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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Bachelor of Arts in Communication Research

Marianne Johanna Ferrer de Vera

“Mga Bagong B(iy)ayani ng Bayan” The Reception of the Portrayals of TFC’s adobo NATION by Selected Filipino Migrants in the U.S.

Thesis Adviser Professor Lourdes Portus, PhD College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines, Diliman

Date of Submission April 2014

Permission is given for the following people to have access to the thesis: Available to the general public Available only after consultation with author/thesis adviser Available only to those bound by confidentiality agreement Student’s signature: Signature of thesis adviser:

Yes Yes Yes


UNIVERSITY PERMISSION

I hereby grant the University of the Philippines non-exclusive worldwide, royalty-free license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis in whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions of the UP IPR policy and any contractual obligations, as well as more specific permission marking on the Title Page.

Specifically, I grant the following rights to the University: a) to upload a copy of the work in these database of the college/school/institute/deparment and in any other databases available

b) to publish the work in the college/school/institute/department journal, both in print and electronic or digital format and online; and

c) to give open access to above-mentioned work, thus allowing “fair use� of the work in accordance with the provisions of the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Repulic Act No. 8293), especially for teaching scholarly and research purposes.

_____________________________ Marianne Johanna Ferrer de Vera


MGA BAGONG B(IYA)YANI NG BAYAN THE RECEPTION OF THE PORTRAYALS OF TFC’S ADOBO NATION BY SELECTED FILIPINO MIGRANTS IN THE U.S.

MARIANNE JOHANNA FERRER DE VERA

Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines, Diliman In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

April 2014


“MGA BAGONG B(IY)AYANI NG BAYAN,” THE RECEPTION OF THE PORTRAYALS OF TFC’S ADOBO NATION BY SELECTED FILIPINO MIGRANTS IN THE U.S.

by MARIANNE JOHANNA FERRER DE VERA

has been accepted for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH by

Professor Lourdes M. Portus, Ph.D. adviser

Professor Josefina C. Santos Critic

Professor Randy Jay C. Solis Reader

and approved for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by

Professor Rolando B. Tolentino, Ph.D. Dean, College of Mass Communication


BIOGRAPHICAL DATA PERSONAL DATA Name

Marianne Johanna Ferrer de Vera

Permanent address

113 Linoc, Binmaley, Pangasinan

Email address

mfdvera1@up.edu.ph

EDUCATION Secondary level

Dr. Francisco Q. Duque Medical Foundation Special Science High School

Primary level

Mary the Queen Learning Center

WORK EXPERIENCE

PR Associate, ABS-CBN Global Ltd. 2 years and 2 months


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the following people, without whom this study would not have been possible: Dr. Lourdes Portus for her kindness in accepting my request for her to become my thesis adviser five years ago, despite her many responsibilities at the college and now the entire University. Her patience guided me to properly track my research and saw me through the end. To Professor Randy Jay Solis for accepting my request for him to become my thesis reader despite the fact that I was never his student. To Professor Josefina Santos, my panel member for inspiring me to take my research further and develop it into a full thesis. Misses Nerissa Fernandez, Cecile Ilagan and Menchi Orlina, my mentors at work, who challenged me to go beyond what I could be, to let go of the ocean and swim back in order to pursue my dream. Ms. Viring Rigo for helping me fulfill my administrative requirements.

Pam Lluz Castillo for helping me connect with migrant Filipinos. Nheslaine Eval for helping me make this thesis more compliant and reader-friendly.


DEDICATION

To the global Filipinos, especially the unsung herooes who continue to struggle everyday in their chosen second homes in order make a living for themselves and their families and most importantly, to herald their Filipinoness in a foreign land.

To my family Consul General Robert Ocsan Ferrer Jr., Arnold and Francis Johann de Vera; my two fathers in heaven Robert Ferrer Sr. and Federico de Vera Jr. and sister Suzanne Ferrer; my two mothers on earth Alicia Ferrer and Marietta de Vera; and the rest of my relatives by blood and by virtue of the law but have become more than my real kin.

To the people behind adobo NATION and to my officemates who continue to be the purveyors for overseas Filipinos’ need to be informed, entertained and to connect with their families and communities.

and to all my friends who helped me and encouraged me to see this thesis through the end. You know who you are.


ABSTRACT These days, the sight of overseas Filipinos, especially migrants in every region of the world, is already commonplace.

Almost nine million Filipinos or 10% of the population (currently numbered at

approximately 10,455,788) are located outside the country, with the figures expected to go up in the coming years (data as of 2011 culled from http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics and Tharoor, 2010, p. 23). Like Filipinos in the Philippines, this steadily growing population of Filipinos overseas face the same problems – physical, psychological, and spiritual. The difference lies in the physical distance between these Filipino migrants in their second homes and their families in the Philippines who can possibly provide physical and emotional support during times of need. Given this reality, this study titled “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan” studied one of ABS-CBN The Filipino Channels’s (TFC) exclusive programs, “adobo NATION,” and its portrayals of the biggest population of Filipinos outside the Philippines (http://www.poea.gov.ph/html/statistics.html). Specifically, this thesis explored how “adobo NATION,” as a product of transnationalized television (broadcast networks that purposively traverses geographical territories, utilizing satellite technology to deliver information and entertainment content

[Thomas, 2006, p. 244]), portrayed overseas Filipinos. This study focused on TFC

given the program’s high viewership and production values (TFC Internet Protocol; Tevision [IPTV] Hits as of 2012), and the author’s connections as an employee of ABS-CBN Global (mother company of ABS-CBN TFC). Using multi-methods (content analysis, focus and email interviews), this research revealed what representations of Filipino migrants “adobo NATION” has presented; what trends these portrayals have formed; how close they were to real-life situations; and how Filipinos overseas perceived these representations within the program. Results of the study showed that some Filipino migrants are seen and portrayed as economic successes and sources of financial support or “bayani” and “biyaya (blessings) ng bayan.” However, majority of the informants say that “adobo NATION’s” dominant portrayals are of overseas Filipinos as achievers who bring pride to the entire Filipino community, consistent with the thesis’ over-all concept of Filipinos as blessings.


I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The Philippines is the third biggest source of transnational migrants and transients whose number has reached an estimated 10,455,788 Filipinos, according to CFO Stock Estimates

(Table

1

2,200,000

according

http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics/Stock%202009.pdf) to

the

National

Statistics

Office

(NSO)

(Table

and 2

http://www.census.gov.ph/) or nearly 10% of the total 92,337,852 million Filipino population (http://www.census.gov.ph/), around the world (Damazo, 2004, see Table 1 from http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics/Stock%202009.pdf and Tharoor, 2010, p. 23). Even as almost 10% of the population is already documented to be outside the country, around 2,700 continue to leave every day as immigrants, temporary contract workers, or as tourists. Epifanio San Juan, author of “Trajectories of the Filipino Diaspora and Filipinos in the U.S.A. and Around the World” and an overseas Filipino himself, believes that there are more migrant Filipinos than what the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA) statistics state. He said, there are about ten million, including perhaps non-documented Filipino workers dubbed as TNT or “tago ng tago (undocumented Filipinos in the United States of America [U.S.A.])” (San Juan, 1998). Among the destination countries, POEA data reveal that nearly half of the entire number of overseas Filipinos (OFs) is found in North America. Table 1 below shows that while Filipinos are spread across the six continents, 4,326,059 or almost 50% of the total number of those who are outside the Philippines are in North America. The 50% (United States Bureau of Census) found in the U.S. have become the second home of overseas


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Flipino workers or migrant Filipinos looking for greener pastures (Alunan, 1995 and Portes & de Wind, 2007, p. 40). Table 1. Population of OFs by Country

Source : http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics/Stock%202009.pdf : 2012

NSO statistics (see Table 2) also show that the percentage of Filipinos in North and South America is also amongst the highest in terms of the number of Filipinos outside the Philippines. Seven point six percent (7.6%) of the 100% of Filipinos all over the world are in North and South Africa, or fifth of the highest population of Filipinos in parts of the world. According to NSO, the most number of Filipinos are in Saudi Arabia 22.6%).


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Table 2. Population of OFs by Country per National Statistic Office (NSO)

Source : http://www.nso.gov.ph This `brawn and brain drain’ phenomenon or transfer of skilled workers to the U.S. and even the modern cities of Europe, has in fact become an international issue (Bello, Lynch & Makil as cited in Yengoyan & Makil, 2004, p. 429). While the acceptance of OFs is viewed as welcome or open policy on the U.S government’s part, it is also viewed as their absorption of other nations’ manpower resources (Bello, Lynch & Makil as cited in Yengoyan & Makil, 2004, p. 429). 1. TYPES OF OVERSEAS FILIPINOS According to de Wind and Portes (2007) in the book “Rethinking Migration,” “transnational communities are groups based in two or more countries which engage in recurrent, enduring and significant cross-border activities which may be economic, political, social or cultural” (Portes, Guarnizo, & Landolt, 1999 as cited in de Wind & Portes, 2007).


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There are two types of OFs, themselves transnational people by definition. The first type of Filipinos is permanent migrants who leave the Philippines for good and often adopt the citizenship of their destination country Second, are temporary workers who leave the Philippines for another country to work for a specific period of time and return to their home country after their contracts end (Alunan, 1995). Meanwhile, there are two types of immigration in the U.S. – voluntary and involuntary.

Voluntary migrants mostly make up “the political, economic and

intellectual elite who are free to move about as they please, many of whom maintain their legal citizenship but have residence or domiciles in various parts of the world” (Pido, 1986). Other voluntary migrants include officials or employees of international and regional organizations such as the United Nations and multi-national corporations. Involuntary migrants on the other hand include African-American workers who were brought to American shores by merchants who sold them like goods as well as refugees. In both cases, these migrants traveled to the U.S. to seek better economic conditions. This study focused on migrant Filipinos whose length of stay in the U.S. and their detachment from the Philippine culture and people are quite long. Jayme’s review of studies made on the migration of Filipinos reveals the following reasons for migration: high rate of unemployment and employment; low salary and wage scales and lack of incentives for professional advancement in the country of origin and manpower shortages; higher salaries and standard of living


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and more career opportunities in the country of destination (Jayme, 1979, p. 8).

With the distance from their homeland, OFs face two possible scenarios – adaptation to their second homes leading to detachment from their motherland and culture, and the continued search for their culture in a foreign land. In terms of their programming needs, specifically news and entertainment, migrant Filipinos either resort to foreign sources of content or seek homegrown shows to satisfy their need to be updated and attached to home. 2. TRANSNATIONAL MEDIA As waves of migration happened, Philippine mass media or possible sources of homegrown content found their way into the international arena as well. The concept of transnational television in Asia began with the Li family-owned Star TV which was under its Hutchison Whampoa conglomerate (Thomas, 2006, p. 45). Similarly in the Philippines, the first network to go transnational was the family-owned ABS-CBN Global Ltd.

In April 1994, the Lopezes launched their first 24-hour satellite service, The

Filipino Channel (TFC), with the broadcast of its first transnational content, TV Patrol in the West Coast, U.S.A. (ABS-CBN Global FAQs, 2013). In 1995, GMA 7 followed suit with the launch of its international arm, GMA Worldwide, in December 1995, initially to purchase and then distribute international content locally (Banal-Formoso, 2001, p. 163). In February 1996, GMA Worldwide began selling and broadcasting its content to


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Filipinos in United States, Europe, Middle East, Asia Pacific, and other countries via GMA Pinoy TV, first in partnership with Agila satellite and then with Mabuhay satellite (Banal-Formoso, 2001). In 2011, TV5 introduced its international arm Pilipinas Global Network Limited and its trasnational network Global Pinoy Network. In total, the three largest networks in the Philippines now address the Filipino programming needs of transnational Filipinos.

Indeed, the rate by which

transnationalization is happening in Asia continues to be the fastest (Thomas, 2006, p. 45). But could the fast growth of the transnationalized media equate to the increase in content that is reflective of the identity of OFs through these media networks’ portrayal? 3. MEDIA and MIGRATION A quick review of the state of Philippine media, its audience, platforms and content reveals that with the increase of Filipinos migrating and working outside the Philippines, specifically in the U.S. in the past few years (San Juan, 1998) came the rapid entry of transnational media from Asia (Thomas, 2006, p. 45). With this surge came a rise in studies on immigrants (Sanchez, 1999) and a few portrayals of OFs in traditional media or television, radio, and publication, plus new media such as the web and mobile phone. TFC was the first Filipino network to go international in 1994, one of the reasons for this study’s focus on the network. In 2005, TFC started airing news-magazine programs specifically for Filipinos in certain continents: “adobo NATION,” “Balitang America,” “Citizen Pinoy,” “Balitang Middle East,” “Balitang Europe,” “TFC Connect,” and


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“Balitang Canada” (ABS-CBN Global FAQs, 2012).

“adobo NATION” is one of

TFC’s exclusive productions that presents light news and information on the latest events in the Philippines. It also highlights the Filipino culture and trends through event coverages, polling, commentary, features, and tips, hosted by JC Gonzales (pinch-hitting for Gonzales at certain episodes is Julius Santos), Suzette ‘Tet’ Hernandez, and Michi Valeriano. “adobo NATION” is amongst the highest rated and most-awarded programs on TFC (IPTV hits as of January 2013), another reason for doing this study. The program tries to maintain a high standard. Proof of this is its having clinched a regional Emmy Awards last year, the first Filipino program to be awarded such an honor. (retrieved from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com) 4. FILIPINO ACHIEVERS In 2011, four Filipinas made it to the finals of prestigious beauty pageants: Shamcey Supsup (Miss Universe 2nd runner-up), Gwendolyn Ruais (Miss World 1st runner-up), Athena Imperial (Miss Earth 2012), and Dianne Necio (Miss International semi-finalist). Janine Tugonon finished runner up in the recently concluded Miss Universe pageant, while Megan Young brought the first Miss World crown for the Philippines. In the sporting arena, Nonito Donaire defeated Mexican boxer Jorge Arce to earn a junior featherweight belt, and beat eight-division world boxing champion and fellow Filipino fighter Manny Pacquiao for the ESPN Boxer of the Year plum. Meanwhile, Filipino


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artists apl.de.ap of Black Eyed Peas, Arnel Pineda, Vanessa Hudgens, Maria Aragon, Jessica Sanchez, Charice Pempengco, Lea Salonga, and more continue to make waves in Hollywood. With more and more Filipinos making it to the headlines of international media, Pinoys around the world have found further reasons not only to celebrate but either to regain or strengthen their national pride. Filipinos, specifically those in the U.S., have come to embrace these presentations of their compatriots as achievers particularly in Filipino transnationalized media. This study aimed to identify if Filipinos as achievers is becoming a dominant portrayal. B. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY The author found only a few studies done on OFs and how transnationalized media impacts on their lives considering the migration of Filipinos dating as far back as the 20 th century (Zamora, 2006 and Root, 1997). There are even a lot less studies, if not, none on the portrayals of OFs (Root, 1997, p. 199) as projected by media, specifically transnationalized media. Even with the scarcity of publications on the portrayals of OFs, one of the perceptions of overseas workers that prevailed in recent years was that of them as a source of a nation’s economic strength. This portrayal of Filipinos across media became dominant


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since former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo dubbed them as modern day heroes or “bagong bayani ng bayan” during her term (Sixth State of the Nation Address and POEA Bagong Bayani Awards). This tag arose after the surge of overseas workers especially in the second wave of migration in the middle of the 1980s and the positive effect of their dollar remittances to the economy. This study hypothesized the dominant portrayal to be the same in transnationalized media – as economic heroes. However, OFs have come to be known not only as new heroes but expected to be the sources of economic blessings or “biyaya.” Lately, a new kind of portrayal rose as this study found out, with the growing number of Filipino achievers in the arena of sports, film, television, music, and other areas. With this, the paper proposed a review of the portrayal of OFs especially by media for several reasons. The number of Filipinos outside the country is increasing every year (San Juan, 1998) and if this continuum does not see any end in the future, then the number of Filipinos whose welfare the Philippine government and its people should be on the lookout for, remains a significant number. Moreover, several transnationalized media have launched their broadcast services in the five major continents – United States, Middle East, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. With the existence of Filipino-owned networks outside the country providing information and entertainment to Filipinos across the world, there is a need to validate portrayals being projected of OFs. Events such as the death of some Hong Kong tourists in the 2010 Manila hostage crisis, and the prevalent abduction of foreign nationals in Zamboanga del Sur taint our country’s image without


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the benefit of objectivity. Media, even with their limited effects (Griffin : 2003), should still be careful in presenting Filipinos as any wrong depiction could mean long-term effects. The need of OFs, the reach of transnationalized media as well as the malleable image of our nation, calls for a review of the portrayals projected by “adobo NATION” specifically and by transnationalized media in general. In TFC’s exclusive programs, portrayals of OFs range from Filipinos as modern day heroes who contribute to the nation’s economy and culture through their dollar remittances and achievements, respectively; industrious workers who sacrifice for their families, to milking cows of relatives in the Philippines; survivors of crimes of race, suppression and passion; unfaithful husbands or wives at the extreme; or even ungrateful Filipinos who refuse to look back at their cultural roots. The questions that this thesis tried to answer are: What are the portrayals of Filipinos overseas? Do some distant Filipinos really enjoy the tag as modern day heroes? Are some survivors of such “crimes such as racism, prejudicism, discrimination, and structural constraints…” and tormented by the need for “cultural integrity” (Pido, 1986, p. 122-123) still wish to be called heroes? What are the Filipino migrants’ reception of these portrayals and how do these portrayals affect them? This study identified the portrayals of Filipino migrants in the U.S. as projected by transnationalized media networks like TFC, through real-life depictions which news and


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current affairs programs like the widely viewed (IPTV hits as of January 2013) “adobo NATION” delivers. This study also sought to find out if these portrayals either a.) reflect real-life identities or b.) form a recurring pattern: and c.) how they are received by migrant Filipinos themselves, and d.) what are these migrants’ perception of the effects of these portrayals with “adobo NATION” as a case in point. This researcher believes that there is no cause of concern culturally and socially if Filipino migrants welcome the representations. However, if majority of the respondents find offense or are saddened by these, then media’s role is to show the truth while presenting redeeming turnarounds in the storyline that can help improve other races’ perception of Filipinos as a people in general. C. RESEARCH PROBLEM How do transnationalized media, specifically ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION,” portray Filipino migrants in the U.S.? How do these migrants receive these portrayals and how do these affect them? D. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. To identify, describe, and analyze the Season 13 of ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION” through its genre and content;


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2. To describe and assess types, trends or patterns of portrayals projected of Filipinos in the program “adobo NATION;” 3. To find out how selected overseas Filipino workers receive these portrayals in adobo NATION; and, 4. To identify the effects of these portrayals in adobo NATION based on the perception of Filipino migrants, particularly on how their “kababayans” back home and fellow citizens perceive them. E. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, self-esteem ranks high (Maslow, 1943). It is relevant to a person’s identity since an individual’s self-esteem is at times determined by how people around him perceive his public self or identity, especially by people who value what others think of them. OFs, like every other human being, have projected representations of themselves whether out of their own creation or by other people or entities. But some OFs, unlike everyone else especially in the Philippines, do not live normal lives with their families and loved ones around them to act as their support system at times when they are beset with problems, a tainted reputation for instance. This study gives interested academicians a glimpse of the actual representations made by transnationalized media, specifically in “adobo NATION,” vis-a-vis the viewers’ or


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migrant Filipinos’ reception of these and their perception of these portrayals’ effects. Given these, this study contributes to the discourse of representations of migrant Filipinos and implicates how transnationalized media look at them. Moreover, with the surge of OFs starting in the second wave (Pido, 1986, p. 121), came the entry of Filipino networks in the international arena starting with TFC in 1994 (ABS-CBN Global Sales Kit, 2013), GMA Pinoy TV in 1988 (Banal-Formoso, 2001), and TV5 in 2011. It is but logical to study the content these broadcast networks feed to OFs, especially those directly portraying or affecting them. This study can provide background data for further representations, more in depth, across genres and genders. F. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study entitled “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan,” presented a content analysis of the Season 13 of TFC’s exclusive production, “adobo NATION.” Interest in it is hinged on the fact that it is one amongst the three programs produced by the transnationalized network specifically for Filipinos in the U.S. It also maintains a high standard of production, winning the 2011 regional Emmy Awards and 2012 Emmy Awards for Best Current/Community/Public Affairs (abs-cbnnews.com). One entire season of a progam in the U.S. is composed of 13 episodes. While “adobo NATION” Season 13 aired 13 episodes, two of these were replays.


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The episodes were also studied vis-a-vis the reception of 12 Filipino-Americans who were selected from a list of TFC subscribers who expressed interest to watch a TFC program taped in the Philippines. Eight of the informants were interviewed face-to-face while five were interviewed via email. Instead of a focus group discussion, a one-on-one interview was conducted considering the constraints in the varying schedules of the respondents.


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II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This review of related literature started with a trip down history on how television as a technology began and how it has developed in terms of delivery - via satellite - and in content - amidst different cultures, physical barriers, and changes in government systems. This section then studies how the Philippines’ own broadcasting industries have managed their way into the international broadcasting arena and in doing so, have created specific content for OFs. In the creation of specific content, the study now assumed its role in the analysis of portrayals of OFs. A. WAVES OF MIGRATION 1. First Wave of Migration The first wave of Filipino migration started in the early 20th century when farmers took advantage of the fact that there was a lack of manual laborers in the U.S. (Pido, 1986, p. 121) and migrated to Hawaii to work as sugarcane plantation workers (Zamora, 2006). While the U.S. Immigration Law of 1882 limited non-white immigrants from seeking employment, the fact that not too many white Americans were willing to perform menial labor which Filipinos were willing to take on, opened doors for the first wave of migrant Pinoys. The transfer was relatively easy as the Philippines was then a colony of the U.S. (Pido, 1986). However, the migration took a nose dive when the Philippines declared its independence in 1935.


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2. Second Wave of Migration The migration of Filipinos resumed when the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was enacted (Pido, 1986). The United States Immigration Act of 1965 presented migration-friendly provisions that, in summary, allowed other nationalities to migrate to the U.S. on the basis of their skills and affinity to American citizens (Yengoyan & Makil, 2004). This second wave, considered as the real “diaspora” (San Juan, 1998) or massive migration of Filipinos given the numbers (Pido, 1986, p. 121), occured even while the Philippines was enjoying economic progress. On top of the U.S. policy, the Department of Labor made overseas work even more enticing when it launched an overseas employment program in 1974 that fielded Filipinos to temporary overseas work (Overseas Employment Statistical Bulletin as cited in Jayme 1979). The Filipino migrants in this study, although not part of the waves of migration, are still part of the continuing diaspora of Filipinos around the world, specifically in the U.S., because of economic, personal, and cultural reasons. B. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 1. History of television “Starting in the nineteenth century, with the advent of the telegraph and then the telephone, communication technology has been in the forefront to help modernize


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societies and connect people to their societies� (Anokwa, Lin & Salwen, 2003). Following the invention of television and adaptation of the technology in the Philippines in 1953, Filipinos have since seen the progression of television as a technology but not necessarily as content. One classic example is how Procter and Gamble, maker of laundry soap Tide and bath soap Lux, commissioned local television stations to produce genres aptly called soap operas to accommodate airtime for their products (http://www.geocities.com/pinoytv/earlydays.htm). Since 1953, Philippine television has achieved milestones.

