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06. INDEX 81


Cannabis, also known as marijuana (from the Mexican Spanish marihuana), and by numerous other names, is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug and as medicine. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 84 other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol(CBD), cannabinol(CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). and cannabigerol(CBG). Cannabis is often consumed for its psychoactive and physiological effects which can include heightened mood or euphoria, relaxation, and increase in appetite. Unwanted side-effects can sometimes include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, reddening of the eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety. Contemporary uses of cannabis are as a recreational or medicinal drug, and as part ofreligious or spiritual rites; the earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC. Since the early 20th century cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries of the world; the United Nations has said that cannabis is the most-used illicit drug in the world. In 2004, the United Nations estimated that global consumption of cannabis indicated that approximately 4% of the adult world population (162 million people) used cannabis annually, and that approximately 0.6% (22.5 million) of people used cannabis daily.

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Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed. The im mediate desired effects from consuming cannabis include relaxation and mild euphoria (the “high” or “stoned” feeling), while some im mediate undesired side-effects include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and reddening of the eyes. Aside from a subjective change in perception and, most notably, mood, the most com mon short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, increased appetite and consumption of food lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory, psychomotor coordination, and concentration. Long-term effects are less clear. In humans aside from respiratory damage when smoked,relatively few adverse clinical health effects have been documented from chronic cannabis use. While many psychoactive drugs clearly fall into the category of either stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen, cannabis exhibits a mix of all properties, perhaps leaning the most towards hallucinogenic or psychedelic properties, though with other effects quite pronounced as well. THC is typically considered the primary active component of the cannabis plant; various scientific studies have suggested that certain other cannabinoids like CBD may also play a significant role in its psychoactive effects.










(CH2)4CH3 H3C











FIGURE 1: MOLECULAR MAKE UP Here we see the molecular make up for THC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which is the main chemical compound that produces the feeling of being “high.”










effects. Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain reliever). Less confirmed individual studies also have been conducted indicating cannabis to be beneficial to a gamut of conditions running from multiple sclerosis to depression. Synthesized cannabinoids are also sold as prescription drugs, including Marinol (dronabinol in the United States and Germany) and Cesamet (nabilone in Canada, Mexico, The United States and, The United Kingdom) Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked cannabis for any condition or disease in the United States, largely because the FDA claims good quality scientific evidence for its use from U.S. studies is lacking. [28] Others, for example American Society of Addiction Medicine,








because the plant parts in question fails to meet the standard requirements for approved medicines. Eighteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical use in state laws. The Supreme Court has ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Coop and Gonzales v. Raich that it is the federal government that has the right to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medical purposes and even if the state legalize it. Canada, Spain, The Netherlands, France, Italy, Czech Republic and Austria have legalized some form of cannabis or extract containing a low dose of THC for medicinal use. Recently, Uruguay has taken steps towards legalizing and regulating the production and sale of the drug.


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FIGURE 2: THE GROWING STAGES OF CANNABIS The growing stages of cannabis is does not differ from other com mon plants. Like most plants, Cannabis plants can produce seeds. (A) after a while, the seed begins its first transformation (B). which leads to the seed begging to sprout (C) and continues to do so until the sprout finally reaches the surface of the ground. (D) (E) (F) After the sprout reaches the outside, it continues to grow creating its stem and leafs (G) (H) After a few weeks, the Cannabis plant is fully grown producing buds, with or without seeds deepening of the sex of the plant. (I)


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One of the key effect of smoking marijuana is feeling like you are living in a dream world. While for some this might feel like heaven, for some it can be a total hell.


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Though the long-term effects of cannabis have been studied, there remains much to be concluded. Many studies have investigated whether long-term use of cannabis can cause or contribute to the development of illnesses such as heart disease, bipolar disorder, depression, mood swings or schizophrenia. Its effects on intelligence, memory, respiratory functions and the possible relationship of cannabis use to mental disorders such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depersonalization disorder and depression are still under discussion. Both advocates and opponents of cannabis are able to call upon numerous scientific studies supporting their respective positions. For instance, while cannabis has been implicated in the development of various mental disorders in some studies, these studies differ widely as to whether cannabis use is the cause of the mental problems displayed in heavy users, whether the mental problems are exacerbated by cannabis use, or whether both the cannabis use and the mental problems are the effects of some other cause. It has been pointed out that as cannabis use has risen, rates of schizophrenia have not risen in tandem. Lester Grinspoon argues that the cannabis-causes-psychosis argument is disproved by the lack of “even a blip in the incidence of schizophrenia in the US after millions of people started smoking marijuana in the 1960s�. Worldwide prevalence of schizophrenia is about 1% in adults; the amount of cannabis use in any given country seems to have no effect on that rate. A medical study published in 2009 taken by the Medical Research Council in London, concluded recreational cannabis users do not release significant amounts of dopamine from an oral THC dose equivalent to a standard cannabis cigarette, and that therefore cannabis use could leave users vulnerable to psychosis.



Positive effects of the drug have also been observed. For example, in a recent study researchers found that compared with those who did not smoke cannabis, long-term cannabis smokers were roughly 62% less likely to develop head and neck cancers. A 35-year cohort study published August 2012 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and funded partly by NIDA and other NIH institutes reported an association between long-term cannabis use and neuropsychological decline, even after controlling for education. It was found that the persistent, dependent use of marijuana before age 18 was associated with lasting harm to a person’s intelligence, attention and memory, and were suggestive of neurological harm from cannabis. Quitting cannabis did not appear to reverse the loss. However, individuals who started cannabis use after the age of 18 did not show similar declines. Results of the study came into question when in a new analysis, published January 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from Oslo’s Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research noted other differences among the study group including education, occupation and other socioeconomic factors that showed the same effect on IQ as cannabis use. From the abstract: “existing research suggests an alternative confounding model based on time-varying effects of socioeconomic status on IQ. A simulation of the confounding model reproduces the reported associations from the, suggesting that the causal effects estimated in Meier et al, are likely to be overestimates, and that the true effect could be zero”. The researchers pointed to three other studies which showed cannabis did not cause a decline in IQ. The studies showed that heavy smokers had clear reductions in IQ, but they were not permanent.


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Due to the low number of studies conducted on cannabis, there is not enough evidence to reach a conclusion regarding the effect of cannabis on overall risk of death or lifespan. Cannabis has not been proven to have caused deaths but an association is currently being researched. There are medical reports of occasional infarction, stroke and other cardiovascular side effects. Marijuana’s cardiovascular effects are not associated with serious health problems for most young, healthy users. According to a 2006 United Kingdom government report, using cannabis is much less dangerous than tobacco, prescription drugs, and alcohol in social harms, physical harm, and addiction.[83] Harvard’s Dr. Lester Grinspoon, has stated in a newspaper editorial that “herbal marijuana is remarkably nontoxic”. Dr. Stephen Ross, a professor of child psychiatry and addiction at New York University’s Tish Hospital explains reports of some cannabis-related deaths: “deaths associated with the drug are the result of activities undertaken while on the drug, such as driving under the influence”. The US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration stated in its July 2001 report from the Drug Abuse Warning Network Mortality Data: “Marijuana is rarely the only drug involved in a drug abuse death. Thus, in most cases, the proportion of marijuana-involved cases labeled as ‘One drug’ (i.e., marijuana only) will be zero or nearly zero”. Cannabis use compared to steady frequent smoking of tobacco. The review has been criticized by David Nutt In contrast to the British Lung Foundation report, a large 2006 study found no lung cancer link to marijuana, even in heavy smokers, when adjusting for several co-founders including cigarette smoking and alcohol use.



It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early ‘70s, when THC was first discovered and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such as “Thai sticks” were already available at that time. Sinsemilla (Spanish for “without seed”) is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because of undue weight given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.


