- cm-Sv A-hn-tS-°v t]m-Im≥ B-h-iy-s∏-´p. ]-t£, A-h¿°m¿-°pw X-s∂ A-Xn-jv-S-s∏-´n-cn-°m-\n-S-bn-√. Im-em-Im-e-am-bn U¬ln-bn-epw ]-cn-k-c-Øpw I-gn-™n-cp-∂ A-h-tcm-Sv 700 ssa¬ A-I-se A-]-cn-Nn-X-am-b H-cp ÿ-e-tØ-°v am-dn-t∏m-Ip-hm≥ B-h-iy-s∏-´t∏mƒ A-h-scm-s° ]-cn-{`m-¥-cm-bn. C-∂pw H-cp ÿ-e-Øv \n-∂pw as‰m-cn-S-tØ-°v ÿ-ew am-‰-ap-≠m-bm-ep-≠m-hp-∂ A-¶-em-∏pw ]-cmXn-bpw D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-cp-sS C-S-b¬ \mw \n-tXy-\ Im-Wm-dp-≈-XmW-t√m. C-Xv 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n-em-sW-∂ Im-cy-hpw A-Xn-\p-ap-ºv C-ßs\ H-cp ÿ-ew am-‰-{]-iv-\w tI-´p-tIƒ-hn-t]m-ep-an-√m-Xn-cp-∂p F-∂ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

85


kw-K-Xn-bpw Hm¿-°-Ww. ]-t£, ]p-Xn-b H-cp `-c-W-tI-{μw {]-hn-iybn¬ ÿm-]n-® ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v X-s‚ D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-tcm-S-√m-sX a‰m-tcm-Sm-Wv t]m-Ip-hm-\m-⁄m-]n-°p-I. X-s‚ I-ev-]-\ A-\p-k-cn°m≥ a-Sn-®-h-sc A-t±-lw cm-P-im-k-\ _-lp-am-\n-°m≥ \n¿-_-‘n®n-cn-°pw. "C-Xp-aq-ew U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-fn¬ {]-[m-\n-I-fm-b-h¿°v {]-bm-k-ap-≠m-bn' F-∂-√m-sX P-\-ß-tfm-Sv ap-gp-s° Zu-e-Øm_m-Zn-te-°v t]m-Im-\m-h-iy-s∏-Sp-I-tbm A-ß-s\ H-cp kw-`-hw \-S°p-I-tbm D-≠m-bn-´n-√.]-t£, A-°m-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h-a-\p-k-cn-®v H-cp-Iq-´w D-tZymK-ÿ-∑m¿ U¬-ln- hn-´-t∏mƒ H-cp h-en-b P-\-{]-f-bw X-s∂ D-≠mbn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. Im-c-Ww Hm-tcm {]-`p-hpw A-t\-Iw A-Sn-a-I-fp-sS DS-a-bm-bn-cp-∂p. k-aq-l-Øn-se [-\-ti-jn-bp-tS-bpw {]m-ho-Wy-Øn-s‚bpw A-f-hv Hm-tcm-cp-Ø-cp-sS-bpw Io-gn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ A-Sn-a-I-fp-tS-bpw l-c-Øn-se kv-{Xo-I-fp-tS-bpw F-Æ-°q-Sp-X¬ sIm-≠m-bn-cp-∂p IW-°m-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv. a-s‰m-cm-fp-sS [-\-ti-jn A-dn-bm≥ A-bmƒ-°v F-{X ÿ-e-ap-≠v F-∂v \mw A-t\z-jn-®v a-\- n-em-°m-dp-≈-Xp t]mse A-°m-e-Øv H-cp {]-`p-hn-s‚ A-¥- v Iq-Sp-I-bpw Ip-d-bp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂-Xv l-c-Øn-se B-bn-c-°-W-°m-b A-Sn-a-I-fp-tS-bpw Ac-a-\-bn-ep-≈ kv-{Xo-I-fp-tS-bpw h¿-[n-® kw-Jy-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønem-bn-cp-∂p. X-∑q-ew Hm-tcm {]-`p-hpw Iq-Sp-X¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ Aw-K-kwJy-bp-≠m-°m≥ {i-an-®n-cp-∂p. C-Xn-s\m-s° ]p-d-ta C-h-cp-sS Hm-tcmcp-Ø-cp-tS-bpw Io-gn¬ [m-cm-fw ]-´m-f-°m-cp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ""H-cp Jm≥ 10,000 Ip-Xn-c-∏-S-bm-fn-I-fp-sS t\-Xm-hm-Wv. am-en-°m-I-s´ 1000 Ip-Xn-c∏-S-bp-sS kq-£n-∏p-Im-c-\pw. H-c-ao-dn-s‚ Io-gn¬ 100 A-iz-m-cq-V-cm-b `-S-∑m-cp-ap-≠v'' F-∂m-Wv C-hn-sS A-°m-e-Øv \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ ssk-\n-I-t\-Xr-Xz-sØ kw-_-‘n-®v ]Tn-®-dn-™ A¬ D-a-dn {]-kvXm-hn-°p-∂-Xv. A-ß-s\ a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ H-cp {]-`p-hn-s‚ Ip-Spw_-sa-∂p ]-d-™m¬ A-Xv A-\-h-[n B-fp-Iƒ Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂-Xm-bncp-∂p. H-cp {]-`p H-cp ÿ-e-Øp-\n-∂v a-s‰m-cn-S-Øv t]m-Ip-I-sb-∂-Xns‚ A¿-Yw, A-t\-Iw P-\-ß-fp-sS {]-hm-l-ap-≠m-Ip-I-sb-∂m-Wv. At∏mƒ Ip-sd {]-`p-°-∑m-tcm-Sv U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw Zu-e-Øm-_m-Znte-°v t]m-Im≥ kp¬-Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®-t∏mƒ A-h-scm-s°-bpw X-ßfp-sS h-en-b-kw-Lw P-\-ß-tf-bpw sIm-≠v t]m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. Npcp-°-Øn¬ C-S-Xq¿-∂n-S-Xq¿-∂p-≈ Cu h-en-b P-\-{]-hm-l-sØ U¬ln-bp-sS {]m-¥-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-se P-\-߃ A-¤p-Xw-t]m-se t\m-°ns°m-≠n-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww.C-h-cp-sS t]m-°n-s‚ D-t±-iy-sa-¥m-sW-∂m-cm-™-h-tcm-Sv H-cp-]C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

86


t£, U¬-ln-sb hn-P-\-am-°m≥ th-≠n kp¬-Øm≥ F-√m-h-tcmSpw I-ev-]n-®n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂v C-h¿ ]-d-™p-an-cn-°pw. Im-c-Ww, H-cp-]t£ Cu ÿ-ew am-‰w H-cp in-£-bm-bn A-h-c-{X-bpw I-W-°m-°nbn-cp-∂n-cn-°pw. ÿ-ew am-dn-t∏m-Ip-∂ D-tZym-K-ÿ≥ ta-ep-tZym-K-ÿs‚ A-{]o-Xn-°v C-c-bm-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww Cu ÿ-ew am-‰-sa∂v C-°m-e-Øp-t]m-epw kw-i-bn-°m-dp-≠v. C-Xp-t]m-se kp¬-Øm≥ A-h-tcm-sSm-s° F-t¥m ]-I tXm-∂n-b-Xp-aq-e-am-Wv t]m-Im≥ ]-d™-sX-∂v A-∂p-≈-h-cpw [-cn-®n-cn-°pw. kp¬-Øm-s‚ tIm-]-Øn-\nc-bm-b-Xp-sIm-≠v H-cp in-£-sb-t∂m-Ww ÿ-ew-am-dn- t]m-hp-I-bmsW-∂v tNm-Zn-°p-∂-h-tcm-Sv ]-d-™m¬ A-h¿ C-h-sc D-]-{Z-hn-°p-Ibpw ]p-On-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-sa-∂p-≈-Xp-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°mw in-£-°v F-√m P-\-ß-fpw hn-t[-b-cm-bn F-∂pw U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-tfm-Sv apgp-s° t]m-Im≥ ]-d-™p-sh-∂pw C-h¿ {]-N-cn-∏n-®-Xv. C-jv-S-an-√m-Xncp-∂ C-h-sc \n¿-_-‘n-®v ]-d-™-b-®-t∏mƒ A-h¿-°v kp¬-Øm-t\mSv hn-tZz-j-ap-≠m-Ip-I kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-Ø-c-°m¿ ]-d-bm-hp-∂ ]c-Zq-j-W-ß-fpw I-≈-°-Y-I-fpw Du-ln-°m-hp-∂-tX-bp-≈q. Cu I-YI-fn-te-sX-¶n-epw B-bn-cn-°pw _-Øq-Ø-bpw tI-´-Xv. Im-c-Ww, C-Xv \-S-°p-∂-Xv 1327em-Wv. _-Øq-Ø C-¥y-bn¬ h-cp-∂-Xm-I-s´ 1333 sk-]v-Xw-_-dn-ep-am-W-t√m. B-tcm ]-d-™p-tI-´ I-≈-°-Y H-∂p-IqSn X-∑-b-Xz-am-bn _-Øq-Ø A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-I-bm-Wv sN-bv-X-Xv.F-√m P-\-ß-tfm-Spw t]m-Im≥ ]-d-™n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ sIm-´m-cØn-se A-t¥-hm-kn-bm-b N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-bpw t]m-tI-≠-Xm-bn h-cp-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-t±-lw t]m-b-Xm-bn ]-d-bp-∂n-√. kp¬-Øm-s‚ D-t±-iyw P-\-ß-sf in-£n-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂pw D∂-X-am-b H-cp kz-]v-\-Øn-s‚ km-£m-Xv-Im-c-am-bn-cp-∂p Zu-e-Øm-_mZv \n¿-am-W-sa-∂pw hy-‡-am-°m≥ F-{X-tbm tc-J-Iƒ th-W-sa-¶nepw C-∂p e-`y-am-Wv. X-\n-°n-jv-S-hpw hn-izm-k-hp-ap-≈ D-tZym-K-ÿ∑m-tcm-Sm-Wv t]m-Im-\m-h-iy-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv. ]-t£, A-h-c-{X-bpw AsXm-cp in-£-bm-bn [-cn-®-Xv kp¬-Øm-s‚ Ip-‰-am-Ip-∂-sX-ß-s\? Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v t]m-Im-\m-h-iy-s∏-´ I-hn-bpw N-cn-{X-Im-c-\p-amb _-Z¿ Nm-®-°p kp¬-Øm-\-b-® I-Øv A-t±-lw {]-kn-≤o-I-cn-®n´p-≠v. A-Xn-{]-Im-c-am-Wv: "ln-Pv-d 745 i-A-_m≥ H-∂mw Xo-b-Xn kp¬Øm-\n¬ \n-∂pw F-\n-s°m-cp I-ev-]-\ In-´n. "A-√-tbm _-Z¿, I-hnbm-b P-ao¬-am-en-°pw A-Sn-a-bm-b s\-t{Im-Wp-sam-∂n-®v dp-kv-X-Øns‚ {]u-Vn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn t]m-Ip-hm-s\m-cp-ßp-I. c-≠v tem-I-Øn-s‚bpw kw-c-£-I≥ \n-ß-sf Xp-W-°-s´. k¿-h-N-cm-N-c-ß-fp-sS-bpw A[n-]≥ \n-ß-fn¬ I-\n-bp-I-bpw sN-ø-s´. Zn-tbm-Ko-dn-te-°-√; Rm-\C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

87


Xn-s\ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zv F-∂v hn-fn-°p-∂p. Aw-_-c-Npw-_n-I-fm-Wv Ahn-sS-bp-≈ tIm-´-bpw sI-´n-S-ß-fpw. A-Xv F-s‚ cm-Py-Øn-se H-cp tI-{μw am-{X-am-sW-¶n-epw B-bn-cw Pmw-j-Un-t\-°mƒ I-a-\o-b-amWv. A-hn-S-sØ K-h¿-W-dm-b Ip-Øv-e-Iv-Jm-s‚ A-Sp-°¬ sN-√p-Ibpw Cu hn-⁄m-]-\w Im-Wn-®v B-Xn-Yy-hpw k-ar-[n-bpw kzo-I-cn°p-I-bpw sN-øp-I.-.-.-.-.-.-.-'' (Kasaid of Badr chach-Elliot, Vol. III, p. 570) kp¬-Øm-s‚ Cu I-Øn¬ \n-∂pw e-`n-°p-∂ km-cw h-f-sc hne-s∏-´-Xm-Wv. Xm≥ kw-hn-[m-\w sN-bv-X B \-K-cn-bp-sS I-a-\o-b-amb a-t\m-l-m-cn-X-bn¬ A-t±-lw B-th-iw sIm-≈p-∂p. hn-Z-Kv-[-am-b B-kq-{X-W-Øn-\pw B-tem-N-\-°pw ti-j-am-Wv Cu \-K-c-\n¿-am-Ww \-S-Øn-b-sX-∂pw kn-≤n-°p-∂p-≠v. _-Øq-Ø-bpw _¿-Wn-bpw ]-dbp-∂ [n-°m-c-kz-`m-h-a-√ Cu I-Øn¬ \n-g-en-°p-∂-Xv. hn-\-b-hpw ku-lr-Z-hpw \n-d-™v Xp-fp-ºp-∂-Xm-Wv Cu I-Øv. P-\-ß-tfm-Sv apgp-s° t]m-Im≥ ]-d-™n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ C-ß-s\ H-‰-sbm-‰-bm-b Fgp-Øp-Iƒ A-b-t°-≠ B-h-iyw D-≠m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. A-t∏mƒ Npcp-°w Nn-e-tcm-Sp am-{X-ta t]m-Im-\m-h-iy-s∏-´n-´p-≈q F-∂v A-k-μnKv-[-am-bn ]-d-bm-s\m-°pw.C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ ]-d-bp-∂-Xv "\-K-c-Øn¬ \n-∂pw k-Ie -P-\-ß-tf-bpw H-gn-∏n-® ti-jw sIm-´m-c-Øn-s‚ a-´p-∏m-hn¬ I-b-dn\n-∂v kp¬-Øm≥ Xo-tbm -]p-I-tbm hn-f-t°m A-\-°-tam C-√m-Ø hn-P-\-am-b U¬-ln-sb t\m-°n B-izm-kw sIm-≠p'sh-∂m-Wv. Cu {]-kv-Xm-hw X-s∂ U¬-ln hn-P-\-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v B-h¿-Øn-®v {]Jym-]n-°p-∂p. Im-c-Ww kp¬-Øm¬ U¬-ln sIm-´m-c-Øn-ep-≠m-bncp-∂p-sh-∂m-W-t√m _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. kp¬-Øm≥ U¬-ln-bnep-s≠-¶n¬ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]-´m-f-°m-cpw D-]-tZ-i-I-cpw A-h-cp-sS k-∂m-l-ß-fpw U¬-ln-bn¬ D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°pw Xo¿-®. A¬ D-a¿ ]-d-bp-∂p: "kp¬-Øm≥ H-cp Zn-h-kw c-≠p {]m-h-iyw X-s‚ D-tZym-Kÿ-∑m-sc A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\-sN-bv-Xv kw-km-cn-°pw. Im-e-Øpw sshIp-t∂-c-hpw Np-cp-ßn-b-Xv C-cp-]-Xn-\m-bn-cw t]-sc-¶n-epw C-Xn¬ kw_-‘n-°m-dp-≠v.-'(Masalik-ul Abgar-Alumeri). H-cp {]-`p-hn-s‚ Io-gn-ep-≈ P-\-ß-fp-sS G-I-tZ-i- kw-Jy \mw a-\- n-em-°m≥ {i-an-®-Xm-Wv. At∏mƒ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS ssk-\y-ß-fpw a-‰p- Po-h-\-°m-cpw F-{X-am{X-am-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂v Du-ln-°p-∂-Xm-Wp-Ø-aw. U¬-ln hn-P-\-am-°n F-√m-h-tc-bpw ]-d-™-b-®p-sh-∂pw "H-cp Ip-cp-S-\pw H-cp ap-S-¥-\p-samgn-sI'bp-≈ k¿-h-P-\-ß-fpw t]m-sb-∂pw a-‰p-ap-≈ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS B-tcm-]-Ww b-£n-°-Y-Iƒ t]m-se A¿-Y-iq-\y-am-Wv. _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv, U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-tfm-Sv t]m-Im≥ I-ev-]n-® ti-jw C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

88


kp¬-Øm≥ H-cp Xn-c-®n¬ \-S-Øn-sb-∂pw H-fn-®n-cp-∂ H-cp Ip-cp-S-t\bpw H-cp ap-S-¥-t\-bpw I-≠p-In-´n-sb-∂pw D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ C-h-sc kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ lm-P-cm-°n-b-t∏mƒ ap-S-¥-s\ sIm-√m-\pw Ipcp-S-s\ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v h-en-®n-g-°m-\pw I-ev-]n-®p F-∂p-am-Wv. Xp-S¿-∂v _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂ hm-N-Iw-Iq-Sn {i-≤n-®m¬ A-t±-lw sN-øp-∂ B-Zy-{]-kv-Xm-h-Øn-s‚ A¿-Y-iq-\y-X [-cn-°p-hm-s\-fp-∏-amWv. _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂-Xv "Cu in-£ \n-jv-I-cp-Ww \-S-∏m-°n-bt∏mƒ P-\-߃ ]-cn-{`m-¥-cm-sb-∂pw A-h-cp-sS k-I-e-am-\ k-º-ØpI-fpw D-t]-£n-®v \-Kc - w hn-t´m-Sn-t∏m-bn' F-∂p-am-Wv. (Ibn Battuta pp.204). Cu in-£m-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ-°p ti-j-am-Wv P-\-߃ U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw t]m-bn-´p-≈-sX-¶n¬ cm-P-In-¶-c-∑m¿ \-S-Øn-b A-t\z-j-W-Øn¬ \n¿`m-Ky-hm-∑m-cm-b Ip-cp-S-\pw ap-S-¥-\pw am-{X-am-Ip-∂-sX-ß-s\? A-h¿ am-{X-ta A-h-ti-jn-®n-cp-∂p-≈p- F-¶n¬ A-h-sc in-£n-®-Xn¬ \n∂p-≠m-b B-]-Xv-i-¶-sIm-≠v U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw k-I-e-Xp-ap-t]£n-®v c-£-s∏-Sp-hm≥ P-\-ß-sf-ß-s\-bp-≠m-bn? C-sXm-s° Im-Wn°p-∂-Xv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS {]-kv-Xm-hw I-√p-sh-® \p-W-bpw ]-c-kv-]cw tbm-Pn-°m-Ø {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw am-{X-am-sW-∂m-Wv.C-Xn-t\-°mƒ {]-am-Z-am-b kw-K-Xn-bm-Wv X-e-ÿm-\w am-‰n-sb∂ B-tcm-]-Ww. kp¬-Øm≥ U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw X-e-ÿm-\w am‰p-∂-Xv B-tem-Nn-°p-I-t]m-epw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂n-s√-∂-Xm-Wv ]-c-am¿-Yw. X-s‚ sX-°≥ {]-hn-iy-I-fp-sS `-c-Ww Iq-Sp-X¬ Im-cy-£-a-am-bn \n¿h-ln-°p-hm≥ th-≠n H-cp ]p-Xn-b \-K-cw kr-jv-Sn-°p-I-bpw A-hn-SsØ `-c-W-\n¿-h-l-W-Øn-\m-bn X-s‚ D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-sc ]-d-™-b°p-I-bp-am-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. ]-t£, A-°m-e-Øv Z-ln-°m-Ø D-∂-X-am-b B-Z¿-i-hpw {]m-tbm-Kn-I cm-jv-{So-b ]-Sp-X-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm≥ {]-Im-in-∏n-®-Xv. X-∑q-ew k-a-Im-en-I¿ t]m-epw Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-s‚ \n¿-am-W-hpw {]u-Vn-bpw I-≠-t∏mƒ X-e-ÿm-\w X-s∂ am-‰m-\m-bncn-°p-sa-∂v Du-ln-®-Xpw B Du-lw {]-N-cn-∏n-®-Xpw A-{X A-kz-`mhn-I-am-bn K-Wn-°m-hp-∂-X-√. A-ß-s\-bm-Wv Cu I-Y _-Øq-Øbpw tI-´-Xv. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw X-e-ÿm-\w am-‰n-sb-s∂-gp-Xn-b as‰m-cp N-cn-{X-Im-c≥ kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-bm-Wv. ]-t£ A-t±-lw X-s∂ kz-bw \n-tj-[n-°p-∂ ]-c-kv-]-c-hn-cp-≤-am-b {]-kv-Xm-h-\-Iƒ sN-øp-∂p-≠v: "B-Zyw e-l-f \-S-Øn-b-Xv apƒ-Øm-\n-se K-h¿-W-dmbn-cp-∂ _-lo-dm A-_n-b B-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xv kp¬-Øm≥ Zn-tbm-Kodn¬ B-bn-cn-°p-tºm-gm-Wv. C-Xp-tI-´ am-{X-bn¬ A-t±-lw X-e-ÿm\-tØ-°v a-S-ßp-I-bpw A-hn-sS-\n-∂v H-cp ssk-\y-sØ ti-J-cn-®-Xns‚ ti-jw apƒ-Øm-\n-te-°v am¿-®p-sN-øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. hn-P-bnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

89


bm-bn Xn-cn-®p-h-∂ kp¬-Øm≥ ]n-s∂ c-≠p sIm-√w U¬-ln-bn¬ X-s∂ I-gn-®p-Iq-´n.-' (Barni Tarikhi-Firoz shai, P. 242). apƒ-Øm-\n¬ hn-πhw \-S-°p-∂-Xv 1327 em-Wv. B sIm-√w X-s∂-bm-Wv X-e-ÿm-\w am‰n-sb-∂ B-tcm-]-W-hp-ap-≈-Xv. X-e-ÿm-\w tZ-h-Kn-cn-bn-te-°v am-‰nsb-∂v ]-d-bp-∂ A-h-k-c-Øn¬ X-s∂ U¬-ln- X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p Xe-ÿm--\-sa-∂v _¿-Wn hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv. kp¬-Øm≥ X-e-ÿm-\-am-b U¬-ln-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn-sb-∂-Xv A¿-Y-h-Øm-Wv. ]p-Xn-b X-e-ÿm\-Øp \n-∂pw U¬-ln-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn-sb-∂-√; Zn-tbm-Ko-dn-¬ \n-∂pw X-e-ÿm-\-am-b U¬-ln-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn-sb-∂m-Wv C-Xv kq-Nn-∏n-°p∂-Xv. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw X-e-ÿm-\w H-cn-°-epw am-‰n-bn-cp-s∂-s√∂v X-s∂-b-t√ C-Xp Im-Wn-°p-∂-Xv? a-s‰m-cp kw-K-Xn kp¬-Øm≥ X-e-ÿm-\-tØ-°p h-∂v h-en-b H-cp ssk-\y-sØ ti-J-cn-®p-sh-∂Xm-Wv. U¬-ln-bn-se P-\-ß-sf ap-gp-s° am-‰n-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ a-cp`q-an-bm-°n am-‰n-b B \-K-cn-bn¬ \n-∂pw H-cp h-en-b ssk-\y-sØ k-÷o-I-cn-°m-s\-ß-s\ km-[n-®p-? C-Xp-sIm-≠v [-cn-t°-≠-Xv U¬ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw Ip-td D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ A-h-cp-sS k-∂m-l-ß-tfm-Sp Iq-Sn Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v t]m-bn-sb-∂-√m-sX U¬-ln-bn-se P-\km-{μ-X-°v H-´pw tIm-´w X-´n-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v X-s∂-bm-Wv. X-e-ÿm\w am-‰n-sb-∂pw P-\-ß-sf ap-gp-s° \o-°n-sb-∂pw ]-d-bp-∂ A-tX h¿-jw \-S-∂ kw-`-h-am-Wn-sX-∂p-Iq-Sn Hm¿-Ωn-°p-∂-Xv I-Y-bp-sS I≈w sh-fn-®-Øv sIm-≠p-h-cp-hm-\p-]-I-cn-°p-sa-∂v Xo¿-®.C-°m-e-Øv C-¥y k-μ¿-in-®p hn-h-c-W-߃ F-gp-Xn-b A¬ D-adn-bp-sS {]-Xn-]m-Z-\w \m-ap-≤-cn-®-Xm-Wv. A-t±-lw kw-i-b-te-i-a-t\y {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv: "U¬-ln-bm-Wv C-¥y-bp-sS X-e-ÿm-\w. A-XpI-gn-™m¬ ]n-∂-sØ {]-[m-\-\-K-cn Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zm-Wv. A-Xp \n¿an-®-Xv C-t∏m-g-sØ kp¬-Øm-\m-b ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°m-Wv.-' U¬-lnbn¬ \n-∂pw Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°v X-e-ÿm-\w am-‰n-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Pn-⁄m-kp-hm-b Cu ]-Wv-Un-X≥ A-Xv tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øp-am-bn-cp-∂p. bm-sXm-cp kzm¿-Y-tam-l-tam \n-£n-]v-X-Xm-ev-]-cy-tam C-√m-Xn-cp-∂ \njv-]-£-a-Xn-bm-b N-cn-{X-Im-c-\pw k-©m-cn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p A¬ D-a-dn. A-t±-lw C-¥y-bn¬ h-∂-Xv _-Øq-Ø-sb-t∏m-se kp¬-Øm-s‚ Iogn¬ tPm-en-b-t\z-jn-t®m A-s√-¶n¬ a-s‰-s¥-¶n-epw tam-ln-t®m Bbn-cp-∂n-√. A-t\z-j-W-Ip-Xp-In-bpw Zm¿-i-\n-I-\p-am-b Cu k-©m-cn°v B-sc-bpw {]-iw-kn-°p-I-tbm \n-μn-°p-I-tbm sN-tø-≠ B-hiyw D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. A-Xp-sIm-≠p X-s∂ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ N-cn-{X- cN-\ h-kv-Xp-\n-jvT-hpw hn-iz-k-\o-b-hp-am-Wv. X-e-ÿm-\-am-‰-°-Y A¬ D-a-dn tIƒ-°p-I-tbm F-gp-Xp-I-tbm sN-øm--Xn-cp-∂-Xv Cu I-Y ]n-∂oC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