One of these is the

beaming of Filipino programming outside the country to areas where there are Pinoys. Aside from this initial foray into the international broadcast arena, Philippine networks, specifically first transnationalized network TFC, has created programs tailor-fit for the programming needs of OFs. This study aimed to look at one of these programs, “adobo NATION.� 2. Commercial beginning of television and resulting portrayals The history of soap operas is one example that television had commercial beginnings especially in the Philippines, and the creation of roles and portrayals is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided given the premeditated reason for the creation of content. Some of these representations include men as manifesting more brawns than brains; females as the weaker sex; and homosexuals as cross-dressers. This study intended to find out if,


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similar to the local television, portrayals, trends, or stereotypes are also made of OFs and how informants, specifically Filipino migrants, responded to these. C. MEDIA CONTENT 1. One-way flow of content Before the transference of Filipino and other ethnic content from the local sources to international carriage, foreign transnational networks dominated worldwide media broadcast. According to Anokwa, Lin, and Salwen (2003), “In the 1960s and the 1970s many studies reported a one-way flow of media, particularly television programs and news, from a few first world countries to the rest of the world. For example, Herbert Schiller (Anokwa, Lin & Salwen, 2003), a leading critical scholar, showed that 65% of all world communications originated in the United States. Further to this, Nordenstren and Varis, discussed in a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-funded international research how American television programs strongly influenced other nations, and noted how four major news agencies (AP, UPI, Agence France Presse, and Reuters) dominated the flow of content around the world (Anokwa, Lin & Salwen, 2003). With multinational companies including transnational media dictating the content of television in the past, viewers absorbed media content and accepted representations


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conveyed to them.

“Average media audiences are seen as lacking ready access to

alternative meaning systems that would enable them to reject the definitions offered by the media in favor of oppositional definitions” (Anokwa, Lin, & Salwen, 2003). In the 80s, this broadcast trend took a turn when RPN started airing “Apple, Pie, Patis atbp.,” a program that featured Filipinos in America and how they coped with life overseas by bringing with them their Filipino penchant for food, among other things. Since then, a number of customized programs have been created for OFs. 2. Reversal of flow of content In the early 1990s, the Philippines experienced a reversal of this flow of content, wider in scope and content. In 1994, the first transnationalized media was made available outside the Philippines via early player TFC (ABS-CBN Global FAQs, 2012). In 1996, GMA Pinoy TV followed suit (Banal-Formoso, 2001). Two years ago, TV5 also tried its hand in bringing content outside the Philippines. With the three major players offering content outside the country, OFs are able to access more of Filipino programming via local as well as transnational content. But is there a possibility that the representations of Filipinos are now different or are more faithful given that their content is more targeted toward a specific audience?


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3. Filipino Media Content In 1969, ABS-CBN aired the first live coverage of the Apollo 11 moon landing (Kapitan : 2003). Despite this breakthrough, clamor for alternative content continued. Filipino audiences have also been craving for more homegrown shows especially those that presented reality, such as news and current affairs. Years after, the Philippine television content has grown by proportions. But the question remains – has this growth improved the quality of its content, specifically, more faithful portrayals? D.

SPECIALIZED CONTENT

1. Content of Transnationalized Networks With the steadily growing number of OFs, it is no wonder that media continuously employ OFs as topics or main characters in their content, specifically in news. In 2010 alone,

the

CFO

noted

that

10,455,788

Filipinos

(http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics/Stock%202009.pdf) or nearly 10% of the total 92,337,852 million Filipino population (http://www.census.gov.ph/) are outside the Philippines. Meantime, there are now three transnationalized networks to address these growing number of OFs’ need. 2. History of The Filipino Channel TFC, the first Filipino network to broadcast internationally, was first launched in 1992 via its tape services where programs from its local channel TV 2 were shown to


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select American networks under a block programming. In 1994, TFC set up its satellite service beginning in the U.S.A. under ABS-CBN International Inc., while in 2007, the network first introduced its Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) in Japan and Canada under ABS-CBN Japan Inc. and TFC Canada ULC. In 2011, TFC started its mobile service in the Middle East (M.E.) in partnership of ABS-CBN Middle East FZ, LLC and Du Mobile. In the following year, TFC brought in another platform, its online service TFC.tv, which is available across the world. In 2013, TFC put up TFC Load-n-Watch. Currently, TFC has cable, satellite, IPTV, mobile, and web services in the U.S.A.; cable, IPTV, and online service in Canada and Japan; cable, satellite, mobile, and online service in the M.E.; satellite, IPTV, and online service in Europe and Australia; cable and mobile service in Hong Kong, Singapore, and cable services in other parts of Asia. In the years that passed, TFC developed content that were tailor-made for OFs. TFC premiered “Balitang America,” its first exclusive program aired in the United States. Through the program, TFC’s production team delivered news relevant to first generation Filipino-Americans. Hosted by Gel-Santos Relos, “Balitang America” also provided features on the Filipino’s homegrown culture in a foreign land. After a few years, TFC partnered with the Law Offices of Gurfinkel to mount “Citizen Pinoy” – a show dedicated to the concerns of Filipinos whether applying for citizenship, petitioning relatives in the Philippines, and/or needing answers related to other migration concerns.


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To address a growing clamor for news for and about OFs in the M.E., TFC launched “Balitang Middle East” in 2003 with Henry Omaga Diaz and Jing Castañeda at the helm. Years later, TFC also produced the first magazine talk show for Filipinos in the region – “Kwentong Disyerto” then hosted by Cheryl Cosim and Daniel Razon. As a result of market studies, TFC also launched “Kabayan Tambayan” in 2012 to cater to the Filipinos’ need for respite via irreverent comedy. True to the times, the show features YouTube discoveries – the Kanto Boys. From the heels of “Balitang America” and “Balitang Middle East,” the team in Europe also launched “Balitang Europe” and tapped Tony Velasquez and Niña Corpuz to host the show. Apart from news in the foreign land, “Balitang Europe” also rounded up reports from the ABS-CBN News Bureau. Just recently in 2012, TFC established and launched its Canada news bureau and “Balitang Canada” to address the same kind of clamour for news for OFs in the U.S.A., Middle East, and Europe. One of these exclusive programs is “adobo NATION.” Produced largely in the U.S., the show’s team conducts a brainstorming right after each airdate to discuss the next episode’s over-all theme and line up (sequence guide). Once final, the team of writers prepares the drafts of the scripts and runs them through the Executive Producer for review. Once approved, the assigned segment producers draw the schedule and coordinate the shoot of the materials. The team then records the spiels of the hosts at the TFC studios in Redwood City, California. Some of the materials are


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recorded in the Philippines and are uploaded via TFC’s online system or aspera. At mastering, the Executive Producer instructs the editor on how to bring the segments together based on the sequence guide. At this stage, the Executive Producer decides on the final sequence and at times, even removes certain segments in consideration of time frame and the timeliness of the stories (ABS-CBN Global Sales Kit, 2013). Does “adobo NATION,” given that it goes through a process that sifts unedited material to become the final, produced material, represent OFs as faithfully as possible? E. PORTRAYALS OF OFs 1. Lack of studies on portrayals of overseas Filipinos A survey of existing literature reveals that only a few publications have been created to dissect the portrayals of OFs, specifically Filipino-Americans (Root, 1997, p. 99) and as projected by media, particularly on Philippine television (ABS-CBN TFC) in North America. Root observes this case despite the fact that “Filipino Americans are one of the largest and the oldest Asian Pacific American ethnic groups in the U.S. (Root, 1997 : 198). In Pido’s “Pilipinos in America,” he mentioned a few writers (Lasker in 1931, Catapusan in 1940, Buaken in 1948, and Bulusan in 1946) who discussed the images of life in the U.S. as projected by Americans in the Philippines but not exactly the portrayals of Filipinos in the U.S. According to Pido (1986) “the officially projected image of the U.S. coupled with the rosy picture presented by labor recruiters, prevailed upon a people who were desperately looking for a way out of generations of economic and social


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bondage.” This despite the fact that a lot of episodes of news, current affairs, drama, comedy, magazine, talk, movies, and even variety programs, among other media content, have delved on Filipinos either working or living outside the Philippines since the introduction of transnationalized Philippine media in 1995. 2. Other Portrayals Sometimes they are also portrayed as blue collar workers like construction workers in the Middle East; health workers in Europe; entertainers in Japan; domestic workers in Hong Kong; teachers and white collar workers in North America and some parts of Asia and Australia. The question is, do some distant Filipinos really enjoy the tag as modern day heroes? Are some survivors of such “crimes such as racism, prejudicism, discrimination and structural constraints…” and tormented by the need for “cultural integrity” (Pido, 1986)? Are most of them blue-collar rather than white collar workers? These are the questions that this thesis tried to answer by identifying the portrayals that arose from transnationalized content, specifically from “adobo NATION,” the Filipino migrants’ reception of these, and their perception of the effects of these portrayals.


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F. GLOBAL MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS 1. Filipinos as modern day heroes A quick review of global content as well, reveal recurring roles: Filipinos portrayed as modern day heroes bestowing economic benefits through remittance, or earning pride for our country with good deeds or talent; industrious workers sacrificing for their families; OFs as milking cows; ungrateful Filipinos who do not look back at their cultural roots; survivors of racism or abuse; and as unfaithful wives or husbands and others. In reality, Filipinos’ roles have gone beyond workers performing beyond their call of duty and those excelling in their own fields. Filipino entertainers are not only limited to the Philippines or Japan, but are also making waves in Broadway and Hollywood. Salonga performed her Lawrence Olivier award-winning role as “Kim” in “Miss Saigon,” and then later her Tony-winning performance as “Eponine” in “Les Miserables.” Pempengco landed a role in the hit U.S. television series “Glee,” made it to America’s Billboard Top 100, and won Nickelodeon’s Most Favorite Asian Act. For almost three consecutive years, the Philippine bets in the Miss Universe pageant have scored ascending runners up positions, as well as Miss International and Miss World titles. They have also transcended their role as health workers in Europe to become winning nurses like Lara Manaquil who was hailed as one of the Best Nurse Leaders of the United States.


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2. Filipinos as international achievers In recent years, we have also seen Pinoys become not just cooks but Head Chefs, just like at the Beijing Olympics in China (http://www.senate.gov.ph), and Christina Comerford who is an Executive Chef at the seat of government of the most powerful nation in the world – the White House (Manila Bulletin, 2010). Admirably too, our fellowmen have become heroes in their own craft, like CNN awardee Efren Peñaflorida, who are a breath of fresh air over celebrated cases of executions of convicted criminals (for example domestic helpers Flor Contemplacion and Delia Magat executed for allegedly killing their foreign wards). This study’s objective therefore was to identify and examine the representations of OFs by transnational media like TFC’s “adobo NATION,” including portrayals such as the above; and be on the look out for trends and possible effects on U.S. Filipino migrants. G. TRANSNATIONAL MEDIA 1. TFC’s “adobo NATION” Transnational networks broadcast programs aired locally to areas where their service reaches viewers through its signal. While most of the programs are shows aired locally, some are equipped to create programs specifically for OFs. For example, TFC broadcasts in the United States, Middle East, Europe, Canada, and Asia-Pacific via TFC. Through


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TFC, Filipino viewers in the said countries also get to watch the same episodes aired on ABS-CBN TV 2 as well as participate at some of the shows through email or the program’s social media accounts. Here, representation becomes more essential as people featured in the programs are not merely figments of imagination but are actual people enduring the hardships and sometimes reaping the rewards of working and living overseas. These products of media, can prescribe their own interpretation of the real story when it undergoes production. Vladimir Jankelevitch (1974) noted in Curran and Morley (2006) how “people who are in exile can imagine they are living double lives, carrying around with them `inner voices...the voices of the past and distant cities,' whilst at the same time submitting to the banality of the `here and now' provides the stimulus for nostalgias dreams and fantasies about there and then.� While Filipinos in the U.S. are not exactly in exile, the representation of OFs in these exclusive productions could also either commit a faithful representation of how Filipinos are or the complete opposite. This study sought to find out if there is still risk of framing these OFs from the beginning or in the choice of stories; until the documentation of their stories, and up to the actual production of the materials. If there is framing, specifically on the portrayals, the sad part will lie in their mere acceptance of these as true.


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2. Consumption of OFs of Media In her study entitled “Filipino-Americans : Their viewing habits of Filipino Cable Television and Filipino films on video,” Geraldine Cruz shared that while Filipinos use Filipino television available in the U.S. to get the latest news from the Philippines and to entertain themselves with content that they can relate with, “participants used Philippine cable television and Filipino films on video as tools to search for their identity and to maintain their cultural and psychological connection to the Philippines.” Through a qualitative approach via ethnography or “a study of people by describing their culture and understanding their way of life from their own perspective,” Cruz observed and interviewed five families from the West Coast, East Coast, and Central in two to three weeks.

In these interviews, dela Cruz noted that “Philippine television can offer

examples of communication behaviors, roles and issues that help the audience better understand their own communication patterns, perceptions and beliefs” (Magil, 1994 in Cruz, 2000). In the end, dela Cruz suggested that transnational network, then, just TFC, and now including GMA Pinoy and TV5, to be more careful and prudent in serving objective content for the Filipinos. In the same country or the U.S.A, specifically in one state, Hamid Naficy studied Iranian Television in Los Angeles in his paper, “The Making of Exile Cultures.” Here, Naficy introduces the concept of exile.

He defines it as “a process of becoming,

involving separation from home, a period of liminality and in-betweenness that can be


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temporary or permanent, and finally incorporation into the dominant host country.” According to his hypothesis, “programs produced by exiles and in the institutions that produce and distribute them, can be read the tensions of postcolonial discourse and exilic transformation.”

Studying Iranian TV content from 1980 to 1991 when much of

immigration of Iranian people happened, Naficy (1993) “meant to investigate how exiles process, through the popular culture and television programs they produce and consume, their own experiences of separation, liminality and incorporation as well as their resistance to incorporation and their efforts at differentiation and dissimilation.” In connection with dela Cruz and Naficy’s studies, this thesis served to identify the representations in existing transnationalized Philippine media; the patterns or trends that may be arising from these representations if constant; and how these are perceived by OFs, specifically Filipinos in the U.S. As Naficy (1993) said in his study, media has the ability to “enhance and consolidate sub-cultural identities based on location, ethnicity, race, class, religion, politics, language, and nationality.” H. OVERSEAS FILIPINOS In a related study, “Filipino Diaspora in London: Negotiating Culture and Identity,” thesis author Miriam Zamora (2006) surveyed 94 OFs to learn the cultural identity of Filipinos in London and how they negotiated this as they deal with the citizens in the city. During her study in London, Zamora found out that the Filipino identity is still unidentified.


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They remain to straddle between two cultures - those values and rituals they practiced all their life in their homeland, and the new values and rituals they learned from citizens in U.K. There is dichotomy within the identity. The Filipino migrant practices one or the other based on the prevailing norm seen among other Filipinos or which one they deem fit in a given situation (Zamora, 2006). Given the results of Zamora’s study, the Filipinos’ identity seems volatile when faced with external factors such as work or study environment, culture and people from other races. In the same region, Robins and Aksoy (2001) studied how another minority race, specifically Turkish-Cypriot, negotiated their own identities. According to the qualitative study, the 15-30 year-old women did not pursue the establishment of their native identities but instead coped with life in London by adjusting and adapting to the society and culture.

In the end, the sample Turkish-Cypriot women proved different from

Zamora’s Filipinos in terms primarily of their nature of stay – the former were forced out of their country and the latter chose to move to London. Understandably so, the Turkish migrants felt more detached than longing for their native identity while Filipinos in Zamora’s study are more arbitrary. In another related study, “Pilipinos in America” (Pido, 1986) sought to understand why Filipinos, this time, in the United States, found it difficult to acculturate themselves into American culture. Pido defined acculturation here as the lack of ability to establish a


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firm and positive racial identity in a different culture. According to the study, this lack of integration can be attributed to history – Filipinos being under foreign rule and cultural influence for a long time and second generation U.S. migrants limited by the labor sector sphere established by Filipino migrants (Pido, 1986). In relation to these studies, the author attempted to identify the representations made by transnational media, specifically TFC, and how do OFs feel about these representations. Similar to Aksoy (2011) and Pido (1986), “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan” aims to study how these portrayals weave into these Filipinos’ acculturation in the U.S.A, according to their perception. I.

LOCAL MEDIA PORTRAYALS

Looking at the scenario at the local scene, there are several portrayals of Filipinos, particularly of females. In the study, “Images of Filipinas in Media,” Pennes Azarcondela Cruz reviewed representations in various media (television and radio programs, and advertisements) and noted that “while one lauds the trend of ‘Filipinizing’ the networks, there is ambivalence at the local sitcoms churned out (mainly) by gay scriptwriters who continue to portray women as giggly dumb blondes (‘Palibhasa Lalaki’); predatory vamps and mistresses (‘Eh Kasi Babae’); shrieking domestic or confused assortment of all types (‘Working Girls‘).” Dela Cruz found this alarming since media do not only provide “entertainment and information but it also reinforces certain values, lifestyles, and stereotypes” (dela Cruz,


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1988, p. 3). She said that a single frame or scene can greatly improve further the good reputation, on one hand, and put down further the already negative reputation of people on the otherhand. For women in particular, dela Cruz (1988) found several roles from her survey of existing materials, specifically on Philippine television then in 1988: a. motherhood is one of the most fulfilling roles of a woman can have; b. woman can be strong but it detracts from their perceived finer qualities; c. many women are dumb and gullible; d. women tend to be quarrelsome and nosey, petty often irrational highly materialistic, e. women should defer to their husbands at all times, and stay with him through thick and thin; f. women are objects of pursuit and must look good to please men. Beauty entitles a woman to some respect; g. men are always the main breadwinners who must support the family at all cost; h. women depend on men for everything, including protection and fulfillment; i. women are given to superstitious beliefs; j. women are promiscuous and sexually desirable; k. intelligent, assertive, well-to-do women dominate men and are therefore a threat for them; l. women are intensely jealous and possessive about men and rein constant and fierce competition with other women in this area. (dela Cruz, 1988, p. 90) While the stereotypes apply to “women being weak, submissive, family-oriented and emotional,” men are also branded as “strong and brawny, aggressive, aloof and ruthless,” character traits that do not breed emotions that mostly improve relationships (dela Cruz, 1988, p. 86).


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In a study called “Comparative Study of the Images of the Filipino Woman as Portrayed in Local Television Drama Anthologies and the Filipina’s Perception of Her Image in Philippine Society,” author Sandra Bacud inquired into the perception of the Pinay of their images in the Philippines through a quantitative survey that also included an attitude test of women through incidental sampling technique. At the same time she tried to discover: 1.) the images of Pinays in the drama programs in 1992; 2.) how close or far they are from reality; and 3.) if they were products of Philippine television’s writers and producers through a qualitative study or Discourse Analysis of 20 episodes of “Lovingly Yours Helen” and “Coney Reyes on Camera” according to “content and image demographic characteristics, character representation and the roles.” Results showed that 86.6% of the respondents still considered being a housewife to be the major role of Filipinas. A close second or 84.5% considered being a mother as the second most dominant role of females. Meanwhile, in terms of the Discourse Analysis, 10 episodes of the drama show in study or “Lovingly Yours Helen” and “Coney Reyes on Camera” delved into relationships first, family at second, and friendship at third. Out of the total 20 episodes in both series, 63 female roles were identified and 35 of them were of lead roles. In terms of demographics, females were portrayed as young (15-34), single (40 from the urban area (57), and belonging to the upper economic class (37). Again the role of mother ranked high or first in the Discourse Analysis but the role of housekeeper ranked low or


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5. However, these mothers were shown to have jobs on top of being mothers and were of the “persevering type” (Bacud, 1992). Similarly, this study, ”Bagong “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan” suggested more studies on representations of overseas women but as well as of men, specifically those living outside the Philippines, who may take on a different role in a foreign land given the dual jobs they possibly hold particularly in the U.S. However, this thesis will take a different route and study representations made in news and current affairs programs given their nature of reporting or documenting life as it happens. J. REPRESENTATIONS IN FILM In a doctorate study by Dr. Arminda Vallejo Santiago, head of the U.P. College of Mass Communication Graduate Studies, entitled “Imaging the Filipino Women,” Santiago conducted a critical discourse analysis of films created by Filipino women directors because of the growing presence of media and their ability to produce “repetitive texts and images on and about women that form discourse on women and construct them negatively or positively.” Santiago studied the representations, imaging and the discursive formations employed by these diretors in the creation of six of their films under the melodrama genre and which they themselves chose from their body of work from 1990 to 2000. The study revealed that while, a new discursive information is being presented about the Filipino women, there are still constructs of women that are reinforced such as the concept and importance of mother and mothering, the importance of the


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integration of family, and preserving the notion of masculinity in men (Santiago, 2006).

While the movies represent women in a new light, specifically as “physically and emotionally strong and self-reliant, complete, pragmatic and the women not treated as sexual objects, or as the objects of man’s desires and fantasies,” the portrayals may have been subjected to interpretation in the midst of production, a concept this study has also tried to look into the representation of OFs by transnationalized media like TFC. K. IDENTITY Before this study presented the representations projected by transnationalized Filipino networks of OFs, it primarily sought to define identity and the real identity of Filipinos. Identity is “who a person is,” necessary for his “recognition as being a certain person or thing” (Essential English Dictionary, 2007). Taken in the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of deficiency needs, esteem ranked second to the highest in terms of importance. Selfesteem is comprised by confidence, achievement, and respect of others and by others. According to Maslow, the needs in the higher level are met once those in the lower levels have been fulfilled (Motivation and Personality, 1997). Identity, as validated by images projected of him, is then an important part of a person’s (OFs as specific to this study) life, other than his physiological, safety, love/belonging, and self-actualization needs. Any wrong representation may taint an OF’s lifestyle or view of reality in the country where he is in as well as his relatives and friends’ view of him. In her book, “Filipino-


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Americans: Transformation and Identity,” Root defined identity as a “definition and interpretation of the self” (Baumeister, 1986, p. 4). Meanwhile, according to Root, ethnic identity is the “cognitive product of identification…defined as labeling oneself in its ethnic terms” (Garcia, 1982, p. 298). Specifically, Filipino-American ethnic identity is assumed to be the product of our historical and cultural backgrounds and the process of negotiating and constructing a life in the U.S. She added: Ethnic identity is important because it affects the maintenance and expression of traditional culture, helps individuals enhance their selfconcept and self-esteem, and enables individuals to have a sense of belonging to an ethnic group” (Root, 1997, p. 96).