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Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a com monly used term for varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed. In many countries regulatory limits for concentrations of psychoactive drug compounds (THC) in hemp encourage the use of strains of the plant which are bred for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content or otherwise have the THC removed. Hemp is refined into products like hemp seed foods, hemp oil, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, and fuel. Hemp is used for a wide variety of purposes including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength, durable clothing and nutritional products. The bast fibers can be used in 100% hemp products, but are com monly blended with other organic fibers such as flax, cotton or silk, for apparel and furnishings, most com monly at a 55%/45% hemp/cotton blend. The inner two fibers of hemp are more woody and are more often used in non-woven items and other industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. The oil from the fruits (“seeds”) oxidizes (com monly, though inaccurately, called “drying”) to become solid on exposure to air, similar to linseed oil, and is sometimes used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird seed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the EU was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seed is also used as a fishing bait. In modern times hemp is used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, construction (as with Hempcrete and insulation), body products, health food and bio-fuel.

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Hemp has been shown to help elevate the behaviors of individuals with psychotic disorders.

The first identified coarse paper, made from hemp, dates to the early Western Han Dynasty, two hundred years before the nominal invention of paper-making by Cai Lun, who improved and standardized paper production using a range of inexpensive materials, including hemp ends, approximately 2000 years ago. Recycled hemp clothing, rags and fishing nets were used as inputs for paper production. The Saint Petersburg, Russia paper mill of Goznak opened in 1818. It used hemp as its main input material. Paper from the mill was used in the printing of “bank notes, stamped paper, credit bills, postal stamps, bonds, stocks, and other watermarked paper.” In 1916, U.S. Department of Agriculture chief scientists Lyster Hoxie Dewey and Jason L. Merrill created paper made from hemp pulp and concluded that paper from hemp hurds was “favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood.” Modern research has not confirmed the positive finding about hemp hurds. They are only 32% and 38% cellulose. On the other hand, hemp contains only 4-10% lignin against the 18-30% found in wood. This lignin must be removed chemically and wood requires more use of chemicals in the process. The actual production of hemp fiber in the U.S continued to decline until 1933 to around 500 tons/year. Between 1934-35, the cultivation of hemp began to increase but still at a very low level and with no significant increase of paper. Hemp has never been used for com mercial high-volume paper production due to its relatively high processing cost. Currently there is a small niche market for hemp pulp, for example as cigarette paper. Hemp fiber is mixed with fiber from other sources than hemp. In 1994 there was no significant production of 100% true hemp paper. World hemp pulp production was believed to be around 120,000 tons per year in 1991 which was about 0.05% of the world’s annual pulp production volume. The total world production of hemp fiber had in 2003 declined to about 60 000 from 80 000 tons.


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This can be compared to a typical pulp mill for wood fiber, which is never smaller than 250,000 tons per annum. The cost of hemp pulp is approximately six times that of wood pulp, mostly because of the small size and outdated equipment of the few hemp processing plants in the Western world, and because hemp is harvested once a year (during August) [citation needed] and needs to be stored to feed the mill the whole year through. This storage requires a lot of (mostly manual) handling of the bulky stalk bundles. Another issue is that the entire hemp plant cannot be economically prepared for paper production. While the wood products industry uses nearly 100% of the fiber from harvested trees, only about 25% of the dried hemp stem — the bark, called bast — contains the long, strong fibers desirable for paper production. All this accounts for a high raw material cost. Hemp pulp is bleached with hydrogen peroxide, a process today also com monly used for wood pulp. Around the year 2000, the production quantity of flax and hemp pulp total 25000-30000 tons per year, having been produced from approximately 37000-45000 tonnes fibers. Up to 80% of the produced pulp is used for specialty papers (including 95% of cigarette paper). Only about 20% hemp fiber input goes into the standard pulp area and are here mostly in lower quality (untreated oakum high shive content added) wood pulps. With hemp pulp alone, the proportion of specialty papers probably at about 99%. The market is considered saturated with little or no growth in this area.




Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating







not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame. However hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable and have been shown to be used in replacement of wood for many jobs including creating very durable and breathable homes. The first example of the use of hempcrete was in 1986 in France with the renovation of the Maison de la Turque in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti. In the UK hemp lime was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill. Designed by Modece Architects, who pioneered hemp’s use in UK construction, the hemp houses were monitored in comparison with other standard dwellings by BRE. Completed in 2009, The Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials.The first US home made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina.

FIGURE 3: HEMP ROPE The most com mon material that hemp is turned into is rope or Hemp Rope. The fibers can be turned into paper, rope, and other various materials. The fibers are fairly tough and when used to create paper, can be five times stronger than normal paper made from trees.


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The Duquenois-Levine test is com monly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives. Despite this, it is com mon in the United States for prosecutors to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D-L tests, claiming them definitive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography confirmation, which can only be done in the lab. In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine. Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic.




FIGURE 4: THE DUQUENOIS-LEVINE TEST The Duquenois-Levine Test is used to test drug substances in the urine of the user. A small sample of urine is collected in the tube; which usually occurs during a random drug test (a) Once collected, a compound is added to the urine changing the color of the urine from a clear yellow to a slight gray tint color. (B) Whether or not the person had taken drugs depends on what happens next. If the color remains the same, the person is clean but if the urine changes color from gray to red, this indicated that the person tested positive for marijuana. (C)


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A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda,Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter). Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macramé. Hemp jewelry includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches and other adornments. Some jewelry features beads made from glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewelry, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most com mon. Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside. Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname “Jack Tar”. Hemp rope was phased out when Manila, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana.




Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding (horses, for instance), or for horticultural mulch. Industrial hemp is much more profitable if both fibers and shives (or even seeds) can be used. Hemp can be used as










ter, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Eco-technologist Dr. Keith Bolton from Southern Cross University in Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, is a leading researcher in this area. Hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site. This is known as phytoremediation - the process by the cleaning radiation as well as a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air. Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside. Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname “Jack Tar”. Hemp rope was phased out when Manila, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana. Biofuels, such as bio-diesel and alcohol fuel, can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks, and the fermentation of the plant as a whole, respectively. Bio-diesel produced from hemp is sometimes known as “hempoline”. Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to only power diesel engines. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to fuel “by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps, i.e. the Argand lamp.” Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Com mercial bio-diesel and bio-gas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palm seeds and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste.


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Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. It matures in about three to four months. Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that look quite different. Also, breeding since circa 1930 has focused quite specifically on producing strains which would perform very poorly as sources of drug material. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. Ideally, according to Britain’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs,








towards the end of flowering. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality, and also pre-empts the herb’s maturity as a potential source of drug material. However, in these strains of industrial hemp the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low, regardless. The seeds are sown from mid April to mid May with grain drills to 4–6 cm sowing depth. Hemp needs less fertilizer than corn does. A total of 60–150 kg of nitrogen, 40–140 kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 75–200 kg of potassium per acre for hemp fiber made before sowing and again later, maybe three to four weeks. When practiced, especially in France double use of fiber and seed fertilization with nitrogen doses up to 100 kg / ha rather low. Organic fertilizers such as manure can utilize industrial hemp well. Neither weeds nor crop protection measures are necessary.





Many Medical Marijuana dispensaries are regulated under law but over the last 10 years, more and more of these dispensaries are shut down. Though many are legal in the sate of California, they are illegal under Federal state laws.


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Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Com mercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England. Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. Other important producing countries were China, North Korea, Hungary, the former Yugoslavia, Romania, Poland, France and Italy. In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the com mercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibres. Theories about the potential for com mercial cultivation of hemp in very large quantities have been strongly criticized by European experts on Hemp such as Dr. Hayo M.G. van der Werf and Dr. Ivan Bûcsa. From their perspective hemp was, outside the U.S, simply out-competed by other fibers in most applications. From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world’s largest producer (3,000 km² in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine, the Kurskand Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv(Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world’s largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.




The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century onwards, it was raw material for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. Colonies for factories for the production of flax hemp, such as the Royal Flax Hemp Factory in Brazil. After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trรกs-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariรงa Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes. As of 1971, this cultivar is considered illegal because of marijuana, a decision subsequently revoked by the European Union.