90


Sv {]-Nm-c-Øn¬ h-∂-Xm-sW-∂-Xn-\v sX-fn-hm-Wv.Np-cp-°-Øn¬, kp¬-Øm≥ H-cp ]p-Xn-b \-K-cw \n¿-an-°p-I-bmWp-≠m-b-Xv. Z-£n-W -cm-Py-ß-fp-sS `-c-Ww kp-K-a-am-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ e-£yw. A-Xp hn-P-bn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-√msX X-e-ÿm-\w am-‰n-bn-´n-√. P-\-ß-tfm-Sp am-dp-hm≥ B-h-iy-s∏-´n-´pan-√. C-sXm-s° G-tXm i-{Xp-°ƒ ]-d-™p-≠m-°n-b-Xm-Wv. A-Xns‚ Kp-W-tZm-j -hn-th-N-\w \-S-Øm-sX C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø A-t±-lØn-s‚ `m-h-\m-hn-em-k-Øn-\pw X-s‚ B-kzm-Z-I-k-Z- n-s‚ c-k-Øn\pw th-≠n B-hn-jv-I-cn-®p- F-∂p am-{Xw. ]-t£ A-Xv A-tX-]-Sn Aw-Ko-I-cn-® {_n-´o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿-°v cm-jv-{So-b-am-b Zp-cp-t±-i-amWp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-sX-∂v \-ap-°v [-cn-°p-hp-∂-tX-bp-≈q. ]-t£, A-tX N-cn-{Xm-`m-k-߃ C-¥y-s\-gp-Øp-Im-cpw ]n-¥p-S-cp-∂-Xv B-t£-]m¿l-am-Wv. \mw \-sΩ-Ø-s∂ ]p-On-°p-∂-Xn-\pw \-Ωp-sS P-\-X-bp-sS N-cn-{X-sØ hn-I-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw Xp-\n-bp-∂-Xv A-Xn-cp-I-S-∂ A]-I-S-kz-`m-h-am-Wv. a-lm-flm-°-fm-b \-Ωp-sS N-cn-{X-]p-cp-j-∑m¿ A°m-e-L-´-Øn-s‚ {]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ F-∂ \n-e-°p-X-s∂ A-°m-e-sØ P-\-k-aq-l-Øn-s‚ kw-kv-Im-c {]-tLm-j-I-cpw t\-Xm-°-∑m-cp-am-bncp-∂p. A-h-sc I-cn-tX-°p-I-sb-∂-Xn-s‚ A¿-Yw \mw B Im-e-L-´Øn-se P-\-ß-tfm-Spw A-h-cp-sS kw-kv-Im-c-tØm-Spw A-\o-Xn sN-øp∂p-sh-∂-m-Wv. C-Ø-cw N-cn-{X-h-¶-Ø-߃ \n-jv-]-£-_p-≤n-tbm-Spw a-\x-km-∂n-[y-tØm-Spw Iq-Sn s]m-fn-s®-gp-Øv \-S-tØ-≠- k-a-bw sshIn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Im-c-Ww Im-e-∏-g-°-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn C-Ø-cw Imcy-߃ Iq-Sp-X¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ \o-°p-t]m-°n-√m-Ø N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-Ifm-bn am-dpw. A-h \-Ωp-sS hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-fp-sS a-\- n¬ B-™n-d-ßpI-bpw am-‰m≥ km-[n-°m-Ø-{X C-f-Im-Ø A-`n-{]m-b-ß-fm-bn-Øo-cpI-bpw sN-øpw. \-Ωp-sS N-cn-{X-{]-Xn-]m-Z-\-Øn-se C-Ø-cw Du-°≥ \p-W-Iƒ C-d-°n-hn-´ N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cp-tS-bpw k-©m-cn-I-fp-tS-bpw icn-bm-b kz-`m-h-hpw a-X-cm-jv-{So-b ho-£-W-ß-fpw bp-‡n-k-l-am-bn A-]-{K-Yn-®v hn-i-I-e-\ -hn-t[-b-am-°n k-Xy-k-‘-am-b \n-K-a-\-ß-fnse-Øn-t®-cm≥ km-[n-s®-¶n¬ am-{X-ta C-cp-´n¬ X-∏n-Ø-S-bp-∂ N-cn{X -hn-Zym¿-Yn-I-sf A-dn-hn-s‚ dm-¥¬ Im-´n t\¿ h-gn-bn¬ Iq-Sn \bn-°-s\m-°p-I-bp-≈q. A-Xn-\p-≈ G-Xp ]-cn-{i-a-tØ-bpw t{]m-’mln-∏n-°p-I-bpw th-Ww.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

91


9 ssN-\o-kv B-{I-a-W-hpw N-cn-{X-h-¶-Øw X-s∂ Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ kw-_-‘n-®v N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ \-S-Øp-∂ as‰m-cm-`m-k-am-b B-tcm-]-Ww A-t±-lw ssN-\-sb B-{I-an-°m≥ Hcp h-en-b ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®p-sh-∂-Xpw B ssk-\yw B-I-am-\w \-in-°m-\n-S-bm-bn F-∂p-am-Wv. tUm-Iv-S¿ hn≥-sk‚ v kv-an-Øv Cu ]-≤-Xn-sb ]-cm-a¿-in-®v {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂-Xv C-ß-s\-bm-Wv: ""a-s‰m-c]m-c-am-b ]-≤-Xn, \o-∏mƒ h-gn ln-am-e-b in-J-c-߃ I-S-∂v ssN-\sb B-{I-an-°p-I-sb-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ k-tlm-Z-c-]p-{X-\mb Jp-t{km- am-en-°n-s‚ Io-gn¬ H-cp e-£w ssk-\y-sØ ti-J-cn-®v, F.--Un. 1337˛¬ Cu D-t±-i-tØm-Sv Iq-Sn ]-d-™-b-®p. Ip-Xn-c-∏-S-bm-fnIƒ a-e-tbm-c-ß-fn¬ In-S-∂v I-jv-S-s∏-´p. ssN-\-°m-cp-am-bn G-‰p-ap´n-b-t∏mƒ Cu tbm-≤m-°-f-{X-bpw ]-cm-Pn-X-cm-bn. A-h-ti-jn-® ]Øp-t]¿ U¬-ln-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn-h-s∂-¶n-epw c-‡-c-£- m-b Cu N-{I-h¿-Øn A-h-sc h-[n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' (The Oxford. History of India-p. 241)

a-s‰m-cp Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b F¬-^n≥-tÃm¨ Ip-sd-Iq-Sn hn-iz-kn-∏n-°-Ø-°- cq-]-Øn¬ C-ß-s\ hy-h-l-cn-®p: ""kp¬-Øm-s‚ [-\-Zp¿-tam-lw H-∂p-am-{X-am-Wo kw-cw-`-Øn-\pw X-Zzm-cm D-≠m-b hn\m-i-Øn-\pw C-S-bm-°n-b-Xv.-''(Elphinstone-p. 396) Cu Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{XIm-c-∑m¿-°v kp¬-Øm≥ ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®p F-∂v ÿm-]n-®m¬ am-{X-ta N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS D-∑m-Z-kz-`m-h-Øn-\v kp-ÿn-c-X {]-Jym]n-°m≥ H-°p-I-bp-≈p. A-Xpw ln-am-e-b in-J-c-߃ I-b-dn-a-dn-™v ssN-\o-kv N-{I-h¿-Øn-tb-bpw P-\-X-tb-bpw hn-kv-a-bn-∏n-°-Ø-° ]´m-fm-`ym-k-߃ Im-´n-sb-∂p h-cp-Øn-bm-se A-h¿-°-{X-bpw Xr-]vXn-bm-Iq. C-Xn-\p k-lm-b-I-am-bn A-h-cm-{i-bn-°p-∂ B-[n-Im-cn-I h-‡m-°ƒ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-tb-tbm kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-tb-tbm C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

92


A-√. Im-c-Ww C-{X-bpw h-en-b hn-Uv-Vn-Øw kp¬-Øm-\n¬ A-h-cmcpw B-tcm-]n-®n-´n-√ F-∂p-≈-Xp-X-s∂. _¿-Wn C-tX-]-‰n F-gp-Xn-bncn-°p-∂-Xv C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv: ""ssN-\-bp-tS-bpw C-¥y-bp--tS-bpw C-S-bv-°v In-S-°p-∂ J-c-Pm¬ Io-g-S-°p-hm≥ kp¬-Øm≥ \n-›-bn-®p'' F-∂mWv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø F-gp-Xp-∂-Xm-I-s´, ""U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw ]Øv tÃ-Pp-Iƒ A-I-se In-S-°p-∂ J-c-Pm¬ a-e-tbm-c-{]-tZ-i-sØ e-£y-am-°n-bm-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm≥ ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®-Xv.-'' Cu c-≠v F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-am-Wv Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-s‚ B-[n-Im-cn-I h‡m-°ƒ F-∂p \mw t\-c-sØ a-\- n-em-°n-bn-´p-≠v. A-h-cp-sS ]£-]m-X-]-c-am-b ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fm-Wv Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿-°v {]nb-¶-c-am-bn-Øo¿-∂-sX-∂pw \mw I-≠p. F-∂m¬ ln-am-N¬-{]-tZ-iv F-∂p- hn-fn-°p-∂ J-c-Pm¬ B-{I-an-°p-hm≥ A-b-® ssk-\y-sØ ssN-\o-kv B-{I-a-W-am-sW-∂v h-cp-Øn-Øo¿-°m≥ Cu N-cn-{X-Im-c∑m¿-°v _-Øq-Ø-tb-tbm _¿-Wn-tb-tbm B-{i-bn-®m¬ km-[y-amhp-I-bn-√. C-cp-Iq-´-cpw A-k-μn-Kv-Z-am-bn-Ø-s∂ {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂-Xv Jc-Pm¬ F-∂ a-e-tbm-c-{]-tZ-i-tØ-°m-Wv ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®-Xv F∂m-Wv. X-∑q-ew A-h-c-{X-bpw B-{i-bn-°p-∂-Xv ^-cn-jv-Sm F-∂ N-cn{X-Im-c-s\-bm-Wv. A-t±-lw Po-hn-®n-cp-∂-Xm-I-s´ Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ a-c-W-hpw I-gn-™v \q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°p-ti-j-am-Wv. A-ß-s\ k-aIm-eo-\-cpw kp¬-Øm-s‚ hn-tcm-[n-I-fp-am-bn-cp-∂ C-_v-\p _-Øq-Øtb-bpw kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn-tb-bpw C-°m-cy-Øn¬ am-{Xw a-dn-I-S∂v \q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°p ti-jw Po-hn-®n-cp-∂ ^-cn-jv-S-sb k-Xy-k-‘\m-b N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-bn hy-h-l-cn-°p-hm-\pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ D-≤-c-WnI-fp-am-bn kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ {`m-¥≥ ]-≤-Xn D-Zm-l-cn-°p-hm\pw _-≤-I-¶-W-cm-bn Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ ]-cn-{i-an-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ D-≈p-I-≈n hy-‡-am-Wv. hn-tcm-[n-I-tfm-Sp-≈ A-h-cp-sS s]m-Xp- kz`m-h-Øn-s\m-cm-ap-J-am-Wv Cu kw-`-hw.Zp-cp-]-Zn-jv-S-am-b Cu I-≠p-]n-Sp-Øw B-Zy-am-bn \-S-Øp-∂-Xv ^cn-jv-S-bm-Wv. A-t±-lw k-a-Im-en-I-\m-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂p \mw ]-d-™p. ^-cn-jv-S-sb-gp-Xn: ""ssN-\-bn-se A-]m-c-am-b [-\-sØ-∏-‰n tI-´-dn-™ kp¬-Øm≥ B cm-Py-sØ Io-g-S-°-W-sa-∂m-{K-ln-®p. A-t±-l-Øns‚ {]-`p-°-fpw D-]-tZ-i-I-cpw Cu ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS _p-≤n-iq-\y-X-sb-∏‰n a-\- n-em-°n- sIm-Sp-°m≥ {i-a-߃ \-S-Øn-sb-¶n-epw A-h hr-Ymhn-em-hp-I-bm-Wv sN-bv-X-Xv.-'' (ferishta- briggs vol.1, p. 416) k-a-Im-eo-\¿ a-\:]q¿-hw F-gp-Xn-tN¿-Ø A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n-I-fn¬ X-s‚ `m-h-\-°v A-\p-tbm-Py-amw-hn-[w Iq-Sp-X¬ A-Xyp-‡n-Iq-Sn I-e¿-Øn kp¬Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ cq-]w I-gn-bp-∂-Xpw hn-Ir-X-am-°n-b I-£n-bmC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

93


Wv ^-cn-jv-S-. F. Un. 1327 ¬ kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv X-e-ÿm-\w tZ-hKn-cn-bn-te-°p am-‰n-sb-∂pw A-tXm-sSm-∏w P-\-ß-sf A-hn-tS-°p ]-d™-b-s®-∂pw Ip-td-I-gn-™v A-h-tcm-S-{X-bpw Xn-cn-®p-h-cm≥ B-⁄m]n-s®-∂p-ap-≈- Zp-cm-tcm-]-W-߃ C-bmƒ F-gp-Xn. A-Xp-sIm-≠pw Xr]v-Xn-h-cm-sX F. Un. 1340 ¬ X-e-ÿm-\w ho-≠pw U¬-ln-bn¬-\n∂pw tZ-h-Kn-cn-bn-te-°p am-‰n ÿm-]n-®p F-∂ B-cpw ]-d-bm-Ø ]pØ≥-Im-cy-߃-Iq-Sn F-gp-Xn- ]n-Sn-∏n-®n-´p-≈ N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-Wv ^-cnjv-S-. ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ k-I-e {]-hr-Øn-I-fpw ss\-an-jn-I-am-b hn-Im-c hn-t£m-`-Øn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw ho-≠p-hn-Nm-c-an-√mØ H-cp [n-°m-cn-bp-sS {`m-¥≥-\-b-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw B-Zy-¥w \n-jv-I-cp-W-am-bn hn-h-cn-®n-´p-≈ F-gp-Øp-Im-c-\m-Wv ^-cn-jv-S F-∂ N-cn-{X-Im-c≥. kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv ssN-\-sb B-{I-an-°m≥ X-s∂bm-Wv ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®-Xv F-∂p ÿm-]n-°m≥ Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{XIm-c-\v In-´n-b B-[n-Im-cn-I-h-‡m-hv C-t±-l-am-Wv. A-tX k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ ssk-\y-Øn-\v D-∑q-e-\m-iw h-∂p-sh-∂v ka¿-Yn-°p-hm≥ _¿-Wn-tb-bpw _-Øq-Ø-tb-bpw B-Wv Cw-•o-jv N-cn{X-Im-c≥ s]m-°n-∏n-Sn-°p-∂-Xv. ""H-cp e-£w ssk-\n-I-cn¬ aq-∂p-t]tc A-h-ti-jn-®p-≈q'' F-∂p _-Øq-Ø-bpw ""]-Øp-t]¿ _m-°n-bmbn'' F-∂p _¿-Wn-bpw F-gp-Xn. Zpx-J-I-c-am-b Cu hm¿-Ø A-dn-bn°p-hm≥ a-S-ßn-sb-Øn-b A-h-sc-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ h-[n-°p-I-bm-Wp sN-bv-X-Xv F-∂m-Wv C-h-cn-cp-h-cpw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. Cu I-Y ssk-\y-Øns‚ \-io-I-c-W-sØ Im-Wn-°p-hm-\pw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ ]-º-c-hnUv-Vn-bm-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°p-hm-\pw {_n-´o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿ D-]-tbmK-s∏-Sp-Øn. A-ß-s\ ssN-\o-kv B-{I-a-W-am-Wv \-S-∂-sX-∂p hyh-l-cn-°p-hm≥ ^-cn-jv-S-tb-bpw, H-cp-e-£-Øn¬-]-cw ssk-\y-߃ Xo¿-Øpw \-in-s®-∂p ÿm-]n-°p-hm≥ _-Øq-Ø-tb-bp-am-Wv C-h¿ k-lm-b-I-am-bn I-≠-Xv. C-Xp Xo¿-Øpw H-cp N-cn-{X-h-¶-Ø-hpw bmYm¿-Yy-ß-sf h-f-s®m-Sn-®v kz-¥w A-`n-{]m-b-sØ ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-hm\p-≈ ]-cn-{i-a-hpw B-Wv.aq-∂p-t]¿ am-{X-ta A-h-ti-jn-®p-≈q F-∂p ]-d-bp-∂ _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ F-gp-Xp-∂p: Cu ""a-e-tbm-c-{]-am-Wn N-{I-h¿-Øn-°p Io-g-Sßn. I-∏w sIm-Sp-Øv km-a-¥-\m-Im-sa-∂p k-Ω-Xn-°p-I-bpw sN-bvXp.-'' _¿-Wn-bpw C-Xp X-s∂-bm-Wp ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. A-t∏mƒ- H-cp e£-Øn¬-]-cw ssk-\y-sØ D-∑q-e-\m-iw sN-øm≥ km-[n-® G-sXmcp F-Xn-cm-fn-bpw km-a-¥-\m-bn-Øo¿-∂v I-∏w-sIm-Sp-Øp I-gn-bm-sa∂p k-Ω-Xn-°p-I- bp-‡n-t°m \o-Xn-t°m \n-c-°m-Ø Im-cy-ß-fmWv. C-Xn¬-\n-∂pw hy-‡-am-Ip-∂-Xv Cu ssk-\y-\-io-I-c-W-Øn-s‚ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

94


Im-cy-hpw I-≈-°-Y- am-{X-am-sW-∂m-Wv. X-s‚ km-{am-Pym-Xn¿-Ønbn¬ In-S-∂n-cp-∂ H-cp a-e-tbm-c {]-tZ-i-am-Wv J-c-Pm¬. C-∂-sØ ln-am-N¬ {]-tZ-iv B-Wv Cu ÿ-e-sa-∂m-Wv tUm-Iv-S¿ Cu-iz-cn-{ ]km-Zv k-a¿-Yn-®n-´p-≈-Xv. sIm-bv-Øp-Im-e-ß-fn¬ a-e-tbm-c-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw k-a-X-e {]-tZ-i-tØ-°v C-d-ßn h-∂v hn-f \-in-∏n-°p-∂ sh-´pIn-fn-I-sf-t∏m-se sIm-≈-\-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂ J-c-Pm¬ {]-tZ-i-sØ P-\߃ Xp-•-°n-s‚ km-{am-Py-Øn-\pw P-\-߃-°pw h-en-b i-ey-am-bncp-∂p. A-h-sc \n-e-°p \n¿-tØ-≠-Xv cm-Py-Øn-s‚ k-am-[m-\ ÿm]-\-Øn-\v A-\n-hm-cy-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu e-£y-sØ ap≥ \n-dp-Øn J-cPm-en-se Im-´-c-N-s\ km-a-¥-\m-°p-hm≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv Cu {]Xn-tcm-[ \-S-]-Sn- sIm-≠p-t±-in-®-Xv. A-Xv ^-e-h-Øm-Ip-I-bpw sN-bvXp-F-∂v k-a-Im-en-I-tc-J-Iƒ sIm-≠p-X-s∂ hy-‡-am-Ip-∂p-≠v. Aß-s\ hn-P-b-I-c-am-bn I-em-in-® H-cp ssk-\n-I {]-h¿-Ø-\-sØ-bmWv G-‰-hpw h-en-b A-_-≤-am-bpw {`m-¥≥ {]-hr-Øn-bm-bpw Nn-{XoI-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.H-cp- e-£-Øn¬-]-cw tbm-≤m-°m-fn¬ _-Øq-Ø ]-d-bp-∂ aq-∂pt]-sc H-gn-®v _m-°n-bp-≈-h-sc ap-gp-s° h-I-h-cp-Øm≥ I-gn-™ Hsc-Xn-cm-fn H-cn-°-epw km-a-¥-\m-bn I-gn-bm≥ k-Ω-Xn-°p-I-bn-√. I∏-hpw sIm-Sp-Øv kp¬-Øm-s‚ ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-Øn≥ Io-gn¬ A-bmƒ I-gn-bm-sa-∂p-d-∏p-sIm-Sp-°p-I A-kz-`m-hn-I-hp-am-Wv. A-Xp-sIm-≠p Xs∂ Cu ssk-\n-I \-io-I-c-W-I-Y sh-dpw an-Yy am-{X-am-sW-∂v hcp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv sN-bv-X G-Xv {]-hr-Øn-bpw ho-≠p-hnNm-c-an-√m-Ø hn-Uv-Vn-Ø-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v h-cp-Øn-Øo¿-Øm-te Cu N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m¿-°v a-\x-kp-J-ap-≈p. A-Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b D-]-I-c-W-߃ _-Øq-Ø Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿ {]-Zm-\w sN-øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-∂-Xm-Wv ]-c-am¿-Yw.k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-cm-cpw D-∂-bn-®n-´n-√m-Ø Cu ssN-\okv B-{I-a-W-Øn-s‚ Im-cyw tUm-Iv-S¿ kv-an-Øpw Iq-´-cpw F-{X-am{Xw A-Xyp-‡n-tbm-Sp Iq-Sn-bm-Wv ]-d-™n-´p-≈-sX-∂v \mw {]-kv-Xmhn-®-Xm-Wv. C-Xn¬ F-Sp-Øp ]-d-tb-≠ a-s‰m-c-kmw-K-Xyw, ssN-\-sb A-{I-an-°p-hm≥ ln-am-e-bw I-b-dn a-dn-™m-Wv ssk-\n-I {]-h¿-Ø\w \-S-Øm≥ B-⁄m-]n-®n-cp-∂-sX-∂-t{X. _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ ssN\-bn-te-°v A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kp¬-Øm-\-b-® Zu-Xykw-L-sØ-°p-dn-®pw A-h-cp-sS am¿-K-sØ kw-_-‘n-®pw hn-i-Zo-I-cn°p-∂p-≠v. ssN-\-bn-te-°p-≈ h-gn I-S¬-am¿-tK-W B-bn-cp-∂p. ssN\-bn-te-°v t]m-Ip-hm≥ \n-tbm-Kn-® _-Øq-Ø-bpw Iq-´-cpw tIm-gnt°m-s´-Øp-∂-Xv A-ß-s\-bm-Wv. I-b-dm≥ \n-›-bn-®n-cp-∂ Hm-Sw IC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

95


S¬-t£m-`-Øn¬ s]-´v X-I¿-∂-Xp-aq-ew ssN-\-bn-te-°v t]m-Im≥ km[n-°m-sX tI-c-f-°-c-bn¬ X-ßn-b-Xpw Xp-S¿-∂p-≈ _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS k-©m-c-hr-Øm-¥-ß-fpw \mw {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®-Xm-Wv. A-t∏mƒ ssN-\bn-te-°p-≈ h-gn A-dn-bm-Ø hy-‡n-bm-bn-cp-∂n-√ Xp-•-°v kp¬Øm≥. 1333 ap-X¬ 1366 h-sc Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn ssN-\-bp-am-bn \-b-X{¥-_-‘w D-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xm-bpw H-cp ssN-\o-kv {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-Im-cyme-bw U¬-ln-bn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂-Xm-bpw k-a-Im-en-I- tc-J-Iƒ sX-fn-bn-°p-∂p-≠v. \n-c-¥-cw k-º¿-°-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ H-cp km-{am-PyØn-te-°p-≈ am¿-Kw kp¬-Øm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv A-dn-™n-cp-∂n-√ F-∂ph-cn-I hn-iz-k-\o-b-a-√. X-s‚ ssk-\y-ß-sf \-in-∏n-°m≥ th-≠n a™p-I-´n-I-fm¬ {]-£m-f-\w sN-ø-s∏-´ ln-am-e-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn-Iƒ adn-I-S-∂v ssN-\-bn-se-Øp-hm≥ ssk-\y-sØ A-b-®p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xv a-\x-]q¿-h-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. {`m-¥≥ kz-`m-h-Øn-s‚ [n-°m-c-Øn-\v am{X-ta A-Ø-cw [m¿-jv-Sy-ap-≠m-Ip-I-bp--≈q. A-t∏mƒ Cw-•o-jv N-cn{X-Im-c-≥ ]-d-bp-∂ ssN-\o-kv B-{I-a-W-Øn-s‚ Im-cy-hpw X-÷-\yam-b ssk-\n-I \-io-I-c-W-Øn-s‚ kw-K-Xn-bpw N-cn-{X-Øn-se I-√psh-® \p-W-Iƒ am-{X-am-sW-∂v kn-≤n-°p-∂p.C-Ø-cw B-`m-k-I-c-am-b N-cn-{X-h-¶-Ø-߃ F-gp-Xn- ]n-Sn-∏n-°m\p-≈ ss[-cyw Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c-\p e-`n-®-Xv _-Øq-Ø Xp-S-ßn-bh-cp-sS A-Xn-i-tbm-‡n aq-e-hpw A-h-cp-sS ]-£-]m-X-]-c-am-b N-cn{X-hn-h-c-W-߃-sIm-≠pw B-Ip-∂p. Np-cp-°-Øn¬, Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{XIm-c-∑m-cp-sS `n-∂n-∏n-®p `-cn-°p-I-sb-∂ Ip-{]-kn-≤-am-b \-b-Øn-\\p-tbm-Py-a-√m-Ø-Xpw hn-cp-≤-hp-am-b tc-J-I-sf hn-K-Wn-°p-hm-\pw hnkv-a-cn-®n-√. A-ß-s\ kz-¥w Xm-ev-]-cy-sØ ap≥-\n-dp-Øn X-ß-fp-sS \-b-Øn-\pw D-t±-iy-Øn-\pw {]-tbm-P-\-I-c-am-b sX-fn-hp-Iƒ tX-Sn-∏nSn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p C-¥ym-N-cn-{X- t{Im-Uo-I-c-Ww \-S-Øn-b {_n-´ojv N-cn-{X-Im-c-s‚ e-£yw. a-l-Ø-c-am-b H-cp kw-cw-`w kzm¿-Y-Xm-ev]-cy-Øn-\p-th-≠n Ip-cp-Xn-sIm-Sp-°p-I-bm-Wv X-∑q-ew \-S-∂-Xv. N-cn{Xm-hn-jv-I-c-Ww sIm-≠v km-[n-°m-hp-∂ a-l-Xv-Im-cy-߃ X-∑q-ew Xy-Pn-°-s∏-´p. A-Xn-s‚ ^-e-am-bn N-cn-{X-hn-Nm-cw \-S-Øp-∂-h¿-°v h¿-[-am-\-am-b Zp¿-L-S-hpw A-an-X-am-b {]-bm-k-hpw B-Wv C-¥ym-Ncn-{Xw k-Ωm-\n-°p-∂-Xv. A-tXm-sSm-∏w N-cn-{X-Øn-\p km-[n-°p-∂ \√ kzm-[o-\-X-I-sfm-∂pw X-s∂ hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ-°v e-`n-°p-∂-Xp-an-√. t\-tc-a-dn-®v \n-c-h-[n Zq-jy-߃ C-Xp-aq-ew D-≠m-bn-´p-ap-≠v. c-Rv-Pnt∏m-Spw H-cp-a-tbm-Spw-Iq-Sn I-gn-tb-≠ hn-hn-[- a-X-°m-cpw `m-j-°m-cpam-b `m-c-Xo-b¿, k-¶o¿-W-am-b km-ap-Zm-bn-I -h¿-Ko-b {]-iv-\-߃ kr-jv-Sn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xpw C-Xp-aq-e-am-Wv. hn-im-e-am-b tZ-io-bC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