In Emily Noelle Sanchez’s study, “The Quest for Filipino Identity,” where she employed the “method of instances and the cultural studies perspective,” she studied the “threads in social, cultural and Filipino to understand the process of identity formation.” In the analysis, Sanchez discovered that “diversity is the root of Filipino identity” through the jokes shared by the participants. Edwin Boado Almirol (1991) in “Ethnic Identity and Social Negotiation: A Study of a Filipino Community in California” supports this. He said "mainstream America does not necessarily result in cultural marginality but instead to cultural versatility.” Sadly, he observed that the representation of a people’s self, specifically Filipinos, is in part a product of how other people view or perceive that group of people’s identity. In addition


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he said that “because the Filipinos feel that a Filipino identity is stigmatized and rejected, they ‘under-communicated’ this identity.” Root offered more historical perspective to this imagery: Filipinos now bear colonial mentality after being under Spanish reign for over 300 years and American regime for half a century. “As a result, they perceive themselves as inferior to their colonizers, the Anglo-Americans and Spaniards… all people of color are inferior” (Pido, Chapter 3 Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity; Rimonte, Chapter 4 of Root; Schirmer, 1987, pp 38-43; Strobel, Chapter 5 of Root). Over-all, dela Cruz hoped that the Congress will pass a bill that will encourage Philippine networks to develop programs that will improve the portrayals of Filipinos, specifically women in local television. As indicated in dela Cruz’s study, men and women were portrayed in stereotypical roles back in 1988. This study, “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan” aimed to find out if the scenario has either changed through time or has just migrated situations from the local media to transnational media, particularly on the role of women. L. RECEPTION Citing similar reception studies, Belinda Espiritu studied how young women viewed Korean television dramas in light of the capitalist ideology conveyed by the U.S. entertainment industries in countries including Korea and the Philippines.

Espiritu


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conducted focus group discussions amongst young Filipino women in various colleges and key informants. In terms of content, Espiritu conducted a textual analysis of selected Korean dramas. While some informants continued to believe in capitalist values, most defied American cultural imperialism and even patriarchal ideology. Aside from cultural imperialism and patriarchal society, the study also revealed readings on poverty, class, and gender inequalities. M. SYNTHESIS The above literature showed technology’s role as a precursor for the content of transnationalized network, currently sourced mostly from programs produced specifically for local release and then distributed worldwide.

With the development of new

technology, specifically satellite television which enabled local content to be beamed across the world (ABS-CBN Global FAQs, 2012 and Banal-Formoso, 2001), TV programs have become more specific to the markets that networks serve. Technological development then complemented content creation. Programs tailor-made for overseas Filipinos such as content in study, “adobo NATION” have developed through the years. While there were studies that reviewed stereotypes in local television specifically of females (dela Cruz, 1988 and Bacud, 1992), only a few studied the specific images that transnationalized media portrayals. Only one study was found to have delved on the media consumption of Filipinos in America (Magill, 1994 in dela Cruz, 2000, p. 107) yet not the actual representations that are portrayed of them. Another, “Negotiating Identity:


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Filipinos in London” studied how Filipinos dealt with citizens of the host country while arming themselves with unique Filipino culture (Zamora, 2006) but not necessarily as a result of media representations, a key variable in this study. Given this scenario, this study intended to find out what are the portrayals made by transnationalized media (specifically TFC – through its program “adobo NATION”) of OFs and the trends that have possibly risen with the launch of international programming. Moreover, aside from looking into content, this study found out the viewers or the OFs’ reception of these portrayals and their effect on them. This addresses the research gaps that need to be further explored in future studies. These gaps include a deeper look into the portrayals of OFs, both male and female, either migrants or transient workers, and across age and economic groups.


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III. FRAMEWORK A. Theoretical / Conceptual Framework In this study, two theories were employed: Semantic Theory, to examine the actual portrayals made by the program, and Rokeach’s Message Reception Theory: Beliefs, Attitudes and Values, to guide the study in understanding the perception of OFs on their portrayals in TFC’s “adobo NATION.” 1. MESSAGE RECEPTION THEORY: Beliefs, Attitudes and Values Rokeach’s Message Reception Theory focuses on the audience’s “Beliefs, Attitudes and Values.” According to Rokeach, “each person has a highly organized system of beliefs, attitudes, and values, which guides behavior.

Beliefs are the hundreds of

thousands of statements that we make about self and the world.” Some beliefs can be overarching and some can be particular and can be arranged according to the importance of an individual. There are two types within the belief system: “center or core and the peripheral” (Ball & Rokeach as cited in Littlejohn, 2002). The beliefs located at the center of the system are permanent and have a huge effect on the life of a person.

Beliefs within the

peripheral are less significant and are malleable. Rokeach also introduced the concept of attitudes which are “a group of beliefs that are organized around a focal object and predispose a person to behave in a particular way


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toward the object.” According to him, both beliefs and attitudes should always come hand-in-hand together whether as attitude toward an object or attitude toward a situation. He said that the way a person behaves toward a particular situation is a result of a combination of the former and the latter. Meantime, behavior is described as “a complex function of a variety of sets of attitudes, and the system consists of many beliefs ranging in their centrality” (Ball & Rokeach as cited in Littlejohn, 2002, p. 325). The concepts of “beliefs, attitudes and values,” as under Reception Theory are one of the consistency theories and the most complete at that. According to Littlejohn (2002), “consistency is a primary organizing principle in cognitive processing, and attitude change can result from the information that disrupts this balance.” These information can come in the form of various media (such as the traditional and non-traditional), and in different guises (for example news or stories, portrayals or characterizations), and other data projected in these media. Rokeach also introduced the concept of values which “are specific types of beliefs that are central in the system and act as life guides.” There are two types of values: the instrumental which “are guidelines for living on which we base our daily behavior,” and the terminal or “the ultimate aims of life toward which we work.” Lastly and the most important to this study is the concept of self-concept or one’s beliefs about oneself.

Self-concept is integral since “self-regard is a primary motivation

supported by all other elements of the cognitive system. Thus, while beliefs, attitudes,


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and values comprise the components of your system, self-concept provides its guiding goal or purpose.” Going back to the overarching principle of Rokeach’s theory or the Consistency, Beliefs, Attitudes and Values which seeks to explain the lack of consistency especially in how we perceive ourselves with the situations beset us with increased imbalance or selfdissatisfaction. It is after all, “the maintenance of self-regard (which) is the over-all aim of the psychological system” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 129 -130). 2. SEMANTIC THEORY Philosopher and Logician Charles Saunders Pierce, founder of modern Semiotics, created the first modern theory of signs in the 19th century. His theory introduced the concept of semiosis which he said is “the relationship among a sign, an object and a meaning.” In semiosis, Pierce outlined the parts, “the sign which represents the object or referent in the mind of an interpreter.”

In the meantime, he referred to the

“representation of the object by a sign as the interpretant.”

He said that “meaning

depends on the image or thought of the person in relation to the sign and the object being signified” (Hall, 1997). Charles Morris expanded the theory further by essaying the three stages: 1. Perception – the person becomes aware of the signs. 2. Manipulation – the person interprets the sign and decides how to respond to it.


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3. Consummation – by an actual response. According to Morris, the perception stage is actually the “time of detachment;” the manipulation stage a “time of manipulation;” and the consummation stage leaves readers “a feeling of dependence as we come to rely on the sign as a way of structuring our response” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 60). The detachment, manipulation, and consummation are part of a “system theory” whereby “a system influences and is influenced by other systems.”

The perception stage is labeled under the detachment stage since “signs

designate – they point, show, or refer to some object or condition or are in the designative mode of signification.” Meanwhile, during the manipulation stage, there is dominance since “the sign assumes some authority.” Lastly, in the consummation stage, “there is often a feeling of dependence as we come to rely on the sign as a way of structuring our response” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 60). Table 3. Stages of Action in Relation to Dimensions of Signifying and Value DIMENSIONS OF DIMENSIONS OF STAGES OF ACTION SIGNIFYING VALUE Perceptual Designative Detachment Manipulatory Prescriptive Dominance Consummatory Appraisive Dependence Signifaction and Significance by Charles Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964) Particular to the dependence of systems, Morris said that “very few acts are individual.” He introduced the concept of “group acts” or social acts” where acts “go through the same stages as individual ones but in a group, you can divide the labor.”


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Here, some members may be doing the perception, others the manipulation, and the rest for consummation. Members of a group may express their choice of certain acts. According to Morris, this “preference – expressed in terms of detachment, dominance, or dependencerepresents the person’s values” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 61). Morris said there are five value clusters: 1. Social restraint 2. Self-control 3. Enjoyment of practice in action 4. Withdrawal and self-sufficiency 5. Receptivity 6. Sympathetic concern 7. Self-indulgence Another author, Susanne Langer, makes her own distinction between signs and symbols in her book “Philosophy in a New Key.” Littlejohn (2002), citing Langer said signs are “stimulus that signals the presence of something else. A sign corresponds closely to the actual signified object.” Symbol on the other hand, “are not proxy of their objects but are the vehicles for the conception of objects. Symbols allow a person to


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think of something apart from it its immediate presence.” Littlejohn (2002) said that for Langer, symbol-making “is a contininuous process.” This process is manifested not just in words “but in discourse” according to Langer. “Words name things, but before terms are built into propositions, they assert nothing, preclude nothing…say nothing.” When put together however, they form propositions, “complex symbols that present a picture of something.” According to Littlejohn (2002), for Langer, “symbols work when any symbol, including a proposition, communicates a concept, a general idea, pattern or form.” Littlejohn (2002) adds “the concept is a meaning shared among communicators, but each communication also will have a private image or meaning that fills in the details of the common picture” or conception. Finally, Langer introduced the concept of “signification, denotation and connotation.” She said “signification is the meaning of a sign, or a simple stimulus announcing the presence of some object.

Denotation is the relation of the symbol to its object.

Connotation of a symbol is the direct relationship between the symbol and the conception.” Littlejohn (2002) notes that, “humans possess a built-in tendency to abstract or a process of forming a general idea from a variety of concrete experiences. It is the process of leaving out details in conceiving of objects, events or situations in ever more general terms.”


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In summary, Pierce, Morries, and Langer “see meanings as the complex relation among the symbol, the object, and the person” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 58-62). B. Integrated Theoretical Framework Hinging on Rokeach’s Beliefs, Attitudes and Values Theory, the study explained how OFs first receive portrayals projected of them in news and current affairs shows on transnational network TFC, specifically “adobo NATION,” and how they react or behave as a result of these portrayals vis-a-vis their beliefs, attitudes and values, including their self-concept. This study later showed that, the more inconsistent these portrayals are to the OFs’ self-concept, the more imbalanced they feel. Because of this, subsequent behavior of the distant Filipinos may result to the opposite of what is shown about them. Meanwhile, utilizing the Semantic Theory, the production team of the show acts as interpretants who “represent an object by a sign.” In each episode, there are signs which “represent the object or referent in the mind of the interpreter” or the viewers. In the entire production process of news, there are several stages where these productions of signs can come into play. The start of the news production process is triggered by the news team’s weekly brainstorming for possible topics to tackle. In the case of “adobo NATION,” the team gathers together as soon as the currently airing episode airs on television, to discuss the next episode’s line-up. The Executive Producer


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then assigns each topic to a specific writer who then goes on to research on and write the script. If for live presentation, the script goes through the review and approval of the Head Writer and the Executive Producer. If for editing into a feature or playback video tape recording, the writer collaborates with the production coordinator to schedule the technical equipment and personnel.

If involving an interview, the writer taps the

coordinator to schedule the technical equipment, crew, and the interviewee. At these stages, the visual editor and segment producer also have inputs in terms of production values. After the visual editing, the musical scorer comes into play to put music or “bed.” In the case of “adobo NATION,” the segments both have taped on-camera spiels as well as pre-taped features. Finally, the material is shown to the Executive Producer, revised if need be and then edited into the rest of the episodes or “mastered” as full episode. In the entire process of production, human subjectivity can come in the form of the visual, audal, and cinematic codes: 1. choice of topics 2. angle of the story 3. choice of interviewee 4. camera angling 5. musical scoring


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6. visual editing 7. special effects 8. decision to air the material During the “stages of action,” viewers go through perception, manipulation, and consummation (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 60). In perceiving the program, respondents see the portrayals as symbolized by objects. Here, signification comes into play. At the next stage or manipulation, the respondent or viewer then tries to comprehend the meaning of the signs he/she sees. At this point, the viewer may craft a relationship in his mind between the symbol and object. Lastly at consummation, the viewers decide on what to do with the signs. At the final stage, viewers may see the signs at their connotated meaning. The viewers have“individual concept” of the sign, as symbols will depend on the set of “values” he/she may have. He may decide to exercise “social restraint, selfcontrol, enjoyment, withdrawal, self-sufficiency, receptivity and self-indulgence.” In the figure below (Figure 1), media as the medium under discussion, is nestled in the inner circle whereby the message, in the forms of the signs (whether in the form of news or portrayals), it produces are captured by the third circle. These signs have varying effects as captured in arrows pointing toward the receivers of the signs or the television audience.


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C. INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Based on the Semantic Theories outlined, “adobo NATION” was symbolized by objects, which convey meanings or portrayals such as Filipinos as achievers. For example, through the portrayal of Filipino restaurants and restaurateurs who established their own businesses in mainland U.S., “adobo NATION” tried to convey the success of Pinoy food entrepreneurs in the foreign country. Much in the same way, it may have also portrayed OFs, based on some viewers’ way of seeing them, in a negative


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light when it showed Filipinos as partial towards Filipino food through the program’s consistent use of video of fiesta (festivities) food. This showcase of fiesta food, which some Filipinos may not agree with because of the connotation of those that are unmindful of their dietary allowance, will discourage some Pinoys to frequent Filipino restaurants. On the opposite side of portrayal, when the TFC exclusive production portrayed most OFs as achievers trying to make it big in the U.S. as restaurateurs for instance, some Filipinos who perceived this as consistent with what they believe Pinoys in the U.S. are, will be open to this portrayal and support more of their compatriots’ efforts to succeed there. The way Filipinos receive these portrayals whether as “group or individual acts,” are identified by Morris as one of three categories: “1.) perception, 2.) manipulation, and 3.) consummation.” The OFs’ views ofthese protrayals constitute perception; these OFs’ interpretations of these signs into meanings constitute manipulation; and their behavior toward the portrayals as consummation. In the figure below (Figure 2), media pertains to Filipino transnational networks and the signs they produce which come in the form of audio-visual elements (third circle). The audience or OFs (outmost circle) receive them in many ways: 1.) social restraint, 2.) self-control, 3.) enjoyment of practice in action, 4.) withdrawal and self-sufficiency, 5.) receptivity, 6.) sympathetic concern, and 7.) self-indulgence, whether as mentioned, as group or individual acts.


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D. INTEGRATED OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK 1. Message Reception Theory and Semantic Theory This study’s first objective is to identify, describe, and analyze the season 13 of ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION” through its genre and content. Identified here as the media in study, TFC, specifically through its news magazine program, “adobo NATION’s” production team or interpretants, creates various portrayals through its weekly episodes. Particular to the second objective, “to describe and assess types, trends or patterns of portrayals projected of Filipinos in the program ‘adobo NATION’,” this study identified the portrayals, sometimes made through signs that signify meanings; “denote a relationship” and “connote feelings and associations” (Littlejohn, 2002, p. 61).


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For example, Filipinos are portrayed as culinary experts in two episodes on food. Specifically in these episodes, signs such as the fiesta buffet and the “sisig” (sautéed innards)” are used. At the stage of perception (Morris as cited in Littlejohn, 2002), the viewers try to perceive what the food are and what the episode’s rationale behind the feature on the food is. At manipulation stage, the viewers try to decipher what the food’s signifance to the viewers, specifically Filipinos, could mean. Lastly at consummation stage, the viewers decide on how to take in the portrayal as represented by the sign employed. The viewers’ consummation or “preference” for his “individual act” depends on the viewers’ values. For example, the respondent may view the portrayal as symbolized by a particular object via “social restraint and self-control; enjoyment of practice in action; withdrawal and self-sufficiency; receptivity and sympathetic concern; and selfindugence.” Specific to the example cited, the portrayal of Filipinos as culinary experts, may be met with “receptivity and sympathetic concern.” Based on Ball and Rokeach’s Reception Theory, this can be attributed to the fact that the portrayal is consistent with the viewers’ values of “pakikisama” or “bayanihan” where each member supports each member (Filipino’s) endeavor in the spirit of community, especially if the representation showcases the Filipino in a positive light.


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OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS Cinematic Codes

most subjective element of visual arts as they consist of: 1.) cinematography or how a scene was shot, and 2.) editing or how a scene is put together through cinematography. Cinematography, on one hand, consists of a.) lighting, b.) framing, c.) scale, and d.) composition of movement. Editing consists of post-production and titling (Semiotics of Film). In “adobo NATION,� the production team usually employs a slow transition of scenes as well as darker lighting when


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more drama is needed. Meanwhile, faster cuts and well-lit places emanate more upwardly mobile situations of characters. Environment

the surrounding or conditions in which a person, animal or plant lived or operated. As used in the study, environment means the U.S. and the various places the OFs visited or lived in.

First Generation

Filipinos who came to the United States under the guise of migration which led to naturalization.

Second Generation

Filipinos born and raised in the U.S.

Media Flow

transference of content from local sources for international carriage and vice versa.

Media Content

programs, whether short or long form, which are aired across platforms.

Medium

facilitate communication from one generation to another. Extensions of the human mind so that the primary interest of any historical period is biased by the predominant media use (Mc Luhan as cited in Littlejohn, 2002, p. 305).


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Other factors

other factors that come into play in the respondents’ perception of the portrayals such as self-perception, environment, and medium by which message is delivered.

Perception

how the respondents, specifically OFs, view the transnational content as presented via TFC.

Portrayals

the personas

made

of these

OFs

transnationalized television, such as TFC. Self-perception

how a person views himself in this study.

Transnationalized

broadcast networks that purposively

Television

traverse geographical territories, utilizing satellite technology to deliver information and entertainment content.

as

depicted

by


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IV. METHODOLOGY The study “B(iy)ayani ng Bayan,” through a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research, focused on the portrayals of Filipinos living and working outside the Philippines; their reception of portrayals made; and their reception on the effects of these portrayals on them. A. RESEARCH DESIGN Given that the study intended to make an overview of portrayals of OFs made by transnational media ABS-CBN TFC through “adobo NATION,” a multi-method study was conducted. A quantitative study using content analysis was employed to identify the portrayals made by “adobo NATION” and how the program delivers these images through visual, audal, and cinematic codes. Meanwhile, a qualitative study through focused interview was carried out to get the insights of OFs on these media portrayals, as well as to outline the possible effects of these projections to them as distant Filipinos in foreign land, based on their own perception. B. RESEARCH METHOD 1. Content Analysis A content analysis of “adobo NATION’s” Season 13 episodes in 2011 was employed outlining the auditory, visual, and cinematographic codes plus a code book for


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researchers. The content analysis identified not just the projections but also as the cues that help support certain portrayals through Semiotics. Auditory codes are the elements the audience hears – dialogue, music, or sound effects. Dialogue can both be the “upper or shallow codes” that appear on the surface or be the “lower or deeper meaning” of language actually spoken. Music on the other hand can be “digetic which makes the scoring seem part of the text or compliment the literalness of the plot,” or “non-digetic” or really just as an add-on in a particular scene. In “adobo NATION” for instance, the production team can use dramatic lines, melancholic music as well as stingers to add either more drama or tension to a scene. Visual codes are literal elements which put the viewers in “mise-en-scene” or in the scene: a.) the actors who portray the roles; b.) the costumes they don; and c.) the sets used to establish the setting and the props to support the portrayed characters and scenes (Barthes, 1988). In the the representation of OFs’ lives, they can either be portrayed as overworked through pale make-up and worn clothes; as in a sorry state by being placed in small barracks for example; or as financially uplifted by being shown to wear heavy make-up, branded clothing, and a house of their own in another country. 2. Focus Interview In terms of qualitative study, the author conducted an online focus interview of actual subscribers of TFC to find out their reception of portrayals done on them as OFs, as well as their perception on the possible effects on them as Filipinos who are detached from


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their motherland. Through a focus interview guide, the researcher constructed their reception of the portrayals and their perception of its possible effects on their lives. According to Garland and Philips (1940, p. 18-19), an informal discussion allows people to discuss their “opinions and attitudes.” Specifically, the respondents were asked on their views on the portrayals of transnationalized Filipino networks, particularly TFC’s “adobo NATION,” on them as OFs. C. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS For the content analysis, the researcher used a Content Analysis coding sheet (attached as Appendix A), to review the episodes of the news and current affairs program “adobo NATION.”

The coding sheet outlines the needed information or details of the

respondents, as well as the specific auditory, visual, and cinematographic codes employed to support the imagery. The Focus Interview guide (attached as appendix B) was employed first to identify if the respondents are OFs and subscribers of TFC. It also outlined the informants’ own list of portrayals from their own reception of “adobo NATION” Season 13 episodes and their feedback on these portrayals, particularly the effects they perceive to be affecting them as distant Filipinos.


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D. VARIABLES, MEASURES/CONCEPTS AND INDICATORS Table 4. Variables, Measures/ Concepts and Indicators

OBJECTIVE

CONCEPTS and VARIABLES

1. To identify, describe, and analyze the season 13 of ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION” through its genre and content.

Portrayals of OFs

2. To describe and assess types, trends, or patterns of portrayals projected of Filipinos in the program “adobo NATION.”

Visual, auditory, and cinematic codes

INDICATORS / SCORES

1. Portrayals, whether positive or negative: a. Modern day heroes because of their economic contribution, good deeds or talent b. Blue-collar workers c. White-collar workers d. Victims of racism e. Victims of abuse, whether sexual or not f. Adulterer / adulteress g. Others not mentioned Visual, auditory, and cinematic production codes: VISUAL a. dialogue; b. music; c. sound effects AUDITORY a. actors; b costumers; c. sets and props CINEMATIC a. cinematography: i. lighting; ii. framing; iii. scale; iv. composition of movement b. Editing i. post-production; ii. titling

SOURCE OF DATA OR METHOD Content Analysis of ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION”

Content Analysis of TFC’s “adobo NATION” in terms of the portrayals of Filipino migrants in the U.S.


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3. To find out how selected overseas Filipino workers receive these portrayals in “adobo NATION.”

4. To identify the effects of these portrayals in “adobo NATION” based on the perception of Filipino migrants.

Perception of the audience or OFs of the portrayals of Filipinos abroad a. Perception b. Manipulation c. Consummation Effects on cultural, social, and economic aspects

1. Social restraint 2. Self-control 3. Enjoyment of practice in action 4. Withdrawal and selfsufficiency 5. Receptivity 6. Sympathetic concern 7. Self-indulgence

Focus Interview of TFC subscribers, specifically viewers of “adobo NATION”

1. Social restraint 2. Self-control 3. Enjoyment of practice in action 4. Withdrawal and selfsufficiency 5. Receptivity 6. Sympathetic concern 7. Self-indulgence

Focus Interview of TFC subscribers, specifically “adobo NATION” viewers

E. UNITS OF ANALYSIS, SAMPLING AND PROCEDURES From among numerous programs airing on ABS-CBN TFC, “adobo NATION” was chosen because of three reasons. It is currently the most awarded program exclusively produced

by

TFC,

with

a

regional

Emmy

Awards

in

2012

for

best

current/community/public affairs feature segment for its feature on second generation Filipinos and an Emmy Award in 2013. The show is also one of the exclusive programs with the most hits or views (no .52 or the highest among shows produced by TFC exclusively for OFs based on Internet Protocol TV EIS data. Lastly, “adobo NATION’s” genre seeks to deliver news as it happens and thus should be the most faithful account of reality versus the other genres like comedy, drama, and variety.