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FIGURE 5: GERMINATION Germination is the process in which the seeds sprout and the root emerges. In Cannabis it takes from 12 hours to 8 days. Germination is initiated by soaking seeds either between wet paper towels, in a cup of water at room temperature, in wet peat pellets, or directly in potting soil. Peat pellets are often used as a germinating medium because the saturated pellets with their seedlings are planted directly into the intended growing medium with a minimum of shock to the plant.


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“War on Drugs” is a term com monly applied to a campaign of prohibition and foreign military aid and military intervention undertaken by the United States government, with the assistance of participating countries, and the stated aim to define and reduce the illegal drug trade. This initiative includes a set of drug policies of the United States that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of illegal psychoactive drugs. The term was first used by U.S. president Richard Nixon, and was later popularized by the media. The ONDCP’s view is that “drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our com munities healthy and safe.” One of the alternatives that Kerlikowske has showcased is the drug policy of Sweden that seeks to balance public health concerns with opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for cocaine use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of European countries such as the United Kingdom and Spain. In June 2011, the Global Com mission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring “The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and years after President Nixon launched the US government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed.” The report was criticized by organizations that oppose a general legalization of drugs.

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Although Nixon declared the War on Drugs in 1971, the policies that his administration implemented as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 were a continuation of drug prohibition policies in the U.S., which started in 1914. Less wellknown today is that the Nixon Administration also repealed the federal 2–10-year mandatory minimum sentences for possession of marijuana and started federal demand reduction programs and drug-treatment programs. Robert DuPont, the “Drug czar” in the Nixon Administration, stated it would be more accurate to say that Nixon ended, rather than launched, the “war on drugs”. DuPont also argued that it was the proponents of drug legalization that popularized the term “war on drugs”. The first U.S. law that restricted the distribution and use of certain drugs was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. The first local laws came as early as 1860. In 1919, the United States passed the 18th Amendment certified on Jan. 29, which prohibited the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol for consumption on a national level. In 1920, the United States passed the National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act), enacted to carry out the provisions in law of the 18th Amendment. In 1930, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics was created. Established in the Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14, 1930 (46 Stat. 585). In 1933 the federal prohibition for alcohol was repealed. In 1935 the president Franklin D. Roosevelt, publicly supported the adoption of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act. The New York Times used the headline “ROOSEVELT ASKS NARCOTIC WAR AID.”In 1937, the Marijuana Transfer Tax Act was passed. Several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry, largely as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, and the Du Pont family.




These scholars argue that with the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a very cheap substitute for the paper pulp that was used in the newspaper industry. These scholars believe that Hearst felt that this was a threat to his extensive timber holdings. Mellon, United States Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested heavily in the DuPont’s new synthetic fiber, nylon, and considered its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp. All theories about a potential for com mercial cultivation of hemp in very large quantities has been strongly criticized by European experts on Hemp like Dr. Hayo M.G. van der Werf author of the doctoral thesis Crop physiology of fiber hemp (1994) and Dr. Ivan Bûcsa, From their perspective was hemp outside the U.S simply, step by step, out-competed by other fibers in most applications. On October 27, 1970, Congress passes the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, which, among other things, categorizes controlled substances based on their medicinal use and potential for addiction. In 1971. Two congressmen released an explosive report on the growing heroin epidemic among U.S. servicemen in Vietnam; ten to fifteen percent of the servicemen were addicted to heroin, and the Nixon administration coined the term War on Drugs. In 1973, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created to replace the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. As early as 1982, Vice President George H. W. Bush and his aides began pushing for the involvement of the CIA and U.S. military in drug interdiction efforts.


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The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) was originally established by the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988, which mandated a national anti-drug media campaign for youth, which would later become the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The director of ONDCP is com monly known as the Drug czar, and it was first implemented in 1989 under President George H. W. Bush, and raised to cabinet-level status by Bill Clinton in 1993. These activities subsequently funded by the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act of 1998 formally creating the National Youth AntiDrug Media Campaign. The Drug-Free Media Campaign Act of 1998 codified the campaign at 21 U.S.C. § 1708. “The War On Drugs Has Failed”, said a self-appointed 19-member com mission on June 2, 2011, including former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, Mexico’s former President Ernesto Zedillo, Brazil’s ex-President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and former Colombian President César Gaviria, as well as the former U.S. Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker and the then-current Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou. The panel also featured prominent Latin American writers Carlos Fuentes and Mario Vargas Llosa, the EU’s former foreign policy chief Javier Solana, and George Schultz, a former U.S. Secretary of State. Rafael Lemaitre, ONDCP Com munications Director, issued a response the same day stating that President Obama’s policy on drugs is a marked departure from previous approaches to drug policy. U.S. Surgeon General Regina Benjamin also released the first ever National Prevention Strategy. Two weeks later, former President Jim my Carter wrote an op-ed in The New York Times explicitly endorsing the com mission’s initiative. The U.S. federal government spent over $15 billion in 2010 on the War on Drugs, a rate of about $500 per second.




The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and total prison population in the world. At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults. The current rate is about seven times the 1980 figure, and over three times the figure in Poland, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the next highest rate. African American males are jailed at about six times the rate of white males and three times the rate of Hispanic males. The country’s high rate of incarceration is largely due to drug sentencing guidelines and drug policies. The present state of incarceration in the U.S. as a result of the war on drugs arrived in several stages. By 1971, different stops on drugs had been implemented for more than 50 years (for e.g. since 1914, 1937 etc.) With only a very small increase of inmates per 100 000 citizens. During the first 9 years after Nixon coined the expression “War on Drugs”, statistics showed only a minor increase in the total number of imprisoned. After 1980, the situation began to change. In the 1980s, while the number of arrests for all crimes had risen by 28%, the number of arrests for drug offenses rose 126%. Among the prisoners, drug offenders made up the same percentage of State prisoners in both 1997 and 2004 (21%). The percentage of Federal prisoners serving time for drug offenses declined from 63% in 1997 to 55% in 2004.[59] The US Department of Justice, reporting on the effects of state initiatives, has stated that, from 1990 through 2000, “the increasing number of drug offenses accounted for 27% of the total growth among black inmates, 7% of the total growth among Hispanic inmates, and 15% of the growth among white inmates.” In addition to prison or jail, the United States provides for the deportation of many non-citizens convicted of drug offenses.


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FIGURE 6: DRUG DEATH CHART This chart displays the annual number of deaths in the U.S by the type of drug. Ironically, the so called “Legal Drugs” make up the majority of deaths. Tobacco and Alcohol remain the leading causes of deaths due to drugs. The thing that seems fascinating is that til this day there hasn’t been a single casualty due to Cannabis or Cannabis Overdose.




America has the highest incarceration rate in the world. In 1971, different stops on drugs had been implemented for more than 50 years (for e.g. since 1914, 1937 etc.) With only a very small increase of inmates per 100 000 citizens. After 1980, the situation began to change. In 1994, it was reported that the “War on Drugs” resulted in the incarceration of one million Americans each year. Of the related drug arrests, about 225,000 are for possession of cannabis, the fourth most com mon cause of arrest in the United States. In 2008, 1.5 million Americans were arrested for drug offenses. 500,000 were imprisoned. In the 1980s, while the number of arrests for all crimes had risen by 28%, the number of arrests for drug offenses rose 126%. Among the prisoners, drug offenders made up the same percentage of State prisoners in both 1997 and 2004 (21%). The percentage of Federal prisoners serving time for drug offenses declined from 63% in 1997 to 55% in 2004.The U.S. Department of Justice, reporting on the effects of state initiatives, has stated that, from 1990 through 2000, “the increasing number of drug offenses accounted for 27% of the total growth among black inmates, 7% of the total growth among Hispanic inmates, and 15% of the growth among white inmates.” In addition to prison or jail, the United States provides for the deportation of many non-citizens convicted of drug offenses. Federal and state policies also impose collateral consequences on those convicted of drug offenses, such as denial of public benefits or licenses, that are not applicable to those convicted of other types of crime. Marijuana constitutes almost half of all drug arrests, and between 1990–2002, marijuana accounted for 82% of the increase in the number of drug arrests. In 2004, approximately 12.7% of state prisoners and 12.4% of Federal prisoners were serving time for a marijuana-related offense.