96


ho-£-Ww D-≠m-tI-≠-Xn-\p-]-I-cw Ip-Sp- m-b {]m-tZ-in-I-Xz-am-Wv \Ωn-e-[n-I-am-fp-I-fn-epw cq-V-aq-e-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. A-ß-s\ \n-c-h-[n Zqjy-߃ C-∂-sØ co-Xn-bn-ep-≈ C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-kw-hn-[m-\-߃-sIm≠v \n-e-hn-en-cn-°p-∂p. C-h-°v D-∑q-e-\m-iw h-cp-Øn k-am-[m-\-hpw ku-lr-Z-hpw Cu \m-´n¬ D-∂-bn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ C-¥ym-N-cn-{Xw ]p-\xkw-hn-[m-\n-®p sIm-t≠ km-[y-am-hp-Ib - p-≈p. A-Xn-\p-≈ kw-cw-`ß - ƒ \-S-Øp-tºmƒ C-Xp-h-sc hn-iz-kn-®p-t]m-∂ ]-e-Xn-t\-bpw tNm-ZywsN-tø-≠-Xm-bn h-cpw. B-[n-Im-cn-I h-‡m-°-sf-∂v I-cp-Xn-t∏m-cp-∂ ]-e-cp-tS-bpw i-cn-cq-]w hy-‡-am-t°-≠-Xm-bpw h-cpw. k-aq-e-am-b Hcp s]m-fn-s®-gp-Øv A-Xym-h-iy-am-bn-Øo-cp-I-bpw sN-øpw. A-Ø-cw hn-j-b-ß-fn¬ {]-[m-\-am-b H-∂m-Wv C-_v-\p _-Øp-Ø-bp-sS k-©mc-{K-Ÿw.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

97


10 ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ c-‡-Zm-lw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\ N-cn-{X-Øn-se A-\m-Y-t{]-X-am-bn Nn-{Xo-Icn-°m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ a-s‰m-cp- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv kp¬-Øm-s‚ \o-Nhpw \n-Ir-jv-S-hp-am-b c-‡-hm-©-bp-sS I-Y-Iƒ. tUm-Iv-S¿ hn≥-k‚ v kv-an-Øv A-Xn-i-b-I-c-amw hn-[w kp¬-Øm-s‚ c-‡-Zm-l-Øn-s‚ A`n-hm-© hn-kv-X-cn-®v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-® ti-jw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ `-c-W-sØ hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-∂-Xn-{]-Im-c-am-Wv: ""He ruled for 26 years of tyranny as atrocious as any in the annals of human devilry''.- (am-\p-jn-I ss]-im-Nn-I-XzØn-s‚ I-Y-I-fn¬ {Iq-c-am-b-Xm-Wv C-t±-lw `-c-Ww \-S-Øn-b C-cp]-Øn-bm-dp-sIm-√w.-'') (The Oxford History of India-p. 237). Cu k-ao-]-\Øn-\v A-t±-l-Øn-\p t{]-c-W \-ev-In-b {]m-am-Wn-I N-cn-{X-{K-Ÿw C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-tS-Xm-sW-∂v A-t±-lw X-s∂ {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p∂p. B-[p-\n-I-cm-b N-cn-{X-sa-gp-Øp-Im-scm-s° ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ kz-`m-h-]-T-\-Øn-\m-[m-c-am-°p-∂ B-[n-Im-cn-I [m-c _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-ß-fm-Wv. _-Øq-Ø kp¬-Øm-s‚ hn-\-b-hpw Z-bm-io-e-hpw hn-h-cn-°p-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ c-‡-Zm-l-Øn-s‚ Im-cy-hpw kz-X-kn-≤-am-b ssi-en-bn¬ F-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v. A-ß-s\-bm-Wv tUmIv-S¿ kv-an-Øpw Iq-´-cpw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zv "ssh-cp-[y-ß-fp-sS k-Ωn{i'sa-∂pw "kr-jv-Sn-bp-sS A-¤p-X {]-Xn-`m-k'sa-∂pw a-‰pw Xo-cp-am\n-®-Xv._-Øq-Ø- F-gp-Xp-∂p: ""ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v Z-bm-Im-cp-Wy-ß-fn-se∂-Xp t]m-se tNm-c- Nn-¥p-∂-Xn-epw A-Xn-bm-b tam-l-ap-≈-h-\m-Wv. A-c-a-\-hm-Xm-b-\-Øn¬ h-[-in-£-°v hn-[n-°-s∏-´-h-cpw Zm-\-[¿-ΩmZn-Iƒ {]-Xo-£n-®p \n¬-°p-∂-h-cpw C-√m-Ø k-a-bw Zp¿-√-`-am-bn-cn°pw. N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS Hu-Zm-cy-tØ-bpw [o-c-X-tb-bpw {Iq-c-X-tbbpw Ip-dn-®p-≈ ]-e I-Y-I-fpw P-\-߃-°n-S-bn¬ {]-kn-≤-ß-fm-Wv. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

98


C-t±-l-Øn-s‚ I-Æn¬-s∏-´n-cp-∂ H-‰ Z-cn-{Z-\pw \n-cm-i-\m-bn a-S-ßnt∏m-tI-≠n h-∂n-´n-√. C-kv-em-an-I- hn-[n-b-\p-k-cn-®p-≈ Zm-\-[¿-a-߃ ap-S-°-an-√m-sX A-\p-jvTn-®p-t]m-∂n-cp-∂p. Xn-´-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm-s\m-°m-Øs{X Zp-jv-{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ sN-bv-Xn-´p-s≠-¶n-epw hn-\-bw, k-Xy-k-‘X, \o-Xn-]m-e-\w Xp-S-ßn-b-h kv-Xp-Xy¿-l-am-bn \n¿-h-ln-®n-cp-∂ alm-\m-bn-cp-∂p ap-l-Ω-Zv kp¬-Øm≥.-.-.-.-'' "".-.-.-.-.k -- p¬-Øm-s‚ k-Xv-Kp-W-ß-sf-°p-dn-®m-Wv C-Xp-h-sc ]-d-™Xv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-\-bw, \o-Xn-\n¿-h-l-Ww, `q-X-Z-b, Hu-Zm-cyw Xp-S-ßn-b a-l-\o-b Kp-W-ß-sf-°p-dn-®m-Wv hn-h-cn-®-Xv. C-tXm-sSm-∏w C-Xn-s‚ a-dp-]p-d-hpw t\m-°-Ww. Cu a-l-Ø-c-am-b Kp-W-ß-fp-sS hn-f-\n-e-am-b Cu a-lm-\n¬-X-s∂ G-‰-hpw \o-N-am-b kz-`m-h-sshIr-X-hpw Iq-Sn Ip-Sn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. D-Zm-c-a-Xn-bm-b Cu kp¬-Øm≥ tNmc-Nn-¥p-∂-Xn-epw an-Sp-°-\m-Wv. sIm-´m-c-∏-Sn-°¬ h-[n-°-s∏-´-h-cp-sS t{]-X-߃ In-S-°p-I km-[m-c-W kw-`-h-am-Wv. C-hn-sS sh-®v ]-e-tcbpw sIm-√p-∂-Xv Im-tW-≠ Zu¿-`m-Kyw F-\n-°p-X-s∂ D-≠m-bn-´p≠v. h-[n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-h-cp-sS i-h-i-co-cw D-S≥ \o-°p-I-bn-s√-∂p- am-{Xa-√ ]-e Zn-h-k-߃ A-hn-sS {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw sN-øpw. H-cn°¬ Rm≥ sIm-´m-c-Øn-te-°v h-cp-tºmƒ F-s‚ Ip-Xn-c kw-i-bn-®v s]-s´-∂v \n-∂p. Rm≥ ap-tºm-´v t\m-°n-b-t∏mƒ F-t¥m Nn-e-Xv Ip∂p-Iq-´n-bn-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv I-≠p. Iq-sS-bp-≈-h-tcm-Sv A-t\z-jn-®-t∏m-gmWv a-\- n-em-Ip-∂-Xv, h-[n-°-s∏-´-h-cp-sS t{]-X-am-Wv A-cn-™p-Iq-´nbn-cn-°p-∂-sX-∂v.-'' ""Ip-‰-Øn-s‚ B-°-Øq-°w t\m-°m-sX ITn-\-in-£-bm-Wv kp¬Øm≥ \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂-Xv. ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw ]u-c-{]-[m-\n-I-fpw C-Xn¬ \n-∂pw ap-‡-cm-bn-cp-∂n-√. A-h¿-°v {]-tXy-I-am-b B-\p-Iq-ey-ß-tfm Ip-‰-Øn¬ \n-∂v tam-N-\-tam kp¬-Øm-\n¬ \n-∂pw e-`n-®n-cp-∂n-√. P-bn-en-e-S-®n-cp-∂ \q-dp-I-W-°n-\v Ip-‰-hm-fn-I-sf N-ß-e-°n-´p \n-tXy\ kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°p-∂p. A-Xn¬ sIm-t√-≠-h-sc sIm-√p-I-bpw Z-Wv-Un-t°-≠-h-sc a¿-±-\-ap-d-Iƒ-°v hn-t[-b-am-°p-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp. sh-≈n-bm-gv-N H-gn-sI F-√m Zn-h-k-hpw P-bn¬-]p-≈n-Isf Z¿-_m-dn¬ lm-P-cm-°p-∂p.-.-.-.-.-'' ""kp¬-Øm-s‚ k-tlm-Z-c-\m-bn-cp-∂p a-kv-Du-Zv Jm≥. kp¬-Øm≥ A-em-hp-±o-s‚ ]p-{Xn-bm-Wv C-t±-l-Øn-s‚ am-Xm-hv. tem-I-sØm-cn-SØpw C-{X-bpw B-Im-c-ku-jvT-h-ap-≈ H-cp bp-h-tIm-a-f-s\ Rm≥ I-≠n-´n-√. A-{X-bpw kp-μ-c-am-b-Xm-Wv B i-co-cw. X-\n-s°-Xn-cm-bn Kq-Vm-tem-N-\-bpw hn-π-h-hpw \-S-Øm-\m-tem-Nn-®p F-∂-Xm-Wv C-bmfn¬ B-tcm-]n-X-am-b Ip-‰w. Cu Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-®m¬ h-[-in-£-bm-bnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

99


cn-°pw e-`n-°p-I-sb-∂-dn-™n-´p-Iq-Sn a-kv-Du-Zv C-Xv \n-tj-[n-®n-√. Ip‰w k-Ω-Xn-®m¬ D-S≥ h-[n-°pw; \n-tj-[n-®m¬ C-©n-©m-bn a-cn-t°≠n-h-cpw. A-Xm-Wv Ip-‰-k-Ω-X-Øn-\v A-t±-l-sØ t{]-cn-∏n-®-Xv. CØ-cw k-μ¿-`-ß-fn¬ kp¬-Øm-s‚ A-`n-{]m-b-sØ F-Xn¿-°p-∂-h¿°v \n-jvTq-c-hpw \o-N-hp-am-b in-£-I-fm-Wv e-`n-°p-I. Cu a¿-±-\߃ `-b-∂m-Wv a-kv-Du-Zv Jm≥ B-tcm-]n-X-am-b Ip-‰w G-‰-Xv. C-t±l-sØ sIm-√m≥ I-ev-]-\-sIm-Sp-Øp. A-ßm-Sn-bn¬ sh-®m-Wv a-kvDu-Zv Jm-s\ sIm-∂-Xv. [m-cm-fw P-\-߃ Im-gv-N-°m-cm-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. aq-∂p Zn-h-kw B t{]-Xw A-tX-ÿ-e-Øp X-s∂ In-S-∂p. c-≠p h¿-j-Øn-\p ti-jw C-tX-ÿ-e-Øp sh-®p X-s∂-bm-Wv a-kv-Du-ZvJm-s‚ am-Xm-hn-s\ I-s√-dn-™v sIm-∂-Xv. hy-`n-Nm-c-Ip-‰-am-bn-cp-∂p A-h-cn¬ B-tcm-]n-X-am-bn-cp-∂-Xv.-'' ""U¬-ln {]m-¥-{]-tZ-i-tØm-Sv sXm-´p-In-S-°p-∂ a-e-tbm-c-ß-fn¬ A-[n-h-kn-°p-∂ A-ap-kv-enw-I-fp-am-bn bp-≤-Øn-\v am-en-Iv bq-kp-^v _p-lv-dm-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-sem-cp ssk-\y-sØ ]-d-™-b-®p. `q-cn]-£w tbm-≤m-°-fpw A-t±-l-tØm-sSm-∏w t]m-sb-¶n-epw Nn-e¿ ]n¥n-cn-™v t]m-∂p. Cu hn-h-cw am-en-Iv bq-kp-^v kp¬-Øm-s\ A-dnbn-®p. A-h-sc ap-gp-s° sX-c-™p-]n-Sn-®v X-s‚ ap-ºn¬ lm-P-cm-°m≥ I-ev-]n-®-X-\p-k-cn-®v kp¬-Øm-s‚ k-a-£-Øn-¶¬ A-h-sc F-√m-htc-bpw lm-P-cm-°n. A-h-sc ap-gp-s° sIm-√m-\m-Wv kp¬-Øm-\m-⁄m]n-®-Xv. H-cp a-Wn-°q-dn-\p-≈n¬ 350 t]-cp-sS h-[w \-S-∂p.-'' ""ssi-Jv jn-lm-_p-±o≥ Jp-dm-km-\n-se ssi-Jp-¬-Pm-an-s‚ a-I\m-Wv. {]-kn-≤-\m-b H-cp kn-≤-\m-bn-cp-∂p A-t±-lw. ]-Xn-\m-ev Zn-hkw Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn {h-X-a-\p-jvTn-°p-hm-\-t±-l-Øn-\v I-gn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ Ip-Xp-_p-±o-\pw kp¬-Øm≥ Xp-•-°pw C-t±-l-sØ h-fsc B-Z-cn-°p-I-bpw Nn-e-t∏mƒ k-μ¿-in-®v A-\p-{K-lm-in- p-Iƒ hmßp-I-bpw ]-Xn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. H-cp tbm-Ko-h-cy-\m-bn-´m-Wv C-h-¿ A-t±l-sØ I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. F-∂m¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv C-_v-\p Xp-•-°v N-{Ih¿-Øn-bm-b-t∏mƒ Cu ÿn-Xn-°v km-c-am-b am-‰-ap-≠m-bn. ]-Wv-UnX-∑m-tc-bpw ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw kq-^n-I-tf-bpw X-s‚ Po-h-\-°m-cm-°phm-\m-Wv A-t±-lw D-Zy-an-®-Xv. F-∂m¬ ssi-Jv in-lm-_p-±o≥ kp¬Øm-s‚ B-{in-X-\m-Im≥ k-Ω-Xn-®n-√. A-Xn-\m¬ Cu kn-≤-s\ Z¿_m-dn-te-°v sIm-≠p-h-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ ho-≠pw X-s‚ D-t±-iyw Adn-bn-®-t∏mƒ A-t±-lw B-Zyw sIm-Sp-Ø a-dp-]-Sn- X-s∂ ]-d-™p. Xs‚ Zr-V-am-b A-`n-{]m-bw A-N-©-e-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xv Xp-d-∂p ]-dbm-\p-≈ N-¶q-‰w A-t±-l-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ssi-Jn-s‚ Cu D-d-® \n-e-]m-Sv kp¬-Øm-s\ tIm-]m-Ip-e-\m-°n. X-s‚ I-ev-]-\ [n-°-cn-® C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

100


ssi-Jn-s‚ Xm-Sn-tcm-a-߃ Hm-tcm-∂m-bn \p-≈n-∏-dn-°m≥ kp¬-Øm≥ B-⁄m-]n-®p. A-Xn-\p \n-tbm-Kn-®-Xv a-s‰m-cp a-lm-]-Wv-Un-X-\mb ssi-Jv kn-bm-hp-±o-s\-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu ]m-X-Iw sN-øp-hm≥ Xs‚ I-c-߃ i-‡-am-Ip-I-bn-s√-∂v A-t±-lw D-d-∏n-®p- ]-d-™-t∏mƒ C-h-cn-cp-h-cp-tS-bpw Xm-Sn-tcm-a-߃ \p-≈n-∏-dn-s®-Sp-°p-hm-\m-Wv kp¬Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®-Xv. C-Xv sN-bv-X-ti-jw jn-lm-_p-±o-s\ sX-ep-¶m-\bn-te-°pw kn-bm-hp-±o-s\ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-te-°pw \m-Sp-I-S-Øn. GXm-\pw sIm-√-߃-°p ti-jw kn-bm-hp-±o-s\ hm-d-¶n-bn-se Jm-knbm-bn kp¬-Øm≥ \n-b-an-®p. A-hn-sS sh-®v A-t±-lw N-c-a-a-S-™p. jn-lm-_p-±o-s\-bm-I-s´ G-gp h¿-j-߃-°p ti-jw Xn-cn-®p-hn-fn-®p. cm-P-Io-bm-\p-Iq-ey-ß-fpw _-lp-a-Xn-I-fpw \-ev-In B-Z-cn-®p. ]q¿-h ssh-cw hn-kv-a-cn-®v A-an-X-am-b kv-t\-l-_-lp-am-\-߃ kp¬-Øm-≥ A-t±-l-tØm-Sv Im-Wn-®p. sIm-´m-c-Øn¬ A-t±-l-Øn-\p h-en-b ÿm\-am-bn-cp-∂p. D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ A-t±-lw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv sN-ø-W-sa-∂v kp¬-Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®n-cp-∂p. A-ß-s\-bn-cn-°p-tºm-gm-Wv Kw-Km-Xo-cØp ]p-Xp-Xm-bn ]-Wn-I-gn-∏n-® sIm-´m-c-Øn-te-°v kp¬-Øm≥ Xm-akw am-‰n-b-Xv. k¿-Kv-Zz¿ F-∂m-Wn-Xn-\p t]-cn-´n-cp-∂-Xv. {]-P-I-tfm-Spw A-tßm-´p-am-dn Xm-a-kn-°p-hm-\-t±-lw B-h-iy-s∏-´p. X-e-ÿm-\-ØpX-s∂ I-gn-™p-Iq-Sm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-°-W-sa-∂v ssi-Jv jn-lm-_p-±o≥ kp¬-Øm-t\m-Sv A-`y¿-Yn-®-X-\p-k-cn-®v U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw B-dpssa¬ Zq-sc-bp-≈ H-cp {Km-a-Øn¬ Xm-a-kn-®p-sIm-≈m≥ kp¬-Øm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-®p. ssi-Jv k-t¥m-j-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn X-s‚ A-\p-N-c-∑m-cp-ambn A-hn-tS-°v t]m-bn. A-sXm-cp X-cn-ip- `q-an-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ssi-Jv Ahn-sS h-en-b Kp-l ]-Wn-bn-®p. b-ap-\m-\-Zn-bn¬ \n-∂pw sh-≈w sIm≠p-h-∂v A-hn-sS Ir-jn-bn-d-°n ^-e-k-ar-≤n-bp-≠m-°n. X-s‚ A-Sn-aI-sf A-e-k-cm-bn I-gn-bm≥ A-t±-lw hn-´n-cp-∂n-√. A-h-scm-s° ]Wn-sb-Sp-Øp. Ir-jn-bn¬ \n-∂pw \-√ B-Zm-b-hpw e-`n-®p. kp¬-Øm≥ a-S-ßn h-cp-∂-Xp h-sc c-≠p-sIm-√w ssi-Jpw Iq-´m-fn-I-fpw A-hn-sS kp-J-am-bn I-gn-™p-Iq-Sn. ssi-Jn-s‚ A-Sn-a-Iƒ ]-I¬ ap-gp-s° the-sN-bv-Xv C-cp-´p-tºmƒ Kp-l-bn¬ I-S-∂v Kp-lm-ap-Jw A-S-®p-I-f-bp∂p. a-e-tbm-c-ß-fn¬ sIm-≈-°m-¿ A-[n-h-kn-°p-∂-Xp sIm-≠v ar-Kß-sf-t∏m-epw Kp-l-°-I-Øm-Wv kq-£n-°p-I.-'' ""kp¬-Øm≥ Xn-cn-®p-h-∂ hm¿-Ø A-dn-™-t∏mƒ ssi-Jv At±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°p-hm-\m-bn ]p-d-s∏-´p. U¬-ln-bn¬ \n-∂pw G-gp ssa¬ A-I-se-sh-®m-Wv kp¬-Øm-s\ I-≠-Xv. kp¬-Øm≥ ssiJn-s\ B-enw-K-\w sN-bv-Xp kv-t\-l-{]-I-S-\w \-S-Øn. A-\-¥-cw ssiJv X-s‚ Kp-l-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn. Ip-d-®p Zn-h-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ ssiC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

101


Jn-s\ A-c-a-\-bn-te-°v £-Wn-°p-hm≥ H-cp cm-P-Zq-X≥ B-K-X-\mbn. ssi-Jv kp¬-Øm-s‚ £-Ww \n-c-kn-®p. C-X-dn-™ D-S-s\ ssiJn-s\- Iq-´n sIm-≠p-h-cm≥ X-s‚ ssk-\n-I-ta-[m-hn-sb kp¬-Øm≥ \n-tbm-Kn-®p. A-t±-lw ssi-Jn-s\ I-≠v kp¬-Øm-s‚ kz-`m-h-sØbpw £-Ww \n-c-kn-®m-ep-≠m-tb-°m-hp-∂ Zp-c-¥-^-e-tØ-bpw ]-‰n kv-t\-lm-Z-c-hp-I-tfm-Sp Iq-Sn-Ø-s∂ ]-d-™p a-\- n-em-°m≥ {i-an®p. "t{Zm-ln-°p Rm≥ tk-h-I-\m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√' F-∂m-Wv ssi-Jv A-h-km-\-am-bn a-dp-]-Sn ]-d-™-Xv. Cu hn-h-cw ssk-\ym-[n-]≥ Adn-bn-®-tXm-Sp Iq-Sn ssi-Jn-s\ _-e-am-bn _-‘-\-ÿ-\m-°n X-s‚ ap-ºn¬ lm-P-cm-°m≥ kp¬-Øm-≥ B-h-iy-s∏-´p. A-ß-s\ cm-P-[m\n-bn-te-°p ssi-Jv B-\-bn-°-s∏-´p.-'' ""Rm≥ {Iq-c-\m-sW-∂v \n-߃ ]-d-bp-I-bp-≠m-tbm?' kp¬-Øm≥ tNm-Zn-®p. "D-Δv', Rm≥ A-ß-s\ ]-d-™p. \n-߃ P-\-t{Zm-ln-bpw {Iq-c-\p-am-Wv. A-Xn-s\-{X sX-fn-hp- th-W-sa-¶n-epw Rm≥ lm-P-cm°mw.-' Nn-e D-Zm-l-c-W-ß-fpw A-t±-lw D-≤-cn-®p. U¬-ln- \-K-c-sØ \-in-∏n-®-Xpw A-hn-S-sØ P-\-ß-sf \n¿-_-‘n-X-am-bn ÿ-ew am-‰nb-Xpw a-‰p-am-bn-cp-∂p A-h. C-Xp-tI-´ am-{X-bn¬ D-d-bn¬ \n-∂pw hmfq-cn-sb-Sp-Øv k-Z-dp¬ P-lm-s‚ ssI-bn¬ sIm-Sp-Øv kp¬-Øm≥ A-´-l-kn-®p: "Rm≥ P-\-t{Zm-ln-bm-sW-∂v C-bmƒ ]-d-bp-∂p. \n-߃°pw A-Xm-W-`n-{]m-b-sa-¶n¬ F-s‚ in-c- v D-S-en¬ \n-∂pw th¿-s]Sp-Øp-I.-'' ""\n-߃ {]-Pm-]o-U-I-\m-sW-∂v sX-fn-hv lm-P-cm-°m-\m-cv ap-Xncpw? A-Xn-\m¿-°m-Wv N-¶q-‰w Im-Wp-I? C-Xn-\m-cpw X-øm-dm-hp-I-bns√-¶n-epw \n-߃ sN-bv-X {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ \n-߃-°p X-s∂ A-dn-bcp-tXm? A-Xn-\v a-‰m-sc-sb-¶n-epw km-£n-bm-bn-´v th-W-sa-∂p-t≠m? ssi-Jn-s‚ a-dp-]-Sn-bm-bn-cp-∂p C-Xv. C-Xp Iq-Sn-bm-b-t∏mƒ ssi-Jns\ ]-´m-f-ta-[m-hn-bp-sS ssI-bn-te-ev-]n-°p-hm-\p-Ø-c-hn-´p. N-ß-e-°n´v _-‘n-®v A-t±-l-sØ ]-Xn-\m-ep Zn-h-kw bm-sXm-cp-hn-[ B-lm-c]m-\o-b-ß-fpw Iq-Sm-sX A-t±-lw A-tX- \n-e-bn¬ I-gn-™p-Iq-Sn. F√m Zn-h-k-hpw N-ß-e-°n-´v A-t±-l-sØ kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ sIm≠p-h-cpw. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-`n-{]m-bw am-‰p-hm≥ kq-^n-am-cpw ssiJp-am-cpw \n-tXy-\ ]-cn-{i-an-®n-cp-∂p. F-∂m¬ Xm≥ Cu t{Zm-ln-sb tk-hn-°p-I-bn-s√-∂ Zr-V-{]-Xn-⁄-bm-Wv ssssi-J-\p-h¿-Øn-®-Xv. a-‰p-≈-h-cp-sS D-]-tZ-i-߃ hr-Ym-hn-em-bn. H-cp c-‡-km-£n-bm-Iphm-\m-W-t±-lw D-t±-in-®-Xv. D-]-hm-kw Xp-S-ßn ]-Xn-\m-emw Zn-h-kw kp¬-Øm≥ Ip-sd `-£-W-km-[-\-߃ A-t±-l-Øn-\v sIm-Sp-Ø-b®p. ""Cu tem-I-Øp-≈ F-s‚ B-lm-cm-Zn-Iƒ A-h-km-\n-®n-cn-°pC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