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TFC has over one million subscribers (ABS-CBN Global Primer, 2013) and amongst these subscribers, the author chose the respondents in the U.S. based on a non-probability sampling method. From the database of subscribers from all over the 50 states of the U.S requesting to watch “It’s Showtime” and “ASAP,” the author picked select Filipinos who agreed to a focus interview. The author then conducted a focus interview of seven (7) females and one (1) male Filipino migrants, and an online interview of a male and four (4) Filipina migrants all aged between late 20s to early 40s, and within the class B to C economic class. The migrants were chosen from the list of subscribers applying for seats at TFC shows produced in the Philippines.

They were selected based on their contactibility,

availability, and profile (viewers of TFC’s “adobo NATION”). F. DATA GATHERING AND CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES From the 2011 episodes of “adobo NATION,” the author used a non-probability sampling method, specifically judgmental or purposive technique where samples are derived from a set of identified criteria - season 13 episodes of “adobo NATION,” including replays. To check for reliability of the instrument, the author provided a codebook and conducted an inter-coder reliability test by tapping two researchers to do the test coding. Meanwhile, the informants of the focus interview were also culled from the database of TFC’s subscribers who applied for tickets and came home to watch some of the


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programs, live. They were asked several interview questions first, on their citizenship and their media subscription to ensure they are indeed OFs subscribed to ABS-CBN TFC. After this, the informants were questioned on their laundry list of portrayals of OFs as viewed on TFC and their own thoughts on them – whether they find them close to their reality or not, and whether they accept, reject or have no reaction at all. The research employed the help of fellow researchers to document the proceedings, including sub-conscious behavior or gestures. G. DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCEDURES The author tried to conduct a focus group discussion. However, given lack of a common availability for all the respondents, the author conducted a focus interview instead.


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IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Chapter IV is composed of four parts. The first part presented “adobo NATION’s” short history, content, cast, and the reasons why the program was studied. It also discussed each of “adobo NATION’s” Season 13 episode summary and highlights (see Table 5). The third part then identified the portrayals cited in the episodes via content analysis (see Table 6). The respondent’s perception of these portrayals and their cultural, economic, political, and social effects are then tackled, as anchored on Ball and Rokeach’s Reception Theory (see Table 8 to 10). Lastly, the researcher integrated the results of the Content Analysis and Interviews both Focus and Online. After the description, discussion, and analysis of “adobo NATION” Season 13 episodes’ contents and portrayals made of the OFs (via visual, audal, and cinematic codes), this study revealed: how Filipino achievers have become the most recurring portrayal; how most Pinoys consistently perceive these portrayals as strengthening their pride in their race and culture; and how Filipinos’ willingness to connect with the community turned out to be the most recurring effect. 1. ABS-CBN TFC’s “adobo NATION” Launched in in 2007, “adobo NATION” was created to provide light news, relevant information and homegrown entertainment specifically to Filipino-Americans. Culled from the famous Filipino cuisine adobo, “adobo NATION” is a term that is a play on a food that is very characteristic of the Pinoy, as well as how Filipinos are united as a


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nation and always come together for a common “taste” for culture which include food (ABS-CBN Global FAQs, 2012). According to TFC Head for Movie, Production, and Entertainment Group (MPEG) John D-Lazatin, Ako when you watch the show lang, who hosts it? The Filipinos naman of course. (When you watch the show, think of who hosts it. The Filipinos of course). It is television. Number one [we need], pleasing personalities. They have to look good. But in any lifestyle show looking good to me is secondary. Being smart, knowing or naturally informative, like Kris Aquino, it [sic] becomes the charismatic personality. What was the portrayal that we wanted to do? We just wanted to talk about what we really do eh, as is.

Dubbed “Nag-iisang tambayan ng mga Pinoy sa telebisyon,” “adobo NATION” has a running commentary on the latest news (A-List); features on Filipino achievers (Big Time Ka Na); a round-up of events in Los Angeles, New York, and Hawaii (LA, NY Chika and Aloha Hawaii); live guestings of Filipinos who made it big in the U.S. (Big Time Ka Na); and practical tips from debts (OK Nga Rod), to cars (OtoKoTo). Topics mostly revolved around Filipino community events and Pinoy pop-culture like the fashion trends, vacation spots, dining destinations, beauty tips, the latest big-screen blockbusters, newest music, and other matters which TFC deemed relevant to FilipinoAmericans like financial matters, covering the real-estate and automotive industries. In Lazatin’s point of view, the portrayals in “adobo NATION” are faithful:


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We just thought there’s a market for a semi-first gen, first-gen cross-over lifestyle program so we thought of ‘adobo NATION.’ Because we knew that with a simple life or simple ‘luho’ of the migrant market, we knew that food was an integral life of a certain Pinoy lifestyle. When you say we’re going out, we’re going to a picnic, we’re going to gimmick, the Pinoy migrant would always have ‘kainan.’ So we were thinking what is the Pinoy food other than rice – adobo (dish simmered in soy sauce and vinegar) so let’s create ‘adobo NATION.

The magazine talk show is hosted by migrant Filipinos Suzette Hernandez, JC Gonzales (pinchitting at times is Julius Santos), and Michi Valeriano who deliver light news and present information and features on the Filipino-American lifestyle. “adobo NATION” is formatted similarly to how programs are run in the U.S. The show is composed of 13 episodes each season. In this study, “adobo NATION’s” Season 13 is studied.

First, the guide for each episode was presented which included the

program’s airing date in Manila, and for which nation or time it was intended for – U.S. Pacific time. The format first outlined the segment where the text was culled from (Annex D). The next column (Table 6) then identified the actual portrayal cited. The next one showcased the exact text or specific quotes, which are determined by the researcher to have made a portrayal of OFs. In the last column, the categories of these portrayals are noted.


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2. Trends or patterns of portrayals projected of Filipinos in the program “adobo NATION” a. Episode Guide Episode 1 (May 22 Manila time, May 23 Pacific time) Year: 2011 Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Michi Valeriano To cover all its viewers in the 50 U.S. states, “adobo NATION” features facts, people, food, and places of interest for Filipino-Americans. In its first episode, segment New York City Chika or NYC Chika which showcased Filipinos and events in the eastern side of the United States, host Monette focused on the efforts of former adult actress Stella Ruiz (after leaving her career in the Philippines) to make it big in the city dubbed by many as “The Big Apple.” Episode 2 – May 29/30 Replay of Episode 1 Episode 3 (June 5/6) Producer Director Executive Producer Hosts

: The Filipino Channel : Jonas de Leon : Eric Pugeda : Suzette Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano


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In the third episode of “adobo NATION”, specifically the segment LA Chika, the program featured the Kuya-Ate Mentorship Program (KAMP) sponsored by the Philippine Community for Fil-Graduates which is a school dedicated for children of OFs. Like NYC Chika, LA Chika features people, places, and events that showcase the Filipino way of life. The segment LA Chika showed how Filipinos come together in happy times specifically when there are reasons to celebrate, specifically to boost Filipino pride. Episode 4 (June 12/13) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano

Episode 4 marks the anniversary of “adobo NATION,” the same date when the entire Philippines commemorated Independence Day as a nation. Celebrations were also held in the U.S.A. as covered by “adobo NATION.” Episode 5 (June 19/20) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano


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This episode is a continuation of “adobo NATION’s” anniversary wherein two portrayals were noted. One of these is the depiction of Kapampangans’ culinary skill. Episode 6 (July 3/4) – Replay of June 19/20 Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano “adobo NATION” did a replay due to budget constraints. Episode 7 (July 10/11) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano In its Filipino-American Friendship Day episode, “adobo NATION” replays an NYC Chika feature that showed how Filipinos came together to celebrate Philippine pride and culture. Episode 8 (July 18/19) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano


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In this episode, the hosts were divided into two groups. Gonzales presented the show from the studios while Valeriano and Hernandez covered the Philippine Independence Day celebrations from Virginia beach. In the segment “Sari-sari Etc.,” the Filipino Community in Virginia was shown to revive the use of the “angklung,” a native instrument made of bamboo. Episode 9 (July) Producer Director Executive Producer Hosts

: The Filipino Channel : Jonas de Leon : Eric Pugeda : Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Julius Santos Michi Valeriano

It is in Episode 9 where the hosts announced that the show won the the Telly Awards for Best Local, Regional and Cable Television Program. Episode 9 was also “adobo NATION’s” summer episode for 2011. While summer in the U.S. fell at a different time, the show’s celebration coincides with the dry season in the Philippines. Attuned to the summer theme, the program featured summer accessories. It is also in this episode where host Julius Santos announced that the University of the Philippines (UP) and Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU) were proclaimed as the only Philippine schools included in the Top 50 English-speaking universities, notches higher than Boston and Georgetown Universities (at numbers 48 and 49, respectively).


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Episode 10 (July 25) Producer Director Executive Producer Hosts

: The Filipino Channel : Jonas de Leon : Eric Pugeda : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Michi Valeriano

In the episode after the Philippine Independence Day celebrations, there were no portrayals made of overeas Filipinos. The segments only included features on wine, flower arrangement, car rentals, and a local restaurant. Episode 11 (August 1/2) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Michi Valeriano

In Episode 11, the author noted a Filipino designer who won the International Talent prize in Italy. In the same episode, the host Julius Santos also noted how a Filipina was recognized for her entrepreneurial skills via her establishment of candy shop Cloud Nina Roddecker. Episode 12 August 7 (replay of July 17) Episode 13 (August 14) Producer : The Filipino Channel Director : Jonas de Leon Executive Producer : Eric Pugeda Hosts : JC Gonzales


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Suzette “Tet” Hernandez Michi Valeriano Table 5. Matrix of “adobo NATION” Season 13 episodes EPISODE NO. SEGMENT EPISODE HIGHLIGHT Episode 1, May 22 NY Chika Stella Ruiz Episode 2, May 29 LA Chika Replay of May 29/30 Episode 3, June 6 LA Chika KAMP Episode 4, June Anniversary episode and Independence Day 12/13 LA Chika celebration Episode 5, June 19/20 Lasap Pinoy Anniversary feature on food Episode 6, July 3/4 Lasap Pinoy Replay of June 19/20 Noys in the Episode 7, July 10 Hood On location in Virginia Beach Episode 8, July 18 Sari-sari etc. Filipino accessories UP tagged as 34th Best English University, Episode 9 A-List beating Boston and Georgetown Universities Episode 10, July 25 No portrayal Sean Samson and Nina Rodecker earning Episode 11, Aug 1 international recognition Episode 12, Aug 7 Replay of July 7/8 Episode 13, Aug I Love You Virus the movie featuring Filipino 14 scenery and actors

b. Content Analysis i. Episode 1 May 22/23 Quote 1 Beginning with the first episode, “adobo NATION” notes the first portrayal of OFs through Stella Ruiz. During the course of the interview, Ruiz shares how Filipinos are supportive of the efforts of struggling Filipino artists in the U.S. like her.


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Auditory Code Pag may nakakasalubong kang Pilipino, you feel at home (I feel at home when I am in the company of Filipinos). I tried doing some gigs in Times Square, they really support you. That’s one thing I really love about Filipinos.

Upon reading this statement, the reader can sense Ruiz’s exuberance in how fellow Filipinos treat her. Hinging on the Message Reception theory, Ruiz’ feedback on how Filipinos support local talents like her may be part of her overarching belief which led her to her attitude toward her kababayans. Further on the theory, as Ball and Rokeach stated, an individual is more open to concepts if that person is receptive of the idea to begin with. In the case of Ruiz, she appears to be proud of her fellowmen so for her to see them as supportive of her is a concept that is not too far-fetched for her so she views it with “receptivity” (Morris as cited in Littlejohn, 2002). Visual Code The irony of Ruiz’ statement lay in the fact that she feels the warmth of the Filipino hospitality in an otherwise cold (climate-wise and sometimes culture-wise) place like New York. Cloaked in sweatshirt and swaddled in thick scarf, Ruiz basked in the warm treatment of fellow Filipinos. At the Connotation level (Langer as cited in Littlejohn, 2002), the sweatshirt and thick scarf appear simply as wardrobe that will protect Ruiz or other Filipinos for that matter, from the cold weather. At the Denotation level, the


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sweatshirt and the thick scarf can mean the protection, comfort or warmth that Ruiz or other OFs can get from each other who trace in a foreign land. At the Signification level, the wardrobe, intertwined with the probable comfort it provides, whether as a piece of clothing or as the symbol of Filipinos’ support for their “kababayans,” can mean that despite the cold weather, Pinoys in a foreign land, just like Ruiz, feel at home or are comforted by the fact that fellow Filipinos are supportive of their compatriots such as this case. Futhermore, the wardrobe symbolizes the fact that races who trace their roots to a tropical country such as the Philippines seem to be as warm as their country of origin. Quote 2 Mapunta sa Pilipinas ma-dito successful. Yan ang Pinoy (Filipinos are from any part of the world are successful).

In the Man on the Street (MOS) sub-segment that followed, two of the interviewees affirmed the fact that Filipinos were supportive. A female interviewee said, “Mapunta sa Pilipinas ma-dito successful. “Yan ang Pinoy. (Filipinos from any part of the world are successful).”

Reading through her statement, the interviewee clearly confirmed the

Ruiz’s sentiment. The interviewee supports Ruiz’s claim of geography being neither a hurdle in Filipinos’ success overseas nor as an excuse for them to be cold. Another said that when faced with adversity, Filipinos should not be afraid, “Kayang-kaya natin yan. Filipinos are the best (We can do it. Filipinos are the best).”


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Visual codes A look at the visual codes further affirms the portrayal of Filipinos as “supportive.” Ruiz was shot against the lush greenery of Central Park – a key landmark of New York City which is dubbed as the cultural center of the world. The location, along with the use of available, daytime light is symbolic of the fact that Filipinos like Ruiz have been trying to make it big, specifically in the Land of Milk and Honey. Ruiz’s wardrobe, at the connotation level, seemed pieces of clothing that are cosmopolitan. Further on into reading this type of wardrobe, viewers can interpret it as of quality material and worldclass, reflective of the type of lifestyle which Filipinos are also aiming for to keep up with the local denizens. At Signification level, one can read the wardrobe as Filipinos, or Ruiz’s attempt for that matter, to find her place within American music and largely to cope with the kind of lifestyle in the U.S. Lastly, the close up on Ruiz’s guitar gives further importance to her struggle and attempt to make it big in mainstream New York. Auditory codes In terms of auditory codes, LA Chika’s scoring of Ruiz segments, including her own recorded song, convey the spirit and hope by which the struggling artists like Ruiz hung by in the hopes of making it big.


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Cinematic codes Even the cinematic codes put focus on Ruiz as a struggling but talented Pinoy in the middle of urban New York. Close ups included shots on Ruiz strumming the guitar, a sign of her hopes to make it big through her talent in music. The support of Filipinos portrayed in this episode is consistent over-all with the visual, auditory, and cinematic codes. ii. Episode 2 May 29 Episode 2 was a replay of the previous week’s episode. iii. Episode 3 June 5/6 Quote 1 …for the entire community to really show our pride, culture, and heritage. It fosters a lot of good things for our community and I think it should keep going.

In this episode, the author cited two sets of representation of Filipinos. The first quote is from one of the unnamed students of an organization called KAMPI. In his statement, “..for the entire community to really show our pride, culture, and heritage. It fosters a lot of good things for our community and I think it should keep going,” it shows how Filipinos come together to celebrate Pinoy pride which he thinks should be continued.


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Auditory codes Like in the case of Ruiz, the student views this statement, the Filipino community being supportive, as one that is to be sustained because it is consistent with his beliefs. Therefore, the student’s attitude is more of “receptivity” as well. Visual codes Visual code by way of the venue or the stage showed that while there is reason to celebrate in the story on KAMPI, lighting was extreme – either it was too bright or too dark. Cinematic codes Similarly, even the cinematic codes, specifically the shots, were mostly mid-shot, not close up or focused on the featured Filipinos which did not put much relevance to the revered Filipinos. Auditory codes In terms of auditory codes, during dialogue, by way of the statement of the interviewees conveyed pride in the Filipino, the segment employed natural sound. Celebratory music could have been used to emphasize the pride in the Filipino students.


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Quote 2 …Malaleche, which kind of describes how Filipinos are in the world. Filipinos love to play with words.

The second quote is a statement from expatriate and book author Zach Zamora. Zamora, author of the book “Leche,” shared this insight when asked about why he named his book as such. He explained that the word actually means “malaleche” abbreviated to “leche.” This he said is very characteristic of how Filipinos are – how they create twists and turns in words. One example is how Pinoys interpret the word salvage or “to save” instead of “to kill.” One of the hosts, Valeriano, added that being playful with words is actually a characteristic of Filipinos not only in the U.S., but all over the world. For some cultures, the concept of being playful has a negative Connotation. But based on their discussion, both Zamora and Valeriano, bringing with them a preconceived notion on the “playfulness” of Filipinos with words, believe that the production of the book is consistent with what they believe Filipinos to be and therefore constitute “receptivity,” and the book a symbol of Pinoy dexterity. Visual and Cinematic Codes While the visual, cinematic, and auditory codes where according to “adobo NATION” standard production values and library of music, the way the host and the guest spoke (dialogue) of the Filipino dexterity with language will engage any viewer.


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iv. Episode 4, June 12/13 In this anniversary and Independence Day episode of “adobo NATION,” the author noted several references as to the greatness of Filipinos and how they bask in this pride. Quote 1 Ang isa sa mga pinakaabangan at pinakahihintay upang taas noo nilang ipakita ang ating kultura ay ang pagdiriwang ng ating kalayaan. (“The Philippine Independence Day is one of the much-awaited events where Filipinos show their culture and celebrate their independence).

Auditory code Monette of NYC Chika said that the Philippine Independence Day is one of the events in the U.S. that Filipinos look forward to the most. In fact, what is noticeable is how foreigners appreciate this enthusiasm as well. In an interview with “Citizen Pinoy” host (another exclusive program of TFC which presents issues affecting Filipinos aiming for permanent residence in the U.S.) Atty. Michael Gurfinkel, he took pride in the community that is the Filipinos. He said, “It makes me so proud to see all the Filipinos out here expressing their pride.” Quote 2 We are just very excited and siyempre we take pride bilang mga Pilipino and andito tayo lahat sa New York. It just means buhay ang ating pagiging nasyonalista. (We’re just very excited and we take pride that we Filipinos are here in New York. It means our nationalism is alive).


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Further on in a conversation with actor Jericho Rosales, the excerpt from the interview showed this dignity as a Filipino race that further strengthened this paper’s claim of Pinoy achievers as a persistent portrayal, Filipino pride as a persistent effect, and the Filipinos as a united and proud community as a general belief met with “receptivity” (Morris, as cited in Littlejohn, 2002). Cinematic and Visual codes Since the event was shot outdoors, lighting was clear as the skies that day. But the camera wide shots focus magnified the celebrations and the feeling of honor from the attending Filipinos. Even the audio of the drum and bugle choir conveyed the festive mood. Adding Filipino pride in the event and episode were the use of Filipiniana and the Philippine flag as visual codes. v. Episode 5 June 19/20 Quote 1 Kapampangan… masarap ang luto.

Auditory codes In the continuation of “adobo NATION’s” anniversary, there were two portrayals cited. Guest Boots Ocampo noted how Filipinos from Pampanga are good at cooking, saying, “Kapampangan…masarap ang luto.”


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Quote 2 Bakit ba itong mga kapampangan na ito ang gagaling magluto? (Kapampangans are good at cooking).

This is a remark shared consistently in the program (Filipinos as good in cooking) by the hosts as well. Regular host, Hernandez said, “Bakit ba itong mga kapampangan na ito ang gagaling magluto?” Auditory codes While the highlight was on Filipino food, the “adobo NATION” team employed its library of music and made no special used of other music or effects. Cinematic and Visual codes The anniversary episode was shot in the studios where sponsor restaurants showcased their specialties.

The visuals were filled with codes that portrayed not just

Kapampangan’s but all Filipinos’ skill in the food department, specifically in terms of production design and extreme close-ups on the food. vi. Episode 6 Replay of June 19/20 episode.


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vii. Episode 7 Quote 1 The first time the group performed it was in December. After we started playing, we had a standing ovation. I think that we were very good. Everybody was excited to see us play.

Shot in Virginia, this “adobo NATION” episode puts the spotlight on third generation Filipino children playing a native instrument called “angklung.” Pride was evident in the tonality and statement of one of the organizers or auditory code. According to the organizer, “The first time the group performed it was in December. After we started playing, we had a standing ovation. I think that we were very good. Everybody was excited to see us play.” Quote 2 Malayo tayo sa bansa natin. Ito na lang ang way natin para maramdaman ang ating pagka-Pilipino. (This [event] is the only way we can express our sense of being Filipino).

Aside from the pride, the organizers noted how the performance propagates Filipino culture in the mainsteam U.S.A. He said: “It is KAPPA’s mission is for the children especially the second and third generation to appreciate the customs and traditions especially their heritage in American mainstream.”

The organizers added that the

distance is not a hurdle in terms of continuously sustaining the Filipino culture even


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outside the country. “Malayo tayo sa bansa natin. Ito na lang ang way natin para maramdaman ang ating pagka-Pilipino (This [event] is the only way we can express our sense of being Filipino).” Quote 3 I am really proud that we have this here. Virginia is not really known for much in the Filipino community. But we do have a large community and to have one thing that sets us apart as a community – that really sets us apart.

Auditory codes Both the visual and auditory codes were very attuned to the segment’s theme – homegrown music for second generation Filipinos. Cinematic and Visual codes The children donned Filipiniana while playing the native instrument.

Their

performance was also vividly captured as natural sound, a fitting accompaniment to the theme of the event or Filipino ethnic music. Meantime, stirring dissolves were employed to add effect to the intense Filipino pride playing at that time. The hosts have evident pride in being Filipinos as also outlined in the previous episodes.

These portrayals then only support their belief and therefore earn their

“receptivity,” to a certain extent, “self-indulgence” as a race (Morris, as cited in Littlejohn, 2002).


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viii. Episode 8 July 18 Quote 1 Basta hip, fun at gawa sa Philippines, mga bonggang accessories, I will always wear (I will wear accessories made in the Philippines especially because they are fun and trendy).

While the OFs are predominantly the focus of most of “adobo NATION,” this episode focuses on the product of these Filipinos’ skill. Visual codes While there was no clear reference to the quality or skill put into the creation of the accessories, host Hernandez’s statement “Basta hip, fun at gawa sa Philippines, mga bonggang accessories, I will always wear (I will wear accessories made in the Philippines especially because they are fun and trendy),” convey her loyalty to Filipino-made products. The words hip and “bongga” (fabulous), convey one of the conditions, aside from being Philippine-made, that predispose Hernandez to wear accessories. Hernandez used the word “bongga,” a colloquial term coined by enterprising Filipinos that has already earned its place in the Filipino language (Almario, 2010 as cited in Che-che Lazaro presents 2013: August 18 episode), her reference to Pinoy-made products equate to the quality or skill that was put into the accessories which made her more receptive of these, and the accessories a symbol of Filipino craftmanship.


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Auditory codes The music, bordering on the Jamaican reggae, was upbeat and made a fitting accompaniment to the ethnicity of the Filipino-made fashion accessories.