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The Mexican Army and Marines have been battling the drug cartels for over three decades in hopes to stop the






appears to be no end to this conflict.





In 1986, the U.S. Congress passed laws that created a 100 to 1 sentencing disparity for the possession or trafficking of crack when compared to penalties for trafficking of powder cocaine, which had been widely criticized as discriminatory against minorities, mostly blacks, who were more likely to use crack than powder cocaine. This 100:1 ratio had been required under federal law since 1986. Persons convicted in federal court of possession of 5 grams of crack cocaine received a minimum mandatory sentence of 5 years in federal prison. On the other hand, possession of 500 grams of powder cocaine carries the same sentence. In 2010, the Fair Sentencing Act cut the sentencing disparity to 18:1. Crime statistics show that in 1999 in the United States AfricanAmericans were far more likely to be arrested for drug crimes,








tences, than non-minorities. Those same statistics also suggest that such events were far more likely to take place in areas with high minority crime: low income housing neighborhoods, city projects, etc. Statistics from 1998 show that there were wide racial disparities in arrests, prosecutions, sentencing and deaths. AfricanAmerican drug users made up for 35% of drug arrests, 55% of convictions, and 74% of people sent to prison for drug possession crimes. Nationwide African-Americans were sent to state prisons for drug offenses 13 times more often than other races, even though they only supposedly comprised 13% of regular drug users.


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Anti-drug legislation over time has also displayed an apparent racial bias. University of Minnesota Professor and social justice author Michael Tonry writes, “The War on Drugs foreseeable and unnecessarily blighted the lives of hundreds and thousands of young disadvantaged black Americans and undermined decades of effort to improve the life chances of members of the urban black underclass.” In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson decided that the government needed to make an effort to curtail the social unrest that blanketed the country at the time. He decided to focus his efforts on illegal drug use, an approach which was in line with expert opinion on the subject at the time. In the 1960s, it was believed that at least half of the crime in the U.S. was drug related, and this number grew as high as 90 percent in the next decade. He created the Reorganization Plan of 1968 which merged the Bureau of Narcotics and the Bureau of Drug Abuse to form the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs within the Department of Justice. The belief during this time about drug use was sum marized by journalist Max Lerner in his celebrated work America as a Civilization: “As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply.“





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The next two Presidents, Gerald Ford and Jim my Carter, responded with programs that were essentially a continuation of their predecessors. Shortly after Ronald Reagan became President in 1981 he delivered a speech on the topic. Reagan announced, “We’re taking down the surrender flag that has flown over so many drug efforts; we’re running up a battle flag.” For his first five years in office, Reagan slowly strengthened drug enforcement by creating mandatory minimum sentencing and forfeiture of cash and real estate for drug offenses, policies far more detrimental to poor blacks than any other sector affected by the new laws. Then, driven by the 1986 cocaine overdose of black basketball star Len Bias, Reagan was able to pass the Anti-Drug Abuse Act through Congress. This legislation appropriated an additional $1.7 billion to fund the War on Drugs. More importantly, it established 29 new, mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses. In the entire history of the country up until that point, the legal system had only seen 55 minimum sentences in total. A major stipulation of the new sentencing rules included different mandatory minimums for powder and crack cocaine. At the time of the bill, there was public debate as to the difference in potency and effect of powder cocaine, generally used by whites, and crack cocaine, generally used by blacks, with many believing that “crack” was substantially more powerful and addictive. Crack and powder cocaine are closely related chemicals, crack being a smokable, freebase form of powdered cocaine hydrochloride which produces a shorter, more intense high while using less of the drug.





A person being detained and arrested for possession of a controlled substance, according to law, possession of cannabis is considered a misdemeanor.


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This method is more cost effective, and therefore more prevalent on the inner-city streets, while powder cocaine remains more popular in white suburbia. The Reagan administration began shoring public opinion against “crack,” encouraging DEA official Robert Putnam to play up the harmful effects of the drug. Stories of “crack whores” and “crack babies” became com monplace; by 1986,Time had declared “crack” the issue of the year. Riding the wave of public fervor, Reagan established much harsher sentencing for crack cocaine, handing down stiffer felony penalties for much smaller amounts of the drug. Reagan protégé and former Vice-President George H. W. Bush was next to occupy the oval office, and the drug policy under his watch held true to his political background. Bush maintained the hard line drawn by his predecessor and former boss, increasing narcotics regulation when the First National Drug Control Strategy was issued by the Office of National Drug Control in 1989. The next three presidents – Clinton, Bush and Obama – continued this trend, maintaining the War on Drugs as they inherited it upon taking office. During this time of passivity by the federal government, it was the states that initiated controversial legislation in the War on Drugs. Racial bias manifested itself in the states through such controversial policies as the “stop and frisk” police practices in New York city and the “three strikes” felony laws began in California in 1994. In August 2010, President Obama signed the Fair Sentencing Act into law that dramatically reduced the 100-to-1 sentencing disparity between powder and crack cocaine, which disproportionately affected minorities.[86]Some scholars have indicated that the phrase ‘War on Drugs’ is propaganda cloaking an extension of earlier military or paramilitary operations. Others have argued that large amounts of “drug war” foreign aid money, training, and equipment actually goes to fighting leftist insurgencies and is often provided to groups who themselves are involved in large-scale narco-trafficking, such as corrupt members of the Colombian military.




From 1963 to the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, marijuana usage became com mon among U.S. soldiers in non-combat situations. Some servicemen also used heroin. Many of the servicemen ended the heroin use after returning to the United States but came home addicted. In 1971, the U.S. military conducted a study of drug use among American servicemen and women. It found that daily usage rates for drugs on a worldwide basis were as low as two percent. However, in the spring of 1971, two congressmen released an alarming report alleging that 15% of the servicemen in Vietnam were addicted to heroin. Marijuana use was also com mon in Vietnam. Soldiers who used drugs had more disciplinary problems. The frequent drug use had become an issue for the com manders in Vietnam. From 1971 on, therefore, returning servicemen were required to take a mandatory heroin test. Servicemen who tested positive upon returning from Vietnam were not allowed to return home until they had passed the test with a negative result. The program also offered a treatment for heroin addicts. Elliot

Borin’s article in Wired, “The U.S. Military Needs its Speed” (February 10, 2003), reports: But the Defense Department, which distributed millions of amphetamine tablets to troops during World War II, Vietnam and the Gulf War, soldiers on, insisting that they are not only harmless but beneficial. In a news conference held in connection with Schmidt and Umbach’s Article 32 hearing, Dr. Pete Demitry, an Air Force physician and a pilot, claimed that the “Air Force has used (Dexedrine) safely for 60 years” with “no known speed-related mishaps.” The need for speed, Demitry added “is a lifeand-death issue for our military.”


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More than two million people were arrested for drug violations in the past year.




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On December 20, 1989, the United States invaded Panama as part of Operation Just Cause, which involved 25,000 American troops. Gen. Manuel Noriega, head of the government of Panama, had been giving military assistance to Contra groups in Nicaragua at the request of the U.S. which, in exchange, allowed him to continue his drug trafficking activities, which they had known about since the 1960s. When the Drug Enforcement Administration tried to indict Noriega in 1971, the CIA prevented them from doing so. The CIA, which was then directed by future president George H. W. Bush, provided Noriega with hundreds of thousands of dollars per year as payment for his work in Latin America. When CIA pilot Eugene Hasenfus was shot down over Nicaragua by the Sandinistas, documents aboard the plane revealed many of the CIA’s activities in Latin America, and the CIA’s connections with Noriega became a public relations “liability” for the U.S. government, which finally allowed the DEA to indict him for drug trafficking, after decades of allowing his drug operations to proceed unchecked. Operation Just Cause, whose purpose was to capture Noriega, led to the toppling of his regime; Noriega found temporary asylum in the Papal Nuncio, and surrendered to U.S. soldiers on January 3, 1990. He was sentenced by a court in Miami to 45 years in prison.