102


∂p. C-h kp¬-Øm-\v X-s∂ sIm-≠p-sIm-Sp-°p-I'' F-∂p ]-d-™v A-t±-l-a-Xv a-S-°n. C-Xp-Iq-Sn-bm-b-t∏mƒ kp¬-Øm-s‚ tIm-]w {Iam-Xo-X-am-bn h¿-[n-®p. ssi-Jn-s\-s°m-≠v Ip-sd a-ew \n¿-_-‘-]q¿hw Xo-‰n-°p-hm≥ kp¬-Øm-\m-⁄m-]n-®p. A-Xn-\p \n-bp-‡-cm-b Ipsd ln-μp D-tZym-K-ÿ-¿ ssi-Jn-s\ a-e¿-Øn-°n-S-Øn a-ew hm-bn¬ \n-d-®v sh-≈-sam-gn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp. F-∂n-´pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ D-d-® Xocp-am-\-Øn-\v C-f-°w X-´n-bn-√. A-Sp-Ø Zn-h-kw ssi-Jn-s\ Jm-kn k-Zv-dp¬-P-lm-s‚ A-Sp-°¬ sIm-≠p-h-∂p. {]-tXy-I £-W-a-\p-kcn-®v [m-cm-fw kq-^n-I-fpw a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw ]u-c-{]-[m-\n-I-fpw Ahn-sS k-∂n-ln-X-cm-bn-cp-∂p. A-h-scm-s°-bpw ssi-Jn-s\ ho-≠pw D]-tZ-in-®p t\m-°n. ]-t£ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ Zr-V-\n-›-b-Øn-\v am-‰w h-∂n-√. A-Xn-\m¬ A-hn-sS sh-®p-X-s∂ A-t±-l-sØ h-[n-®p.-'' ""cm-Py-Øv h-cƒ-®-bp-≠m-b k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ X-e-ÿm-\ \-K-cn-°p k-ao-]-ß-fn¬ [m-cm-fw In-W-dp-Iƒ kp¬-Øm≥ Ip-gn-∏n-®p. C-h-bnse P-ew {]-tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Øn Ir-jn -sN-øp-hm-\-t±-lw P-\-ß-tfm-Smh-iy-s∏-´p. Ir-jn-°m-h-iy-am-b ]-W-hpw hn-Øpw a-‰p-]-I-c-W-ß-fpw \-ev-In. hn-f-hv k¿-°m¿ kw-`-c-W tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ sIm-Sp-°-W-sa-∂pw hy-h-ÿ sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p. £m-a-\n-hm-c-W-Øn-\m-bn B-kq-{X-Ww sNbv-X Cu ]-≤-Xn-tb-bpw Nn-e¿ F-Xn¿-Øp. A-h-cn¬ {]-[m-\n A-^o^p-±o-\m-bn-cp-∂p. Cu {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ sIm-≠v bm-sXm-cp ^-e-hp-ap≠m-Ip-I-bn-s√-∂pw ]-d-™v A-t±-lw P-\-ß-sf \n-cp¬-km-l-s∏-SpØn. Cu hn-h-cw Nm-c-∑m¿ ap-tJ-\ kp¬-Øm≥ [-cn-®p. Cu ^-°odn-\v cm-Py-Im-cy-ß-fn-en-S-s]-tS-≠ B-h-iy-an-s√-∂v ]-d-™v A-t±-lsØ P-bn-en-e-S-®p. Ip-d-®p-\m-fp-Iƒ-°v ti-jw A-t±-l-sØ hn-´-b®p. kz-h-k-Xn-bn-te-°v A-^o-^p-±o≥ a-S-ßn-t∏m-cp-∂ th-f-bn¬ h-gn°p-sh-®v X-s‚ c-≠v ]q¿-h-Im-e kp-lr-Øp-°-sf I-≠v Ip-i-ew ]-d™p. A-^o-^p-±o≥ in-£-bn¬ \n-∂pw ap-‡n-t\-Sn-b-Xn¬ A-h¿ A-√m-lp-hn-s\ kv-Xp-Xn-®p. A-Xn-\p {]-Xn-h-N-\-am-bn A-^o-^p-±o≥ ]-d-™-Xm-I-s´: ""A-{I-an-I-fn¬ \n-∂pw \-tΩ c-£n-® A-√m-lp hmgv-Ø-s∏-S-t´'' F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p. A-t\ym-\yw B-io¿-hm-Z-߃ \-S-Øn A-h¿ kz-h-k-Xn--I-fn-te-°v t]m-bn. ]-t£ ho-Sp-I-fn¬ A-h¿ FØp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºv C-h-cp-sS kw-`m-j-W hn-j-bw kp¬-Øm-\-dn-™p. X-s∂ \n-μn-® C-h-cp-sS t\-sc I-en-I-b-dn-b kp¬-Øm≥ A-h-sc Xs‚ ap-ºn¬ sIm-≠p-h-cm≥ B-⁄m-]n-®-X-\p-k-cn-®v A-h-sc lm-Pcm-°n. C-h-sc aq-∂p t]-sc-bpw sIm-√p-hm-\m-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm≥ Iev-]n-®-Xv. A-^o-^p-±o-s‚ am-dn-epw a-‰p-≈-h-cp-sS I-gp-Øn-epw sh-´n sIm-√p-hm-\m-bn-cp-∂p I-ev-]-\. Cu B-⁄-tI-´v sR-´n-t∏m-b a-‰p- cC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

103


≠p-t]-cpw kp¬-Øm-t\m-S-t]-£n-®p: "A-^o-^p-±o≥ ]-d-™ kw-KXn in-£m¿-lw X-s∂. ]-t£, R-߃ F-¥v Ip-‰-am-Wv sN-bv-X-Xv?' A-Xn-\v kp¬-Øm≥ \-ev-In-b hn-Nn-{X-am-b a-dp-]-Sn: "A-^o-^p-±o≥ Cu {]-kv-Xm-h-\ \-S-Øn-b-t∏mƒ A-Xn-s\ {]-Xn-tj-[n-°m-sX tI-´p\n-∂-Xm-Wv \n-ß-fp-sS Ip-‰w. A-Xn-s‚ A¿-Yw \n-ß-fpw A-Xn-t\m-Sv tbm-Pn-°p-∂p- F-∂-Xm-Wv. \n-߃-°v hn-tbm-Pn-∏p-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ \n-ß-f-Xn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. A-Xv \n-߃ sN-bv-Xn-√. B Ip-‰-Øn-\m-Wv \n-ß-sf in-£n-°p-∂-Xv.-' ]n-s∂ H-´pw Xm-a-kn-®n-√. Cu aq-∂v ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw h-[-in-£-°v hn-t[-b-cm-bn. I-cp-Wm-\n-[nbm-b ]-S-®-h-≥ A-h-cn¬ Z-b Im-Wn-°-s´.-'' ""kn-‘n-se c-≠p ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-tcm-Sv \n-Ip-Xn ]n-cn-°m≥ A-[nIm-c-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈ K-h¿-W-tdm-sSm-∏w \n-Ip-Xn ]n-cn-°m≥ kp¬Øm-\m-h-iy-s∏-´p. "B kw-ÿm-\-Øn-se P-\-ß-fp-sS t£-aw \n-ßsf-bm-Wv Rm≥ G-ev-]n-°p-∂-Xv. K-h¿-W-dpw \n-ß-fp-sS k-lm-bn-bmbn-cn-°pw. \n-߃ \n¿-t±-in-°p-∂-sX-¥pw A-t±-lw \-S-∏m-°p-I-bpw sN-øpw.-' kp¬-Øm≥ C-h¿-°v sIm-Sp-Ø D-Ø-c-hn¬ C-h {]-kv-Xmhn-®n-cp-∂p. C-Xn-\p k-am-[m-\-am-bn B ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿ C-ß-s\ {]Xn-h-Nn-®p: "k-Xy-am¿-Kw R-߃ \n¿-t±-in-°mw. A-t±-lw A-Xp -sNbv-Xp sIm-≈-s´. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃-°v R-߃ km£n-bm-bn-cn-°pw.-' Cu ]-d-™-Xv kp¬-Øm≥ sX-‰n-≤-cn-®p. A-t±-la-e-dn: "F-s‚ tPm-en-bn-en-cn-°p-I-bpw F-t∂m-Sv Iq-dp ]p-e¿-Øm-Xn-cn°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂ \n-߃ kz-Øv Zp-cp-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-I am-{X-a√, A-Xn-s‚ Np-a-X-e Cu Xp¿-°n-bn¬ (K-h¿-W-dn¬) Np-a-Øn kz-c£- \-S-Øm-\p-≈ ]-cn-{i-a-am-Wv sN-øp-∂-sX-∂v Rm≥ [-cn-°p-∂p.-' kp¬-Øm-s‚ Cu ÿn-Xn A-h-sc hym-Ip-e-cm-°n. B-W-bn-´p-sIm≠v A-h¿ ]-d-™p: "X-߃ a-\- n¬-t]m-epw Du-ln-°m-Ø A¿-Yam-Wn-Xv.-' F-∂m¬ "\n-ß-f¿-Y-am-°n-b-Xv C-X-√m-sX a-s‰m-∂-s√'∂v kp¬-Øm≥ D-d-∏n-®p ]-d-™p. C-h-sc ssi-Jv km-Z \n-l-h-¥n-bp-sS A-Sp-°-te-°v sIm-≠p-t]m-Im≥ I-ev-]n-®p. D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ C-h-sc A-{]-Im-cw sN-bv-Xp. Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-°m≥ km-Z A-h-tcm-Sm-h-iy-s∏´p. "\n-ß-sf kp¬-Øm≥ sIm-e-in-£-°v hn-[n-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Ip‰w kz-bw G-‰p-]-d-bp-∂-Xm-Wp-Ø-aw. h-[n-°p-sa-∂v Xo¿-®-bm-Wv. As√-¶n¬ ]o-U-\-߃-°v hn-t[-b-cm-bn \n¿-±-b-am-b a¿-±-\-ß-f-\p-`-hn®v Ip-td-» Ip-td-»-bm-bn a-cn-°m-sX a-cn-°-Ww. A-Xp-sIm-≠v I-jv-Ss∏-´p a-cn-°m-sX Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-°p-I.-' kp¬-Øm≥ D-t±-in-® A¿-Yw X-߃ I-W-°m-°n-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v \n-c-]-cm-[n-I-fm-b A-h¿ B-h¿Øn-®-t∏mƒ, \n¿-_-‘-am-bn A-h-sc Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-∏n-°m-\p-≈ am¿C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

104


K-ß-fm-Wv ]n-∂o-Sv \-S-Øn-b-Xv. Ip-‰n-Iƒ X-d-®v C-h-sc A-Xn¬ _‘n-®v a-e¿-Øn-°n-S-Øn A-h-cp-sS am-d-Øv ]-gp-∏n-® C-cp-ºv ]m-{X߃ sh-®p. Ip-td- I-gn-™n-´v A-sX-Sp-Øp am-‰n-b-t∏mƒ am-dn-se amw-k-hpw Cu X-fn-I-I-tfm-sSm-∏w H-´n-t®¿-∂v ]-dn-™p-t]m-∂p. F∂n-´v Cu {h-W-ß-fn¬ aq-{X-sam-gn-°p-I-bpw Nm-cw \n-d-°p-I-bpw sNbv-Xp. Cu ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS ssI-b-£-c-Øn-ep-≈ A-t]-£-bn¬ Jm-kn X-s‚ ap-{Z-bpw Nm¿-Øn. C-h-cp-sS Ip-‰-k-Ω-Xw kz-ta-[-bm sN-bv-X-Xm-sW-∂pw bm-sXm-cp-h-I \n¿-_-‘-Øn-\pw h-g-ßn-bn-´n-s√∂pw {]-tXy-Iw F-gp-Xn-t®¿-Øn-cp-∂p. \n¿-_-‘-Øn-\v hn-t[-b-am-bn´m-sW-∂v kq-Nn-∏n-®m¬ C-Xn-t\-°mƒ I-\-Ø in-£-bm-bn-cn-°pw e`n-°p-I. sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-sa-∂v \n-›-b-am-b \n-e-°v H-‰-sh-´n-\v a-c-Wa-S-bp-∂-Xm-Wv A-`n-Im-ay-sa-∂v A-h-cm-in-®p. A-Xm-W-h¿ Ip-‰w kΩ-Xn-®-Xv. Ip-sd-°-gn-™v A-h-cp-sS in-c- p-Iƒ D-S-en¬ \n-∂pw Adp-Øv am-‰-s∏-´p.-'' ""apƒ-Øm≥-Im-c-\m-b ssi-Jv lq-Zv dp-Iv-\p-±o-s‚ ]u-{X-\m-bn-cp∂p. dp-Iv-\p-±o-\pw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-tlm-Z-c≥ C-am-Zp-±o-\pw kp¬Øm-s‚ kv-t\-l-_-lp-am-\-߃-°v ]m-{Xo-`q-X-cm-bn-cp-∂p. C-h¿-°v ]-e cm-P-Io-bm-\p-Iq-ey-ß-fpw e-`n-®n-cp-∂p. C-am-Zp-±o-\v kp¬-Øm-\pam-bn cq-]-km-ay-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. In-i-ep -Jm-\p-am-bp-≠m-b bp-≤-Øn¬ A-t±-lw ar-Xn-b-S-™p. C-X-dn-™-t∏mƒ k-¥-]v-X-\m-b kp¬-Øm≥, C-am-Zp-±o-s‚ i-h-Ip-So-cw k-μ¿-in-°p-∂-h¿-°v `-£-Ww \-ev-Ip-hm\m-bn \q-dv {Km-a-߃ Zm-\w sN-bv-Xp. G-Xm-\pw h¿-j-߃-°p tijw dp-Iv-\p-±o≥ a-c-W-a-S-™p. ]n-¥p-S¿-®m-h-Im-in-bm-bn A-t±-lw \n›-bn-®n-cp-∂-Xv ]u-{X-\m-b ssi-Jv lq-Zn-s\-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xn-s\ At±-l-Øn-s‚ k-tlm-Z-c-]p-{X≥ tNm-Zyw sN-bv-Xp. Xm-\m-Wv i-cn-bmb A-h-Im-in-sb-∂v A-t±-lw A-h-Im-i-s∏-´p. C-Xv A-h¿ X-Ωn¬ hg-°n-\pw hm-Zt- Im-em-le - ß - ƒ-°p-an-Sb - m-°n. Cu A-hk - c - Ø - n¬ kp¬Øm≥ Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-em-bn-cp-∂p. tI-kn-s‚ a-[y-ÿ-Xo-cp-am-\-Øn\m-bn A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ap-ºn¬ h-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ dp-Iv-\p-±o-s‚ a-cW-]-{Xw k-kq-£v-aw ]Tn-®v ssi-Jv lq-Zn-bm-Wv i-cn-bm-b A-h-Imin-sb-∂v {]-Jym-]n-®p. A-tXm-sS X¿-°-hpw Xo¿-∂p.-'' ""ssi-Jv lq-Zn-s\ h-f-sc B-Z-c-thm-sS-bm-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ kzo-Icn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. A-t±-lw G-Xp-ho-´n¬ F-t∏mƒ I-b-dn-s®-∂m-epw A-t±l-sØ _-lp-am-\n-®v k¬-°-cn-°-W-sa-∂p-t]m-epw kp¬-Øm≥ Iev-]n-®n-cp-∂p. Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn¬ \n-∂pw apƒ-Øm-\n-te-°v A-t±-lw aS-ßp-tºmƒ h-gn-\o-sf kzo-I-c-Ww \-ev-I-W-sa-∂pw \n¿-t±-i-ap-≠mbn-cp-∂p. C-X-\p-k-cn-®v A-t±-lw X-e-ÿm-\ -\-K-cn-bn-se-Øn-b-t∏mƒ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