At the

Connotation level, one will hear the music as Filipino. At the Denotation level, one would realize that the music is in fact Jamaican. At Signification, one can interpret the music as an attempt for the program to raise the bar of Filipino music and become at part with world music. Cinematic codes The highlight on Filipino accessories also conveyed in the camera angling or close up on the homegrown products such as hats, wallets, scarves, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and rings featured in the episode. ix. Episode 9, July 25 It’s a known fact that Philippines is a country na good English speakers. The highlight of this episode is the announcement of UP’s and ADMU’s rankings in the list of Best English-Speaking Universities of the World. Santos proudly mused, “It’s a known fact that Philippines is a country na good English speakers.” Cinematic and Auditory codes While camera lighting is standard and the audio is the same as all the other “A-List” segment scorings, the hosts made this discussion standout by way of their lively delivery


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and clear pride in the fact that two Philippine schools beat Boston and Georgetown Universities in terms of ranking. Also notable in this episode is the change in set. However, this could not be attributed to the special attention on the news delivered but merely as coincidental. Audal codes There was however, consistency by which the hosts view the top two schools in the Philippines as both ranked high in the Best English-Speaking Universities of the World list. The award for these universities only proved their belief that their schools, their alma mater for that matter, are esteemed schools. x. Episode 10 No portrayal was found in this episode. xi. Episode 11 Quote 1 Natutuwa ako kasi si Sean may degrees under his belt. So it means it means talagang nagpursige siya. Ang gusto ko diyan, mayroon dream siya, backed by education tapos perseverance, na-reach niya yung dream niya. (I am happy because Sean has college degrees under his belt. It means he really exerts effort. What I like about it is the fact that he has a dream and backed it up with education and perseverance.)


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Visual codes When the hosts of “adobo NATION” talk about a Filipino achiever, the camera and lights captured their pride. In this particular episode, Hernandez shared news on how Sean Samson won the Best Collection Award at the International Talent Support. As a backgrounder, Hernandez said, “Si Sean Samson, Filipino-American he was born and raised in California but he was British-trained. Nanalo siya ng Best Collection Award…oo sa fashion…sa International Talent Support. Natutuwa ako kasi si Sean may degrees under his belt. So it means it means talagang nagpursige siya. Ang gusto ko diyan, may dream siya, backed by education tapos perseverance, na-reach niya yung dream niya (I am happy because Sean has a college degree under his belt. It means he really exerts effort. What I really like about him is he has a dream and backed it up with education and perseverance).” Quote 2 Ang galing talaga pag nakikita mo ang iyong kababayan nakikipagtagisan ng talent sa isang mainstream show (It feels good when you see your fellow Filipinos make it to mainstream television).

In addition to Samson, co-host Santos also acknowledged how one of TFC’s employees won an episode of “Jeopardy.” Santos recognized how the Filipino still managed to standout in a show that is very American. “Ang galing talaga pag nakikita


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mo ang iyong kababayan nakikipagtagisan ng talent sa isang mainstream show (It feels good when you see your fellow Filipinos make it to mainstream television).” Auditory codes The scoring, while standard for both portrayals, compliments how these hosts exude pride in the portrayal. Again, with reference to Samson and the former TFC employee’s achievement, the hosts’ spiels affirm the Filipino’s world-class talent. xii. Episode 12 There are a lot of talented people on the Philippines that I hope. I am just a small part of a new wave of Filipino directors that bring these people into mainstream entertainment world not that there’s something wrong with the entertainment industry. I just hope we spread the joy to the rest of the world.

In this episode, Anna La Chika interviews Rosales who star along with American actress Breanna in the Filipino movie “I Love You virus,” a dramatization of a Filipino found to have spread the highly publicized virus. Pride was also evident in the voices of the director and cast members. According to the director, “There are a lot of talented people on the Philippines that I hope. I am just a small part of a new wave of Filipino directors that bring these people into mainstream entertainment world not that there’s something wrong with the entertainment industry. I just hope we spread the joy to the rest of the world.”


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Cinematic and Visual codes The interview, while set in the actual screening venue and used available light and sounds, caught the merriment of the premiere of a Filipino film in Hollywood. Shots up close and personal emphasized this which was consistent with the over-all pride of the cast and production team in Filipino talent and the movie, a fruition of this talent. xiii. Episode 13 Quote 1 With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their YouTube page and multiple videos with over a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele infused R&B music. (To the guests) Boy online stars.

For its season-ender, the episode 13 of “adobo NATION” featured Xoxo, an up and coming Filipino musical group who is making waves on YouTube. Santos, through dialogue, recognized how this young group managed to get 50,000 views on YouTube with their sheer talent. Santos, like his co-hosts, was proud of the YouTube stars’ achievement, consistent with his views that Filipinos are a talented race (July 12 episode where he said “With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their YouTube page and multiple videos with over a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele infused R&B music. (To the guests) Boy online stars. How do (sic) that sound?”


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Cinematic and Auditory codes Accompanying music to the segment was the guest’s brand of music which further supports this pride in Filipino talent. However, shots employed standard shots that did not exactly convey the Filipino pride in the YouTube sensation. Episodes without codes Episode 12 dated August 7 (August 8 Manila Time) is a replay of the July 18 episode. In the episode, previous portrayals are found in the hosts’ spiels: “It’s a known fact

that

Philippines

is

a

country

na

good

English

speakers

(Santos),”

and “Basta hip, fun at gawa sa Philippines, mga bonggang accessories, I will always wear (Hernandez).” The spiels show pride in Filipino ability and craftsmanship which are consistent with the representations mostly depicted in “adobo NATION.” There were episodes that were re-aired due to budget considerations (“adobo NATION” allots budget for 13 episodes but if unapproved, the program cuts on cost by reducing the number of episodes).


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Table 6. Summary of Portrayals of OFs in “adobo NATION” EPISODE NO. SEGMENT

REPRESENTATION OF FILIPINOS

RECEPTION OF PORTRAYALS "Pinoys are the best. They really support Filipino support / you." community Replay of May 29/30 “For the entire community to really show Filipino support / our pride, culture and heritage. It fosters a community lot of good things for our community and I think it should keep going.” “Filipinos are playful with words.” Language skill / Filipino pride "Mabuhay naman talaga tayong mga Filipino achiever / Pilipino." Filipino pride

Episode 1

NY Chika

Episode 2 Episode 3

LA Chika

Episode 4

LA Chika

Episode 5

Lasap Pinoy “Bakit ba itong mga Kapampangan na ito Talent in cooking / ang gagaling magluto?” Filipino pride

Episode 6 Episode 7

Replay of June 19 and 20 “Virginia is not really known for much in Filipino the Filipino community. But we do have a community / pride large community and to have one thing that sets us apart as a community - that really sets us apart.” Lasap Pinoy “Basta hip and fun, at gawa sa Philippines, Filipino skill / mga bonggang accessories, I will always achievement wear.” LA Chika “It’s a known fact that the Philippines is a Language skill / country na good English speakers.” Filipino pride LA Chika No portrayal No portrayal “Ang galing talaga pag nakikita mo ang Intelligence / iyong kababayan mong nakikipagtagisan ng Filipino pride talent sa isang mainstream show.”

Episode 8

Episode 9 Episode 10 Episode 11

Episode 12 Episode 13

LA Chika

“There are a lot of talented people in the Filipino talent / Philippines...” Filipino achiever “With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their Musical talent youtube page and multiple videos with over Filipino pride a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele infused R&B music.”

/


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C. Content Analyis: Portrayals of OFs in adobo NATION In all the 13 episodes of “adobo NATION,” two were re-aired while nine episodes portrayed Filipinos in a positive light: 1.

ON CREATIVE SKILL - “Successful…”

Most portrayals showed Filipinos as achievers or source of Filipino pride. Examples of these are Filipinos Sean Samson who won “The Best Collection” award in an international tilt; Nina Rodecker, a Filipina businesswoman who set up her own candy shop - Cloud; and a long list of Filipino restaurateurs who made it big in the industry. 2. ON CULINARY SKILL - “… itong mga Kapampangan na ito ang gagaling magluto” In the episode five (5) of “adobo NATION” where the program showcased the best Filipino dish creations of sponsor restaurants, Hernandez described how Pinoys are talented in many facets of life. Specifically, the host said Kapampangans are talented in terms of the culinary arts. 3. ON LANGUAGE SKILL - “playful with words” In episode three (3) of “adobo NATION,” while the remark of a guest author of the book “Leche” does not evidently showcase Filipino talent, the statement “playful with words” convey how flexible Filipinos are. Specifically, Filipinos according to the author, know how to mix and match words so that they speak a different meaning.


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4. ON NATIONALISM - “mabuhay naman talaga tayong mga Pilipino” In episode four (4), host Michi Valeriano makes a general statement and celebrates the greatness of Filipinos. In the episode, Valeriano was referring to the celebration of Pinoy pride during the Philippine Independence Day parade at Times Square, New York. 5. ON FILIPINO PRIDE - “Basta hip and fun, at gawa sa Philippines, mga bonggang accessories, I will always wear.” In episode eight (8), Hernandez shared that she will wear trappings for as long as they are trendy and are made in the Philippines. While this statement does not directly state her pride, it conveys her patronage of homegrown products, a manifestation of the trust in the quality of these accessories. 6. ON LANGUAGE SKILL - “good in English” In episode nine (9), Santos, in a report on UP and ADMU being voted as two of the world’s best English-speaking schools, remarked how Filipinos are good in English, another affirmation of the Filipino’s ability. 7. ON PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE - “Ang galing talaga pag nakikita mo ang iyong kababayan nakikipagtagisan ng talent sa isang mainstream show (It makes one proud to see fellow Filipinos making the cut in mainstream television).” In episode 11, one of the hosts remarked how one feels pride over seeing a fellow Filipino, an ethnic race in the U.S., competing with Americans on mainstream television.


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8. ON FILIPINO TALENT – “There are a lot of talented people on the Philippines...” In episode 12, it is noted how there is an abundance of talent in the Philippines. 9. ON MUSICAL TALENT – “With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their youtube page and multiple videos with over a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele-infused R&B music.” In this episode, “adobo NATION,” host Santos acknowledged how a U.S.-based Filipino band managed to break through mainstream pop music by tapping alternative media – youtube, another proof of the Filipino’s music talentplus ingenuity. Of all these positive portrayals, the most recurring portrayal is those of Filipino achievers. Four of the portrayals pertain to specific skills: “… itong mga Kapampangan na ito ang gagaling magluto (culinary skill);” “playful with words (language skill);” “good in English (language skill)” and “With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their YouTube page and multiple videos with over a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele- infused R&B music (music skill).” Lastly, two pertain to the pride felt by Filipinos for the achievements of fellow Filipinos: “mabuhay naman talaga tayong mga Pilipino,” and “ang galing talaga pag nakikita mo ang iyong kababayan mong nakikipagtagisan ng talent sa isang mainstream show (It makes one proud to see fellow Filipinos making the cut in mainstream television).”


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In the meantime, three episodes documented how Filipinos come together as one community to support their “kababayans.” These were evident in episodes 1, 3, and 7: “Pinoys are the best. They really support you;” “For the entire community to really show our pride, culture and heritage, it fosters a lot of good things for our community and I think it should keep going” and “Virginia is not really known for much in the Filipino community. But we do have a large community and to have one thing that sets us apart as a community - that really sets us apart.” One episode however, did not have any portrayal of the Filipinos. Two episodes centered on Filipino food outlets within the San Francisco Bay area, while the other on the summer season. Two episodes were replays. Not one of the episodes portrayed Filipinos as blue collar workers, white collar workers, victims of racism and discrimination, victims of employers, or adulterer / adultress as the author hypothesized. In summary, most (9 out of 13) of the episodes made positive portrayals of Filipino/s as a race, as an individual or as having a specific skill. Only one episode did not specify representations and one portrayed Filipinos in a negative light, specifically as milking cows, as the researcher specifically hypothesized.

“adobo NATION” proved to be

consistent with its aim to deliver positive news on Filipinos. In terms of the codes used, visual, auditory, and cinematic codes were mostly employed in episodes with portrayals shot outside the TFC studios in San Francisco. For


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visual codes, specifically for setting, these were: episode 1 where Ruiz was recorded at Central Park, a symbol of cosmopolitan New York; episode 2 where the group KAMP honored graduates at the Central Cultural del Raza, a cultural hub within California; episode 4 where the showcase of Filipino talent was held at the Search to Involve Filipino Americans (SIPA) and at the Madison Avenue where the Philippine Independence Day parade was held; and episode 7 in Virginia beach where the young “anklung” players performed. Aside from the setting, more play on the shots (except for episode 2) were employed through close ups for emphasis, panning shots to showcase depth or extent of impact, and dissolves to add drama to the episode. Even in terms of audio, the fact that the program used the actual product of the skill of featured Filipinos, like in episode 1 where Ruiz played her own composition, episode 7 where the music of the young “anklung” player were featured, and episode 13 where the actual music of the group Xoxo was actually used, rendered importance to the subjects. In terms of the wardrobe and props, episode 1 showed Ruiz donning cosmopolitan clothes, episode 2 presented the students in graduation attire, episode 4 where the celebrities donned Filipiniana, and episode 7 where the young “anklung” players wore Filipiniana. The clothes were used to convey the importance of the Filipino achievers. On the other hand, episodes in the studio were wanting of the visual and auditory codes.


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3. Overseas Filipinos in the U.S. a. Profile of Informants The following presents the results of the interviews. Of the 13 informants, eight were interviewed via Focus Interview while five were interviewed Online. Eleven of the informants are females. Majority of the informants, who were between 30 to 40 years old are migrants and only one is a contract worker. Most of these key informants have spent an average of eight years in the U.S., specifically, seven of them in the West Coast, four in the East Coast, and one in Hawaii. Nearly all informants work in the health care industry (four are nurses, one is a technician, one a health services officer, and one a baby sitter) earning an average of USD $ 2,000 a month. Majority of the informants or six of them with health care professional background also had science-related educational degrees: Bachelor of Sciences in Nursing, Biology and Health Information Technology. Table 7 shows the profile of the informants: their names, age, number of years in the U.S., the state they are in, occupation, average income, and graduate course.


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Table 7. Profile of Informants NAME

GENDER

AGE

STATE

OCCUPATION

AVERAGE INCOME

30

NO. OF YEARS IN THE U.S. 7 to 9 years

Carolina Asuncion

Female

Jennifer Calimlim

New York

Babysitting

USD 2,000 – 2,999 a month

Female

38

11

Virginia

Health Services Officer

USD 3,000 – 3,999 a month

Raquel Caarigma James Castaneda

Female

10 years

California

Nurse

No answer

Male

No answer 41

7 to 9 years

California

Court Services Officer

USD 4,000 – 4,999 a month

Francine Maigue

Female

32

10 years

California

Artistic Director, Choreographer, Educator

Azalea Maganti

Female

37

Between 1 to 3 years

Regina Passion Raquel Mendoza Rebecca Mendoza

Female

37

New York

Teacher

Female

53

California

Nurse

Male

39

Between 6 to 7 years 10 years and above 10 years and above

Hawaii

Receptionist

10 years and above 4 to 6 years

California

Retired

No answer

California

Nurse

No answer

B.S. Nursing

10 years and above 10 years and above

New Jersey California

Nurse

No answer

B.S. Nursing

Business woman

No answer

Ronnie Mendoza Kenneth Ocampo Amelia Pineda Corazon Wiray

68 Female

22

Female

61

Female

65

Housewife

USD 1,000 – 1,999 a month USD 5,000 / month USD 5,000 and above USD 1,000 – 1,999

GRADUATE COURSE

Certificate in Health Information Technician No answer B.S. Social Science Masters Degree in Management in World Arts and Culture from UCLA B.S. Biology

B.S. Biology B.S. Nursing Certificate in Secretarial Services


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b. Portrayals of OFs in “adobo NATION” according to informants In an interview of Filipino-Americans, the most dominant representations seen in “adobo NATION” are positive (10 out of 13 informants – six from the face to face interviews and four from the online interview). One (Wiray) cited a negative portrayal while one mentioned both a negative and positive portrayal (Passion). Two (Asuncion and Ocampo) did not make a clear citation of a portrayal. Eight of the informants say that “adobo Nation” portrays Filipinos as achievers. Four out of these respondents say the portrayals are generally those of Filipino achievers or the springboard of Filipinos to shine as well (Maigue). Two said the portrayals are those of the success of Filipinos in their own fields. Two specifically noted that “adobo NATION” highlights the talent of Filipinos in the U.S. particularly Pempengco and winners of contests, among others. One pointed to the Filipinos’ helpfulness as one of the portrayals made aside from them as achievers. One did not make a clear citation on any portrayal. In summary, Filipinos as achievers emerged to be the most portrayals made by the program. Table 8 below provides a glimpse of the perception of selected Filipinos’ portrayals.


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Table 8. Summary of How the Informants Perceived the Portrayals of Them RESPONDENT Carolina Asuncion

Jennifer Calimlim

Raquel Carigma

PORTRAYAL

PERCEPTION OF PORTRAYALS “Pag nasa US ang mga tao, pag “Faithful to reality and are narinig nila yung America positive.” tinitingala nila (Filipinos in the U.S.A. are highly regarded).” “Successful, hardworking and "Yes I think so. They represent enjoying the best of both worlds as how Pinoys from all generations both Americans and Filipinos.” She adapt well to life here in the US, said that the portrayals show how and also the show just highlights resilient Filipinos are. “I feel proud how we Pinoys live in different that the show highlights how parts of the country." Filipinos survive and thrive no matter where they are and no matter what situations life may throw at them. I get inspired when they feature Pinoys who are successful in their chosen fields especially those who make it in the Hollywood scene. Also noteworthy is how we Pinoys successfully balance the marriage of two different cultures. We are very Americanized in a lot of ways but still remain loyal to Pinoy values and traditions.” “Yeah kasi mostly kasi kaibigan “Of course I am proud. Kasi nga namin is Pilipino. Alam namin ang mostly ang pagiging Pinoy sa ibang problem, ang iniisip ng Pilipino. bansa makikita mostly hard-woking Parang extension ng Pilipinas (Most kami…proud na proud (Of course I of our friends are Filipinos. We am proud because Filipinos are seen know what Filipinos are thinking of to be hard-working. We are very and what their problems are. It is proud).” just like we are home in the Philippines).” -“Yung reality. (Ang pinapakita ng programa) Yung mga nangyayari. Totoo naman (The (show portrays) truth. What is really happening).” -“Wala ring problema. Masakit sa kanila sometimes di ba pero yun ang reality ng buhay (There is no issue here because that [portrayal] is real and the truth hurts).”


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James Castañeda

"…the migrant worker side, taking jobs in order to support family back home, finding ways to bring family to the US, and the like."

Francine Maigue

"Filipinos doing great things setting up the platform for other Filipinos to shine.”

Azalea Maganti

"The hardships, trials and success stories of Filipinos abroad in general."

Raquel Mendoza

“But they’re really trying hard to irepresent the Filipino tradition din na yung mga through games, tsaka mga respect for elders, tsaka with yung saya the way they handle the whole game shows at lahat (They [people behind the program] are really trying hard to present the Filipino tradition through games, respect for elders and the way they handle the whole game shows and everything).” “Usually yung mga achievers dun na pinoportray they’re what I know sa States sila yun bang Filipino descent sila so they really did not come from here originally. They are good. Hindi naman sila...I think they’re very appreciative, they’re very faithful ([The program] portrays achievers who are based in the U.S.A. and not originally from the Philippines. The show is very appreciative [of Filipino talent] and

“The stereotype for overseas Pinoys would be, in my opinion, fairly accurate. The main motivation for working overseas would still be economic. There are probably no Pinoy OFWs here seeking asylum or fleeing political persecution.” "Oh yeah there’s no fluff. They’re positive but it’s not fluff. What I like about is that say the host, the approach is very optimistic. It’s very upbeat, high-energy pero they are also willing to talk about serious topics… It’s presented in a way that’s very accessible. You won’t feel overwhelmed." "Yes. It does not matter where in the world we are, the fact that Filipinos aim to provide their families with a better life is usually the main goal." “Pinoportray, shino-showcase nila yung mga celebrities, yung mga nananalo sa contests. Yung mga may achievements. Inaano nila iniinvite nila. That’s good kako para maboost ang morale ng mga Filipinos. That’s right ([The program] portrays and invites the celebrities winning in competitions. I believe this is good because it boosts the morale of Filipinos).”


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Ronnie Mendoza

Kenneth Ocampo

Regina Passion

[faithful in the portrayals]).” “We see the Filipino mark in them...I see the culture because they try to, specially dun sa respect, in the way they talk to the elders. That’s only recently. Not only because because they are Filipinos.” (“I see the culture because they try to [show it], especially with the elders).” “I think yeah they are close to reality pero I think more on...I don’t know, most of the time, you know most of the part na napapanood ko yung news, opinion. Anong opinion nila and they’re discussing it. I think it’s more on reality. (I think they are close to reality but I think more on...I don’t know most of the time, you know most of the part I watch are the news, opinion. What their opinions are and they are discussing it. I think it’s more on reality).”

"Being “magaling (good) because we are able to blend in and survive inspite of being a minority in the US. We are able to achieve something big in our areas.”

“I am glad that I am able to observe them and I am glad that Filipinos are getting attention.”

“Kasi what they like about Filipinos they are very loyal. Walang reklamo. Kahit double shift pa sila. Kahit na gaano kahirap ang trabaho pipilitin talaga nila. Walang masabi. Kahit saan ka pumunta. They would rather have Filipinos kesa Puti. Puti is very tamad. They don’t do anything. Nakupo lang sa work. But Filipinos you can put them anywhere. (What other races like about the Filipinos is their loyalty. They do not complain even when they are on double shift. Even if hard at work, Filipinos everywhere do not air their grievances. That is why foreign employers prefer Filipinos. The Westerners are lazy and do not do anything. They just sit around doing nothing. Filipinos on the other hand, can be put anywhere).” “Sometimes it is true that people (especially relatives) back home perceive us who make a lot of money, so they expect that anytime they ask assistance from us, they thought (sic) it was just easy. Well in fact everybody has to work hard for a living, and not everybody who lives abroad is having an easy life.”


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Amelia Pineda

Corazon Wiray

Ah oo naman, oo naman kasi totoo namang andaming successful na Pinoys. Napakadami nga eh. At saka at least nagiging known tayo, nagkakaroon ng place in the map ika nga (“Oh yes because there are a lot of successful Filipinos. They are a lot. Because of the recognition, we are earning our place in this world).”

"Yung mga successful Filipinos I think that’s one big plus para sa kanilang show…kasi parang inaano nila yung pride ng Pinoy – pinapakita how they strive atsaka mga achievements nila na ano tsaka mostly naman sa kanila sinasabi nila they are proud to be Pinoys (The successful Filipinos are one big plus for the show because they herald the Filipino pride. They show how Filipinos strive and succeed. Most of their content show that the hosts are proud to be Filipinos).” “The truth. That there are Filipinos “I hate it because they will be hiding.” demoralized. They will not get their rightful treatment that is supposed to be done per hour in the US.”

Based on face-to-face and online interviews, most of the portrayals of Filipinos in “adobo NATION” appeared faithful and were mostly of Filipinos exceling in their own fields. The following provide perspectives on how the portrayals of Filipinos are developed and should be portrayed in TFC.