Costa Rica



FIGURE 7: OPER ATION JUST CAUSE Operation Just Cause was the invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989. It occurred during the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama by January 1st, 2000.




As part of its Plan Colombia program, the United States government currently provides hundreds of millions of dollars per year of military aid, training, and equipment to Colombia, to fight left-wing guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP), which has been accused of being involved in drug trafficking. Private U.S. corporations have signed contracts to carry out anti-drug activities as part of Plan Colombia. DynCorp, the largest private company involved, was among those contracted by the State Department, while others signed contracts with the Defense Department. Colombian military personnel have received extensive counterinsurgency training from U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, including the School of Americas (SOA). Author Grace








graduates have been implicated in human rights abuses than currently known SOA graduates from any other country. All of the com manders of the brigades highlighted in a 2001 Human Rights Watch report on Colombia were graduates of the SOA, including the III brigade in Valle del Cauca, where the 2001 Alto Naya Massacre occurred. US-trained officers have been accused of being directly or indirectly involved in many atrocities during the 1990s, including the Massacre of Trujillo and the 1997 Mapiripรกn Massacre. In 2000, the Clinton administration initially waived all but one of the human rights conditions attached to Plan Colombia, considering such aid as crucial to national security at the time. The efforts of U.S. and Colombian governments have been criticized for focusing on fighting leftist guerrillas in southern regions without applying enough pressure on right-wing paramilitaries and continuing drug smuggling operations in the north of the country. Human Rights Watch, congressional com mittees and other entities have







members of the Colombian military and the AUC, which the U.S. government has listed as a terrorist group, and that Colombian military personnel have com mitted human rights abuses which would make them ineligible for U.S. aid under current laws. CANNABIS: THE HIGHS AND LOWS OF MARIJUANA

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When marijuana is smoked, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream, which carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. It is absorbed more slowly when ingested in food or drink. However it is ingested, THC acts upon specific molecular targets on brain cells, called cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are ordinarily activated by chemicals similar to THC called endocannabinoids, such as anandamide. These are naturally occurring in the body and are part of a neural com munication network (the endocannabinoid system) that plays an important role in normal brain development and function. The highest density of cannabinoid receptors is found in parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thinking, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement. Marijuana over-activates the endocannabinoid system, causing the high and other effects that users experience. These include distorted perceptions, impaired coordination, difficulty with thinking and problem solving, and disrupted learning and memory. .

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Research clearly demonstrates that marijuana has the potential to cause problems in daily life or make a person’s existing problems worse. In fact, heavy marijuana users generally report lower life satisfaction, poorer mental and physical health, relationship problems, and less academic and career success compared to their peers who came from similar backgrounds. For example, marijuana use is associated with a higher likelihood of dropping out from school. Several studies also associate workers’ marijuana smoking with increased absences, tardiness, accidents, workers’ compensation claims, and job turnover. Research has shown that, in chronic users, marijuana’s adverse impact on learning and memory persists after the acute effects of the drug wear off; when marijuana use begins in adolescence, the effects may persist for many years. Research from different areas is converging on the fact that regular marijuana use by young people can have long-lasting negative impact on the structure and function of their brains. A recent study of marijuana users who began using in adolescence revealed a profound deficit in connections between brain areas responsible for learning and memory.


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Marijuana use can have a variety of adverse, short- and longterm effects, especially on cardiopulmonary and mental health. Marijuana raises heart rate by 20-100 percent shortly after smoking; this effect can last up to 3 hours. In one study, it was estimated that marijuana users have a 4.8-fold increase in the risk of heart attack in the first hour after smoking the drug. This may be due to increased heart rate as well as the effects of marijuana on heart rhythms, causing palpitations and arrhythmias. This risk may be greater in older individuals or in those with cardiac vulnerabilities. Because it seriously impairs judgment and motor coordination, marijuana also contributes to accidents while driving. A recent analysis of data from several studies found that marijuana use more than doubles a driver’s risk of being in an accident. Further, the combination of marijuana and alcohol is worse than either substance alone with respect to driving impairment. Marijuana smoke is an irritant to the lungs, and frequent marijuana smokers can have many of the same respiratory problems experienced by tobacco smokers, such as daily cough and phlegm production, more frequent acute chest illness, and a heightened risk of lung infections. One study found that people who smoke marijuana frequently but do not smoke tobacco have more health problems and miss more days of work than nonsmokers, mainly because of respiratory illnesses. A number of studies have shown an association between chronic marijuana use and mental illness. High doses of marijuana can produce a temporary psychotic reaction (involving hallucinations and paranoia) in some users, and using marijuana can worsen the course of illness in patients with schizophrenia. A series of large prospective studies also showed a link between marijuana use and later development of psychosis. This relationship was influenced by genetic variables as well as the amount of drug used and the age at which it was first taken—those who start young are at increased risk for later problems.





Here we can see the x-ray of a chronic cannabis smoker. Constant smoking has caused a tar-like substance to develop in the lungs.


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Associations have also been found between marijuana use and other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts among adolescents, and personality disturbances, including a lack of motivation to engage in typically rewarding activities. More research is still needed to confirm and better understand these linkages. Marijuana use during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of neuro-behavioral problems in babies. Because THC and other compounds in marijuana mimic the body’s own cannabinoid-like chemicals, marijuana use by pregnant mothers may alter the developing endocannabinoid system in the brain of the fetus. Consequences for t he child may include problems with attention, memory, and problem solving. Finally, marijuana use has been linked in a few recent studies to an increased risk of an aggressive type of testicular cancer in young men, although further research is needed to establish whether there is a direct causal connection.

FIGURE 8: VISIUAL INTERPRETATION While under the influence of marijuana, the brain goes under extreme changes, some that could become permanent if constant marijuana use continues. The mental state of the user becomes lethargic and can cause anxiety and paranoia. Short term memory is greatly effected as well for a short period of time. The ocular pressure is reduced causing the user to developed red eyes. Their reasoning is also effected which is dangerous if driving a vehicle or performing other tasks.




Although many have called for the legalization of marijuana to treat conditions including pain and nausea caused by HIV/AIDS, cancer, and other conditions, the scientific evidence to date is not sufficient for the marijuana plant to gain FDA approval, for two main reasons. First, there have not been enough clinical trials showing that marijuana’s benefits outweigh its health risks in patients with the symptoms it is meant to treat. The FDA requires carefully conducted studies in large numbers of patients (hundreds to thousands) to accurately assess the benefits and risks of a potential medication. Also, to be considered a legitimate medicine, a substance must have well-defined







sistent from one unit (such as a pill or injection) to the next. This consistency allows doctors to determine the dose and frequency. As the marijuana plant contains hundreds of chemical compounds that may have different effects and that vary from plant to plant, its use as a medicine is difficult to evaluate. However, THC-based drugs to treat pain and nausea are already FDA approved and prescribed, and scientists continue to investigate the medicinal properties of cannabinoids. Contrary to com mon belief, marijuana is addictive. Estimates from research suggest that about 9 percent of users become addicted to marijuana; this number increases among those who start young (to about 17 percent, or 1 in 6) and among daily users (to 25-50 percent). Thus, many of the nearly 7 percent of high-school seniors who (according to annual survey data) report smoking marijuana daily or almost daily are well on their way to addiction, if not already addicted (besides functioning at a sub-optimal level all of the time).