105


Jm-kn-am-cpw ssi-Jp-I-fpw kq-^n-I-fpw {]-`p-°-∑m-cpw A-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥ k-∂-≤-cm-bn h-∂p. A-°q-´-Øn¬ Rm-\p-ap-≠m-bncp-∂p. ssi-Jv H-cp a-©-en-em-bn-cp-∂p bm-{X sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂-Xv. A-Xv hf-sc ]-¥n-tI-Sm-bn F-\n-°p tXm-∂n-b-Xp-sIm-≠v Rm-\-t±-l-tØm-Sv A-°m-cyw A-dn-bn-®p. A-t±-lw a-©-en¬ \n-∂n-d-ßn R-ß-tfm-sSm∏w Ip-Xn-c-∏p-d-Øm-Wv ]n-∂o-Sv bm-{X-sN-bv-X-Xv. X-\n-°v \-√ kp-J-an√m-Ø-Xp sIm-≠m-Wv a-©-en¬ bm-{X-sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂-sX-∂v ]n-∂o-S-t±lw ]-d-bp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' ""U¬-ln-bn¬ h-∂ ssi-Jv lq-Zn-\v H-cp cm-P-Io-b- hn-cp-∂v G¿]m-Sv sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p. Jm-kn-Iƒ, kq-^n-Iƒ, ssi-Jp-Iƒ, hn-tZ-in-Iƒ, ]u-c-{]-[m-\n-Iƒ ap-gp-s° C-Xn¬ kw-_-‘n-®n-cp-∂p. Cu k¬-°mc-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂-h¿-s°-√mw A-h-c-h-cp-sS ÿm-\-am-\-߃-°-\pkr-X-am-bn ]m-cn-tXm-jn-I-ß-fpw e-`n-®p. {]-[m-\ -Jm-kn-°v 500 Zo-\mdpw F-\n-°v 250 Zo-\m-dpw e-`n-®p. k¬-°m-c-߃-°p ti-jw ssi-Jv lq-Zn kz-tZ-i-tØ-°v a-S-ßn. lq-Zn-s‚ ]n-Xm-a-l-s‚ kv-am-c-I-ku-[Øn¬ sh-®v A-t±-l-Øn-\p hn-cp-∂v \-ev-Im≥ ssi-Jv \q-dp-±o≥ indm-kn-s\ kp¬-Øm≥ A-t±-l-tØm-sSm-∏w A-b-®n-cp-∂p.-'' ""{]-kv-Xp-X ÿ-e-Øv ssi-Jv Ip-td-°m-ew kp-J-am-bn Xm-a-kn®p. C-Xn-\n-S-°v kn-‘n-se K-h¿-W¿ C-am-Zp¬ ap¬-°v kp¬-Øm-\v H-cp c-l-ky- dn-t∏m¿-´v A-b-®n-cp-∂p. k-μ¿-i-I¿-°pw bm-{X-°m¿-°pw A-∂-Zm-\-Øn-\m-bn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂ \q-dv {Km-a-ß-fn-se h-cp-am-\w ap-gps° ssi-Jv kz-¥-am-h-iy-Øn-\pw Ip-Spw-_-ß-sf kp-Jn-∏n-°p-hm-\pam-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-sX-∂pw B¿-°pw H-∂pw X-s∂ Zm-\-am-bn \-evIp-∂n-s√-∂p-am-bn-cp-∂p c-l-ky-tc-J-bn-se hn-h-cw. C-Xn-s‚ sh-fn-®Øn¬ ssi-Jn-s‚ [-\w ap-gp-s° I-≠p-sI-´m≥ kp¬-Øm-≥ B⁄m-]n-®p. K-h¿-W¿ ssi-Jn-s‚ kz-Øv kw-_-‘n-® hn-h-c-ß-fm-hiy-s∏-´p. Nn-e-sc _-‘-\-ÿ-cm-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. \n-tXy-\ 20,000 Zo-\m¿ ho-Xw ssi-Jn¬ \n-∂pw ]n-Sn-s®-Sp-Øv A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ A-f-h‰ [-\w A-ß-s\ s]m-Xp-J-P-\m-hn-se-Øn-®p. c-Xv-\-߃ ]-Xn-∏n-® c≠v ]m-Zp-I-ß-fpw A-°q-´-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. 7000 Zo-\m-dn-\m-Wv Cu sN-cn-∏p-Iƒ hn-‰-Xv. C-X-Wn-™n-cp-∂-Xv ssi-Jv lq-Zn-bp-sS ]p-{Xnbm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw A-X-√ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ H-cp sh-∏m-´n-bm-bn-cp-∂psh-∂pw ]-£m-¥-c-ap-≠v. X-s‚ k-I-e kz-Øpw \-jv-S-s∏-´ lq-Zn Xp¿-°n-bn-te-°v Hm-Sn- c-£-s∏-Sm≥ {i-an-s®-¶n-epw K-h¿-W-dp-sS DtZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ A-t±-l-sØ kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ sIm-≠p-h-∂p. ""\n-߃ F-hn-tS-°m-Wv Hm-Sn- c-£-s∏-Sm≥ {i-an-®-Xv? F-¥m-Wn-ßs\ tXm-∂m≥ Im-c-Ww?'' kp¬-Øm≥ H-∂p-a-dn-bm-Ø a-´n¬ tNm-ZnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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®p. lq-Zn X-s‚ Ip-‰w hn-h-cn-®v £-am-bm-N-\w \-S-Øn. "Xp¿-°n-I-fpsS \m-´n¬ sh-®v F-\n-s°-Xn-cm-bn Ip-{]-N-c-W-߃ \-S-Øn Cu \mSn-s\ B-{I-an-°p-hm-\h - s - c t{]-cn-∏n-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂n-t√ \n-ßf - p-sS Dt±-iyw? _-lm-hp-±o≥ k-°c - n-bm-bp-sS ]p-{X-\m-sW-∂v ]n≥-_e - Ø - n\v th-≠n \n-߃ ]-db - p-Ib - pw sN-øpw.-' C-Xm-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm-s‚ \n-Ka - \ - w. C-sXm-s° ssi-Jv \n-tj-[n-®p-sh-¶n-epw kp¬-Øm≥ hn-izkn-®n-√. kp¬-Øm-s‚ \n¿-t±-im-\p-kr-Xw A-t±-ls - Ø-bpw sIm-∂p.-'' ""tIm-bn¬ ]-´-W-Øv H-cp h-en-b ]p-Wym-flm-hv \n-h-kn-®n-cp-∂p. Xm-Pp¬ B-cn-^n-s‚ ]p-{X-\m-b ssi-Jv jw-kp-±o≥. kp¬-Øm≥ Cu ssi-Jn-s\ X-s‚ k-∂n-[n-bn-te-°p £-Wn-s®-¶n-epw A-t±-l-aXn-\v h-g-ßn-bn-√. X-∑q-ew kp¬-Øm≥ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-∂n-[n-bn¬ t]m-Im-sa-∂p \n-›-bn-®v ]p-d-s∏-s´-¶n-epw, A-Sp-sØ-Øn-b-t∏mƒ At±-l-sØ Im-Wm-sX Xn-cn-®p-t]m-∂p.-'' ""C-Xn-\p-ti-jw H-cp K-h¿-W¿ kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bn Kq-Vm-temN-\- \-S-Øp-I-bpw cm-P-Io-b- I-ev-]-\-I-sf ]-c-ky-am-bn [n-°-cn-°p-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp. Cu K-h¿-W¿ ssi-Jn-s\ k-μ¿-in-®n-cp-∂-Xm-bpw X-Zh-k-c-Øn¬ X-s‚ ]-≤-Xn-I-sf-°p-dn-®v kw-km-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xm-bpw c-lky h-Ip-∏p-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ kp¬-Øm-s\ A-dn-bn-®n-cp-∂p. A-Xn-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ssi-Jn-t\-bpw Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ß-tf-bpw A-hn-Sp-sØ Jm-kn-tb-bpw P-bn-en-e-S-°p-hm-\m-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®-Xv. K-h¿W-dp-sS [n-°m-c-{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ-°v ssi-Jv A-\p-{Km-lm-in- p-Iƒ \ev-Ip-tºmƒ A-Xv I-≠p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p F-∂-Xm-Wv P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS Ip‰w. C-h-cp-sS C-cp-h-cp-tS-bpw I-Æp-Iƒ Np-gv-s∂-Sp-Ø ti-j-am-Wv Pbn-en-e-S-®-Xv. ssi-Jv I¬-Xp-dp-¶n¬ In-S-∂v X-s‚ A-¥yw I-≠p. Ct±-l-Øn-s‚ k-¥m-\-߃ ln-μp-°-fm-b Ip-td hn-π-h-Im-cn-I-fp-ambn-tN¿-∂v e-l-f-s°m-cp-ßn-b hn-h-cw kp¬-Øm-\-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-∂p. ssi-Jn-s‚ a-c-W-ti-jw C-h-sc kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ sIm-≠p-h∂p. "ta-em¬ C-Ø-cw Ip-g-∏-߃-°n-S-h-cp-Ø-cp-sX-∂pw, C-t∏mƒ C-h¿-s°-√mw am-∏p-\-ev-Ip-∂p-sh-∂pw' kp¬-Øm≥ A-dn-bn-®p. "Xß-sf-¥v Ip-‰-am-Wv sN-bv-X-sX-∂-dn-™m¬ sIm-≈m'sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm-s‚ Cu {]-Jym-]-\w tI-´-t∏mƒ A-h¿-°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂ {]Xn-I-c-Ww. Cu tNm-Zyw X-s∂ [n-°-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bn tXm-∂n-b kp¬Øm≥ C-h-sc-sb-√mw h-[n-°m≥ B-⁄m-]n-®-ti-jw tIm-bn-en-se P-Uv-Pn-tbm-Sv B-cm-™p: "C-h-cp-sS {]-hr-Øn-I-tfm-Sv _-‘-s∏-´-h¿ C-\n A-hn-sS B-scm-s°-bm-Wv? P-Uv-Pn Ip-td ln-μp-{]-P-I-fp-sS t]cv ]-d-™p. \m-´n¬ I-em-]w kr-jv-Sn-°p-I-bm-Wv C-bm-fp-sS-bpw D-t±iyw. X-∑q-ew C-bm-sf-bpw h-[n-°p-I' F-∂v kp¬-Øm≥ I-ev-]n-®p. C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ D-Ø-c-hv \-S-∏m-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' ""ssi-Jv A-en ssl-Z-cn F-∂ H-cp kn-≤≥ Imw-t_ Xp-d-ap-J- ]´-W-Øn¬ A-[n-h-kn-®n-cp-∂p. A-hn-sS-sb-Øp-∂ hn-tZ-i hym-]m-cnIƒ C-t±-l-Øn-\v I-W-°n-√m-Ø [-\w k-Ωm-\-am-bn sIm-Sp-Øn-cp∂p. Imw-t_-bn-en-d-ßn-bm¬ ssi-Jn-s\ Im-Wm-sX-bpw A-t±-l-Øn¬ \n-∂pw A-h-sc kw-_-‘n-® {]-h-N-\-߃ tIƒ-°m-sX-bpw B-cpw t]m-cp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. B-sc-¶n-epw G-sX-¶n-epw kw-K-Xn-°m-bn t\¿-N t\-cp-I-bpw A-Xv sIm-Sp-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AØ-c-°m¿ ]n-∂o-S-t±-l-Øn-s‚ k-∂n-[n-bn-¬ F-Øn-bm-ep-S≥ A-t±lw tNm-Zn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p: "\n-߃ t\¿-N-bm-bn t\¿-∂n-cp-∂-Xv X-∂n√-t√m' F-∂v. C-sXm-s°- Im-c-Ww A-t±-l-Øn-\v A-an-X-am-b {]-ikv-Xn-bp-≠m-bn.-'' ""Cu th-f-bn-em-Wv Jm-kn P-em-ep-±o≥ A-^v-Km-\n-bpw A-t±-lØn-s‚ A-\p-N-c-∑m-cpw kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bn I-em-]-߃ kr-jv-Sn®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-Xv. P-em-ep-±o-s\ X-s‚ A-cn-In¬ h-cp-Øn ssi-Jv ssl-Z-cn X-s‚ sXm-∏n A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ X-e-bn-e-Wn-bn-°p-I-bpw Abm-fp-sS {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ-°v hn-P-bm-iw-k-Iƒ t\-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-X- hnh-cw kp¬-Øm-\-dn-™p. I-em-]-Im-cn-I-sf A-a¿-N sN-øp-hm≥ kp¬Øm≥ X-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-em-Wv ssk-\n-I-sc \n-b-an-®-Xv. P-em-ep-±o\pw Iq-´-cpw ]-cm-Pn-X-cm-bn. Ip-‰-hm-fn-I-sf Xn-c-°p ]n-Sn-®v sIm-≠p-hcp-∂-Xn-\m-bn A-ao¿ i-d-^p¬-ap¬-Iv _-Jv-Xn-sb Imw-t_-bn¬ Xs∂ \n¿-Øn. I-em-]-Im-cn-Iƒ-°v in-£ -hn-[n-°p-hm-\m-bn Ip-sd Jmkn-am-tc-bpw {]-tXy-I-am-bn \n-b-an-®p. ssi-Jv A-en ssl-Z-cn kp¬Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ lm-P-cm-°-s∏-´p. A-t±-lw Iq-k¬ Iq-Sm-sX Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-®p. h-[-in-£-bm-Wv A-t±-l-Øn-\v e-`n-®-Xv. h-[w \-S-∏n-em°m≥ D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ X-bm-dm-bn ssi-Jn-s‚ K-f-t—-Zw sN-øp-hm≥ hmƒ Du-t°m-Sv Iq-Sn Du-cn- ho-in. ]-t£ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ tZ-l-Øv Hcp-t]m-d¬-t]m-epw C-Xp-≠m-°n-bn-√. sh-´n-bn-´pw sh-t´¬-°m-Xn-cp-∂Xp-sIm-≠v P-\-߃ A-¤p-X-s∏-Sp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. ]-t£ kw-`-hn-®Xv a-dn-®m-bn-cp-∂p. \n-b-aw \-S-∏m-°m≥ a-s‰m-cp-tZym-K-ÿ≥ B-K-X\m-bn. A-bmƒ ssi-Jn-s‚ I-gp-Øp sh-´n X-e-th-sd-bm-°n.-'' ""^¿-Km-\-bn-se {]-`p-°-fm-b Xu-K-\pw k-tlm-Z-c-\pw kp¬-Øms\ H-cn-°¬ k-μ¿-in-®p. A-h¿-°v ]-e k-Ωm-\-ß-fpw sIm-Sp-Øv kp¬-Øm≥ A-h-sc kzo-I-cn-®p. Ip-td-°m-ew A-h¿ kp-J-am-b-hn-sS Xm-a-kn-®v I-gn-™-t∏mƒ a-S-ßn-t∏m-cm-\p-≈ {i-a-߃ A-h¿ \-SØn. C-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ C-h-sc-∏-‰n Nn-e B-tcm-]-W-߃ Nn-e¿ kp¬Øm-s‚ k-a-£-Øn-¬ t_m-[n-∏n-®n-cp-∂p. C-Xn-s‚ k-Xym-h-ÿ-sbC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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°p-dn-®v Nn-¥n-°m-sX kp¬-Øm-≥ A-tX ]-Sn hn-iz-kn-®p. C-h-sc ]nf¿-∂v sIm-√p-hm-\m-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´-Xv. cm-P-In-¶-c-∑m¿ Iev-]-\ \-S-∏m-°n. h-[n-°-s∏-´-h-cp-sS kz-Øv ap-gp-s° Ip-‰m-tcm-]-W߃ \-S-Øn-b Bƒ-°v e-`n-®p. C-Xv C-hn-S-sØ B-Nm-c-am-Wv. Hcmƒ a-s‰m-cp-Ø-s\-∏-‰n Nn-e B-tcm-]-W-߃ D-∂-bn-°p-I-bpw AXv k-Xy-am-sW-∂v sX-fn-bn-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xm¬ A-bm-fp-sS [-\-sa√mw I-≠p-sI-´n B-tcm-]-Ww sX-fn-bn-® Bƒ-°v sIm-Sp-°p-I ]-Xnhm-Wv.-'' ""kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bn hn-π-hw \-S-Øn-b sF-\p¬-ap¬-°p-am-bn kp¬-Øm≥ bp-≤w sN-bv-Xv A-t±-l-sØ tXm-ev-]n-®p. A-t±-l-tØbpw A-\p-bm-bn-I-tf-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ Im-cm-Kr-l-Øn-e-S-®p. ]n-∂o-Sv sF-\p¬-ap¬-°v h-[n-°-s∏-´p. Cu kw-K-Xn ]n-∂o-Sv hn-h-cn-°p-∂-XmWv. C-h-cp-sS Iq-´-Øn¬ am-en-Iv Xp-÷m-dpw A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ kyme≥ C-_v-\p Ip-Øp-_p¬ ap¬-°p-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. kv-t\-ln-X-∑m-cpsS \n¿-_-‘-Øn-\v h-g-ßn-bn-´m-bn-cp-∂p C-h-cn-cp-h-cpw e-l-f-bn¬ kw_-‘n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. Xp-÷m-dn-s\ H-cp a-c-s°m-ºn¬ sI-´n-Xq-°n A-sºbv-Xv sIm-√m-\m-Wv hn-[n-®-Xv. Nn-e cm-P-Ip-am-c-∑m-cm-Wn-Xv \n¿-h-ln-®Xv. C-bm-fp-sS h-[w \-S-∂-Xn-\p ti-jw Jzm-Pm A-ao¿ A-en X-_v-cokv F-∂ Im-h¬-°m-c≥ {]-[m-\- Jm-kn-sb I-≠v C-t±-lw Ip-‰-°m-c\m-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v A-dn-bn-®p. "F-¥p-sIm-≠v in-£ \-S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn\p ap-ºv Cu hn-h-cw ]-d-™n-√' F-∂v B-t£-]n-®p sIm-≠v in-£bm-bn 200 A-Sn sIm-Sp-°p-hm-\pw P-bn-en-e-S-°p-hm-\pw {]-[m-\- P-UvPn D-Ø-c-hn-´p. C-Xn-\p ]p-d-ta A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ kz-Øv ap-gp-s° in£ \-S-∏n-em-°n-b D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-cp-sS X-e-h-t\m-Sv F-Sp-Øp sIm≈m≥ I-ev-]n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. Cu kw-`-hw I-gn-™v c-≠mw Zn-hkw Rm-\o D-tZym-K-ÿ-s\ Im-Wp-I-bp-≠m-bn. A-bmƒ Im-h¬-°mc-s‚ sXm-∏n-bpw A-¶n-bp-a-Wn-™n-cp-∂-Xn-\p -]p-d-ta Im-h¬-°m-cs‚ Ip-Xn-c-∏p-d-Øm-bn-cp-∂p k-hm-cn- sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂-Xpw.-'' ""Ip-td I-gn-™v Im-h¬-°m-c-s\ P-bn¬ hn-ap-‡-\m-°n B-ZysØ tPm-en-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p. F-∂m¬ A-[n-I-Im-ew I-gn-bp-∂-Xn\n-S-°v F-t¥m Im-c-W-h-im¬ C-bmƒ kp¬-Øm-s‚ tIm-]-Øn-\n-cbm-Ip-I-bpw A-bm-sf Jp-dm-km-\n-te-°v \m-Sp-I-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-t±-lw slm-dm-´v F-∂ ÿ-e-Øm-Wn-Xn-\p-ti-jw h-kn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. A-hn-sS \n-∂pw kp¬-Øm-s‚ Im-cp-Wy-hpw Z-b-bpw A¿-Yn-®p-sIm≠v A-t±-lw H-cp I-sØ-gp-Xn. sN-bv-X sX-‰p-Iƒ a-\- n-em-°n ]›m-Ø-]n-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬ a-S-ßn- h-∂p-sIm-≈m≥ ]-d-™p-sIm-≠v kp¬-Øm-\-Xn-\v a-dp-]-Sn-bpw sIm-Sp-Øp. A-X-\p-k-cn-®v Im-h¬-°mC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