1. Carolina Asuncion Carolina Asuncion, a nurse who recently migrated to the U.S. with her family says there are two sides to the story: “Maraming advantages and disadvantages sa mga Pilipino kasi siyempre pinapakita lahat ng mga hindi magaganda sa Pilipinas so hindi masyadong okay…nagiging malungkot tayo kasi nga siyempre nakikita natin na yung


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mga kababayan natin nahihirapan like sa government natin you know. So medyo masama ang effect (There are advantages and disadvantages for Filipinos because both their good and bad portrayals as well as conditions are shown. We sometimes feel bad because we see our “kababayans” in a sorry state and our government’s lack of help).” a. Portrayals of OFs On the positive portrayals in particlar, Asuncion said the fact that these are shown alongside other prortrayals, help create an atmosphere of transparency. “I mean, positive para sa ano kasi para sa mga Pilipino rin naman yun all over the world. Pagka-positive ang labas sa amin, nakakatulong rin sa amin yun para mabigyan namin ng experience, ng kaalamanan, you know, open-minded Pilipino (I mean [the portrayals] are alright because the positive portrayals help us become aware of how others see us and at the same time we learn from these portrayals).” b. Faithfilness of Portrayals Asuncion said that the portrayals made on “adobo NATION” are faithful to reality and are positive. c. How TFC should portray OFs She suggests that TFC should portray Filipinos more faithfully. “Kasi kung sa atin naman, pag nasa U.S. ang mga tao, pag narinig nila yung America tinitingala nila. Hindi naman lahat ng Pilipino dun is maganda ang buhay. Meron din siyempreng naghihirap.


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Ginagawa namin lahat para maging okay (People regard Filipinos in the U.S. very highly. However, not all Filipinos in the U.S. have a good life. The reality is there are those who also suffer but we all do our best to survive).” 2. Jennifer Calimlim Jennifer Calimlim, a medical transcriptionist, says that Filipinos were portrayed as “successful, hardworking, and enjoying the best of both worlds as both Americans and Filipinos.” a. Portrayals of OFs She observed that the portrayals show how resilient Filipinos are. “I feel proud that the show highlights how Filipinos survive and thrive no matter where they are and no matter what situations life may throw at them. I get inspired when they feature Pinoys who are successful in their chosen fields especially those who make it in the Hollywood scene. Also noteworthy is how we pinoys successfully balance the marriage of two different cultures. We are very Americanized in a lot of ways but still remain loyal to Pinoy values and traditions.” b. Faithfulness of portrayals According to Calimlim, the portrayals were close to reality. "Yes I think so. They represent how Pinoys from all generations adapt well to life here in the US, and also the show just highlights how we Pinoys live in different parts of the country."


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c. How TFC should Portray OFs Calimlim ended the Focus Interview by saying that TFC should portray OFs as “hard-working, perservering, and nationalistic at heart.”

3.

Raquel Carigma

Raquel is a secretary in Maui, Hawaii who used to keep to her self at work because she only knew a few English words. Years into her work, she developed confidence and started speaking the language and even encouraged others of her foreign officemates to do so. a. Portrayal of OFs She watches TFC to keep in touch with her culture. The portrayals she sees are those of Filipinos as achievers in terms of entertainment and as good Samaritans generously giving back to ther relatives in the Philippines. “Mostly kasi sa “adobo NATION,” yung talent ng Pinoy pinapakita roon atsaka about ano rin, kasi siyempre we are outside the Philippines, yung pagiging generous ng Filipinos, we keep on helping mga families sa Philippines and how to save. Ang talagang inaano ko doon yung “OK Nga Rod” kasi yung sa financial, how to save, how to consolidate (In “adobo NATION,” [we see] the Filipino talent and how generous we are towards our families. In the segment ‘OK Nga Rod,’ we are taught how to save for example).”


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She adds that even if “adobo NATION” presents the negative side of OFs, she would rather that the program shows that instead of faking the truth. “Yung reality. Yung mga nangyayari. Totoo naman.” “Hindi rin kasi iyon (false portrayal) ang totoo eh. Reality eh so bakit hindi natin tanggapin?” “Wala ring problema. Masakit sa kanila sometimes di ba pero yun ang reality ng buhay (I would like to see the truth because that is reality. Even if the program would have done differently, that would not be the truth. There is no issue here because that [portrayal] is real and the truth hurts).” b. Faithfulness of portrayals She is open to this portrayal because it puts Filipinos in a good light. “Of course I am proud.

Kasi nga mostly ang pagiging Pinoy sa ibang bansa makikita mostly hard-

woking kami. Proud na proud [kami]. (Of course I am proud because Filipinos are seen to be hard-working. We are very proud).” Carigma sees these portrayals as realistic, “Yeah kasi mostly kasi kaibigan namin is Pilipino.

Alam namin ang problem, ang iniisip ng Pilipino.

Parang extension ng

Pilipinas (Most of our friends are Filipinos. We know what Filipinos are thinking of and what their problems are. It is just like we are home in the Philippines).” She adds that her fellow Filipinos are maybe also proud. “Kasi nga, mostly tumatanyag. Unti-unti nang nakikilala. Ang kagandahan sa ibang bansa…yeah masaya kami. Parang na-aapreciate namin. We are proud to be Filipino. Di katulad dati dati na ashamed ka to be Filipino. Ngayon wala na.

Nakatulong din yung achievers na Filipinos.

Parang, ngayon


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nagbabago na (Filipinos and the Philippines are starting to get noticed. We appreciate it and we fell proud. In the past, we would feel ashamed. Now, because of Filipino achievers, everything is different).”

4. James Castañeda a. Portrayals of OFs Meantime, James Castañeda said that most portrayals included as migrant workers taking jobs to be able to support their relatives back home, including finding ways to petition their family. He said portrayals are those of “the migrant worker side, taking jobs in order to support family back home, finding ways to bring family to the US, and the like.” b. Faithfulness of Portrayals He said the times have changed and more Filipinos are in fact in the U.S. more for economic rather than political reasons. “The stereotype for overseas Pinoys would be, in my opinion, fairly accurate. The main motivation for working overseas would still be economic. There are probably no Pinoy OFWs here seeking asylum or fleeing political persecution.”


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c. How TFC should Portray OFs In terms of suggestions on how TFC should portray OFs, Castaneda proposed none. “I do not have much of an opinion on the matter. I believe ABS CBN TFC has both artistic and legal right to produce programming in whatever form it wishes to.

5.

Azalea Maganti

Azalea Maganti is an OF who married in the U.S. and has become a migrant. a. Portrayals of OFs She said that the portrayals are of "the hardships, trials and success stories of Filipinos abroad in general." b. Faithfulness of portrayals This portrayal according to Maganti cuts across regions. “It does not matter where in the world we are, the fact that Filipinos aim to provide their families with a better life is usually the main goal.” c.

How TFC should Portray OFs

Maganti said she is satisfied so far with “adobo NATION’s portrayals and suggests no further. ABS-CBN has always represented Filipinos in the truest sense of the word and we have appreciated it.”


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6. Francine Maigue a. Portrayals of OFs According to Maigue, the program “adobo NATION” is unique because it may be a talk show but it has nothing of the the drama and negativity that other shows of its kind have. “What I love about “adobo NATION” is that it features a wide array of people, especially business owners. People from the financial sector – a CFO or a CPA that want to help others. They are Filipinos who help other Filipinos. And that is what I love. Filipino chef that is showcasing Philippine cuisine like Philippine cuisine is the next best thing, teachers or everything else, the local artists that are Pinoy. I love that it is Filipinos doing great things setting up the platform for other Filipinos to shine.” b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Maigue said the portrayals are faithful.

"Oh yeah there’s no fluff. They’re

positive but it’s not fluff. What I like about is that say the host, the approach is very optimistic. It’s very upbeat, high-energy pero they are also willing to talk about serious topics… It’s presented in a way that’s very accessible. You won’t feel overwhelmed." However, more than the faithfulness of portrayals, she watches the show because it presents issues in a non-alarming and light manner.


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c. How TFC should portray OFs

Maigue wished that there are segments that share valuable information. Maigue said: “I would like to see more segments that focus on say like what are, and this will help even bring bigger viewership. So it is not just mom and dad are tuning in. More segments for the Philippine team. When you are there, you are going to go to a university. You know what I mean. How do you go about preparing for exams, how are you going to go about preparing for your scholarship exams.” Moreover she wants to see more of portaryals on Filipino achievers. “We have so much talent. The hip-hop scene. We have so much talent.

It is really about the younger crew.

They compete in

international competitions all the time. I want them showcased more because they are working so hard. Pero hindi naman we are a proud people (But no, we are a proud people). We have something to inspire the next generation.”

7.

Rebecca Mendoza

Rebecca Mendoza is a migrant who has become the family breadwinner when her husband Ronnie retired. She turns to television as a stress-reliever and to alleviate her homesickness. “For me yung you know by watching through them nare-relieve pati yung homesickness. But they are really trying hard to represent the Filipino tradition din na yung mga through games, tsaka mga respect for elders, tsaka with yung saya the way they handle the whole game shows at lahat.

It’s very entertaining (I forget my


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homesickness when I watch [the shows on TFC]. They [people behind the program] are really trying hard to present the Filipino tradition through games, respect for elders and the way they handle the whole game shows and everything).” a. Portrayals of OFs Amongst the programs she watches is “adobo NATION.” Rebecca said “they have mostly positive stuff kagaya ng mga food ano rin mga Filipino food, entertainment, restaurants. Lately, nag-improve yata sila ng styles. Meron silang bagong format ng show nila. You know, hindi ko actually, ano, but I haven’t seen any negative so far. Pinoportray, shinoshowcase nila yung mga celebrities, yung mga nananalo sa contests. Yung mga may achievements. Inaano nila, ini-invite nila.

That’s good kako para

maboost ang morale ng mga Filipinos. (That’s right ([“adobo NATION”] mostly has positive stuff like the Filipino food, entertainment, and restaurants. Lately, they have improved their style. They have a new format and so far I have not seen any negative portrayal. They showcase the celebrities and the Filipinos who win contests. I think that will boost the morale of Filipinos).” Hinging on Pierce’s Semantic theory, Rebecca at the Perception level, became aware of the fact that food is part of the “adobo NATION’s” main highlights. At Manipulation level, Rebecca perceived the sign as positive. Further on, Rebecca explained that the feature on food, amongst other positive items in “adobo NATION,” is a morale booster for Filipinos.


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b. Faithfulness of Portrayals “adobo NATION’s” portrayals are close to the truth that Rebecca has observed. In fact, the program shows that some of the Filipino achievers portrayed are not a hundred percent Filipino. “Usually yung mga achievers dun na pinoportray they are what I know sa States sila yun bang Filipino descent sila so they really did not come from here originally. They are good. Hindi naman sila...I think they’re very appreciative, they’re very faithful. Very proud naman sila…Gaya nina Aragon, di ba she was featured there but she’s not from here. We really love si Lea Salonga from nung kanyang kabataan. Hanggang ngayon kung saan siya nagcoconcert. Maganda ang achievements din niya. Kaya ano, that’s very nice ([The program] portrays achievers who are based in the U.S.A. and not originally from the Philippines. The show is very appreciative [of Filipino talent] and [faithful in the portrayals]).” c. How TFC should portray OFs Rebecca said TFC can portray more variety in programming, “Minsan, I like them because they change their programs every 3 months because before I know it, iba na naman. May variety. Yung issue kay Willie (Revillame) that is really a big issue abroad. That is how we felt. Tapos biglang nagkaroon ng alitan. Napalitan naman ng something good. Both actually benefitted. On the otherhand, sabi namin well di naman ako nagju-


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judge parang he owns the show. Kasi ano siya very generous. He tends to give whatever is from his pocket.”

8. Raquel Mendoza Like most Filipinos, Raquel is based in California where she continues to work as a nurse even if she is nearing her retirement age. She also gets the staple of her Filipino content from TFC and watches “adobo NATION.” a. Portrayal of OFs Mostly kasi sa “adobo NATION”, yung talent ng Pinoy pinapakita roon atsaka about ano rin, kasi siyempre we are outside the Philippines, yung pagiging generous ng Filipinos, we keep on helping mga families sa Philippines and how to save. Ang talagang inaano ko doon yung OK Nga Rod kasi yung sa financial, how to save, how to consolidate (“adobo NATION” mostly shows the talent and generosity of Filipinos outside the Philippines and how they keep on helping their countrymen back home. It also shows how to save and how to consolidate). b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Rebecca says she feels good about the portrayals. “It is good they are doing that. At least narerecognize yung mga achievements ng Filipinos ba. Lalo na rin yung mga Pinoy achievements dito. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a


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great job. Nagfefeature lang sila di katulad ng TV Patrol. That is right. Maganda, maganda that is a good show actually. (We feel, you know, we felt good. It is good they are doing that. The achievements, especially of the Filipinos are recognized. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. c. How TFC should portray OFs Rebecca said she cannot really ask for anything more from “adobo NATION” because the program covers a wide range of topics. “Mostly na-tackle na nila. Kasi minsan iba-ibang story. Pero yung talagang tumulong ng masyado din ay yung sa pagsasave. Kasi tayong mga Pilipino nung bagay ako dun. Ano ba yung retirement? Now na nadi-discuss na iyon. So natututo na rin ako (They are able to tackle almost about anything. Sometimes the stories are different. The topic that really helps is the one about saving because Filipinos are into this. Retirement is also discussed.” Now that these are discussed, I also get to learn about it).

9. Ronnie Mendoza Ronnie Mendoza is a retired migrant based in the West Coast. According to him Filipinos are portrayed as respectful in the program “adobo NATION.” “We see the Filipino mark in them. We also watch American shows. Iba ang Filipino (the Filipino is different) – what they saw, they say what they mean and we understand what they saw. I


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see the culture because they try to, specially dun sa respect, in the way they talk to the elders (I see the culture because they try to [show it], especially with the elders). That’s only recently. Not only because because they are Filipinos. a. Portrayals of OFs He has the same thoughts as some of the informants. One of the portrayals he thinks “adobo NATION” makes of Filipinos is that of Filipino as achievers. “I am glad that I am able to observe them and I am glad that Filipinos are getting attention.” b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Ronnie thinks that these portrayals convey a positive outlook for Pinoys. “What comes to my mind is that Filipinos have a lot in them to show to other countries. Our educational background is of a higher qulity. We have a lot to be proud of. That’s common to all Filipinos… kami we show our appreciation for fellow Filipinos....more positive yes.” c. How TFC Should Portray OFs So far he is happy with how Filipinos are portrayed in “adobo NATION.”

10. Kenneth Ocampo Kenneth Ocampo, a nurse who just migrated in the U.S. four years ago said the portrayals should show that Filipinos in America are not just enjoying the good life. “I


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mean people back here should also know what is also going in there. Di lang shopping. Like the fun stuff. Las Vegas. Spending money. People there do spend money but they work their butt off...hard for it. Like me I work eight hours a day and then in one year I say to my self you deserve a vacation [that’s right] at least five days.” a. Portrayals of OFs “Well think it is all negative and positive. You’ll see some people are negative about the drop of the peso to dollar. You know. Some people are not into news. Yeah I guess the news, it really helps what is going on right here.” b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Ocampo said the portrayals are truthful. “I think yeah they are close to reality pero I think more on...I don’t know, most of the time, you know most of the part na napapanood ko yung news, opinion. Anong opinion nila and they are discussing it. I think it’s more on reality.” c. How TFC should Portray OFs However, Ocampo said that these portrayals, even if these are realistic, have a negative effect for her relatives in the Philippines and the U.S. “Siyempre nag-woworry din sila di ba? I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba (They [people in the Philippines] worry. I mean every Filipino will do. That is our representation as a people right)? Actually I went to Hong Kong (HK). Remember may nangyaring HK hostage and so they were very rude


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sa amin (Remember there was a hostage-taking and so the HK nationals were very rude). Yeah. We did not expect it that way. I called up my mom and she was like “Well you know what something happened.” Something about HK and Chinese people. And I guess you know baka isipin nila ang mga Pinoy ganoon. Sa kapwa Asian. So kahit long years na yung tumagal, naalala ng HK people (And I guess you know that other races will think of us that way. So even if years have passed, HK people still remember) Same as the Americans. It will stick to their minds - kung anong ginawa ng mga Filipinos (what Filipinos did to their fellowmen). And sometimes, ginawa ng kapwa mo Pilipino mo represented ka na di ba? Mahihiya ka rin na kapwa Pilipino mo may ginawa na ka-somethingan. Hahabulin ka na nun anywhere you go (Sometimes just because other Filipinos did it, you will also be of the same mold. You will also feel ashamed because of what other Filipinos do. Not only at work. It’s really bad…you know what happened. Tiningin nila walang ginawa ang mga Pilipino sa interest ng nangyari, the entire world (People will think the Filipinos did nothing about it). Maybe you’ll never know maybe any other Asian will not respect us the way they used to.” The reality, Ocampo said is that Filipinos in the U.S. are very hard-working. Nakita ko talaga kung ano talaga yung good way and bad way. But if you ask me sa States, I think as far as I have been living there for five years, maganda naman ang background ng Filipinos. Actually, lahat ng puwede mong puntahan - restaurants, malls, mga care home puro Filipino talaga siya. Kasi what they like about Filipinos they are very loyal. Walang reklamo. Kahit double shift pa sila. Kahit na gaano kahirap ang trabaho pipilitin talaga nila. Walang masabi. Kahit saan ka pumunta. They would rather have Filipinos kesa Puti. Puti is very tamad. They don’t do anything. Nakupo lang sa work. But Filipinos you can put them anywhere (What


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other races like about the Filipinos is their loyalty. They do not complain even when they are on double shift. No matter how demanding a certain job could be, Filipinos do not air their grievances. That is why foreign employers prefer Filipinos. The Westerners are lazy and do not do anything. They just sit around doing nothing. Filipinos on the other hand, can be put anywhere). Lahat ng Filipinos ang buhay sa Amerika it is not as easy as you think. Pipila sa States (To all the Filipinos out there, life in the U.S. is not as easy as you think. People line up for the chance to get to the States). Once you are there, you are a caregiver. Hindi mo makukuha ang sarap ng trabaho (You cannot get the job you want). My mom and my step-dad petitioned me. Pinatapos ako ng high school. I am (sic) only 17 and my age was in the middle of having fun, going around kasi magcocollege nako (I finished high school. I was only 17 and in the middle of having fun, going around because I was heading to college). I started first year of college. Lalabas ka lang. Lahat ng tao nakakulong (You want to go out but the others just stay in their homes). For two years I was really crying. I do not want to be here. Antagal naming di nagsama ng mom ko. Nag-OFW sa Singapore. Yung amo niya nagpunta sa California and then nagdouble date, nagkaanak na (I was separated from my mother for so long. She worked as an OFW in Singapore. Her employer set her up for a double date and then got pregnant). When they asked me to be here. Yung dad kong nandito may family na siya (my father has a new family here). It was really pretty tough. Everyday I pray something will change, to find friends. Ako yung tipo ng tao I choose friends kasi di ako madaling magtiwala. As the years went by natuto akong magdrive (I am the type of person who does not easily trust people. It was easier to find a job. I can go anywhere. It was easy if you’re very masipag. Wala kang maririnig na reklamo. Ayaw ng foreigners nago-overtime (It is easier if you are hardworking. You would not hear any complain. The foreigners, on the other hand, do not like going overtime.


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11. Regina Passion Regina Passion, the respondent who has spent the least time in the U.S. among the informants, said that most Filipinos are portrayed as food entrepreneurs, creative, and world-class talented people. It also portrays OFs as well-off. a. Portrayals of OFs In general, Passion said OFs are portrayed as “Being ‘magaling (good)’ because we are able to blend in and survive inspite of being a minority in the US. We are able to achieve something big in our areas.” b. Faithfulness of portrayals According to Passion, while the portrayals were true, these have repercussions. “Sometimes it is true that people (especially relatives) back home perceive us who make a lot of money, so they expect that anytime they ask assistance from us, they thought it was just easy. Well in fact everybody has to work hard for a living, and not everybody who lives abroad is having an easy life.” Because of this, Passion said she had to improve on her craft. c. How TFC should Portray OFs Passion hoped that the portrayals become an eye opener for viewers and content sources like TFC. I am contented with how ABS CBN portray Filipinos as world class talents. But at the same time, people back home should also know how difficult it is to


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live and work abroad, and that TFC should also show the struggles of Filipinos in the US and use it as an eye opener and inspiration for people back home.”

12. Amelia Pineda Pineda is a nurse who continues to work even after retirement in New Jersey. Like her Filipino co-workers in the hospital she works for, Pindea said they get their dose of Filipino content from TFC. Specific to “adobo NATION,” she said the portrayals are close to real-life. a. Portrayals of OFs Migrant Amelia Pineda agreed that the representations are faithful to reality. “Ah oo naman, oo naman kasi totoo namang andaming successful na Pinoys. Napakadami nga eh. At saka at least nagiging known tayo,nagkakaroon ng place in the map ika nga (“Oh yes because there are a lot of successful Filipinos. They are a lot. Because of the recognition, we are earning our place in this world).” Pineda said the portrayals are positive. “Oo positive naman yung pinapakita doon especially yung mga successful na mga Pinoys na nasa America. Di ba nakikita nila iyon? …Yung mga successful Filipinos I think that is one big plus para sa kanilang show…kasi parang inaano nila yung pride ng Pinoy – pinapakita how they strive at saka mga achievements nila na ano tsaka mostly naman sa kanila sinasabi nila they are proud


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to be Pinoys (The successful Filipinos are one big plus for the show because they herald the Filipino pride. They show how Filipinos strive and succeed. Most of their contents show that the hosts are proud to be Filipinos).” b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Like Asuncion, Pineda wishes that the program also shows the negative side. “Puwede namin kasing ipakita ang negative but in a different way. Para makita yung mga Pinoy sa abroad yung condition ng Pilipinas. c. How TFC Should Portray OFs Pero minsan yung mga pinapakita sa TV doon parang amazing. Parang mga mahirap na tao siyempre nakakaawa. Oo so dapat parang may redeeming value (The program can still show the negative side but in a different way. This way Filipinos can see the real condition. On the other hand, the portrayals on television are different. There are poor people but there should be redeeming values in the end).” She thinks that Filipinos view these portrayals as she does. “Siyempre the same way. Same way kasi Filipino sila. Gusto nila maganda rin yung background nila. You know. Work, economy nila. Siyempre i-interviewihin ka at work. Siyempre, naiipon yung padala. Siyempre representation mo iyon as Filipino. Basically the same way. (Other Filipinos view these portrayals the same way. Of course they would also like to have a


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good background – work and economy-wise. They will interview you at work. They will save money to send back home. That is how Filipinos are).”

13. Corazon Wiray Corazon Wyray is a philanthropist based in San Diego. She sees some Filipinos illegally setlling in the U.S. but she does not report them out of “bayanihan.” a. Portrayal of OFs Wiray said that there are portrayals of OFs as undocumented Filipinos. “Maraming TNT. We even see them talking on groceries. We always tell them it is difficult (There are a lot of illegal migrants. We even see them talking in groceries. We always tell them it is difficult). b. Faithfulness of Portrayals Wiray said that while the portrayals are faithful, she does not want to see them on television. “I hate it because they will be demoralized. They will not get their rightful treatment that is supposed to be done per hour in the US.” c. How TFC should portray OFs She wishes however, that “adobo NATION” shows this truth. “…there are Filipinos hiding. I hate it because they will be demoralized. They will not get their rightful treatment that is supposed to be done per hour in the U.S. The whole story behind it is


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kept to the public. They do not show the whole story behind it. Kumabaga ini-iscreen din ang mga sinasabi mga ganoon.” As an effect she and her fellow Filipinos feel helpless, “We just shake our heads, because we know the whole story is this long and they cut them up and they try to skew in this what you get because you come in here undocumented because this is not what you are going to get.”