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Long-term marijuana users trying to quit report withdrawal symptoms including irritability, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, anxiety, and drug craving, all of which can make it difficult to remain abstinent. Behavioral interventions, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational incentives (i.e., providing vouchers for goods or services to patients who remain abstinent) have proven to be effective in treating marijuana addiction. Although no medications are currently available, recent discoveries about the workings of the endo-cannabinoid system offer promise for the development of medications to ease withdrawal, block the intoxicating effects of marijuana, and prevent relapse. The amount of THC in marijuana samples confiscated by police has been increasing steadily over the past few decades. In 2009, THC concentrations in marijuana averaged close to 10 percent, compared to around 4 percent in the 1980s. For a new user, this may mean exposure to higher concentrations of THC, with a greater chance of an adverse or unpredictable reaction. Increases in potency may account for the rise in emergency department visits involving marijuana use. For experienced users, it may mean a greater risk for addiction if they are exposing them-selves to high doses on a regular basis. However, the full range of consequences associated with marijuana’s higher potency is not well understood, nor is it known whether experienced marijuana users adjust for the increase in potency by using less.




Dec. 11, 2012 — On Monday, Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper signed an order legalizing recreational marijuana use for adults. Last week, Washington was the first state to OK adult recreational use of the drug. Several other states are considering similar laws. While much research has focused on the value of medical marijuana to help chronic pain and other problems, what about the health effects of purely recreational marijuana? WebMD turned to two experts, recently published studies, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to draw up a scorecard of possible major health effects. “Putting smoke in your lungs is not good for the lungs,” says Roland Lamarine, HSD, professor of public health at California State University, Chico. He reviewed published studies on the health effects of marijuana earlier this year for the Journal of Drug Education. Smoking marijuana produces a nearly threefold increase of inhaled tar compared with tobacco, according to some studies. Other research suggests that marijuana smokers, compared to cigarette smokers, inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer. “There are still questions that aren’t answered about lung damage,” Lamarine says. For cigarette smokers who also smoke marijuana, there may be an additive effect, he says. Combining the two appears to be a trend, he says. “Some of the [college] kids tell me they buy cigars and put in some marijuana, so there is both marijuana and tobacco,” Lamarine says. Those who keep marijuana use light do not appear to lose lung function, according to a 2012 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association.


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Long-term, heavy use of marijuana can lead to impaired thinking skills and memory problems, Lamarine says, citing published studies. The impairments can be especially hazardous when trying to do everyday activities such as driving. However, these impairments appear to be most significant 20 to 40 minutes after using marijuana, then decline after an hour or so, Armentano says. Individual reactions vary, of course. To be safe, he says, ‘’I think a three-hour window [between marijuana use and driving] is appropriate for [after] inhalation.” Lamarine says the effects may last longer than that. He says more research needs to be done for a definitive answer. “I’d say three hours [between marijuana use and driving] is probably pushing it.” However, he says, waiting three hours would be better than waiting less time, as he suspects many users now allow. In a recent study, Yale University researchers looked at the effects of both marijuana and alcohol on driving. Both impair driving-related skills. But they found the impairment effects of marijuana, compared to those of alcohol, vary more among people. That is thought to be due to differences in tolerance, smoking technique, and the potency of the marijuana. While studies are conflicting about whether marijuana use alone leads to more accidents, combining it with alcohol definitely raises crash risks, experts say. Numerous studies have linked marijuana use with schizophrenia. In this brain disorder, people may think they hear voices and that others are controlling their minds and thoughts. However, Lamarine suspects the relationship may be reversed. “What I suspect is, people who are going to develop full-blown schizophrenia must feel bad beforehand,” he says. They may be attracted to marijuana as a mood-altering drug to self-medicate.




If this link were cause and effect, Armentano says, the rates of schizophrenia would have climbed, as marijuana use has increased. Marijuana use can be linked with anxiety, Lamarine and Armentano agree. Several published studies, Lamarine says, have found a link between marijuana use and anxiety, but not necessarily fullblown anxiety disorders. Studies have also found a link between regular marijuana use and panic attacks. Some marijuana users do have panic attacks, especially if they are new to the drug, Armentano says

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FIGURE 9: NORMAL VS. ELEVATED ENDORPHENS. Comparing the endorphins levels in the brain, Cannabis releases more of these “happy feeling� chemicals which makes the user feel much more relaxed and happy, almost creating a euphoric high.


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Reports have stated that smoking Cannabis can lead to lung cancer and other health effects. While on the contrary, various studies claim that smoking cannabis in moderation can prevent cancers as well.




Although legalization activists and many marijuana users believe smoking








indicates that marijuana use can cause many different health






com monly


illicit drug in the United States. When smoked, it begins to effect users almost im mediately and can last for one to three hours. When it is eaten in food, such as baked in brownies and cookies, the effects take longer to begin, but usually last longer. The active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, acts on cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells and influences the activity of those cells. Some brain areas have many cannabinoid receptors, but other areas of the brain have few or none at all. Many cannabinoid receptors are found in the parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement. Although one study found that marijuana smokers were three times more likely to develop cancer of the head or neck than non-smokers, that study could not be confirmed by further analysis. Because marijuana smoke contains three times the amount of tar found in tobacco smoke and 50 percent more carcinogens, it would seem logical to deduce that there is an increased risk








researchers have not been able to definitively prove such a link because their studies have not been able to adjust for tobacco smoking and other factors that might also increase the risk. Studies linking marijuana smoking to lung cancer have also been limited by selection bias and small sample size. For example, the participants in those studies may have been too young to have developed lung cancer yet. Even though researchers have yet to “prove� a link between smoking pot and lung cancer, regular smokers may want to consider the risk.


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Like so much in the U.S., differences of opinion on marijuana use are, for now, easily reduced to red and blue on the map. And even within the legalization effort, the semantics are subject to debate. Is the appropriate term cannabis, marijuana or weed? Currently, 18 states and Washington, D.C., have approved legislation legalizing medical use of cannabis, and several others are considering doing so. Two states, Colorado and Washington, have also legalized recreational use. While medical use is at the forefront, there is a tandem focus on money to be made, at least from DeAngelo’s vantage point as president of ArcView Group, an investor network working within the medical cannabis industry. At ArcView Group’s recent quarterly forum, held in New York last Friday,





proposals to investors considering putting money into this growing industry. San Francisco-based ArcView and its coterie of cannabis entrepreneurs claim the industry is about to explode, with the potential to generate millions in profits. But DeAngelo concedes that requires changes to laws governing the production, transportation and use of marijuana, and, for that matter, in how people talk about it (he strictly uses the term cannabis rather than “pot,” “weed” or “marijuana,” which can be associated with stoner culture).

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Smoking cannabis for recreational purposes became popular during much of the 60s and 70s. The cannabis culture has seen an early rise in society during the late 70s thanks in part to famous comedy duo Cheech and Chong.


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ArcView forum, DeAngelo likewise described a scenario where the potential for business spurs legal change. By linking investors to entrepreneurs, cannabis can be tied to finance and the debate can focus more on economic development than morality. “I think one day, when you see the change in federal law that we all know is going to come, we will see a flood of investment happening into this sector, and I think that day will come soon,” DeAngelo said. In his opinion, the economic benefits will ensure that medical cannabis in particular will be legalized in the majority of states.

DeAngelo, a cannabis advocate, claims there are numerous societal benefits associated with legalization. “There will be other collateral benefits to our society which are going to be very valuable in improving public safety, by redirecting law enforcement resources to real crimes and real criminals,” “and by improving public health by introducing new cures for diseases like cancer, epilepsy and alternatives, natural and safe alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals.”

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Lethargy, anxiety, paranoia. Sense of alteration.

Causes red eyes.

Altetred reasoning.

FIGURE 10: EFFECTS ON THE BR AIN While under the influence of marijuana, the brain goes under extreme changes, some that could become permanent if constant marijuana use continues. The mental state of the user becomes lethargic and can cause anxiety and paranoia. Short term memory is greatly effected as well for a short period of time. The ocular pressure is reduced causing the user to developed red eyes. Their reasoning is also effected which is dangerous if driving a vehicle or performing other tasks.