109


c≥ a-S-ßn-h-∂v ]-g-b-tPm-en-bn¬ X-s∂ {]-th-in-®p.-'' ""kp¬-Øm≥ X-e-ÿm-\-Øp \n-∂v F-tßm t]m-b H-c-h-k-cØn¬ c-Xv-\- \n-t£-] -J-P-\m-hn-s‚ ta¬-t\m-´w U¬-ln-bn-se {][m-\- J-Xo-_n-s\-bm-Wv G¬-]n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. \n¿-`m-Ky-Øn-\v Cu kμ¿-`-Øn¬ C-h sIm-≈b - S- n-°s - ∏-Sp-Ib - pw Ip-td c-Xv\ - ß - ƒ I-≈∑ - m¿ A-]-l-cn-®v sIm-≠p-t]m-Ip-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. J-Øo-_n-s‚ \n-cp-Ø-chm-Zn-Øw sIm-≠m-Wn-Xv kw-`h - n-®s - X-∂v B-tcm-]n-®v kp¬-Øm≥ At±-ls - Ø X-√n-s°m-√m≥ hn-[n-®p.-'' (Ibn Battuta-pp. 196-213) C-Xn-t\m-S-\p-_-‘-am-bn a-‰-\-h-[n {Iq-c-\-S-]-Sn-I-sf kw-_-‘n®pw _-Øq-Ø hn-h-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. I-em-]-Im-cn-I-fp-sS sXm-en-bp-cn-s™Sp-Øv ssh-t°m¬ \n-d-®v {]-Z¿-in-∏n-®n-cp-∂-Xpw h-[n-®-h-cp-sS amw-kwsIm-≠v _n-cn-bm-Wn D-≠m-°n kz-¥-°m-sc-s°m-≠v Xo-‰n-®n-cp-∂-Xpw a-‰p-am-b H-t´-sd kw-K-Xn-Iƒ ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. I-em-]-Im-cn-I-sf kp¬Øm≥ F-Xn¿-Øn-cp-∂ co-Xn-bpw A-h¿ _-‘-\-ÿ-cm-°-s∏-´m¬ sImSp-Øn-cp-∂ ss]-im-Nn-I-am-b in-£-bp-sam-s° C-∂v \-ap-°v A-\-ev]-am-b sh-dp-∏pw A-an-X-am-b A-a¿-j-hpw D-≠m-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ \m-Sn-s‚ \m-\m-`m-K-Øpw \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ in-£m-k-{ºZm-b-߃ ]Tn-®m¬ Xp-•-°n-s‚ Im-e-Øv sIm-Sp-Øn-cp-∂ i-£-bn¬ hn-kv-a-bn-°-Ø-°-Xm-bn H-∂p-an-√m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v a-\- n-em-Ipw. C-_v\p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ tI-c-f-Øn-se-bpw a-‰p- ÿ-e-ß-fn-te-bpw in£m-co-Xn-sb hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ \n-∂pw C-h {K-ln-°p-hm≥ {]-bm-kw t\-cn-Sp-I-bn-√. _-Øq-Ø tI-c-f-sØ kw-_-‘n-®v ]-d-bp-∂-Xv Iq-Sn tIƒ-°p-I: ""ap-sse-_m-dn-s\-t∏m-se kp-c-£n-X-am-bn bm-{X -sN-øm-hp-∂ hoYn-Iƒ Rm≥ tem-I-sØm-cn-S-Øpw I-≠n-´n-√. I-≈-∑m¿-°v I-\-Ø in-£- \-ev-Ip-∂n-S-hpw th-sd hn-c-f-am-bn-cn-°pw. H-cp \m-fn-tI-cw tamjv-Sn-®m¬ e-`n-°p-∂ in-£ h-[-am-Wv. \m-fn-tI-c-tam a-‰p- ^-e-ß-tfm ho-Wn-S-Øv X-s∂ In-S-°p-∂p. A-Xn-s‚ i-cn-bm-b D-S-a-ÿ-∑m¿ h-∂v F-Sp-°p-∂-Xp-h-sc A-Xv {i-≤n-°p-I -t]m-ep-an-√. th-sd B-sc-¶n-epw F-Sp-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ am-Xr-Im-]-c-am-b in-£-bm-Wv cm-Pm-hv \-ev-Inbn-cp-∂-Xv. H-cn-°¬ Nn-e k-©m-cn-Iƒ A-S¿-∂v ho-Wp- In-S-∂n-cp-∂ \m-fn-tI-cw F-Sp-Ø-X-dn-™ cm-Pm-hv A-h-sc Xn-c-™p-]n-Sn-®v ]-e-II-fn¬ In-S-Øn I-ºn-b-Sn-®v I-b-‰n sIm-∂-ti-jw h-gn-°-h-e-I-fn¬ t{]-Xw \m-´n-bn--cp-∂-Xm-bn F-t∂m-Sv Nn-e¿ ]-d-™p.-- C-Ø-c-Øn-ep-]tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂ Ip-‰n-Iƒ h-gn-\o-sf Im-Wm≥ I-gn-bp-∂p-≠v.-.-.-.-.-.-.-'' ""Rm≥ sIm-√-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ \-S-∂ H-c-\p-`-hw ]-d-bmw. G-tXm I-em-]-sØ Xp-S¿-∂v [-\m-Vy-\m-b H-cp C-dm-Jp-Im-c≥ a-s‰mC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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cp C-dm-Jp-Im-c-s\ sIm-∂p. [-\m-Vy-\m-b C-dm-Jp-Im-c≥ A-hp-Pn-bpsS ho-´n¬ A-`-bw {]m-]n-®p. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ Io-gn-ep-≈-h¿ i-hw a-dhp-sN-øm≥ Xp-\n-™p. cm-Pm-hn-s‚ {]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ A-\p-h-Zn-®n-√. sIme-bm-fn-sb G-ev-]n-®-√m-sX i-hw a-d-hp-sN-øm≥ k-Ω-Xn-°p-I-bn-s√∂-h¿ A-dn-bn-®p. i-hw H-cp s]-´n-bn-em-°n A-hp-Pn-bp-sS ho-Sn-\p-apºn¬ sh-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. i-hw No-™p-\m-dn-Øp-S-ßn. A-hp-Pn ]-e ]-cn-{i-a-ß-fpw \-S-Øn-sb-¶n-epw cm-Pm-hv H-∂n-\pw Iq-´m-°n-bn-√. A-h-km-\w A-hp-Pn Lm-X-I-s\ cm-Pm-hn-t\-ev-]n-®v sIm-Sp-Øv A-bmƒ°v am-∏p- \-ev-I-W-sa-∂v A-t]-£n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. ]-t£ \o-Xnam-\m-b cm-Pm-hv sIm-e-∏p-≈n-°v h-[-in-£ -X-s∂ \¬-In. A-Xn-\pti-j-ta A-hp-Pn-bp-sS hm-Xn¬-°¬ sh-®n-cp-∂ i-hw a-d-hp-sN-øm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-®p-≈p.-' ""Cu kw-`-hw Rm≥ ]-d-™p-tI-´ Im-cy-am-Wv. H-cp Zn-h-kw Xs‚ a-I-fp-sS `¿-Øm-thm-Sp-Iq-Sn cm-Pm-hv sIm-´m-c-s°-´n-\v ]p-d-Øv tXm´-ß-fn¬ km-bm-”-k-hm-cn sN-øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. \-S-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ h-gn-b-cn-In¬ In-S-∂n-cp-∂ H-cp N-° a-cp-a-I≥ ssI-h-i-am-°n-bn-cn°p-∂-Xm-bn cm-Pm-hv I-≠p. a-‰p-≈-h-cp-sS km-[-\w A-\p-hm-Z-an-√msX F-Sp-Ø X-s‚ a-cp-a-I-s\ c-≠m-bn ]n-f¿-∂v N-°-bpw c-≠v I-jvW-am-°n cm-P-Ip-am-c-s‚ sh-´n-ap-dn-® c-≠v i-co-c-`m-K-ß-fn¬ sh-®v hgn-bn¬ {]-Z¿-i-\w \-S-Øn. P-\-߃-°v in-£m-t_m-[-ap-≠m-°p-hm\n-Xv F-{X-am-{Xw {]-tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-sa-∂v ]-d-tb-≠-Xn-√-t√m. Ip-‰-°mc-s\ t\m-°n-b-√; Ip-‰-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h-a-\p-k-cn-®m-Wv in-£-Iƒ \oXn-am-\m-b Cu cm-Pm-hv \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂-Xv.-'' ""C-Xp-t]m-se H-cp kw-`-hw Im-en-t°m-Øv(tIm-gn-t°m-Sv) sh-®pap-≠m-bn. km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS {]-[m-\-a-{¥n-bp-sS k-tlm-Z-c-]p-{X≥ H-cp ap-kv-enw hym-]m-cn-bp-sS hmƒ _-ew {]-tbm-Kn-®v hm-ßn-sh-®p. B-hiy-s∏-´n-´pw sIm-Sp-°m-Xn-cp-∂-Xp sIm-≠v A-bmƒ a-{¥n-bp-sS A-Sp°¬ k-¶-Sw t_m-[n-∏n-®p. D-S-s\ A-t\z-jn-°m-sa-∂v a-{¥n A-dn-bn°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. ho-´n¬ sN-∂-t∏mƒ k-tlm-Z-c-]p-{X≥ hm-fp-ambn h-cp-∂p. "H-cp ap-kv-enw hym-]m-cn-bp-tS-X-t√ Cu hmƒ?' a-{¥n tNm-Zn-®p. "A-sX.-' "\o hn-e-bv-°v hm-ßn-b-Xm-tWm?' "A-√.-' kw-`m-jWw C-{X-bp-am-b-t∏mƒ A-t±-lw ssk-\ym-[n-]-s\ hn-fn-®v B hm-fpsIm-≠v X-s∂ A-bm-fp-sS I-gp-Øv sh-´p-hm-\m-⁄m-]n-®p. ssk-\ym[n-]≥ in-£ \-S-∏n-em-°n.-'' A-t∏mƒ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s‚ in-£m-{I-a-sØ-]-‰n s]-cp-∏n-®p]-d-bm≥ _-Øq-Ø-°v t{]-c-I-am-bn \n-∂-Xv A-t±-lw Ip-‰-°m-cm-bn H-´-t\-Iw ap-kv-enw -]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-tc-bpw ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw \n-jv-I-cpC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ww h-[n-®p F-∂-Xm-Wv. k-a-Im-en-I- ap-kv-enw N-cn-{X-Im-c-∑m-scm-s°bpw Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\-∏-‰n \-S-Øp-∂ B-tcm-]-W-ß-fn¬ {]-[m-\am-b-Xv ""A-t±-lw \n-km-c-Ip-‰-߃-°v t]m-epw ITn-\-in-£ \-ev-Inbn-cp-∂p: \n-b-aw \-S-Øp-∂ Im-cy-Øn¬ ]-Wv-Un-X-s\-t∂m {]-`p-sht∂m cm-P-Ip-am-c-s\-t∂m km-[m-c-W-°m-sc-t∂m D-≈ h-I-t`-Zw At±-lw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂n-√'' F-∂-Xm-Wv. a-I-fp-sS `¿-Øm-hn-s\ h-gn-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-∂n-cp-∂ H-cp N-° F-Sp-Ø-Xp sIm-≠v c-≠m-bn ]n-f¿-∂v s]m-Xp-{]-Z¿-i-\w \-S-Øn-b sIm-√-sØ cm-Pm-hv "\o-Xn-\n-jvT-\pw, Ip‰-°m-c-\m-sc-∂v t\m-°m-sX Ip-‰-Øn-s‚ kz-`m-h-a-\p-k-cn-®v in-£ \ev-In-bn-cp-∂ \o-Xn-am-\p'am-bn C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ hy-h-l-cn-®ncn-°p-∂-Xpw \mw I-≠p. A-tX am-\-Z-Wv-Uw X-s∂ \o-Xn-\n¿-h-l-WIm-cy-Øn¬ ]p-e¿-Øn-t∏m-∂ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v Zp-jv-S a-\x-ÿn-Xn°m-c-\m-b c-‡-tam-ln-bm-Ip-∂-sX-ß-s\? C-hn-sS-bm-Wv Cu tNm-cs°m-Xn-bp-sS I-≈n- sh-fn-®-Øm-Ip-∂-Xv. ssZ-hn-I-]-cn-th-j-a-Wn-™pw A-¤p-X-߃ Im-Wn-®pw am-kv-a-cn-I i-‡n {]-Z¿-i-\w \-S-Øn-bpw P\-ß-sf hn-kv-a-bn-∏n-®n-cp-∂ ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw kn-≤-∑m-tc-bpw Iq-dp≈ {]-P-I-fm-°n am-‰p-hm≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v ]-cn-{i-an-®p-t]m-bn F∂-Xv am-{X-am-W-t±-lw sN-bv-X ]m-X-Iw. A-h-sc cm-Py-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ C-S-s]-Sp-hm-t\m cm-Pm-[n-Im-c-tØ-tbm \n-b-a-tØ-tbm [n-°-cn-°p-hmt\m A-\p-h-Zn-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂v am-{X-ta-bp-≈p.cm-P-I-ev-]-\-I-fpw \m-´p-\n-b-a-ß-fpw cm-Py-Øp-≈ F-√m B-fp-Ifpw H-∂-S-¶w A-\p-k-cn-®m¬ am-{X-ta A-h-sIm-≠v {]-tbm-P-\-ap-≠mIp-I-bp-≈q. \n-b-aw ew-Ln-°p-∂-h-cpw cm-P-I-ev-]-\-I-sf [n-°-cn-°p∂-h-cpw cm-Py-Øp-≠m-bm¬ \o-Xn ]p-e¿-Øp-hm-t\m k-am-[m-\w kpc-£n-X-am-°p-hm-t\m A-km-[y-am-Ipw. a-[y-Im-e C-¥y-bp-sS cm-jv{So-b N-cn-{Xw \-sΩ ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv tI-{μo-Ir-X-am-b H-cp kp-i-‡`-c-W-Iq-S-Øn-\p am-{X-ta A-ev-]-sa-¶n-epw t`-Z-am-b \n-b-a-k-am-[m-\w km¿-h-{Xn-I-am-°≥ I-gn-™n-cp-∂p-≈p- F-∂-Xm-Wv. k-am-[m-\-Øn-s‚bpw k-ar-≤n-bp-sS-bpw Im-e-L-´w F-t∏m-sg-¶n-ep-ap-≠m-bn-´p-s≠-¶n¬ A-Xv A-P-ø-cm-b G-Im-[n-]-Xn-I-fp-sS Io-gn¬ am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p. Xs‚ Io-gn-ep-≈ {]-`p-°-∑m-tc-bpw ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-i-‡n-tb-bpw \n-e-°p \n¿-Øm-s\m-Ø-h¿-°v am-{X-ta C-¥ym-N-cn-{X-Øn¬ a-l-Øm-b hy‡n-ap-{Z ]-Xn-∏n-°m≥ X-c-s∏-´n-´p-≈q. Im-e-tZ-i-Øn-s‚ k-hn-ti-jkz-`m-h-am-bn-cp-∂p C-h F-∂-Xp sIm-≠p X-s∂ A-Ø-cw a-lm-∑mcm-b N-{I-h¿-Øn-am-cn¬ {]-[m-\n-b-t{X ap-l-Ω-Zv C-_v-\p Xp-•-°v.A-t±-lw a-X-tØ-bpw ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-tØ-bpw cm-jv-{So-b-Øn¬ \n∂pw `-c-W-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw am-‰n \n¿-Øn. a-Xm-Nm-cy-\m-bn-cp-∂ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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kp¬-Øm≥ a-X-Øn-s‚ A-¶n-bp-a-Wn-™v ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s‚ ]cn-c-£-bn≥ Io-gn¬ \n-∂p-sIm-≠v cm-jv-{So-b ap-X-se-Sp-∏n-\v X-øm-dmb ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw ]p-tcm-ln-X hn-`m-K-tØ-bpw \n-cp¬-km-l-s∏-SpØn. A-h-tcm-Sv Iq-dp-≈ {]-P-I-fm-bn I-gn-bp-hm-\m-⁄m-]n-®p. C-Xv ]-e¿-°pw ]-Yy-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS in-£m-\-S-]-SnI-sf-°p-dn-®p-≈ `m-Kw kp-Zo¿-L-am-bn-Ø-s∂ D-≤-cn-®-Xn-\p Im-c-Ww, A-h -X-s∂ kw-km-cn-°p-∂ sX-fn-hm-b-Xp sIm-≠m-Wv. Hm-tcm kn-≤t\-bpw ]-Wv-Un-X-t\-bpw in-£n-°p-hm-\p-≈ Im-c-W-߃ _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v. A-h {i-≤m-]q¿-hw \n-co-£n-®m¬ Im-Wm-hp-∂ ]-c-am¿-Yw ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v H-cn-°-epw A¿-[-ssZ-h-ß-fm-bn N-a-™ncp-∂ Cu kn-≤-∑m-tc-bpw ssi-Jp-I-tf-bpw cm-Py-Im-cy-ß-fn¬ C-Ss]-Sm≥ A-\p-h-Zn-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂pw a-‰p-≈ {]-P-I-sf-t∏m-se Ip-‰-߃ °-\p-k-cn-®v in-£-Iƒ \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw am-{X-am-Wv.ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v ]-e-t∏m-gpw ]-d-bm-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xm-bn a-s‰m-cp k-a-Im-en-I N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b kn-bm-hp-±o≥ _¿-Wn tc-J-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn{]-Im-c-am-Wv: ""cm-Py-t{Zm-l-{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ F-{X \n- m-c-am-sW-¶n-epw Rm≥ ITn-\ in-£-Iƒ \-ev-Ip-∂p. Rm≥ P-\-t£-a-Øn-\m-bn ]-cn{i-an-°p-I-bpw A-f-h-‰ [-\w {]-Pm-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn-\p-th-≠n sN-e-hgn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p. F-∂n-´pw P-\-߃ e-l-f-s°m-cp-ßp-∂p. \njv-I-cp-Ww Rm-\-h-sc ITn-\-am-bn in-£n-°p-I-bpw sN-øpw. a-c-Ww h-sc Rm≥ C-Xn¬ ap-S-°w h-cp-Øp-I-bn-√. A-s√-¶n¬ P-\-߃ \nb-am-\p-kr-Xw k-am-[m-\-{]n-b-cm-bn I-gn-b-Ww.-'' ]-t£, {]-`p-°-∑mcp-tS-bpw A-hc - p-sS B-{in-X∑ - m-cm-bn-cp-∂ ]p-tcm-ln-X∑ - m-cp-tS-bpw kzm¿Y-tam-lw aq-ew [m-cm-fw I-em-]-Im-cn-I-sf Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zv A-∂v \ne-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ \n-b-a-ß-f-\p-k-cn-®v in-£n-®n-´p-≠v. A-t∏m-sgm-s° Ip-‰w sN-bv-X-h-¿ B-cm-sW-∂v t\m-°n-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂-Xv A-t±-l-Øns‚ \o-Xn [¿-a-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn-s‚ {]-Xy-t£m-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv. F-∂m¬ _-Øq-Ø-°pw A-Xp-t]m-se-bp-≈ k-¶p-Nn-X a-X-ho-£-I-cm-b N-cn{X-Im-c-∑m¿-°pw Cu Xp-ey-am-b \o-Xn-\n¿-h-l-W-am-Wv G-‰-hpw cq£-am-b hn-a¿-i-\-Øn-\v ]m-{X-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv.cm-Py-sØ-ºm-Spw A-∂v \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂ in-£m-k-{º-Zm-b-߃ C∂p \-sΩ hn-kv-a-bn-∏n-°-Ø-°-Xm-bn--cn-°mw. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø Xs∂ tI-c-f-Øn-se ]-e `m-K-ß-fn-epw {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-bn-cp-∂ in-£I-fp-sS hn-h-c-Ww \-ev-Ip-∂-Xn¬ \n-∂pw kn-≤n-°p-∂ N-cn-{Xmw-iw C-¥y-bn-se-hn-sS-bpw {Iq-c-hpw {]m-Ir-X-hp-am-b in-£m \-S-]-Sn-I-fmWv \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv F-∂m-Wv. H-cp cm-Pm-hn-\v \o-Xn ]m-e-Is\-∂ \n-e-°v kz-¥-an-jv-S-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-sW-¶n-epw \n-b-a-a-\p-k-cn-®v C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ip-‰-߃ sN-bv-X-h-sc in-£n-t°-≠-Xm-bn-h-cpw. {I-a-k-am-[m-\w ]pe¿-Øp-hm-\pw Ip-‰-ß-fn-√m-Xm-°p-hm-\pw am-Xr-Im-]-c-am-b I-\-Ø in£-Iƒ-t° km-[n-°q F-∂v tem-I-sa-ºm-Spw I-cp-Xn-t∏m-∂n-cp-∂ kμ¿-`-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. A-t∏mƒ cm-Py-Øv \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ \nb-a-߃-°p hn-t[-b-am-bn Xp-Kv-f-°v ap-l-Ω-Zv in-£-Iƒ sIm-Sp-Øpsh-∂-Xv F-ß-s\ A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ am-{Xw Ip-‰-am-Ipw? F-ß-s\ C-Xp c-‡-Zm-l-Øn-s‚ A-`n-hm-©-bm-bn D-Zm-l-cn-°mw? A-ß-s\-sb-¶n¬ kp-Zo¿-L-am-b ]u-cm-Wn-I a-[y-Im-e-L-´-Øn-se H-‰ `-c-Wm-[n-]-t\bpw Cu B-tcm-]-W-Øn¬ \n-∂pw c-£-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥ \-ap-°v -km[n-°m-sX h-cpw. h-[-in-£- sIm-Sp-°m-Ø Nn-e ]-cn-jv-Ir-X-cm-Py-ßfp-≠n-∂v. ]-t£, Cu \n-b-aw h-cp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºv sIm-e-°p-‰w sN-bvX {In-an-\n¬ ]p-≈n-sb Xq-°n-en-Sm≥ hn-[n-® \ym-bm-[n-]-s\ c-‡-Zmln-bm-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°m-s\m-°p-tam? A-Xm-Xp-Im-e-sØ \n-b-a-߃ \-S-∏m-°p-Is - b-∂X - m-Wv \ym-bm-[n-]\ - pw \o-Xn-am-\p-am-b G-sXm-cp `-cWm-[n-]s - ‚-bpw I¿-Øh - yw. A-Xv A-`w-Kp-cw \-S∏ - m-°n-b ap-lΩ - Z- v Xp•-°v \o-Xn-]m-eI - \ - m-b H-cp- \ym-bm-[n-]≥ sN-øp-∂X - n¬ I-hn-s™m∂pw-Xs - ∂ A-°m-eØ - p sN-bX -v n-cp-∂n-√. A-t±-lØ - n-s‚ \o-Xn-]o-Tt- ØmSp-≈ _-lp-am-\w C-_v\ - p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ hn-iZ- o-Ic - n-°p-∂p-≠v.""hn-hm-lw I-gn-™v C-cp-]-Xp -Zn-h-k-Øn-\p-ti-jw A-ao¿ K-± ap≥Iq-´n \n-›-bn-°m-sX sIm-´m-c-Øn-te-°p h-∂p. (A-ao¿ K-± kp¬Øm-s‚ k-tlm-Z-cn-bp-sS `¿-Øm-hm-bn-cp-∂p. I-eym-Ww I-gn-™-bpS-s\-bp-≠m-b H-cp kw-`-h-am-Wv _-Øq-Ø hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv.-) kp¬Øm-s‚ \n¿-t±-i-an-√m-Xn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v Im-h¬-°m-c≥ X-S-™p \n¿Øn. A-X-t±-l-Øn-\n-jv-S-s∏-´n-√. _-e-{]-tbm-Kw \-S-Øn Im-h¬-°mc-s\ D-¥n \o-°p-hm≥ {i-an-®p. X-s‚ tPm-en-bn¬ _-≤-{i-≤-\m-b Im-h¬-°m-c≥ C-Xn-s\m-∂pw h-g-ßn-bn-√. K-± A-cn-In¬ In-S-∂ H-cp h-Sn-sIm-≠v A-bm-sf ITn-\-am-bn a¿-Zn-®p. Im-h¬-°m-c-s‚ X-e hn≠p tNm-c {]-h-ln-®p. C-t±-lw h-f-sc h-en-b H-cp A-ao-dm-Wv. A-t±l-Øn-s‚ ]n-Xm-hv K-kv-\n-bn-se Jm-kn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. kp¬-Øm≥ C-h¿ c-≠p-t]-tcm-Spw C-jv-S-hpw _-lp-am-\-hpw Im-´n-bn-cp-∂ tZ-l-hpam-Wv. tNm-c ]p-c-≠ h-kv-{X-ß-fpw c-‡w {]-h-ln-°p-∂ in-c- pw I≠-t∏mƒ kp¬-Øm-\v Im-c-W-a-dn-bm-≥ D-Xv-I-WvT-bm-bn. kw-`-h-a-dn™-t∏mƒ K-±-bp-sS [n-°m-c-Øn¬ kp¬-Øm≥ tIm-]n-jvT-\m-bn. "hen-b A-\ym-b-am-Wv K-± {]-h¿-Øn-®n-´p-≈-Xv. C-Xm-h¿-Øn-°p-∂-tXm am-∏p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-tXm D-Nn-X-a-√. \ym-bm-[n-]-\m-Wp Xo¿-]p I-ev-]nt°-≠-Xv. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ hn-[n A-\p-k-cn-®p sIm-≈p-I' kp¬-Øm≥ X-s‚ A-`n-{]m-bw {]-Jym-]n-®p.C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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""Jm-kn I-am-ep-±o-s‚ ap-ºn¬ A-\ym-b-°m-c-t\-bpw {]-Xn-tb-bpw lm-P-cm-°n. A-ao¿ K-± Ip-‰w k-Ω-Xn-®p. A-t∏m-tg-°pw C-h¿ XΩn¬-H-Øp-Xo¿-∏p-≠m-°m-\p-≈ {i-aw Im-h¬-°m-c-s‚ ]n-Xm-hv \-SØn-t\m-°n-sb-¶n-epw K-±-bp-sS A-l-¶m-cw-aq-ew A-Xp km-[n-®n-√. A∂p- cm-{Xn ap-gp-h≥ K-±-sb P-bn-en¬ ]m¿-∏n-°m-\m-bn-cp-∂p P-Uv-Pnbp-sS hn-[n. A-X-\p-k-cn-®v A-t±-l-sØ P-bn-en¬-sIm-≠p-t]m-bn. b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬ B-{K-l-ap-≠m-bn-´pw X-s‚ `¿-Øm-hn-\v H-cp hn-cn-∏pt]m-epw sIm-Sp-Ø-b-°m≥ kp¬-Øm-s\ `-b-ap-≈-Xp-sIm-≠v B \h-h-[p Xp-\n-™n-√. A-Sp-Ø -Zn-h-kw A-t±-l-sØ tam-Nn-∏n-®p. F∂m¬ kp¬-Øm≥ A-ao¿ K-± sN-bv-X Ip-‰-sØ-]-‰n ]-c-ky-s∏-SpØp-I-bpw A-t±-l-Øn-\p \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂ ÿ-e-ß-fp-sS `-c-Wm-[n-Imcw ]n-Sn-s®-Sp-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. A-bm-sf \m-Sp-I-S-Øm-\m-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm≥ hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.""F-en-sb Xn-∂p-∂-h-t\-bpw ap-Ko-kn-t\-bpw \m-Sp-I-S-Øp-∂-XmsW-∂p kp¬-Øm≥ A-Sp-Ø Zn-h-kw hn-fw-_-cw sN-bv-Xp. {Km-ao-Wcm-b A-d-_n-Iƒ Io-cn-tb-bpw F-en-tb-bpw Xn-∂p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v A-d_n-I-sf D-t±-in-®m-bn-cp-∂p Cu {]-tbm-Kw \-S-Øn-b-Xv. sk-bv-^p-±o≥ K-± A-d-_n-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ap-Ko-kv kp¬-Øm-s‚ a-s‰m-cp k-tlm-Z-cn-bpsS `¿-Øm-hp-am-Wv. C-bm-fp-sS a¿-Z-\-߃ sIm-≠m-Wv X-s‚ k-tlmZ-cn A-Im-e- N-c-a-a-S-™-sX-∂m-bn-cp-∂p A-h-cp-sS tXm-gn-am-cn¬ \n∂pw kp¬-Øm-\v e-`n-® hn-h-c-߃. N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS I-ev-]-\ \-S∏n-em-°m≥ D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ hym-]r-X-cm-bn. X-s‚ `m-cy-tbm-Sv bm-{X t- Nm-Zn-°m≥ K-±° - v A-[n-Ik - a - b - w D-tZym-Kÿ ∑ - m¿ A-\p-hZ- n-®n-√. ho¿∏p-ap-´-tem-Spw I-Æp-\o-tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bp-am-Wv A-t±-lw sIm-´m-cw hn-´v ]pd-Øp h-∂-Xv. K-± D-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-tcm-Sp Iq-Sn ]p-d-s∏-´p.-'' ""Cu h-kv-Xp-X tI-´-am-{X-bn¬ Rm≥ A-c-a-\-bn-se-Øn. cm-{Xn ap-gp-s° A-hn-sS C-cn-°p-∂-Xp-I-≠v H-c-ao¿ F-t∂m-Sv F-¥m-Wv {]tXy-I -Im-cy-sa-∂-t\z-jn-®p. "A-ao¿ K-±-sb \m-Sp-I-S-Øm-\p-≈ I-ev]-\ d-±p-sN-øn-°m-\p-≈ am¿-K-am-cm-bp-I-bm-Wv F-s‚ e-£y'sa-∂v Rm≥ ]-d-™-t∏mƒ A-Xv A-km-[y-am-b kw-K-Xn-bm-sW-∂m-bn-cp∂p A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ a-dp-]-Sn. F-¥m-bm-epw Rm≥ h-∂ Im-cyw \-S°p-∂-Xp h-sc C-hn-sS-Ø-s∂ C-cn-°m-\m-Wv I-cp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂-sX∂v Rm-\-t±-l-tØm-Sp ]-d-™p. kp¬-Øm≥ h-cp-∂-Xpw {]-Xo-£n-®v Rm≥ C-cn-∏m-bn. kp¬-Øm≥ B-K-X-\m-b-t∏mƒ F-s‚ \n-th-Z-\w Rm≥ A¿-]n-®p. h-f-sc t\-c-sØ hm-Z-{]-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-\p ti-jw \m-SpI-S-ج I-ev-]-\ d-±m-°m-sa-∂v kp¬-Øm≥ {]-kv-Xm-hn-®p. A-Xn-\p ]-I-c-am-bn em-tlm-dn-se K-h¿-W-dm-b J-_q-e-bp-sS Io-gn¬ \m-ep C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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sIm-√w Xm-a-kn-∏n-°m-sa-∂p Xo-cp-am-\n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. Cu Ime-b-f-hp-sIm-≠v A-ao¿ K-±-bn¬ h-f-sc am-‰-ß-fp-≠m-bn. \m-´m-Nm-cß-fpw \-S-]-Sn-{I-a-ß-fpw A-t±-lw a-\- n-em-°n. A-l-¥-bpw [n-°mc-hp-sa-√mw am-dn H-cp \-√ a-\p-jy-\m-bn-Øo¿-∂p. C-Xv kp¬-Øm-\v t_m-[y-am-b-t∏mƒ B A-d-_n-bp-sS ÿn-Xn ho-≠pw D-b¿-∂p. kp¬Øm≥ Iq-Sp-X¬ kv-t\-l-hpw _-lp-am-\-hpw A-bm-fn¬ tIm-cn-s®mcn-™p. B-Zy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ ÿ-e-߃ ap-gp-s° a-S-°n-s°m-Sp-°p-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' ""H-cn-°¬ H-cp ln-μp-{]-`p Jm-kn-bp-sS ap-ºm-sI H-cp ]-cm-Xn t_m-[n-∏n-®p. kp¬-Øm≥ X-s‚ k-tlm-Z-c-s\ H-cp Im-c-W-hpw IqSm-sX sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-∂m-bn-cp-∂p tI-kn-\m-[m-c-am-bn-cp-∂ ]-cmXn. B tI-kn-s‚ hn-Nm-c-W-th-f-bn¬ tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ lm-P-cm-Im≥ kp¬-Øm-t\m-Sv Jm-kn B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tIm-S-Xn-bp-sS D-Ø-c-hn-s\ _lp-am-\n-®v B-bp-[w [-cn-°m-sX-bpw Im¬-\-S-bm-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ Ahn-sS lm-P-cm-bn. P-Uv-Pn-sb B-Z-c-thm-Sp-Iq-Sn D-]-N-cn-®p. kp¬-Øm¬ tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ h-∂-t∏mƒ P-Uv-Pn F-gp-t∂-‰p-\n-∂n-√. tIm-S-Xn-bn-embn-cn-°p-tºmƒ \ym-bm-[n-]≥ F-gp-t∂-‰v kp¬-Øm-s\ _-lp-am-\nt°-≠-Xn-s√-∂m-Wv \-S-]-Sn-{I-aw. kp¬-Øm-t\-bpw A-\ym-b-°m-c-t\bpw P-Uv-Pn hn-kv-X-cn-®p. kp¬-Øm≥ Ip-‰-°m-c-\m-sW-∂v tIm-S-Xn {]-Jym-]n-°p-I-bpw A-\ym-b-°m-c-s\ k-t¥m-jn-∏n-°-Ø-°-h-Æw {]mb-›n-Øw sN-ø-W-sa-∂v tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. kp¬-Øm≥ A-Xp-{]-Im-cw {]-h¿-Øn-®v A-bm-sf Xr-]v-Xn-s∏-Sp-Øn.-'' ""a-s‰m-c-h-k-c-Øn¬ H-cp ap-kv-enw {]-am-Wn kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cmbn tI-kv sIm-Sp-Øp. Xm-\pw kp¬-Øm-\pw X-Ωn¬ ]-W-kw-_-‘am-b Nn-e C-S-]m-Sp-I-fp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw kp¬-Øm-\n¬ Ip-sd ]Ww _m-°n-bp-s≠-∂pw A-Xv sIm-Sp-°m≥ kp¬-Øm≥ Iq-´m-°p-∂ns√-∂p-am-bn-cp-∂p ]-cm-Xn. Jm-kn C-cp-Iq-´-tc-bpw tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ h-cpØn hn-kv-X-cn-®p. c-≠p `m-K-Øp \n-∂pw A-\p-Iq-e -{]-Xn-Iq-e \ym-b hn-Nm-cw \-S-∂p. A-h Ir-Xy-am-bn ]-cn-tim-[n-® tIm-S-Xn kp¬-Øm≥ Ip-‰-°m-c-\m-sW-∂m-Wv hn-[n-®-Xv. P-Uv-Pn sIm-Sp-°m≥ I-ev-]n-® kwJy kp¬-Øm≥ k-t¥m-j-tØm-Sp Iq-Sn \-ev-Ip-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' ""th-sdm-cp k-μ¿-`-Øn¬ H-cp cm-P-Ip-am-c≥ kp¬-Øm-s\-Xn-cmbn tI-kv ]-d-™p. kp¬-Øm≥ Im-c-W-an-√m-sX X-s∂ A-Sn-°p-∂psh-∂m-bn-cp-∂p ]-cm-Xn. hn-kv-Xm-cw tI-´ tIm-S-Xn kp¬-Øm≥ sX-‰pIm-c-\m-sW-∂v I-≠p. H-∂p-In¬ cm-P-Ip-am-c-\v ]-Ww \-ev-In {]m-b›n-Øw sN-øp-I-tbm A-s√-¶n¬ {]-Xn-Im-cw kzo-I-cn-°p-I-tbm sNø-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p tIm-S-Xn I-ev-]n-®-Xv. kp¬-Øm≥ cm-P-Ip-am-c-s\ C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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X-s‚ A-cn-In¬ hn-fn-®v H-cp Nq-c¬ sIm-Sp-Øp-sIm-≠p ]-d-™p: ""Rm≥ \n-s∂ A-Sn-®-Xp t]m-se \o F-t∂-bpw A-Sn-®p-sIm-≈q.-'' cm-P-Ip-am-c≥ Nq-c¬-sIm-≠v {]-l-cw Xp-S-ßn. C-cp-]-sØm-∂v A-Sn kp¬-Øm-\v In-´n. A-Sn-bp-sS Du-°pw Cu-W-hpw sIm-≠v kp¬-Øms‚ sXm-∏n sX-dn-®p-t]m-bn. Cu kw-`-hw Rm≥ I-Æp-sIm-≠v I-≠Xm-Wv.-'' Cu hn-h-c-W-Øn¬-\n-∂pw Nn-e kw-K-Xn-Iƒ {K-ln-°mw: 1. \o-Xn-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn¬ H-cp Z-bm-Zm-£n-Wy-hpw kp¬-Øm≥ ImWn-®n-cp-∂n-√.2. tIm-S-Xn-tb-bpw \n-b-a-tØ-bpw a-s‰-¥n-t\-°m-fpw A-t±-lw _lp-am-\n-®n-cp-∂p.3. sh-dpw {]m-Ir-X-am-bn-cp-∂n-√ Xp-•-°n-s‚ \n-b-a-\n¿-h-l-W k{º-Zm-bw.4. kp¬-Øm-s‚ C-jv-Sm-\n-jv-S-a-\p-k-cn-®m-bn-cp-∂n-√ in-£-Iƒ \ev-In-bn-cp-∂-Xv.5. A-h \n-b-am-\p-kr-Xw \ym-bm-[n-]-∑m¿ \-ev-In-bn-cp-∂-h-bm-Wv.6. cm-Py-Øv \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ \n-]p-W-am-b Nm-c-h-e-bw km{am-Py-Øn-s‚ G-Xp tIm-Wn-epw \-S-∂n-cp-∂ h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ H-´pw Xma-k-an-√m-sX kp¬-Øm-s\ A-dn-bn-®n-cp-∂p. A-ß-s\ G-Xv \n- m-c kw-`-h-ß-fpw ap-l-Ω-Zv kp¬-Øm≥ X-°-k-a-b-Øv X-s∂ A-dn-bp-Ibpw {]-Xn-hn-[n I-s≠-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p.C-{X-bpw kw-K-Xn-Iƒ \n-›-b-am-bpw \-√ H-cp `-c-W-kw-hn-[m-\sØ-bm-Wv hn-`m-h-\ sN-øp-∂-Xv. G-sXm-cp cm-jv-{S-Øn-epw \n-jv-]£-am-b \o-Xn-\ym-b \n¿-h-l-W-am-Wv {]-P-I-fn¬ kp-c-£n-X-Xzw Dd-∏v \-ev-Ip-I. k-I-e-hn-[ A-[n-Im-c-ß-fp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ G-Im-[n-]-Xnbm-b H-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn X-\n-s°-Xn-cm-bn D-∂-bn-®n-´p-≈ B-tcm-]-W߃-°v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ lm-P-cm-bn \o-Xn-]o-T-Øn-s‚ hn-[n-°v k-hn-\bw hn-t[-b-\m-Ip-∂-Xv a-s‰m-cp Im-e-Øpw C-¥ym N-cn-{Xw Z¿-in-®n-´n√. tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ \ym-bm-[n-]≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-sb h-μn-°p-∂ ]-Xn-hv B-N-cn-®n-cp-∂n-s√-∂v ]-d-bp-∂ _-Øq-Ø, Xp-•-°v ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ Ime-L-´-Øn¬ \-S-am-Sn-bn-cp-∂ \n-b-a-hm-gv-N-bp-sS {]m-[m-\y-tØ-bm-Wv ]p-c-kv-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. C-∂pw km-[m-c-W \n-b-a-tIm-S-Xn-I-fn¬ \n-∂pw H-gn-hm-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈ D-∂-X hy-‡n-Iƒ G-Xp- cm-Py-Øp-ap-≠-t√m. 14˛mw \q-‰m-≠n-se tkz-—m-[n-Im-cn-bm-b H-cp N-{I-h¿-Øn \n-b-a-Øn-\v cmPm-[n-Im-c-tØ-°mƒ D-Xv-I¿-jw I-ev-]n-®v hn-\o-X-am-bn A-Xn-\v h-gßp-I Zm¿-i-\n-I N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-b ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n¬ \n-∂-√m-sX a-s‰m-cp G-Im-[n-]-Xn-bn¬ \n-∂pw {]-Xo-£n-°p-I {]-bm-k-am-Wv. AC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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ß-s\ \o-Xn-\ym-bw am-Xr-Im-]-c-am-bn B-hn-jv-I-cn-® kp¬-Øm≥ \nb-a-ew-L-I-∑m-sc \n¿-Zm-£n-Wyw in-£n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-¶n¬ A-Xv k-l-Pa-- m-W-t√m.kz-b-a-\p-jvTn-°p-∂ {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ N-{I-h¿-Øn X-s‚ {]-`p-°∑m-cn¬ \n-∂pw {]-P-I-fn¬ \n-∂pw {]-Xo-£n-®p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xv kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-Xn-s\-Xn-sc {]-h¿-Øn-® i-‡n-sb A-\p-k-c-W-bp≈-h-cm-t°-≠ I¿-Ø-hyw G-sXm-cp ]-cn-jv-Ir-X- K-h¨-sa‚p-I-fpw A-\p-h¿-Øn-°p-∂-Xp t]m-se A-t±-l-hpw sN-bv-Xp-sh-∂v am-{X-tabp-≈q. \n-b-a-ew-L-I-∑m¿ in-£n-°-s∏-Sm-sX c-£-s∏-Sp-I k-am-[m\-{]n-b-cm-b {]-P-I-fp-sS \n-b-a-tØm-Sp-≈ Iq-dp \-jv-S-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂ Imcy-am-Wv. X-∑q-ew \m-´n¬ I-em-]-hpw hn-π-h-hpw kr-jv-Sn-°m≥ ap-Xn¿∂-h-tc-bpw A-Xn-\-cp-\n¬-°p-I-bpw B-io¿-hm-Z-߃ \-ev-In A-\p{K-ln-®-h-tc-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ bm-sXm-cp Zm-£n-Wy-hpw Iq-Sm-sX in£n-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp. C-Xv km¿-h-{Xn-I-am-°n-b-t∏mƒ A-Xp-h-sc A-\ym-b-am-bn A-an-Xm-h-Im-i-߃ A-\p-`-hn-®n-cp-∂-h¿ hn-π-hw \-SØn. A-h-c-[n-I-hpw ap-kv-enw {]-`p-°-∑m-cp-sS ]n-Wn-bm-fp-I-fm-bn {]h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂ ]p-tcm-ln-X-∑m-cm-bn-cp-∂p. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø X-s∂ hn-h-cn-°p-∂ in-£-Iƒ-°v hn-t[-b-cm-b-h-c-[n-I-hpw ssi-Jp-I-fpw aX -t\-Xm-°-∑m-cp-am-W-t√m. X-∑q-ew ]u-tcm-ln-Xyw ap-gp-s° kp¬Øm-s\-Xn-cm-bp-≈ B-`n-Nm-c-hm-°p-I-fm-Wv tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv. A-hcp-am-bn F-√m \n-e-°pw H-´n-t®¿-∂n-cp-∂ _-Øq-Ø-bpw hy-Xy-kv-Xkz-`m-h-°m-c-\m-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v B-Zy-ta {]-kv-Xm-hn-®n-´p-≠-t√m. A-ßs\-bm-Wv G-‰-hpw a-l-Øpw am-Xr-Im-]-c-hp-am-b `-c-W-t\-´-߃ "Hcp {`m-¥≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bp-sS Xm-t¥m-∂n-Øw am-{X-am-bn' C-∂v N-cn{X hn-Zym¿-Yn-Iƒ ]Tn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø ]-d™n-´p-≈ Im-cy-ß-sf h-kv-Xp-\n-jvT-am-bn hn-i-I-e-\w sN-bv-Xm¬ am{Xw a-Xn ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°n-s\-°p-dn-®p-≈ C-∂-sØ Nn-¥m-K-Xn Xntcm-`-hn-°p-hm≥. C-Xv A-dn-bm-Ø-Xp sIm-≠-√ Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c∑m-c-Xn-\v Xp-\n-bm-Xn-cp-∂-Xv. A-h¿-°m-h-iy-am-b Im-cy-߃ am-{Xam-Wv A-h¿ Nn-I-s™-Sp-Ø-sX-∂v \mw {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®-Xm-Wv.]-t£, C-¥y≥ ]-£-Øp-\n-∂pw k-Xy-k-‘-am-b H-cp k-ao-]\w D-≠m-Im-Ø-Xv A-¤p-Xw X-s∂. \-Ωp-sS tZ-i-Øn-s‚-bpw kw-kvIm-c-Øn-s‚-bpw hn-[n-Zm-b-I-∑m-cm-b `-c-W-I¿-Øm-°-fp-sS N-cn-{Xw c-N-\m-fl-I-am-bn ]p-\-cm-hn-jv-I-cn-t°-≠-Xv Cu cm-Py-tØm-Sp sN-ømhp-∂ a-l-Ø-c-am-b tk-h-\w am-{X-am-Wv. F-∂m¬ A-Ø-cw kw-cw-`߃ hn-c-f-sa-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ Zu¿-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b-Xv C-Ø-cw \n¿-am-Wmfl-I-am-b N-cn-{X-hn-Nm-cw \-S-Øp-∂-h-sc \n-cp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂ hnC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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a¿-i-\-am-Wv \mw km-[m-c-W \-S-Øp-I F-∂-X-t{X. Cw-•o-jv N-cn-{XIm-c-\m-hn-jv-I-cn-® N-cn-{X-]m-T-ß-fn¬ C-\n-bpw am-‰w h-cp-Øm-\p-≈ B-fl-ss[-cy-an-√m-™n-t´m a-s‰-s¥-¶n-epw Zp-jv-S-am-b hn-Im-c-hn-em-kw sIm-t≠m \mw \n-jv-Ir-jv-S-am-b N-cn-{X-]p-\x-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-\n-Xp-hsc Xp-\n-™n-´n-s√-∂-Xv e-÷m-I-c-am-Wv. H-‰-sbm-‰-bm-b kw-cw-`-߃ \-S-Øn-bm¬ A-h an-°-hm-dpw A-K-Wy-tIm-S-n-bn¬ X-≈-s∏-´p -h-\tcm-Z-\-am-bn A-h-ti-jn-°p-I-bm-bn-cn-°pw ^-ew. _p-≤n-ap-t´-dn-b Kth-j-W ^-e-߃ A-h F-{X-X-s∂ \n-e-hn-ep-≈ \n-K-a-\-ß-sf tNmZyw sN-øp-∂-Xm-sW-¶n-epw i-cn k-Xy-k-‘-am-sW-¶n¬ A-h-sb AwKo-Ic - n-°m-\p-≈ N-cn-{X-]W - vU - n-X∑ - m-cp-sS H-cp-∂X - m-[n-Im-c I-Ω‰ - n-tbm a-t‰m D-≠m-t°-≠-Xv \-Ωp-sS \m-Sn-s‚-bpw \-Ωp-sS-bpw kz-`m-h-Øn\-\p-k-cn-®v A-\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. Im-c-Ww, ]m-Wv-Un-Xy-Øn-s‚ Ip-ØIm-h-Im-iw t]-dp-∂-h-cm-b {]m-am-Wn-I-∑m¿ ]-d-™m¬ am-{X-ta Ah-sb Ku-\n-°p-I-bp-≈p F-∂ a-\x-ÿn-Xn \-Ωn¬ cq-V-aq-e-am-bn-´v h-f-sc-°m-e-am-bn. Cu ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cm-I-s´ X-ß-fp-sS ]-cn-an-Xn-I-sf°p-dn-®v t_m-[-hm-∑m-cm-sW-¶n-epw A-Xv Xp-d-∂p ]-d-™m¬ A-\pbm-bn-I-fp-sS _-lp-am-\w Ip-d-™p t]m-Ip-sa-∂v [-cn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv. X-∑q-ew H-‰ ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw C-Xp-h-sc X-s‚ B-Zy-Im-e-\n-K-a-\-ß-fn¬ ]n-iI - p-]‰ - n-bn-´p-s≠-∂pw Xp-S¿-∂p-≈ ]-cn-{i-aØ - n¬ a-\ - n-em-sb-∂pw Xp-d-∂v ]-d-bm-\p-≈ N-¶q-‰w Im-´n-bn-´n-√. X-߃ ]-d-™-Xv A-h-km\-hm-°m-sW-∂v k-t¶m-Nw Iq-Sm-sX {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p. A-ß-s\ \-Ωp-sS tN-X-\ ap-c-Sn-®v sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bpw h¿-[-am-\-ambn A-dn-bp-hm-\p-≈ A-t\z-j-W-Xr-jv-W-bpw Pn-⁄m-k-bpw A-]-I¿j-I-am-bn \-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p.X-∑q-ew G-sd {]-b-Xv-\w ap-X¬ ap-S-°n-bn-´m-bm-epw \n-kv-Xp-e-amb k-Xy-Øn-s‚ X-¶-°-\n-I-fm-bm-epw B-cpw A-{X Ku-\n-°m-Ø ÿn-Xn-bm-Wv D-f-hm-bn-´p-≈-Xv. C-Xv _p-≤n-]-c-am-b \-Ωp-sS h-f¿-Nsb izm-kw ap-´n-°p-sa-∂pw ssh-⁄m-\n-I a-Wv-U-e-sØ I-cn-¶m¿sIm-≠v aq-Sp-sa-∂v \mw a-\- n-em-°p-I-bpw A-Xn-√m-Xm-°m-\p-≈ {ia-߃ \-S-Øp-I-bpw sN-tø-≠-Xv H-´pw A-am-¥n-°m≥ ]m-Sn-√m-ØXm-Wv. A-s√-¶n¬ C-Xn-s‚ `-hn-jy-Øv F-{X-am-{X-am-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂v \-ap-°v Du-ln-°m≥ t]m-epw {]-bm-k-am-Wn-∂v. A-dn-hn-s\ A-dn-™p am-\n-°m-\p-≈ H-cp sN-dn-b k-aq-l-sØ-sb-¶n-epw h-f¿-Øn-s°m-≠p h-tc-≠-Xv \-Ωp-sS kmw-kv-Im-cn-I \n-e-\n-ev-]n-s‚- X-s∂ Im-cy-am-Wv. A-Ø-cw \-√ H-cp kw-Lw ]p-e¿-∂m¬ am-{X-ta C-∂-sØ Cu _p≤n-]-c-am-b \n-›-e-X-°v A-dp-Xn D-≠m-Ip-I-bp-≈q. a-‰p ta-J-e-I-fnse N-cn-{X-]-T-\-Øn-\pw \n¿-am-W-Øn-\pw Iq-Sp-X¬ {]m-[m-\yw \-evC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ip-I-bpw th-Ww. N-cn-{X-]m-T-ß-fm-Wv \m-sa-√mw H-∂m-sW-∂ tZ-iob t_m-[-hpw ssh-Im-cn-I- sF-Iy-hpw cm-jv-{So-b D-Zv-{K-Y-\-hpw kmwkv-Im-cn-I-kw-Lm-X-hpw k¿-thm-]-cn ]-c-kv-]-c kv-t\-l-hpw D-ev-]m-Zn∏n-°p-∂ A-dn-hn-s‚ h-‰m-Ø D-d-hn-Sw. a-l-Ø-c-am-b H-cn-∂-se-bn¬ ]p-f-Iw sIm-≈m≥ I-gn-bm-Ø-h-cpw {]m-‡-\-am-b kmw-kv-Im-cn-I ss]Xr-I-Øn-s‚ A-`m-h-Øn¬ Nq-fn-t∏m-Ip-∂-h-cpw \-√ H-cp \m-sf-sb B-fl-ss[-cy-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn B-kq-{X-Ww sN-øm≥ ]-X-dp-∂-h-cm-bn-cn°pw. a-l-\o-b-am-b H-cp kmw-kv-Im-cn-I I-e-h-d-bp-≈ \mw A-ß-s\ I-gn-™-Im-e-Øn-s‚ I-g-ºn-√m-bv-a-bn¬ ]-cn-{`-an-t°-≠-h-c-√. A]m-c-am-b k-º-Øn-s‚ ]n-¥p-S¿-®-°m-cm-b \mw A-Xp {]-tbm-P-\-s∏Sp-tØ-≠ co-Xn-bn¬ {]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂n-s√-∂p am-{X-ta-bp-≈q. \-Ωp-sS ]m-I-∏n-g-I-fpw Zu¿-_-ey-ß-fpw F-hn-sS-bm-sW-∂pw F-¥n-em-sW-∂pw a-\- n-em-°n Xo-{h-am-b {]-b-Xv-\w sIm-≠v \mw Cu Ip-d-hp-Iƒ ]-cnl-cn-°p-I-bpw A-\¿-l-am-b kmw-kv-Im-cn-I ss]-Xr-I-sØ ]n≥-]-‰phm≥ A¿-l-cm-sW-∂p sX-fn-bn-°p-I-bpw sN-tø-≠ Np-a-X-e ]p-Ø≥ X-e-ap-d-°p-≠v. A-h-c-Xn-\p-≈ ]-cn-{i-a-߃ \-S-Øp-tºmƒ ]m-Wv-UnXy-Ø-d-hm-´n-se X-e-\-c-® Im-c-W-h-∑m-sc-¶n-epw A-h-sc A-\p-{K-ln°p-hm-\pw B-io¿-h-Zn-°p-hm-\pw X-øm-dm-Ip-∂-Xv D-Nn-Xa-- m-bn-cn-°pw.-