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Effects of these portrayals in “adobo NATION” based on the perception of

D.

Filipino migrants 1.

Effects of the portrayals in “adobo NATION” on the informants

Carolina Asuncion a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos For Asuncion, the portrayals have a bigger impact beyond pride. “You know as a Filipino nakikita ko naman kasi you know, minsan siyempre nakakawa sila which is nagpupush sa atin na tumulong sa atin mga kababayan (As a Filipino, I see how the conditions of other Filipinos are. This drives us to help our fellowmen).” She also saw the same kind of large-scale impact on fellow Filipinos. “Malaking tulong naman sa ating Pilipino. Kahit saan tayo magpunta, nandoon pa rin yung pagkakaisa. Pag negative sa akin, malungkot ([Portrayals] have a huge impact on Filipinos. Everywhere we go, Filipinos are united. Negative portrayals sadden me.” b. Long-term effects For Asuncion, the effects all boiled down to Filipino unity. She said: Para sa akin naman, ano, maging ano lang parang maging isang, magtulungan pa rin tayo kahit na hiwa-hiwalay kahit nakakalat tayo sa buong mundo. Malaking tulong naman sa ating Pilipino. Kahit saan tayo magpunta, nandoon pa rin yung pagkakaisa (For me, we need to be united even if we are spread across the world. It is a big help for Filipinos to come together anywhere we go).


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Jennifer Calimlim a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Calimlim did not mention a specific effect on her but she hopes that if any, they will be positive. She also hoped the same kind of result for her fellow Filipinos in the U.S. According to Calimlim, she herself is inspired with the success of Pinoys outside the Philippines. She said , “When I see a Filipino chef who has successfully put up a Filipino resto that is at or above par with other American establishments, it makes me think that nothing is impossible if you dream it and work hard for it.” Aside from the sense of pride, she also sees the portrayals as holding the Filipino race together as one, no matter where Pinoys are. “You also get a sense of community among Filipinos no matter which state they live. It makes me feel great to see on the show how native dances are being taught to second generation Fil-Ams. These are all positive representations for FilipinoAmericans not only to each other but to the rest of the world," Calimlim added. b. Long-term effects Calimlim recognized this sense of community extending to Filipinos even outside the U.S. “We all can learn more about other Filipinos and how they make a difference in the Filipino community where they live, and hopefully we can apply the same ideas, goals and values to our own communities as well.”


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Raquel Carigma a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos The effects of these potrayals are good according to her perspective. Carigma said: You can do it pala. Parang ganoon ang thinking. Pag napapanood, kaya naman pala. Give it a try. At least may natututunan. Naiinfluence ko yung co-worker ko. Mas maganda kasi parang marami ka nang natutunan. Alam mo na how to apply. You have to share. Kasi kung may good news you have to share (with co-workers) (When I see portrayals, I realized that we can do it. We can give it a try so that we can rise even if we stumble and fall. After making mistakes, I will know what to do given the same situation. I can even influence my co-workers to do the same). Because of this, Carigma sought no further content. She recalled: Mostly na-tackle na nila (TFC). Kasi minsan iba-ibang story. Pero yung talagang tumulong ng masyado din ay yung sa pagsa-save. Kasi tayong mga Pilipino nung bagay ako dun. Ano ba yung retirement? Now na nadi-discuss na iyon. So natututo na rin ako…May portion doon that helps. Kasi parang yun na talaga pag nagwawatch ako. Pag pinepresent yung pagluluto (TFC tackles almost all kinds and types of stories. But what really helped me are the tips on how to save which fits a lot of Filipinos. What is retirement? Now that it is discussed, I am also learning. That is what I watch most. I learn even from the cooking segments). But according to Carigma, not all Filipinos perceived the portrayals in a positive light. She recounted: Masakit sa kanila sometimes di ba pero yun ang reality ng buhay….Sama lang dito like doctor sa Philippines pagdating dito...They studied sa UP. Bakit ganoon hindi fair. Pero wala kang magagawa. It’s not the same as here. You graduated in that school. They looked up to you. Siyempre nasasaktan ka rin di ba? Kapwa Pilipino mo. Kapwa Pilipino mo inaakusahan. Ang pangit kasi in a way naaawa ka rin. Siyempre parang ang bad ng feeling sa sarili. Dinadala yung


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bad sa Philippines sa States. Ang pangit naman na yung pangit sa Pilipinas dinadala mo sa States. Dapat anywhere you go, dapat good traits (The truth sometimes hurts but that is what life is. For instance, the doctors in the Philipines, including those who studied in schools like UP. It is not fair [because they do not practice their profession in the U.S.]) However, you cannot do anything. It is not the same here. If you graduate in a certain school, they look up to you. Of course you will feel hurt. Fellow Filipinos accuse other Filipinos and you feel empathy. You feel bad because you bring the bad habits in the U.S. We should only showcase our best). b. Effects on foreigners It is however, a different story in terms of foreigners’ views on the portrayals. Yung reality. Okay lang na nakikita ng ibang tao. Kaya natutuwa ako sa mga nakikita nila dun (The truth. It is alright for others to see [the portrayals].” In fact the portrayals are more than positive. Foreign employers see Filipinos’ edge over other races. “Alam nila between ang work namin, ang difference ng work nila. Alam nila talaga. Minsan nga ginagaya nila kami. Nagiging example kami sa kanila. Ang nagiging problema namin ngayon, competition. Pero still, kami pa rin ang nananalo (They [foreign employers] know the difference from the Filipinos’ working attitude. Sometimes, foreigners try to emulate what we do. We become examples. The problem now is competition. But at the end of the day, we still have the edge). b. Long-term effects In terms of long-term effects, Carigma noted, “As of now, okay lahat ng pinapanood namin.

Natutuwa nga kami, nakikita ng iba naming kamag-anak ko kung anong

ginagawa namin dun (As of now, we are okay with what we watch. We are glad because our relatives see what we do).”


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Carigma added that her foreign co-workers share the positive reception. “What they like about Filipinos are very loyal. Walang reklamo (No complaints). Filipinos you can put them anywhere.”

James Castañeda a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Castañeda said the portrayals on “adobo NATION” have no effect on him. He said there is none as well on his fellow Filipinos. "I don’t think my fellow Filipinos, at least the ones I have been exposed to, would change their perception of me based on depictions in television programming." b. Long-term effects Castañeda admitted `though that there may be some kind of repercussions in the long haul. He said: I guess in the long run, a piece of TV programming that have enough of a following in the Philippines and in the U.S. could shape public perception based on dramatic portrayals of the ‘Filipino overseas.’ For the most part, though, my opinion is that your average overseas Pinoy worker would place a greater amount of time worrying about other issues such as financial and legal matters rather than ‘public perception’ of how they are collectively represented.


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Francine Maigue a. Effects on oneself and on other Filipinos Maigue, noting how interests of people can be different, said that if the researcher is especifically pertaining to the content on “adobo NATION,” it can only call the interest of those in the U.S. But if it focused on the content for OFs in the U.S. like her, then she said “I think they will be very proud.” Maigue, citing the effects more as a wish, pointed out that because of the number of cultural performances in her home state of San Diego, she would like to see more of the Filipino culture featured. So it’s like it is great. I do not how much they are going to take away from it. The other thing is that, the thing about “adobo NATION” is they show a few things here I love. There is so much going on in San Diego. And I would love for them to showcase it. I will be active about it. We have so much going on. If they need to produce segments in San Diego, I would be so active. We have so many festivals. We have so many cultural performances. Our talent commutes. They go to LA but their homebase is San Diego.

b. Long-term effects In terms of the long-term effects, Maigue reiterated her desire to see more of the Filipino talent and culture captured in “adobo NATION.” Maigue shared: The bay area like North California is so different from South California. I really want that. California is a big state. (That is) one way to showcase that. That is one reason I got involved in FAYLP (Filipino American Young Leaders of the Philippines). There is so much going on in that community. People will be proud of what they are doing. Jessica Sanchez is from my town actually. Chula Vista alone, there is a pack full of Filipinos. Di ba the economy is hard and that does not really affect Filipinos? But these people are hanging on to their lives. Their students are graduates of top-notch


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universities. They got it together like they are involved in the arts. They excel in the academe. And they are proud to be part of the Philippines. They are doing well in the arts. And even with that, the Filipinos are proud to be Filipinos. I hope they can showcase these Filipinos.

Azalea Maganti a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Because of the many kinds of portrayals, either positive or negative, Maganti said the effects can make one OF look into what he or she has achieved. But at the end of the day, she is hopeful that the greater purpose for her migration will see her through. Maganti mused, “Sometimes, self-pity comes into play but love for family will always prevail.” In terms of the effects on her “kababayans” in the U.S., Maganti believed that the portrayals will make other Filipinos in the continent understand them more. She said: Most Filipinos in the U.S., especially those born and raised back home, understand and relate to the migrants who work double time or triple time to send money back home. At times, those who are U.S.- born, cannot relate nor care since life in the U.S. has always been a survival of sorts especially with the continued recession.

b. Long-term effects Maganti is also more hopeful with the effects of how Filipinos are portrayed on transationalized television, specifically TFC’s “adobo NATION.” Maganti hoped that


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there will be “more understanding from Filipinos with colonial mentality or crab mentality.”

Raquel Mendoza a. Effects of portrayals on oneself and other Filipinos The portrayals give Mendoza a good feeling. She shared: It is good they are doing that. At least narerecognize yung mga achievements ng Filipinos ba (At least the achievements of Filipinos are recognized. Lalo na rin yung mga Pinoy expats (Especially the Filipino expatriates). I do not have anything against that I just felt they are doing a great job. Nagfe-feature lang sila di katulad ng balita ng “TV Patrol.” That is a right. Maganda maganda (Beautiful, beautiful). That is a good show.” The effects rubbed off on fellow Filipinos she said. “Nai-influence ko yung co-worker ko. Dati wala siyang imik. She does not know how to speak in English. Ako naman kahit baluktot ang English ko pero if I am right I will fight for it. Pareho na kami – U.S. citizen na rin siya. Natututo na rin siya sa influence ko (I was able to influence my co-worker. She used to be so quiet. She does not know how to speak English. Even if I speak broken English as they say but if what I am saying is right, I fight for it. Right now, we are both U.S. citizens. She has learned through my influence). b. Long-term effects of portrayals As far as long term effects are concerned, Raquel related that not everyone perceived them in a good way. She recounted: Minsan, not everybody, yeah, has that positive attitute towards that. Yung iba naman they have some against that. May mga alam mo na (Sometimes, not everybody have a positive attitude. Others are against it [portrayals]). What do we call the term, inggit, some form of jealousy. Although they should be proud of that kind na nirerepresent din nila country nila. Others, we raise money for them. Oh


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they all have these great rewards anyway. That kind of attitude. Why don’t we have to that? Giving money or contributing is a form of appreciation. It is not because they need that. Ina-apreciate mo yung kanilang achievements. But others they are not like that. The only portrayals she saw as negative are those found in news programs. Raquel said: Yung kagaya nung sa ano news of course you know there are a lot of...you know yun naman that is the truth. Ah sa pagkatao. Kagaya ng…ala namang show. It is mostly game shows we watch that is why. Ano pa ba yung ibang shows…sa “Eat Bulaga” there is a lot of cursing but compared to TFC, we tend towards watching TFC parang napapansin ko may mga ganung ano eh di magandang words sometimes. Kaya di ako nanunod kasi nakokornihan din ako dun. Tapos I think it’s a good effect unless yung mga ano... hindi naman namin alam yung ibang ano...Most of our friends that have TFC they really have a good feedback. At least meron kang choice (In other forms of content like news, there are a lot of realities on the portrayals for example. In variety shows, there are no portrayals because they are mostly game shows. In “Eat Bulaga,” there is a lot of cursing unlike in TFC. We tend to watch TFC because of the cursing and the offensive humor [I Eat Bulaga]. Most of our friends who have TFC send good feedback. At least we have a choice).

Ronnie Mendoza a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Mendoza said he was proud to see through the portrayals on “adobo NATION.” “I am glad that I am able to observe them and I am glad that Filipinos are getting attention. [For example] Apo ni Sylvia La Torre (Sylvia La Torre’s grandaughter).” Mendoza said that the portrayals on “adobo NATION” will help Filipinos’ self-esteem. “That is good kako para maboost ang morale ng mga Filipinos (I believe that will greatly boost the morale of Filipinos.”


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Mendoza saw that there is more than one or two incidences of Filipinos being portrayed as achievers. “What comes to my mind is that Filipinos have a lot in them to show to other countries. Our educational background is of a higher quality. We have a lot to be proud of. That’s common to all Filipinos.” b. Long-term Effects When asked about the long-term effects, Ronnie Mendoza cited the financial aspect of subscribing to transnationalized content. “TFC, we pay to get the service. It is something we buy because we like the service. If we do not like it we will not buy it. It is worth the money (so) we pay.”

Amelia Pineda a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Pineda said that the portrayals gave her a positive feeling. She said: Proud sila siyempre lalo na yung time ng…nung nina Charice Pempengco nung simula ng siya ay anong tawag doon – na ma-feature. Oo it goes around. Di nga alam kung sino yun. Yung mga kasama namin sa trabaho, uy panoorin niyo si ganoon, ganoon fast. Very good singer. Ganoon ([I was] proud of course, especially during the time of Charice Pempengco. It goes around. I did not even know who she was. My co-workers just prodded me to watch).” As far as other Filipinos are concerned, she said “Eh di magiging proud ka na ikaw ay Pinoy. Number one. Siyempre you support them in whatever way you can. Kasi hindi naman lahat ng tao sa America have good jobs to see the shows kasi mahal din yung mga shows. At least kung meron through television makikita nila iyon (Because of the portrayals], we feel proud to be Filipinos. Of course you support them in whatever way you can. Not all


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of Filipinos in the U.S. have good jobs to pay for the shows. At least on television, we get to watch our favorite celebrities).

b. Long-term Effects In the long haul, Pineda saw the effects to be sustained in the U.S. and the Philippines. “Nakita ko talaga yung good way and bad way. But if you ask me, I think as far as I’ve been living there for 5 years, maganda ang background ng Filipinos. Same lang dito like sa Philippines pagdating dito (I see both the good and bad side to it. But if you ask me, as far as I have been living there for five years, Filipinos have a good background. It is the same here as it is in the Philippines.” In the end, Pineda summed it all up - that “adobo NATION” should also show both the good and bad side of portrayals. “Dapat talaga good and bad para makita ng mga Pilipino here and there. No one is perfect in this world. Kelangan talaga good and bad (It is best to see both good and bad portrayals. No one is perfect in this world. We need to see both good and bad).”

Kenneth Ocampo a. Effects on one self and on other Filipinos According to Ocampo, if there are portrayals of OFs as downtrodden or similar portrayals, she felt sympathetic but glad that she does not suffer the same fate. “Of


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course you feel pity about those people you know. On the other hand, you feel glad that you are not one of them.” For her, it is a cause of concern for her fellowmen. “Siyempre nagwo-worry din sila di ba? I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba? (Of course they [loved ones] worry. I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba?)” b. Effects on foreigners Portrayals play a crucial factor in the Filipino workforce in the U.S. Sometimes, because of the positive portrayals of Filipinos at work, Ocampo said “They would rather have Filipinos kesa Puti. Puti is very tamad. They don’t do anything. Nakaupo lang sa work. But Filipinos you can put them anywhere (They would rather have Filipinos over the Westerners because the latter are lazy. They do not do anything. They just sit around. Filipinos on the other hand, can be asked to do anything).” c. Long-term effects As all conditions, there are two sides to the story – positive and negative. As a case in point, she recalls her experience in 2011. Ocampo recalled: Actually I went to Hong Kong (HK) Remember may nangyaring HK hostage and so they were very rude sa amin. Yeah. We didn’t expect it that way. I called up my mom and she was like “Well you know what something happened.” Something about HK and Chinese people. And I guess you know baka isipin nila ang mga Pinoy ganoon. Sa kapwa Asian. So kahit long years na yung tumagal, naalala ng HK people. Same as the Americans. It will stick to their minds. Kung anong ginawa ng mga Filipinos. And sometimes, ginawa ng kapwa mo Pilipino mo represented ka na di ba? Mahihiya ka rin na kapwa Pilipino mo may ginawa na ka-somethingan.


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Hahabulin ka na nun anywhere you go. Not only at work (I have been to HK. If you can recall, there was a hostage taking and the Filipinos were very rude. We did not expect it that way. I called up my mom and she said something happened. Something about HK and the Chinese. And I guess you know that they will think of all Filipinos as that [what Mendoza did]. So even if years have transpired, the HK people still remember. The Americans also remember. It will stick to their minds. And sometimes, what other Filipinos have done in the past, it rubs off on other Filipinos. You will also feel embarrassed about what other Filipinos have done).

Regina Passion a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos Because other Filipinos have raised the bar and have set high standards for Filipinos in the U.S., Passion said the portrayals inspired her to improve on her own skill set. Passion said that as an effect, the depictions make her, speaking on behalf of other OFs, want to “do better in our craft.” Aside from further honing their skills, Passion said OFs can use the portrayals to build community. “They would also use these representations to build connections with each other. When they thought of you being an achiever in your field, you get contacts/ information in case they need your help or vice versa. This is a very good form of connecting with people.” On the other side of the fence, Passion observed that the portrayals convey that all Filipinos in the U.S. are financially successful. “Sometimes it is true that people (especially relatives) back home perceive us who make a lot of money, so they expect that anytime they ask assistance from us, they thought it was just easy.”


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b. Long-term effects However, in terms of long-term effects, she saw none.

Corazon Wiray a. Effects on oneself and other Filipinos While Wiray saw most portrayals only as featuring Filipinos in a positive light, Wiray would not like for networks such as TFC to dwell on them as well. She said: Parang masyadong...it lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. Parang lahat tayo dehado na tayo. Parang lahat ng Filipinos lahat maids, lahat caregivers. They should not take it generally. There are people who are professionals and still work there as home caregivers because they want to solve the problem on their own. There has to be a solution to it (The [portrayals] sometimes lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. We become stereotyped. For example we are seen as maids, caregivers. They should not take it generally).” Wiray is concerned that unfortunately, some Filipinos unlike her reported their fellow Filipinos. "No, it’s now shown (on TV). It’s only when may nakikita sila na magbaback up na lawyer, that’s the time they fight... Isang news lang, malalaman yung apelyido nila. Magtatally lang sa isang artista dito na akala nila is doing well (When Filipinos see lawyer to back them up, that is the time they fight. One news item on them and the Immigration can trace their name, especially celebrities). b. Long-term effects In the end, she said no matter how informants or Filipinos view the portrayals, there will always be misrepresentations. "Kaya nga sabi ko kawawa ang mga Filipino sa U.S. (I believe Filipinos in the U.S. are not all good).

They have an impression that life in


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the U.S. (is easy). If you have money you can eat big time, all the steaks in the world...I disagree with how Filipinos act to this. They should feel the burden. They don’t know the reason behind these people.”

2. Summary of Effects of Portrayals on Informants This part of the instrument outlines three intertwined concepts – culture, pride and community, in terms of the effects of portrayals made of OFs in “adobo NATION.” In terms of the long-term effects, the informants presented three sides of the story – crab mentality, colonial mentality and Filipino pride. a. Social Effects Four of the informants of the interviews (Maigue, Pineda, Rebecca, and Ronnie Mendoza) said that in terms of the social aspect, most of the portrayals convey a feeling of pride. Maigue and Rebecca Mendoza wanted to take this further and wished that the portrayals can encourage more Filipinos to shine. Furthermore, four informants (Asuncion, Calimlim, Maganti, and Passion) believed the portrayals help Filipinos in the homeland and in the U.S. understand fellow OFs and encourage cooperation within the Filipino communities. Respondent Maganti claimed the portrayals helped her understand her fellow Filipinos. In addition, Raquel Mendoza realized that the Filipino can make it overseas. Passion, meantime wanted to connect


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with fellow Filipinos from whom she can learn from and build her own success. Another respondent, Calimlim, cited the portrayals on “adobo NATION” share some valuable tips which the respondent can adopt or take from the featured OFs. Asuncion shared she became inclined to help her kababayans. For the respondents who either cited a negative and positive portrayal or made no specific portrayals, Maganti and Asuncion related they felt pity for Filipinos portrayed in “adobo NATION.” The two Mendozas (Rebecca and Ronnie) said the effects were good but did not mention any specific effect. Meantime, Wiray, who gave a clear negative portrayal on undocumented Filipinos or tago ng tago (TNTs), believed the portrayals “lower our morality.” Carigma asserted the truth hurts but that is what reality is. b. Economic In terms of the economic aspect, two informants, Passion and Maganti are concerned that because of these portrayals, relatives back home tend to rely on them for financial support. This confirmed the author’s initial hypothesis on portrayals of OFs mostly bordering on the milking cow image. c. Other Effects One respondent, Castañeda specifically said that there are no political effects since he believes that most OFs are in the U.S. more for economic reasons. Like for all questions,


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he doubted that “a piece of TV programming that has enough of a following in the Philippines and in the U.S. could shape public perception based on dramatic portrayals of the ‘Filipino overseas.’” At the end of the day, he thought that these Filipinos may still have other things to worry about more than how people perceive them. But in the long run, he said that the portrayal could play a role in “shaping opinion.” But even before the creation of opinions, Carigma, Calimlim, and Rebecca Mendoza believe that the portrayals will help other OFs and other nationalities become aware of their real condition first and foremost. Lastly, there were no religious effects cited by any of the informants. One respondent, Maganti, summed up the effects on fellow Filipinos – with the portrayals, OFs born in the U.S. understand compatriots born in the homeland who struggle just as much to make a living in their second country and possible make the portayals of Filipino achievers inspire others to do just as well. . Table 9 below presents the summary of the effects of the portrayals according to informants: the effects of the portrayals on themselves, their fellow Filipinos and the possible long-term effects. Table 9. Summary of Effects of Portrayals on Informants RESPONDENT

EFFECTS ON ONESELF

Carolina Asuncion

"You know as a Filipino nakikita ko naman kasi you know, minsan siyempre nakakawa sila which is nagpupush sa atin na

EFFECTS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS "Malaking tulong naman sa ating Pilipino. Kahit saan tayo magpunta, nandoon pa rin yung pagkakaisa. Pag negative sa akin malungkot

LONG-TERM EFFECTS "Para sa akin naman, ano, maging ano lang parang maging isang, magtulungan


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tumulong sa atin mga kababayan (As a Filipino, I see how the conditions of other Filipinos are. This drives us to help our fellowmen).”

(Negative portrayals sadden)."

Jennifer Calimlim

"I think it's all positive."