The effect of cannabis legislation goes beyond usage and into manufacturing. Hemp has to be imported because it’s illegal to grow it within the United States without a permit from the Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA, which is extremely difficult to get. States such as Colorado and Oregon have legislation in place to grow hemp, but much like with marijuana, it is still illegal under federal law. While it is technically the same type of plant that produces marijuana, hemp has almost none of the psychoactive elements found in cannabis. Hemp could help improve the environment while providing a source of revenue for the agricultural industry and, according to DeAngelo, it could be an industrial raw material “for about 25,000 different things.” Luxton jokes around, saying he knows a vice president of a large company that has his son get cannabis, but he understands that the discourse needs to change even while he contends the old culture and stigma will never be completely erased. He also believes that medical cannabis can be an alternative to opioids prescribed for chronic pain. He relates a story about a father figure in his life, “The other end of the issue is the medical tide where opioids and continued use of pain medications are quickly becoming one of the leading causes of death. I have a personal friend, who was like a father to me growing up, he recently passed away after six years of chronic pain, he passed away in his sleep and it was very little doubt it was the medication, his body was depressed and his heart stopped. “It’s terrible, but it happens every day, and when I talk to people about it, I hear other stories,” Luxton said. “The reason this is not being used for medicine is, as it very well should be, just that, the stigma. The stigma is going to stick around as long as the old culture is around. I don’t think we’ll ever get rid of it. Cheech and Chong will always be hilarious, but we need to step into an era where cannabis can be sophisticated, where it can be fun and it is an adult endeavor but it is an endeavor you can choose.”


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On Tuesday November 6, 2012, Colorado and Washington became the first states to legalize marijuana for recreational use, but college students should refrain from stocking up on Funyuns, as university and NCAA officials say nothing about their anti-drug policies will change. As Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper, a Democrat, noted in a buzz kill statement following the vote: “Federal law still says marijuana is an illegal drug so don’t break out the Cheetos or gold fish too quickly.”Universities in particular have an incentive to prevent students from using marijuana on campus: They’re scared to death of losing federal dollars. As the Chronicle of Higher Education reports, universities are typically quicker to comply with federal statutes than state laws: “Universities are sometimes sandwiched between state and federal regulations,” said Bronson Hilliard, a spokesman for the University of Colorado at Boulder. Despite the new state measure, he pointed out, marijuana is still illegal under federal law. And since most colleges receive federal funds, they are required to abide by federal regulations that bar the illegal use of drugs and alcohol on their campuses.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% In Favor of


Against 10% 0% Amendment 64




Legalized Marijuana

What is the future of marijuana in California? Will it become legalized and packaged like cigarettes? And, if so will large corporations monopolize the profits? Will this put small growers out of business? What are the implications for youth, cancer patients, and organized crime? These and many more questions are addressed in Marijuana Legalization: What everyone needs to know written by Caulkins, Hawken, Kilmer, and Kleiman. Based on scientific research, these Rand economists and policy professors provide rational answers to muddy questions. While my interest focuses primarily on the future of cannabis, the authors answer many basic questions, such as: what are the active ingredients in marijuana, has marijuana been getting more potent, how is marijuana produced and distributed, what are the risks of using marijuana, how is intoxication tested, how long does it stay in your system, and many more basic questions. Better yet, the book is organized by questions so the reader can select certain sections of interest and read these separately. Furthermore, the authors attempt to be honest and objective. They let you know when answers are unknown and topics need more research. This is a refreshing approach in such a hotly debated and polarized area. If marijuana becomes legalized for recreational use in California, how will it be produced and distributed? Because marijuana is a hardy plant and easy to grow, the authors project that there will be a lot of it. Professional farmers will mechanize production and put small growers out of business. It will be cheap to buy, cheaper than clothing but more expensive than tomatoes and lettuce. About like tea. At what age can a minor buy a joint? What limits will be placed on driving under the influence and how will it be tested and enforced? Furthermore, rules will be made about where it can be used, like inside restaurants or on the street corner, and how it will be taxed. These are not simple issues and there are no guaranteed correct answers.


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Some places to start looking for answers are the Netherlands, Colorado, and Washington. The authors maintain that the Netherlands is not a fair comparison. While an adult can walk into a coffee shop in the Netherlands and buy cannabis, growing and distributing is not legal. In other words, it is legal in the front door but not the back. This has led to serious problems with organized crime and violence. Colorado and Washington are more appropriate places for policy makers to look. What is happening in these two states is absolutely revolutionary and no one is sure how this will play out. Most likely, over-the-counter sales would be for adults. There would be laws limiting intoxication while driving just like alcohol though this will be hard to assess as there is no quick and effective way to measure marijuana intoxication. Like smoking tobacco, states and municipalities will regulate whether it can be smoked in restaurants or on the street corner. Laws are more likely to be local than federal and this is thorny because marijuana is illegal at the federal level. At any time, the feds can choose to enforce marijuana laws even in states where it is legal. And on federal lands, like national parks, it is clearly illegal. So for example, don’t smoke pot in Olympic National Park even though it might be legal in the state of Washington. Furthermore, national laws are unlikely to change because the US signed an international treaty and changing the law would violate the treaty with other countries. This and many other fascinating issues are discussed in Marijuana Legalization. My own interest is in the implications for teens. The authors, economists, argue that because marijuana will be cheaper, more teens will be purchasing it. They say that consumption will increase, potency will increase, and marketing will increase. Given that marijuana is so readily available on high school campuses, it is hard to imagine that use will increase. But, perhaps more older teens will buy it and give it to younger siblings like beer.




Potency may increase simply for competitive purposes to have a product that is more appealing and most certainly advertising will increase. This will most likely be aggressively targeted toward teens, like jeans. These factors combined – increased potency, aggressive marketing, and availability to younger users could cause a horrible scenario. A plethora of high potency treats, like brownies, would be widely available. Imagine a thirteen year old, unsupervised, getting extremely high for the first time. This could lead to panic attacks, psychotic symptoms, and increased emergency room visits. Most certainly, there will be an age limit for buying pot. But, what age? 18? 21? And who makes this decision and what evidence is it based on? How will be enforced? Another interesting dilem ma is the regulation of driving while under the influence. Smoking pot impairs driving performance. Driving stoned is probably less dangerous than driving drunk but even small amounts of alcohol combined with pot is more hazardous than either alone. Will there be a legal amount of intoxication allowed or a zero tolerance standard? Even NORML includes “no driving” among its guidelines for responsible use of marijuana. And testing for marijuana use is complicated. It lingers in the body many days after use. Someone can test positive even when they haven’t smoked recently. When people think of medical marijuana, the usual image is of someone smoking a joint, or perhaps eating a brownie. But the truth is much more complicated and interesting. Cannabis medicines can be consumed in all sorts of ways. Yes, smoking a joint can be good medicine. Having a toke is a quick and easy method for those who need instant relief, and the rapid onset allows a patient to more easily titrate their dose.


+ 75.




Most people don’t think of marijuana medicine as something you rub onto your skin, but one of the most popular types of marijuana medicine is topical creams and ointments. Sold under brand names like Arthrighteous Cream, Hugz Oil and Green Lion Salve, these cannabis creams and ointments are very effective medicines for patients suffering from ailments like arthritis, eczema and psoriasis, as well as muscle spasms or chronic and post-surgical pain. Our dispensary regularly receives very positive feedback from patients who use these topical marijuana products for such ailments. Although they are made with potent marijuana extracts, these topical medicines are not psychoactive at all. The active ingredients have been diluted and dissolved into skin cream or beeswax. They can be used safely on anyone of any age with no psychoactivity or side-effects. In a world where marijuana medicines were fully legalized and integrated into society, I would expect that these topical marijuana products would be more widely used than any other. Because of their safety, ease of use and wide range of applications, cannabis creams would be in every medicine cabinet across Canada. I look forward to a future where such cheap and effective marijuana medicines are widely available and sold without a prescription through pharmacies and corner stores nationwide.

FIGURE 11: MARIJUANA JOINT According to health experts, the safest way to consume marijuana is by inhaling t as a vapor instead as smoke. Studies have shown that smoking it as a smoke may lead to lung disease and lung cancer. Alternatively, eating marijuana is also a safer option. A few short-term risks include: increase heart rate, impair coordination and judgment, memory impairment, mild anxiety, and an increase risk of a stroke or a heart attack.