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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A-\p-_‘ - w

C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS kv-{Xo-Wm-©-Nn-Øw C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø {]m-kw-Kn-I-am-bn ]-d-™p-t]m-Ip-∂ X-s‚ kl-[¿-an-Wn-am-sc-bpw sh-∏m-´n-I-tf-bpw A-Sn-a-s]¨-sIm-Sn-I-tf-bpw Ipdn-®p-≈ ]-cm-a¿-iw A-°m-e-sØ km-aq-ln-I- ssh-Ir-X-ß-fp-sS i-cnbm-b {]-Xn-^-e-\-am-Wv. A-∂p \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂ B-Nm-c-k-{º-Zm-b-ßsf kw-_-‘n-®v B-Zy A-[ym-b-ß-fn¬ Rm≥ hn-h-cn-°m≥ {i-an-®n´p-≠v. A-h-°v D-t]m¬-_-e-I-am-bn-´m-Wv _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS Cu hn-h-cWw A-\p-_-‘-am-bn tN¿-°p-∂-Xv.1. ""\m-kp-dp-±o≥ Zn¿-an-Yn a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-\pw Zm¿-i-\n-I-\p-am-bn-cp∂p. H-cp h¿-j-Øn-te-sd A-t±-lw sIm-´m-c-Øn¬ Xm-a-kn-®p. A-Xn\p-ti-jw kz-¥w \m-´n-te-°p a-S-ßm-\p-≈ B-{K-lw A-t±-lw kp¬Øm-s\ A-dn-bn-®p. B sIm-´m-cØ - n-se Xo-‰t- a-ib - p-sS Im-ep-If - pw hn`-hß - ƒ hn-fº - n-bn-cp-∂ ]m-{X-ßf - pw kz¿-W\ - n¿-an-Xa - m-bn-cp-∂p. C-hsb-√mw \m-k-dp-±o-\v k-Ωm-\-am-bn sIm-Sp-Øp. C-Xn-\p-]p-d-ta H-cp-e£w Zo-\m-dpw C-cp-\q-dv A-Sn-aI - f - pw ]m-cn-tXm-jn-Ia - m-bn A-t±-lØ - n-\p \-evI - s - ∏-´p. C-Xn¬ Ip-sd A-Sn-aI - s - f A-t±-lw kz-X{- ¥-cm-°n. A-hti-jn-®h - s - c Iq-sS sIm-≠p-t]m-Ip-Ib - pw sN-bvX - p.-'' (t]-Pv 202) 2. ""H-cp Zn-h-kw Rm-s\-s‚ Iym-ºn¬ A-Sn-a-s]¨-Ip-´n-I-fp-am-bn k-√-]n-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. F-s‚ tk-h-I-\m-b kw-_¬ B A-hk-c-Øn¬ I-b-dn-h-cp-∂-Xp I-≠v Rm≥ hn-h-c-a-t\z-jn-®p. kv-{Xo-Ifp-am-bn D-√-kn-®p I-gn-bp-∂-h-sc sIm-√m≥ kp¬-Øm-≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´ncn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw F-∂m¬ ssk-\n-I-ta-[m-hn-I-fn-S-s]-´-Xp sIm-≠v B I-ev-]-\ d-±m-°n-sb-∂pw ]-I-cw k-I-e kv-{Xo-I-sf-bpw I¨-ho¬ F∂ tIm-´-bn-te-°p am-‰m≥ Xo-cp-am-\n-®n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw A-bmƒ ]d-™p. F-√m kv-{Xo-I-tf-bpw A-hn-tS-°v am-‰n. kp¬-Øm-s‚ Iq-Sm-cØn¬ t]m-epw kv-{Xo-I-fp-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. kv-{Xo km-ao-]y-an-√m-sX C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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cm-{Xn I-gn-®p-Iq-´p-I F-s∂ kw-_-‘n-®n-S-tØm-fw {]-bm-k-ta-dn-b kw-K-Xn-bm-Wv. ]-t£, a-s‰m-cp am¿-K-hp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. X-∑q-ew hf-sc hn-j-an-®m-Wv B cm-{Xn D-¥n- \o-°n-b-Xv. (t]-Pv 209) 3. ""R-߃ C-hn-sS h-∂v H-∂-c-am-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ H-∂-c-amkw {]m-b-am-b F-s‚ a-Iƒ a-cn-®p-t]m-bn. hn-h-c-a-dn-™ a-{¥n i-hkw-kv-Im-c-Øn-\p-≈ G¿-]m-Sp-I-sf-√mw sN-bv-Xp X-∂p. -Ip-d-®v Zn-hk-߃-°p ti-jw km-[m-c-W kv-{Xo-Iƒ I-b-dn k-©-cn-°p-∂ H-cp a-©¬ cm-P-am-Xm-hv sIm-Sp-Ø-b-®p. A-Xn¬ F-s‚ H-c-Sn-a-s∏-Æn-s\bpw Xp¿-°n-°m-cn-bm-b H-cp `r-Xy-sb-bpw I-b-‰n- A-b-®p. a-cn-® Fs‚ a-I-fp-sS A-Ω-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-hƒ. H-cp cm-{Xn cm-P-am-Xm-hn-s‚sIm-´m-c-Øn¬ Xm-a-kn-®v Xn-cn-®p-h-∂-t∏mƒ B-bn-cw X-¶-hpw c-Xv-\hp-ap-≈ H-cp kz¿-W-]-X-°-hpw I-gp-Øn¬ sI-´p-∂ kz¿-W am-e-bpw kz¿-W-°-k-hp-≈ ]-´p-h-kv-{X-ß-fpw cm-P-am-Xm-hv k-Ωm-\-am-bn sImSp-Ø-b-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xp.-'' (t]-Pv 210) 4. ""X-S-hp-Im-cn-I-fm-bn ]n-Sn-®n-cp-∂ Ip-sd ln-μp -h-\n-X-I-fn¬ ]Øp-t]-sc a-{¥n F-\n-°p \-ev-In. A-Xn¬ H-∂n-s\ sIm-≠p-h-∂ DtZym-K-ÿ-\v Rm≥ sIm-Sp-sØ-¶n-epw A-bmƒ A-k-¥p-jv-S-\m-bn-cp∂p. aq-∂p t]-sc F-s‚ Iq-´p-Im¿ sIm-≠p-t]m-bn. A-h¿-s°-¥p kw-`-hn-s®-∂v F-\n-°-dn-bn-√. X-´n-s°m-≠p-h-cp-∂ C-Ø-cw kv-{Xo-Iƒ°v C-¥y-bn¬ hn-e h-f-sc Ip-d-hm-Wv. hn-Zym-`ym-k-hpw ku-μ-cy-hpw D-≈ [m-cm-fw ]-cn-jv-Ir-X-h-\n-X-I-sf h-f-sc hn-e-Ip-d-®v e-`n-°p-tºmƒ Cu \m-S≥ s]¨-sIm-Sn-I-sf B-cv Ku-\n-°m-\m-Wv. Cu \m-´n¬ hcp-∂-h-sc-√mw A-Sn-a-s∏-Æp-ß-sf hm-ßp-I ]-Xn-hm-Wv.-'' (t]-Pv 211) 5. ""\m¬-]-Xv Zn-h-k-sØ {h-X-Øn-\p ti-jw Rm≥ hn-{i-an-°pI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. B k-μ¿-`-Øn-em-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ sIm-Sp-Ø-b-® kΩm-\-ß-fp-am-bn cm-P-Zq-X-∑m¿ h-∂-Xv. G-Xm-\pw A-Sn-a- s]¨-Ip-´nIƒ, \-√ Ip-Xn-c, Ip-sd ]-´p-S-bm-S-Iƒ C-h-sbm-s°-bm-bn-cp-∂p B km-[-\-߃.-'' (t]-Pv 213) 6. ""ssN-\-bn-se N-{I-h¿-Øn sIm-Sp-Ø-b-® k-Ωm-\-߃ B Zu-Xy-kw-Lw kp¬-Øm-s‚ ap-ºn¬ sIm-≠p-h-∂p. kv-{Xo ]p-cp-j∑m-c-S-°w \q-dv A-Sn-a-Iƒ, Km-bn-I-I-fpw \¿-Ø-In-I-fpw B-bn \q-dv ln-μp -h-\n-X-Iƒ, Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw `w-Kn-tb-dn-b h¿-Wm-¶n-X-am-b \q-dv-]-´p-Iƒ, \q-dv k-em-ln-b h-kv-{X-߃, \q-dv jm≥-_m-lv Xp-WnIƒ, ]-e-\n-d-Øn-ep-≈ A-™q-dv Im-iv-ao¿ jn-cn≥-_m-lv h-kv-{X-߃, tcm-a-h-kv-{X-߃, ]-Øv hm-fp-Iƒ, kz¿-Ww, sh-≈n Xp-S-ßn-b-h-bm¬ D-≠m-°n-b \n-c-h-[n ]m-{X-ß-fpw a-‰p Iu-Xp-I- h-kv-Xp-°-fp-am-Wv kp¬-Øm≥ ssN-\-bn-se-Øn-°p-hm-t\-ev-]n-® k-Ωm-\-km-[-\-߃.C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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'' (t]-Pv 214˛215) 7. ""]n-∂o-Sv R-߃ sN-∂-Xv a¿-lv F-∂ ]-´-W-Øn-em-Wv. -C-hn-SsØ kv-{Xo-Iƒ a-Z-\-eo-em-hn-em-kn-\n-I-fm-b kp-μ-cn-I-fm-Wv. a-dmØ, am-e-Zzo-]v F-∂n-hn-S-ß-fn-se kv-{Xo-I-fpw ku-μ-cy-Øn-s‚ Imcy-Øn¬ C-h-tcm-sSm-∏-sa-Øpw.-'' (t]-Pv 225) 8. ""Zu-e-Øm-_m-Zn-se P-\-߃ a-dm-Øn-I-fm-Wv. C-hn-S-sØ kv{Xo-Iƒ-°v em-h-Wy-hpw Xm-cp-Wy-hpw Cu-iz-c-\-dn-™p-X-s∂ tImcn-s®m-cn-™n-´p-≠v. A-h-cp-sS aq-°pw ]p-cn-I-hpw A-Xo-h kp-μ-c-amWv. Iu-Xp-I-I-c-am-b B-Im-c-hpw an-gn-hpw h-Sn-hp-ap-≈ Aw-K-ß-fpw G-‰-hpw a-t\m-l-c-am-Wv. I-W-h-∑m-cp-am-bp-≈ k-√m-]-Øn-epw Iq-´psI-´n-epw A-h¿ h-f-sc \n-]p-W-X-bpw hm-Nm-e-X-bpw Im-´p-∂-Xn-\v ]p-d-ta kw-t`m-Km-h-k-c-ß-fn¬ Ir-{Xn-a-am-b N-e-\-߃ sIm-≠v IqSp-X¬ B-kzm-Zy-X D-≠m-°p-∂-Xn-epw C-h¿ hn-Z-Kv-[-I-fm-Wv. C-Xv Iem-]-c-am-bn-Ø-s∂ \n¿-h-ln-°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v a-s‰m-cp-Iq-´-cpw A-h-sc A-°m-cy-Øn¬ a-dn-I-S-°p-I-bn-√.-'' (t]-Pv 227) 9. ""F-s‚ kv-{Xo-I-fpw a-‰pw bm-{X sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂ I-∏¬ sIm-√w Xp-d-ap-J-Øv A-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-sW-∂pw A-Xn-\p ap-ºv A-hn-sS F-Øphm-s\m-Øm¬ A-h-cp-am-bn bm-{X- Xp-S-cm-s\m-°p-sa-∂pw F-s‚ kplr-Øp-°ƒ ]-d-™-X-\p-k-cn-®v Rm≥ sIm-√-tØ-°v ]p-d-s∏-´p.-'' (t]-Pv 238) 10. ""Iq-´-Øn¬ F-\n-°v In-´n-b H-cp k-Ωm-\-am-bn-cp-∂p kp-μ-cnbm-b H-c-Sn-a-s∏-Æv. e-£v-an F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p A-h-fp-sS t]-sc-¶n-epw Rm≥ ap-_m-d-Iv F-∂m-Wv hn-fn-®n-cp-∂-Xv. A-h-fp-sS `¿-Øm-hv [m-cmfw ]-W-hp-am-bn a-S-°n tNm-Zn-s®-¶n-epw Rm≥ sIm-Sp-Øn-√.-'' (t]-Pv 240) 11. ""G-Xm-\pw \mƒ A-hn-sS(Nm-en-b-Øv) Xm-a-kn-® ti-jw tImgn-t°m-t´-°v a-S-ßn. A-hn-sS-sh-®v F-s‚ c-≠v Zm-k-∑m-sc I-≠p-ap-´n. kv-{Xo-P-\-ß-fp-sS hn-h-c-a-dn-bm-\p-≈ F-s‚ D-Xv-I-WvT h¿-[n-®p. Fs‚ kp-μ-cn-bpw K¿-`n-Wn-bp-am-b `m-cy-bp-sS hn-h-c-am-Wm-Zyw A-t\zjn-®-Xv. A-hƒ a-cn-®p-sh-∂ Zpx-J-hm¿-Ø-bm-Wv In-´n-b-Xv. a-‰p-≈ kv{Xo-I-sf kp-am-{X-bn-se `-c-Wm-[n-]≥ X-´n-s°m-≠p t]m-sb-∂pw Ah¿ ]-d-™p.-'' (t]-Pv 240) 12. ""Im-e-t°m-Øn¬ \n-∂pw ]-Øp- Zn-h-k-sØ bm-{X-°p tijw am-e-Zzo-]n-se-Øn. C-hn-S-sØ kv-{Xo-Iƒ am-dp-a-d-bv-°m-dn-√. dmWn-am¿ t]m-epw H-‰-ap-t≠ D-Sp-°m-dp-≈p. -th-e-°m¿-°v Np-cp-ßn-b Iq-en-tb D-≈p. -Hm-tcm ]-W-°m-c-s‚ ]p-c-bn-S-Øn-epw ]-tØm C-cp-]tXm Zm-kn-am-cp-≠m-bn-cn-°pw. -hn-hm-lw I-gn-°m≥ C-hn-sS h-f-sc FC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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fp-∏-am-Wv. hn-hm-l-k-a-b-Øv kv-{Xo-Iƒ-°v sIm-Sp-t°-≠ kw-Jy Xptemw Xp-—-am-sW-∂-Xp sIm-≠pw `¿-Øm-°-∑m-cp-sS kp-J-kw-t`m-KØn-\v kv-{Xo-Iƒ C-jv-Sm-\p-k-c-Ww X-øm-dm-sW-∂-Xp sIm-≠pw Ieym-Ww {]-bm-k-an-√m-sX \-S-°p-∂p. I-∏¬ bm-{X-°m¿ h-∂m¬ GsX-¶n-epw H-cp kv-{Xo-sb I-eym-Ww I-gn-°p-I-bpw t]m-Ip-tºmƒ Dt]-£n-°p-I-bpw ]-Xn-hm-Wv. -Rm≥ A-hn-sS-\n-∂v ]-e kv-{Xo-I-tfbpw I-eym-Ww I-gn-®n-´p-s≠-¶n-epw A-h-cm-cpw F-s‚ Iq-sS-bn-cp-∂v `£-Ww I-gn-®n-´n-√.-'' (t]-Pv 244) 13. ""k¬-°m-c-߃ A-h-km-\n-®-t∏mƒ cm-{Xn Ip-sd-bm-bn. a-{¥n sIm-´m-c-Øn-te-°p t]m-bn. Rm-\-t±-l-sØ ]n-¥p-S¿-∂p. -A-Sp-Ø Znh-kw cm-hn-se F-\n-s°m-cp kv-{Xo-sb A-b-®p-X-∂p. C-h-sf C-jv-Ss∏-Sp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ F-Sp-Øp-sIm-≈m-\pw A-s√-¶n¬ a-s‰m-cp Zm-kn-sb A-b-®p-X-cm-sa-∂pw C-h-sf sIm-≠-p-h-∂ D-tZym-K-ÿ≥ ]-d-™p. aq¿l-Øn-ø- Zm-kn-sb-bm-Wv F-\n-°p ]n-Sn-®-sX-∂v ]-d-™-t∏mƒ A-hsf F-\n-°v sIm-Sp-Ø-b-®p. A-h-fp-sS t]-cv Ip-e-ÿm- F-∂m-bn-cp∂p. A-hƒ-°v t]¿-jy≥ `m-j h-i-am-bn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v h-f-sc kuI-cyw tXm-∂n. Aw-_-cn-sb-∂ t]-tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b a-s‰m-cp kv-{Xo-tb-bpw F-\n-°v A-Sp-Ø Zn-h-kw A-b-®p-X-∂p.-'' (t]-Pv 247˛248) 14. ""i-Δm¬ c-≠n-\v kp-sse-am≥ \m-bn-°n-s‚ a-I-sf hn-hm-lw sN-øm≥ Xo-cp-am-\n-®p. -F-∂m¬ ap-lq¿-Ø-am-bn-´pw kp-sse-am-s\ I≠n-√. B-fp-I-sf hn-´-t\z-jn-®-t∏mƒ In-´n-b a-dp-]-Sn a-Iƒ-°v kp-Jt°-Sm-sW-∂m-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xp-tI-´-t∏mƒ a-{¥n F-t∂m-Sv a-{¥n-®p: "{]mb-sa-Øn-b A-hƒ Cu I-eym-W-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-b-Xp-sIm-≠v A-h-fpsS A-`n-{]m-b-Øn-\v hn-cp-≤-am-bn H-∂pw sN-øm-s\m-°p-I-bn-s√-∂v. A-Xn-Yn-Iƒ h-cn-I-bpw k¬-°m-c-Øn-\p-≈ G¿-∏m-Sp-Iƒ sN-øp-Ibpw sN-bv-X \n-e-°v a-{¥n H-cp kq-{Xw D-]-tZ-in-®p. cm-⁄n-bp-sS hf¿-Ø-Ω-sb hn-hm-lw sN-øm-s\m-cp-°-am-sW-¶n¬ Im-cyw D-S≥ \-SØm-sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p A-Xv. Rm≥ k-Ω-Xn-®-X-\p-k-cn-®v aw-K-f-am-bn B hn-hm-lw \-S-∂p.-'' (t]-Pv 249˛250) 15. ""Jm-kn-bm-b-Xn-\v ti-jw B-Zy-tØ-Xn-\v ]p-d-ta aq-∂v aw-K-eyß-fpw Iq-Sn \-S-Øn. a-{¥n-bp-sS a-I-tf-bpw kp¬-Øm≥ in-lm-_p-±os‚ `m-cy-bm-bn-cp-∂ kv-{Xo-tb-bpw hn-hm-lw sN-bv-Xp. a-{¥n \-ev-Inbn-cp-∂ tXm-´-Øn¬ aq-∂v _w-•m-hp-Iƒ ]-Wn-bn-®p. \m-em-a-sØ `mcy A-_v-Zp-√m a-{¥n-bp-sS h-f¿-Øp-]p-{Xn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A-hƒ A-h-fpsS h-k-Xn-bn¬ X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p Xm-a-kw. A-h-tfm-Sm-bn-cp-∂p F\n-t°-‰-hpw kv-t\-l-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv.-'' (t]-Pv 250) 16. ""C-hn-sS sh-®v Rm≥ sN-bv-X \m-ev hn-hm-l-ß-fn¬ H-cp kvC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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{Xo-sb hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w sN-bv-Xp. K¿-`n-Wn-bm-b a-s‰m-cp-Øn-°v H≥]-Xp am-k-Øn-\-Iw Rm≥ h-∂n-s√-¶n¬ hn-hm-lw th¿-s]-Sp-Øp-hm\p-≈ A-[n-Im-cw A-hƒ-°p-X-s∂ sIm-Sp-Øp. in-lm-_p-±o≥ kp¬Øm-s‚ dm-Wn-bm-bn-cp-∂ F-s‚ aq-∂m-a-sØ `m-cy-sb A-h-fp-sS kztZ-i-am-b a-eq-°p-Zzo-]n¬ ]n-Xm-hn-s‚ A-Sp-°-em-°m-sa-∂v Xo-cp-am-\n®p. -B-Zy `m-cy-bm-b dm-Wn-bp-sS k-tlm-Z-cn-bp-sS A-Ω F-s‚ Iq-sS h-cp-∂-Xv X-S-bm≥ Zzo-]p-Im¿ ]-e {i-a-ß-fpw \-S-Øn-t\m-°n. F-∂m¬ A-h-cp-sS {i-a-ß-sfm-∂pw ^-en-®n-√. A-hƒ F-s‚ Iq-sS-Ø-s∂ bm{X ]p-d-s∏-Sm≥ Xo-cp-am-\n-®p. F-s‚ `m-cy-°v I-∏¬ bm-{X cp-Nn-°mbv-I-sIm-≠v kp-J-t°-Sp-Iƒ ]n-Sn-s]-Sp-I-bpw Xo-sc In-S-∏n-em-hp-Ibpw sN-bv-Xp. ho-´n-te-°v t]m-I-W-sa-∂v A-hƒ B-{K-lw {]-I-Sn-∏n®p. X-∑q-ew hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w sN-bv-Xv A-h-fp-sS Zzo-]n-en-d-°n-hn-´p. Cu kw-K-Xn Im-Wn-®v Rm≥ a-{¥n-s°m-sc-gp-Ø-b-®p. a-{¥n-bp-sS A-Ωm-bn-b-Ω-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-hƒ. Im-ew \n¿-W-bn-®v \n¿-Øn-bn-cp-∂ `m-cy-tb-bpw D-t]-£n-®p. F-\n-t°-‰-hpw A-Sp-∏-hpw kv-t\-l-hp-ap-≠mbn-cp-∂ H-cp Zm-kn-bp-am-bn B Zzo-]n-en-d-ßn Np-‰n-°-d-ßp-I-bpw sN-bvXp.-'' (t]-Pv 252˛253) 17. ""]n-∂o-Sv R-߃ ap-eq-°p-Zzo-]n-se-Øn-t®¿-∂p. A-hn-sS F-gp]-Xv Zn-h-k-am-Wv Xm-a-kn-®-Xv. A-Xn-\n-sS c-≠v kv-{Xo-I-sf I-eymWw I-gn-®p.-'' (t]-Pv 253) 18. ""kn-tem-Wn¬ \n-∂pw cm-Pm-hn-t\m-Sp hn-S-]-d-™v a-e-_m-dnte-°v I-∏¬ I-b-dp-tºmƒ I-S¬ im-¥-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw Ip-td-°gn-™-t∏mƒ t£m-`n-®p. -c-£-s∏-Sm≥ th-≠n Nn-e a-c-∏-e-I-Iƒ I∏¬ ]-Wn-°m¿ sh-≈-Øn-en-d-°n. Rm-\-h-bn-sem-∂n-te-°n-d-ßm-s\mcp-ßn-b-t∏mƒ "R-ß-sf hn-t´-®v t]m-hp-I-bm-tWm?' F-∂v F-s‚ c≠v kv-{Xo-I-fpw kv-t\-ln-X-∑m-cpw tNm-Zn-®p. "\n-ß-sf c-£-s∏-Sp-Øntb Rm-\n-d-ßq' F-∂p ]-d-™v Iq-´p-Im-sc c-≠p-t]-sc-bpw ]-e-I-bnen-d-°n. F-s‚ G-‰-hpw {]n-b-s∏-´ Zm-kn \-√ \o-¥¬-°m-cn-bm-bn-cp∂p. F-s‚ a-t‰ kv-{Xo-tb-bpw kp-lr-Øp-°-tf-bpw ]-e-I-bn-en-cp-Øn. H-cp I-b¿ sIm-≠v A-Xp-sI-´n. I-b-dn-s‚ H-cp X-e I-Sn-®p-]n-Sn-®psIm-≠v A-hƒ \o-¥n- I-c-°-Sp-Øp.-'' (t]-Pv 261) 19. ""Rm-\pw Iq-´p-Im-cpw Zm-kn-bpw Ip-Xn-c-∏p-d-Øv I-b-dn. a-s‰m-cpØn-sb ]-√-°n-em-Wv F-Sp-Øn-cp-∂-Xv. R-߃ l¿-°m-Øv tIm-´-bnse-Øn. Zm-kn-I-sf-bpw th-e-°m-sc-bpw A-hn-sS \n¿-Øn. c-≠m-a-sØ Zn-\-Øn¬ cm-P-[m-\n-bn-te-°v t]m-bn.-'' (t]-Pv 262) 20. ""A-em-hp-±o≥ a-cn-®-t∏mƒ a-cp-a-I-\m-b Ip-Xp-_p-±o-\m-Wv kp¬Øm-\m-b-Xv. C-bm-fp-sS \-S-]-Sn Zq-jy-hpw kz-`m-h-ssh-I-ey-hpw \n-anC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Øw \m-ev-]-Xp Zn-h-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ sIm-√-s∏-Sp-I-bpw Kn-bm-kp±o≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-bm-hp-I-bp-w sN-bv-Xp. A-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ]-Xv-\n kp¬Øm≥ P-em-ep-±o-s‚ a-I-fm-bn-cp-∂p. B kv-{Xo-bp-sS k-tlm-Z-cn-sbbm-Wv Z¬-ln-bn¬ sh-®v Rm≥ I-eym-Ww I-gn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.-'' (t]-Pv 262) 21. ""Rm≥ ^-Ø-\n¬ Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ A-h-k-c-Øn¬ kw-t`m-Kho-cyw h¿-[n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p-≈ H-cp-X-cw Kp-fn-I-Iƒ Kn-bm-kp-±o-\v H-cp kn-≤≥ X-øm-dm-°n- sIm-Sp-Øn-cp-∂p. C-h Iq-Sp-X¬ I-gn-®-Xp aq-ew A-t±-lw tcm-Kn-bm-bn-Øo¿-∂p. A-t±-lw ^-Ø-\n¬ h-∂-t∏mƒ Rm≥ k-Ωm-\-ß-fp-am-bn A-t±-l-sØ k-μ¿-in-®p.-.-. kp¬-Øm≥ ]Xn-\-©p Zn-h-kw ^-Ø-\n¬ Xm-a-kn-®-ti-jw X-e-ÿm-\-am-b a-Øpd-bn-te-°v a-S-ßn. ]n-t∂-bpw ]-Xn-\-©p Zn-h-kw I-gn-™m-Wv Rm≥ Cu ÿ-e-tØ-°v t]m-b-Xv.-.-.-. tIm-f-d ]-S¿-∂p ]n-Sn-®v [m-cm-fw P-\߃ a-cn-®p sIm-≠n-cp-∂ H-cp k-μ¿-`-Øn-em-Wv Rm≥ Cu ]-´-WØn-se-Øp-∂-Xv. A-hn-sS \n-∂pw B-tcm-Ky-h-Xn-bm-b H-cp kv-{Xo-sb Rm≥ hm-ßn. ]-t£, A-h-fpw A-Sp-Ø Zn-h-kw a-cn-®p-t]m-bn.-.-.-. sIm´m-c-Øn¬ sN-∂-t∏mƒ A-hn-sS \q-dp-I-W-°n-\v Zm-kn-I-fpw A-Sn-as]¨-Ip-´n-If - pw a-cn-®p-In-S° - p-∂X - m-Wv Rm≥ I-≠X - v.'- ' (t]-Pv 264˛265) 22. ""a-l¬ Zzo-]n-se a-{¥n P-em-ep-±o-s‚ a-c-Wm-\-¥-cw a-{¥n-bmb A-_v-Zp-√m J-Zo-Pm -dm-Wn-sb hn-hm-lw sN-bv-sX-∂pw K¿-`n-Wn-bmbn-cp-∂ F-s‚ k-l-[¿-an-Wn H-cp B¨-Ip-´n-sb {]-k-hn-s®-∂p-ap≈ hn-h-c-a-dn-™-t∏mƒ F-s‚ a-I-s\ Im-Wm-\p-≈ Xm¬-]-cyw P-\n®p.-'' (t]-Pv 266) 23. ""h-f-sc h-en-b H-cp cm-Py-am-Wp _w-Kmƒ. C-hn-S-sØ {]-[m\ Ir-jn s\-√m-Wv. A-cn C-{X-bpw B-Zm-b-Øn¬ e-`n-°p-∂ ÿ-ew tem-I-sØm-cn-S-Øpw th-sd Im-Wp-I-bn-√. ap-∏-Xp s]¨-sIm-Sn-sb H-cp kz¿-W-Zo-\m-dn-\p hn-ev-°p-∂-Xp Rm≥ I-≠p. A-kp-d F-∂ t]tcm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b H-cp s]-Æn-s\ Cu hn-e-bv-°p X-s∂ Rm-\-hn-sS-\n-∂pw hm-ßn. F-s‚ kv-t\-ln-X-∑m¿ c-≠p Zo-\m-dn-\p Np-dp-Np-dp-°p-≈ H-cp ]-ø-s\-bm-Wp hm-ßn-b-Xv.-''(t]-Pv 267˛329) ""C-hm-e-Øm-\n¬ A-º-Xp Zn-h-kw A-hn-S-sØ P-\-ß-fp-sS kulr-Z-k-¬-°m-c-ß-fn¬ kp-Ir-Xw ]q-≠p I-gn-®p-Iq-´n.-.-.-.-- C-hn-S-sØ kv{Xo-Iƒ ku-μ-cy-Øn¬ A-Xn-i-bn-∏n-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv. ]p-cp-j-∑m¿-°n-Sbn¬ A-kq-b-bn-s√-∂p am-{X-a-√ A-h¿ kv-{Xo-I-sf _-lp-am-\n-°pI-bpw sN-øp-∂p. ]n-Xm-°-∑m-cp-sS kz-Øn-\v C-h¿ A-h-Im-in-I-f-√. A-Ωm-h-s‚ Xm-h-gn-bm-Wn-h¿ ]-d-bp-I; A-—-s‚-b-√. C-¥y-bn¬ a-e_m-dn-sem-gn-®p a-s‰m-cn-S-Øpw C-Ø-cw H-cp kw-K-Xn Rm≥ I-≠n-´nC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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√. C-hn-sS-bp-≈-h¿ ap-kv-enw-I-fpw a-e-_m-dn¬ A-ap-kv-enw-I-fp-am-sW∂ hy-Xym-kw am-{X-ta-bp-≈q. C-hn-sS ap-kv-enw kv-{Xo-Iƒ ]p-cp-j∑m-sc Im-Wp-tºmƒ \m-Wn-°p-∂ ]-Xn-hn-√. A-h¿ h-f-sc kz-X-{¥am-bn s]-cp-am-dp-∂p. I-eym-Ww I-gn-°m≥ {]-bm-k-an-s√-¶n-epw `m-cyam-sc `¿-Øm-°-∑m-cp-sS Iq-sS A-b-°p-∂ ]-Xn-hn-√.-'' ""kv-{Xo-Iƒ-°v A-h-cp-sS Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ß-sf Iq-Sm-sX kv-t\-lnX-∑m-cpw Iq-´p-Im-cpw D-≠m-bn-cn-°pw. A-Xp-t]m-se ]p-cp-j-∑m¿-°pw A-h-cp-sS Iq-´p-Im-cn-I-fpw kv-t\-ln-X-I-fpw D-≠v. X-s‚ `m-cy A-h-fpsS kp-lr-Øn-s\ k¬-°-cn-®p sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xp `¿-Øm-hp I-≠psIm-≠p h-∂m¬ X-s∂ A-bmƒ H-sc-Xn¿-]pw Im-Wn-°m-dn-√. H-cp Znh-kw A-hn-S-sØ Jm-kn-bp-sS ho-´n¬ Rm≥ t]m-bn. A-\p-hm-Zw hmßn Rm-\-t±-l-Øn-s‚ ho-´n¬ I-S-∂p-sN-∂-t∏mƒ B-Im-c-kp-j-abp-≈ H-cp sN-dp-∏-°m-cn kp-μ-cn-bp-am-bn A-t±-lw k-√-]n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xm-Wp I-≠-Xv. C-Xp I-≠-t∏m-ƒ Rm≥ a-S-ßn-t∏m-cm≥ `m-hn-®p. \mWw tXm-∂p-∂-Xn-\p ]-I-cw kp-μ-cn-bm-b B s]-Æv ]-cn-lm-k-tØmSp-Iq-Sn Nn-cn-®v F-s∂ I-fn-bm-°n. Jm-kn- F-t∂m-Sp ]-d-™p: ""F-¥mWp \n-߃ t]m-Im≥ ap-Xn-cp-∂-Xv? C-hƒ F-s‚ kv-t\-ln-X-bm-Wv.'' F-\n-°-h-cp-sS s]-cp-am-‰-Øn¬ A-¤p-Xw tXm-∂n. A-t±-lw a-X-]Wv-Un-X-\pw Xo¿-Ym-S-\-Øn-\p t]m-Im≥ X-bm-sd-Sp-Øp \n-ev-°p-∂ tZ-l-hp-am-Wv. kp¬-Øm-s‚ k-Ω-X-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn Xm≥ X-s‚ Iq-´pIm-cn-bp-sam-Øm-Wv (G-Xp Iq-´p-Im-cn-bm-Wm-thm) l-÷v Xo¿-Ym-S-\Øn-\p t]m-Im≥ A-\p-hm-Z-Øn-∂-t]-£n-®-sX-∂pw kp¬-Øm≥ A\p-h-Zn-®n-s√-∂p-am-Wv A-t±-lw ]-d-™-Xv. (t]-Pv 320˛321) ""Rm≥ X-_m-°-bn-em-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ hn-Zym-`ym-k-ap-≈ kv-{Xo-sb hm-ß-W-sa-∂p hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n-epw ]-‰n-b-h-sf I-≠p-In-´n-bn-√. Ipsd I-gn-™-t∏mƒ A-hn-S-sØ Jm-kn-bp-sS kv-t\-ln-X-s‚ h-I kpμ-cn-bm-b H-c-Sn-a-sb A-t±-lw sIm-Sp-Ø-b-®p. C-cp-]-Ø-©v an-iv-Imen-\m-Wp Rm≥ hm-ßn-b-Xv. Cu I-®-h-Sw d-±m-°n kv-{Xo-sb a-S-°nsIm-Sp-°-W-sa-∂v A-t±-lw Ip-sd -Zn-h-kw I-gn-™m-h-iy-s∏-´p. as‰m-∂n-s\ Im-Wn-®p-X-∂m¬ X-cm-sa-∂p Rm≥ k-Ω-Xn-®-X-\p-k-cn-®v A-en A-Kp-bq¬ F-∂-bm-fp-sS H-c-Sn-a-kv-{Xo-sb hn-ev-°m-\p-s≠-∂-t±lw ]-d-™p. A-hƒ C-h-sf-°mƒ kp-μ-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Rm-\-Xp hmßn. Ip-sd Zn-h-k-߃-°p-ti-jw A-h-tc-bpw a-S-°n-hm-ßm≥ h-s∂¶n-epw Rm≥ sIm-Sp-Øn-√.-'' (t]-Pv 335˛336) C-¥y-bn¬ \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ km-aq-ln-I k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-s‚ H-tc-I-tZ-i-cq-]w ta-ep-≤-cn-® _-Øq-Ø-bp-sS hn-h-c-W-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw a-\- n-em-°mw. {]-`p-°-∑m¿-°pw A-h-cp-sS ]-¥n-bn-te-°p-b¿-∂n-cpC_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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∂ ]p-tcm-ln-X-∑m¿-°pw k-aq-l-Øn-se Cu Zp-c-h-ÿ-Iƒ A-hn-cmaw A-gn-™m-´w \-S-Øm-\p-≈ k-I-e kp-J-k-÷o-I-c-W-ß-fpw Xbm-dm-°n-bn-cp-∂p. C-h-sb i-cn-°pw ap-X-se-Sp-°p-I-bm-Wp ]-Wv-UnX-∑m-cpw ]p-tcm-ln-X-∑m-cpw \-S-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv. C-_v-\p _-Øq-Ø-bpw C-Xn-s\m-c-]-hm-Z-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. eu-In-I kp-J-߃ B-thm-fw \p-I-cpI-bpw a-Zm-‘-am-b t`m-K-m-e-ky-Øn¬ Xn-an¿-°p-I-bpw sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂ {]-`p-°-tf-bpw ]p-tcm-ln-X-∑m-tc-bp-am-Wv ap-l-Ω-Zv Xp-•-°v F-∂ k¬kz-`m-hn-bm-b C-¥y≥ N-{I-h¿-Øn-°p t\-cn-tS-≠-Xm-bn h-∂-Xv. kaq-l-Øn-se Cu sIm-≈-cp-Xm-bv-a-I-sf D-∑q-e-\w sN-øm≥ ]-cn-{i-an® B-Z¿-i-im-en-bpw k-∑m¿-Kn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p kp¬-Øm≥. \n-jv-Ir-jvS-am-bn k-Zm-Nm-c k-∑m¿-K-߃ A-\p-jvTn-®p-t]m-∂ kp¬-Øm≥ A∂-sØ k-aq-l-Øn¬ \n-∂pw H-‰-s∏-Sp-I kzm-`m-hn-I-am-Wv. A-Xm-Wv A-°m-e-sØ tc-J-Iƒ ap-gp-s° A-t±-l-sØ A-]-e-]n-°p-∂-h-bmbn-Øo¿-∂-Xpw. Cu hy-Xym-kw a-\- n-em-°m-sX N-cn-{X ]T-\w kpK-a-am-hp-I-bn-√.

C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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C_v\p _Øq-Ø-bpsS I≈-°-Y-Iƒ

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Ibn Battuta e book by Dr.C.K Kareem  
Ibn Battuta e book by Dr.C.K Kareem  
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