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Will Congress enact any of these measures this year? Arguably the answer is no. But it is important to remember that Congress relented its stranglehold on alcohol prohibition after fewer than a dozen states rejected the policy. It is likely that this same lesson will also be applicable to cannabis – assuming that marijuana law reformers continue to hold Congress’ feet to the fire. November’s Election Day results provide marijuana law reformers with a template of what voters will accept – and what they will not. Washington state voters approved the limited legalization, but without the option for home cultivation. In Colorado, however, voters accepted the notion of allowing home cultivation, but only within specified personal use limits. By contrast, Oregon voters rejected a statewide measure that proposed a more laissez-faire approach to cannabis cultivation and consumption. Ultimately, as reformers look toward the future, they must remember that there is no one-size-fits-all model of legalization. But the recent polling and victories at the ballot box show that, arguably for the first time in modern history, a majority of Americans are ready to amend the status quo. It is now the job of the cannabis reform movement to better identify the specific policy changes that voters desire and to turn voters’ sentiment into political reality.





Ultimately, the only hope for cannabis reform lyes on The U.S President. With pressure form both the Congress and House of Representatives, it seems like an unrealized reality.


+ 79.




Abandominiums 6, 12


Abe 8, 28

Cakes 45

Abe’s Cabe 15

Candy 66

Abolic 16

Cannabis 5, 12, 25, 33, 65

Ac/dc 52

Cartel 33

Acapulco Gold 56

Charlie 28

Acapulco Red 38

Chiba 22

Ace 17

Chieva 26

Acid 5

Citrol 19,37

African 10 22 30

Cokehead Crack 28, 36

All Star 9

Crystal Meth 18, 25


All-American Drug 18 D

Angel Dust 33

Dank 55 B

Deuce 36

Baked 9

Dimebag 22

Barb 17

Doctor 33

Bash 22

Doobie 44

Benz 20, 23

Dope 14, 26

Bikers Coffee Black tar



Dose 19, 28 Dub 28, 30

Bong 17, 20, 33

Dxm 17, 28

Burnout 5

Dymethzine 11, 28

Buzz 11

Dynamite 55, 77

+ 81.



Economic 11

Half Track 5, 25

Ecstasy 2

Hanhich 22, 36

Education 8

Hard candy 2

Eight-ball 3

Hash 33

Endo 8

Hawk 28, 38

Ephedrone 6

Heeled 8

Esra 42

Highball 17

Environmental 47

Homicide 8

Europe 5

Hubba 6, 18

Everclear 11, 25

Hunter 22, 44

Exiticity 30

Hype 3, 27



Factory 4

Iboga 10, 17

Fall 18, 33

Ice 6

Fastin 2

Icing 22

Fiend 44, 48

Idiot pills 1

Fives Fleece 5

Ill 28, 44

Forget Pill 8

Illing 8

Fuel 17, 22

Inbetweens 8

Furra 33, 44

Indo 4 Instaga 5


Instant Zen 5

Gaffle 52

Isda 6, 17

Gaggler 8

Issues 3

Gangster 33 Ganja 2 Goldstar 17, 19 Gutter Junkie 8 Gyve 28, 33





Jack 8, 11

Lace 2

Jack-up 9

Lactone 26

Jackpot 33, 38

Lady 8, 18, 25, 44

Jackson 6

Lady Caine 2

Jag 11

Lady Snow 2, 28


Lakbay Diva 36


Jamaican gold


Lamborghini 8

Jane 23, 44

Laughing Gas 47

Jay 5, 18

Laughing Grass 66

Joy plant 4

Laughing Weed

Juggler 3, 17

Lay back 8

Juice joint 23, 28

Lay-out 28

Junkie 22, 44

Lid 35, 62 Liquid Ecstasy 8


Lsd 17, 27

Kabak 9

Ludes 28, 39

Kabayo 55 Kabuki 8


Kaff 44

Marijuana 13

Kaksonjae 33

Mac 11

Kalakit kali 9, 14, 35

Machinery 5

Kangaroo 2

Mainline 17

Kaps 9

Maui Wauie 4

Key 18

Madman 5

Kicker 11

Magic 2

Kiff 9

Magic Dust 25, 37

Kissing 11, 17, 33

Mexican Green 44, 47

Kools 2

Morpho 9

Krystal 22, 36, 47

Mustard 28, 36

Kush 55, 58,


+ 83.



Nail 8

Quads 8, 18

Nailed 28

Quarter 22, 54

Nanoo 33

Quarter Bag 33, 44

Nazimeth 8

Quarter Moon 5, 18, 36

Nebbies 44

Quarter piece 6

Nem mies 28

Quartz 11, 12

New Acid 18

Quas 5

New Addition 17

Quicksilver 5, 19

New Jack 37, 39

Quill 8

New One 55

Quinolone 28

Nexus 4, 8 Nigra 11, 17


Nurse 28, 39

Raspberry 25,52 Rave 63


Raw 55

Oc 44

Raw fusion 47

Ocs 22

Razed 28

Octane 6

Readyrock 3, 6

Ogoy 6, 22

Roses 22, 35

On a Mission 28

Rough Stuff 18,19

On a Trip

Row-shay 17


One Way 47

Rox 8, 28 Roxies 38


Ruffles 8

Panama Gold 11

Rugs 54

Pariba 17, 27

Runners 6

Pcp 3

Rush 18, 22

Pimp 7

Rush Snapper 3, 7

Pop 3, 19, 28 Puffer 3, 11





Sack 24

Ultimate 47

Sacrament 55

Uncle 40

Sacred mushroom 45

Uncle milty 44

Salad 38

Unkie 39

Salt 66

Unotque 30

Sam 56

Up 22, 25

Sativa 33

Uppers 22

Scoop 42

Uppies 17

Scratch 35

Uptown 55

Shake 25

Utopiates 44

Sheets 36

Uzi 5

Skid 55 Smoke 22


Sniff 47

Vega 30, 44

Snow coke 53

Venus 36

Stat 28

Vicodin 18, 44

Syrup 29

Vidrio 11 Vike 17


Vikings 27, 22

Tabs 24

Viper 8 40

Tac 55

Vitamin A 22

Tachas 2, 11

Vitamin K 17, 22

Thanie 36

Vodka Acid 33

Thc 44, 48, 55 The Beast 33 Twenty-five 28 Twinkie 33 Twist 44 Twistum 17


+ 85.



Wac 13

Yao 22

Wack 22

Yay 47

Wacky Weed 65

Yayo 44

Wake and Bake 54

Yayoo 8 , 11

Wasted 22

Yeh 44

Water 10, 25

Yen Pop

Wave 12,28

Yen Shee 28

Wedding Bells 3, 14

Yen Sleep 18, 29

Wedge 18,22

Yeo 48

Weed 17,22

Yeola 47

Weed Tea 33

Yerba mala 33

Wet 74

Yesca 5, 36

Whack 22

Yeyo 11, 28

Wheat 6, 22

Yola 44


Wheels 22 White dust 36


Woolies 45

Zambi 11

Wrecking crew 47

Zero 25 Zombie 33


Zombie Weed 45

X-ing 58

Zonked 55

X-pills 66

Zooie 41

Xtc 12, 33, 24

Zoom 30 Zoomer 12 Zoquete 22 Zulu 42




If there is one thing on this planet that we can never agree on or seem to argue against is Cannabis. Cannabis for many years has been drivin by controversy. Marijuana has been used as an agent for achieving euphoria since ancient times; it was described in a Chinese medical reference traditionally considered to date from 2737 B.C. Its use spread from China to India and then to North Africa and reached Europe at least as early as 500 A.D. Today, there are plenty of supporters on both sides of the marijuana decriminalization issue in the US. On one side, some people want to decriminalize the drug. Proponents of medical use of mari-juana would benefit from this move, as the drug would be more broadly available and merchandisable to the public.

Jose villicana type 4 cannabis  

Type 4 book about Cannabis