Raquel Carigma

"Yung reality. Okay lang na nakikita ng ibang tao. Kaya natutuwa ako sa mga nakikita nila run (The truth. It is alright for other people to see [the portrayals]. I am

"Only positive effects I hope. When I see a Filipino chef who has successfully put up a Filipino resto that is at or above par with other American establishments, it makes me think that nothing is impossible if you dream it and work hard for it. You also get a sense of community among Filipinos no matter which state they live. It makes me feel great to see on the show how native dances are being taught to second generation Fil-Ams. These are all positive representations for FilipinoAmericans not only to each other but to the rest of the world." “Masakit sa kanila sometimes di ba pero yun ang reality ng buhay” (The truth hurts but that is how life is).”

pa rin tayo kahit na hiwa-hiwalay kahit nakakalat tayo sa buong mundo. Malaking tulong naman sa ating Pilipino. Kahit saan tayo magpunta, nandoon pa rin yung pagkakaisa ([Portrayals] have a huge impact on Filipinos. Everywhere we go, Filipinos are united).” “We all can learn more about other Filipinos and how they make a difference in the Filipino community where they live, and hopefully we can apply the same ideas, goals and values to our own communities as well.”

“As of now, okay lahat ng pinapanood namin. Natutuwa nga kami, nakikita ng iba naming kamag-


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pleased with what they [other Filipinos] see.”

anak ko kung anong ginagawa namin dun. (As of now, we are okay with what we watch.

"I don’t think my fellow Filipinos, at least the ones I have been exposed to, would change their perception of me based on depictions in television programming."

James Castaneda

"None really."

Azalea Maganti

“Sometimes, self-pity “Most Filipinos in the U.S., comes into play but love for especially born and raised family will always prevail.” back home, understand and relate to the migrants who work double time or triple time to send money back

We are glad because our relatives see what we do)." “I guess in the long run, a piece of TV programming that has enough of a following in the Philippines and in the U.S. could shape public perception based on dramatic portrayals of the “Filipino overseas.” For the most part, though, my opinion is that your average overseas Pinoy worker would place a greater amount of time worrying about other issues such as financial and legal matters rather than “public perception” of how they are collectively represented. “More understanding from Filipinos with colonial mentality or crab mentality.”


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home. At times, those who are U.S.-born, cannot relate nor care since life in the U.S. has always been a survival of sorts especially with the continued recession.” Francine Maigue

“I think if we’re talking about the portrayal I think they will be very proud. But also I don’t know that, I mean the content is very U.S.-based. There’s this great restaurant. Well that’s great. I’m glad there’s a restaurant. Looks tasty. I don’t know when I’ll ever get to it And the sponsorships are directly related to the segmentsyou know wht I mean that’s kind of a hard sell because I think they will eventually raise the cost of corporate sponsor. I think they will be very proud, When you’re talking about the economic issues of Filipinos in the U.S. while it may be interesting to Filipinos here, parang they’re like - okay but that has nothing to do with us. Not directly. I’m sure there are relatives who may be interested. It’s not that interesting but I don’t know I can use that information right away. “

“So it’s like it’s great. I don’t how much they are going to take away from it. The other thing is that, the thing about “adobo NATION” is they show a few things here I love. There’s so much going on in San Diego. And I would love for them to showcase it. I will be active about it. We have so much going on. If they need to produce segments in San Diego, I’d be so active. We have so many festivals. We have so many cultural performances. Our talent commutes. They go to LA but their homebase is San Diego. Like we have people, I personally have students that are going to perform at Geoffrey ballet. We have concerts all the time going to San Diego. Sometimes I feel like GMA reaches out a little bit more. It’s just an observation ha? It’s not that, I mean we have so many fans of TFC. If you’re a Filipino, there’s 99.99 chance you are subscribed to TFC. Just tuning on the two channels, you have more people subscribing to TFC. But

“The bay area like North California is so different from South California. I really want that. California is a big state. One way to showcase that. That’s one reason I got involved in FAYLP (Filipino American Young Leaders of the Philippines). There’s so much going on in that community. People will be proud of what they’re doing. Jessica Sanchez is from my town actually. Chula Vista alone, there’s a pack full of Filipinos. Di ba the economy is hard and that doesn’t really affect Filipinos? But these people are hanging on to their lives. Their students are graduates of topnotch universities. They got it


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when it comes to organizing festivals, GMA is bigger in that sense. There’s a lot going on in San Diego. We’re doing stuff to. But I’m serious about that. If they need help. Like we don’t have hosts, we don’t have hands. I really want to showcase what’s happening in San Diego. And maybe people are not getting the releases.”

Raquel Mendoza

“Of course I am proud. Kasi nga mostly ang pagiging Pinoy sa ibang bansa makikita mostly hardworking kami…proud na proud (Of course I am proud. Most Filipinos outside the Philippines are portrayed as hardworking).”

together like they’re involved in the arts. They excel in the academe. And they are proud to be part of the Philippines. They are doing well in the arts. And even with that, the Filipinos are proud to be Filipinos. I hope they can showcase these Filipinos.” "Minsan yung mga "Mas maganda kasi achievers, kaya naman pala. parang marami ka You can do it pala parang nang natututunan. ganoon ang thinking. Pag Alam mo na how napapanood, kaya naman to apply. You have pala. Give it a try. At least to share. Kasi may natututunan. Naikung may good influence ko yung conews you have to worker ko. Dati wala share ([The show] siyang imik. She does not is good because we know how to speak in learn a lot. You English. Ako naman kahit will learn how to baluktot ang English ko apply. pero if I’m right I will fight for it. Pareho na kami – U.S. citizen na rin siya. You have to share Natututo na rin siya sa because if you influence ko At times [the have good news, show features] achievers. you must share)." When I watch the show, I get to believe we can do it. We can give it a try and learn. I even influence my co-worker. She used to be so quiet. She does not know how to speak English. Even if I speak broken English as they say but if what I am saying is


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Rebecca Mendoza

"We feel, you know we felt good. It is good they are doing that. At least narerecognize yung mga achievements ng Filipinos ba. Lalo na rin yung mga Pinoy achievements dito. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. Nagfefeature lang sila di katulad ng ‘TV Patrol.’ That is right. Maganda, maganda that is a good show actually ("We feel, you know, we felt good. It is good they are doing that. The achievements, especially of the Filipinos are recognized. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. They feature more than the likes of ‘TV Patrol’ features. That is right. It is beautiful, beautiful and that is a good show actually."

right, I fight for it. Right now, we are both U.S. citizens. She has learned through my influence).” "We feel, you know we felt good. It is good they are doing that. At least narerecognize yung mga achievements ng Filipinos ba. Lalo na rin yung mga Pinoy achievements dito. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. Nagfefeature lang sila di katulad ng ‘TV Patrol.’ That is right. Maganda, maganda that is a good show actually ("We feel, you know, we felt good. It is good they are doing that. The achievements, especially of the Filipinos are recognized. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. They feature more than the likes of ‘TV Patrol’ features. That is right. It is beautiful, beautiful and that is a good show actually."

"Minsan, not everybody, yeah, has that positive attitute towards that. Yung iba naman they have some against that. May mga alam mo na. What do we call the term – ingit, some form of jealousy (Sometimes, not everybody has a positive attitude. Others are against it [portrayals]. There is what we call – envy, some form of jealousy. They should be proud).” Although they should be proud of that kind na nirerepresent din nila country nila (Although they should be proud of the fact that they represent the country). Others, we raise money for them. Oh they all have these great rewards anyway. That kind of attitude. Why don’t we have to that? Giving money or contributing is a


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Ronnie Mendoza

“I am glad that I am able to observe them and I’m glad that Filipinos are getting attention. Apo ni Sylvia La Torre (The granddaughter of Sylvia La Torre).”

“That’s good kako para maboost ang morale ng mga Filipinos (That [portrayals] will serve to boost the morale of the Filipinos).”

Kenneth Ocampo

"Of course you feel pity about those people you know. On the otherhand, you feel glad that you’re not one of them."

"Siyempre nagwoworry din sila di ba? I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba? (Of course they [loved ones] worry. I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba?)”"

form of appreciation. It is not because they need that. Inaapreciate mo yung kanilang achievements (You appreciate their achievements). But others they’re not like that. “ "What comes to my mind is that Filipinos have a lot in them to show to other countries. Our educational background is of a higher quality. We have a lot to be proud of. That’s common to all Filipinos." "So kahit long years na yung tumagal, naaalala ng Hong Kong people. Same as the Americans. It will stick to their minds. Kung anong ginagawa ng mga Filipinos. And sometimes, ginagawa ng kapwa mo Pilipino mo, may ginagawa kang kasomethingan. Hahabuli ka nun wherever you go. Not only at work (I actually went to HK. If you can recall, there was a


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Regina Passion

"Do better in our craft."

“They would also use these representations to build connections with each other. When they thought of you being an achiever in your field, you get contacts/ information in case they need your help or vice versa. This is a very good form of connecting with

hostage taking and the Filipinos were very rude. We did not expect it that way. I called up my mom and she said something happened. Something about HK and the Chinese. And I guess you know that they will think of all Filipinos as that [what Mendoza did]. So even if years have transpired, the HK people still remember. The Americans also remember. It will stick to their minds. And sometimes, what other Filipinos have done in the past, it rubs off on other Filipinos. You will also feel embarrassed about what other Filipinos have done)." None


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Amelia Pineda

“Proud sila siyempre lalo na yung time ng...nung nina Charice Pempengco nung simula nang siya ay anong tawag doon – na mafeature. Oo. It goes around. Di nga naman alam kung sino iyon eh. Yung mga kasama namin sa trabaho uy panoorin niyo iyon si ganoon, ganoon fast. Very good singer. Ganoon (We were proud especially during the time when Charice Pempengco was just starting. It goes around. People did not even know who she was. Our coworkers prodded us to watch her. She is a very good singer).”

Corazon Wiray

"Parang masyadong...it lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. Parang lahat tayo dehado na tayo. Parang lahat ng Filipinos lahat maids, lahat caregivers. They should not take it generally. There are people who are professionals and still work there as home caregivers because they want to solve the problem on their own. There has to be a solution to it (The [portrayals] sometimes lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. We become stereotyped.

people.” “Eh di magiging proud ka na ikaw ay Pinoy. Number one. Siyempre you support them in whatever way you can. Kasi hindi naman lahat ng tao sa America have good jobs to see the shows kasi mahal din yung mga shows. At least kung meron through television makikita nila iyon (Because of the portrayals], we feel proud to be Filipinos. Of course you support them in whatever way you can. Not all of Filipinos in the U.S. have good jobs to pay for the shows. At least on television, we get to watch our favorite celebrities.” "No, it’s now shown (on TV). It’s only when may nakikita sila na magbaback up na lawyer, that’s the time they fight... Isang news lang, malalaman yung apelyido nila. Magtatally lang sa isang artista dito na akala nila is doing well (When Filipinos see lawyer to back them up, that is the time they fight. One news item on them and the Immigration can trace their name, especially celebrities)."

"Nakita ko talaga yung good way and bad way. But if you ask me, I think as far as I’ve been living there for 5 years, maganda ang background ng Filipinos. Same lang dito like sa Philippines pagdating dito (I see both the good and bad side to it. But if you ask me, as far as I have been living there for 5 years, Filipinos have a good background. It is the same here ....” "Kaya nga sabi ko kawawa ang mga Filipino sa U.S. (I believe Filipinos in the U.S. are not all good). They have an impression that life in the U.S. (is easy). If you have money you can eat big time, all the steaks in the world...I disagree with how Filipinos act to this. They should feel the burden. They don’t know the reason behind these people."


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For example we are seen as maids, caregivers. They should not take it generally).”

E. 1.

Integration of Data and Summary Portrayals of OFs in “adobo NATION”

In the content analysis of the season 13 of “adobo NATION,” most (9 out of 13) of the episodes presented positive portrayals of Filipino/s as a race, as an individual or as having a specific skill.

Only one episode portrayed Filipinos in a negative light,

specifically as milking cows as the researcher specifically hypothesized. The most consistent positive portrayal is that of Filipino achievers: three sweeping statements on the achievements of Filipinos, four pertaining to specific skills (culinary, musical, language and arts and crafts), and two making a reference to the pride felt by Filipinos for their kababayan’s accomplishments. 2.

Portrayals of OFs in “adobo NATION” according to informants

In summary, only two of the informants of the Interviews cited negative portrayals: the existence of “tago ng tago” or TNT, and the Filipinos as milking cows. According to Wiray, “Maraming TNT (There are a lot of Filipinos in hiding). We even see them talking in groceries. We always tell them it is difficult.” Meantime, according to TFC subscriber Passion, “Sometimes it is true that people (especially


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relatives) back home perceive us who make a lot of money, so they expect that anytime they ask assistance from us, they thought it was (sic) just easy.” Two subscribers, Carigma and Ocampo, made no clear reference to portrayals made of Filipinos in the U.S. but noted that the portrayals are close to what Filipinos are in the U.S. According to Carigma, “Yung reality. Yung mga nangyayari. Totoo naman (Reality. The events that really happen. They are real).” Ocampo agreed to the faithful portrayal. “I think yeah they are close to reality pero I think more on...I don’t know, most of the time, you know most of the part na napapanood ko yung news, opinion. Anong opinion nila and they are discussing it. I think it is more on reality (…most of the part I watch are the news and opinion – what their opinion is and then they discuss it. I think it is more on reality).” One mentioned the portrayal of Filipinos as health care workers. Meantime, the positive portrayals include Filipinos as food entrepreneurs, creative and talented people (world-class talents); winners of competitions; well-off; hardworking migrants trying to bring their families to the U.S.; enjoying the best of both worlds as both Americans and Filipinos, and as most of the representations in “adobo NATION” portray and are consistent with what most informants shared – successful Filipinos or Filipino achievers. One subscriber, Maigue, said, “I love that it (“adobo NATION”) is doing great things setting up the platform for other Filipinos to shine. “ In summary, out of the 13 informants, there were 10 who cited that the portrayals made by TFC were positive and these are mostly (eight informants) of Filipino achievers


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showcasing either their talent or craft. One respondent cited both a negative and positive portrayal. One made a clear reference to a negative portrayal. Lastly, two informants did not make a clear citation of portrayal but said that the depictions on “adobo NATION” were consistent with reality.

3.

Effects of portrayals according to informants a. Effects on self

In terms of the effects on fellow Filipinos, five of the informants said they felt good, specifically, four felt a sense of pride for being part of a race that is portrayed as achievers. One, Ronnie Mendoza said he is glad to have made the observation and would like to see more of the portrayals in the future. Two, Raquel Mendoza and Passion, related that they have to cull important points from the successful Filipinos and apply it in their own lives. However, the other two, Raquel Mendoza and Pineda, believed that the portrayals can work both ways – either emanate a feeling of pride or fuel crab mentality. In the same light, another informant, Ocampo, shared she feels “pity” but at the same time relief that the tragedy cited did not befall her. Asuncion, on the other hand, said, the portrayals encourage them as OFs to help others while Maganti imparted that the portrayals help her realize her love for family more.


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b. Effects on other Filipinos In terms of effects to fellow Filipinos, four informants (Asuncion, Calimlim, Maganti, and Passion) wanted to connect with the community given the portrayals made in “adobo NATION,” specifically the showcase of Pinoy culture and talent. Two other respondents, Maigue and Rebecca Mendoza, thought that the portrayals actually made them realize that Filipinos can do more and these actually drive them to encourage what other Filipinos have to offer. On the extreme side, Passion and Wiray) including another who previously cited a positive portrayal (Maganti) pointed out negative effects – financial dependence on Filipinos, lowered morale, and self-pity. c.

Long-term effects

In terms of the long-term effects, the informants presented three sides of the story –crab mentality, colonial mentality, and Filipino pride. One respondent, Wiray, did not make a clear citation on the effects but said that Filipinos in the Philippines tend to see OFs in the U.S. as successful and “having an easy life,” which another respondent, Passion agrees with. For any type of portrayal, one respondent, Ocampo said that the representation will definitely ‘stick to the minds’ of viewers for a long time if not addressed. Furthermore, four respondents cited the effect to be within the informational sphere. Calimlim, Carigma, and Raquel Mendoza said that because of the portrayals, Filipinos overseas and foreigner as well will become aware of the Filipino’s drive to succeed, while Castañeda sees the portrayal as eventually changing the shape of public


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perception. Furthermore, Castaùeda recognized how the portrayals can have an effect in the long run but not at present when OFs are more concerned with more pressing issues in their lives. One respondent, Asuncion, cited the portrayals’ bigger impact – that of inspiring other Filipinos to help other Filipinos.


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VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A. SUMMARY Transnational network TFC brings content from its parent company, ABS-CBN Channel 2 studios, to various homes across continents. To address the programming needs of the OFs, specifically in the United States, TFC created content that showcases the Filipino-Americans’ way of life via “adobo NATION.” Segments cover issues that affect Filipinos overseas (A-List); to Filipino achievers in the U.S. and back in Manila (Big Time Ka Na); the latest events and trends in the West and East Coast (LA and NY Chika); to the places frequented by Filipino-Americans (Tambayan). Specific to the second objective of identifying portrayals and possible trends, Content Analysis, Focus Interview and Online Interview results show the portrayals to be mostly positive. There is consistency in both content analysis and interviews as most portrayals were of Filipinos as successful achievers first, as economic heroes to their families a far second, and as TNT or milking cows on the extreme negative. On the side of the audience, specifically to address the third objective, the Filipino informants see the portrayals to have the following effect in general: 1. make them proud of fellow Filipinos, 2. make them understand their fellow Filipinos more, 3. unite Filipinos everywhere,


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3. make them realize that Filipinos can do it as well, 4. set up the platform for other Filipinos to shine, 5. help them influence their foreign acquaintances, 6. make them realize how hard-working Filipinos are versus other races and, 7. inspire them to do better in their craft. According to Ball and Rokeach, “each person has a highly organized system of beliefs, attitudes and values, which guides behavior.” In their theories, Ball and Rokeach believe that if the messages are consistent with the audience’s belief, then the more embracive they become of these perceptions (Littlejohn, 2002). In terms of values, Filipinos are known to give importance to the virtues of “pakikisama and kabayanihan” or community where they revere in the company of fellow Filipinos in both joyous and tragic moments. They share in the successes of fellow Filipinos as much as they empathize in their loss. In the study, the author noted that most (eight) informants take pride in “adobo NATION’s” portrayals of OFs in the U.S. as Filipinos achievers. Given the Filipino migrants’ positive reception on these portrayals and based on Ball and Rokeach’s theory, the portrayals, it seems, are consistent with these Filipinos’ self-concept – as Filipinos making the mark in a foreign land and Filipino values- of“bayanihan” or “pakikisama.”


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Given this overarching portrayal or Filipino achievers and Pinoyvalues, it is understandable how Filipinos unite in common reverence for their “kababayans” who make it big in a foreign country. Furthermore, the study showed that while media mostly show the more popular achievers, some of the Filipino audiences are also inspired to excel in their own fields as well. Specific to the author’s hypothesis, only one subscriber cited milking cows as representations made by media. In terms of perceived effects, most the informants cited effects that are social in nature. Eight out of ten informants who pointed out positive portrayals mentioned mostly that these depictions instilled in them a sense of pride. Specifically, one respondent, Maigue, said that the portrayals became the platform to inspire other Filipinos to become achievers as well. One respondent, Raquel Mendoza, noted that this kind of pride and exuberance rubs off to their foreign community co-members. Some influenced their foreign co-employees to think highly of Filipinos. Those who cited negative portrayals (one partly positive) said that the representation is “demoralizing.”

Carigma said that the portrayal made her realize that Filipinos

overseas can make it big.

One respondent, Passion who cited both a positive and

negative portrayal or as successful OFs said however, that “adobo NATION’s” portrayal of them as achieving Filipinos in the U.S. will make their OFs view them as the author hypothesized – as milking cows. Two other informants, Carigma and Passion who made


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positive portrayals also noted negative effects – envy for what others can achieve and self-pity for themselves for not being able to achieve their goals.

B. CONCLUSION The number of Filipinos, whether OFs or Philippine-based, making it big not just in the U.S., but in other foreign countries is increasing just as the population of Filipinos outside the country are growing. With the growth in population and rise of Filipino achievers, transnationalized networks and programs that feature these successful Filipinos have also come about. TFC, as the frontliner in terms of reach and viewership, showcase these new breed of Filipino heroes or rightfully, as bayani ng bayan in its exclusive productions such as “adobo NATION.” Based on thee Content Analysis of its season 13, Filipinos who are achievers in their own field are the most popular portrayals made of Filipinos, specifically in the U.S. The trend in the portrayals show Filipinos as achievers in the fields of the arts and culture, food industry and language. Only one episode made a portrayal of OFs as “milking cows” as the author originally hypothesized. Most of the informants, as the Reception Analysis of this study confirmed, see these portrayals as reflective of reality – that most Filipinos in the U.S. excel in their own fields or industry, whether as musical talents, arts and culture champions, language experts, and food and/or other business owners. While not one of the informants saw the portrayal as false, one respondent just wished that the representations were true.


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The informants who cited faithful portrayals and are TFC subscribers were proud to see their kababayans making the cut and glad that programs like “adobo NATION” feature them. The study revealed that there is a growing number of portrayals of OFs as achievers or successful in their own fields. Filipinos can make it suceessfully outside their homeland, the Philippines. Because of the portrayals, most informants wanted to take this pride further by learning from other Filipinos, reaching out to other Filipinos in the community and inspire others to excel just as well. There were only a few Filipinos who viewed their representations as unnecessarily successful which may result to an impression that they are of a higher status than what they are actually in, and will be tapped for financial support. To summarize the informants’ perception of the portrayals, the informants were understandably receptive of the portrayals made of OFs in “adobo NATION” since most representations portrayed them and their fellowmen positively as successful in their own fields. This study disclosed that the milking cow image is no longer prevalent but is still existent. There is a growing trend of cases of Filipino achievers who are now the pride of their families. These globalized Filipinos are currently perceived as hard-working, talented and driven to achieve their goals.


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VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study started in 2008 with a hypothesis in mind – that Filipinos are viewed as “milking cows” due to their economic contributions to family and nation as a whole. As the years progressed and as the actual data on “adobo NATION” came, the representations changed. In recent years, the Philippines saw Filipinos excelling in their various fields not just in the United States but all over the world.

In the U.S.

entertainment industry alone, Filipino-Americans have been making headline after headline for their outstanding performances in television, movies, stage, music, and sports. The change in the pattern of representation shows that Filipinos have transcended the milking cow image, people who are looked up on because of the economic blessings they deliver to the family and society. Now, Filipinos in the U.S. are looked high upon because of their talents and what they have accomplished, and not by the size of their wallets. 1. Theoretical Implications This study revealed the need to further show how transnationalized media have confirmed or debunked stereotypes on Filipinos, particularly women. Women, given the stereotypes, can provide interesting study as they are faced not only with physical distance from home but as well as societal perception both positive and negative. Once in place, the behavior of overseas Filipinos, the continued phenomena migration, vis-a-vis


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the rise of transnationalized media can constitute a new theory – how the constant mobilization of Filipinos and the rise in platforms by which television can be enjoyed will soon blur the lines of physical distance, and result to a single content for both local and global Filipinos. Given the same kind of content and the feedback mechanism available in each platform, the author posits that content, specifically programs will show more portrayals that are reflective of the real state of these Filipinos as there is more avenues for validation and exchange of ideas for both and amongst each kind of Filipino audience. To achieve this, further studies could make a more thorough review of current transnationalized content, preferably from the three Filipino networks. For example, studies can review the representation of women in TFC’s “Banana Split,” GMA 7’s “Bubble Gang,” and TV5’s “Pidol’s Wonderland.” 2. Methodological Implications Beyond the success OFs achieve and the pride they carry, it is inspiring and uplifting for OFs to be working not only for the betterment of their families but also for themselves. After all, as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs outline, it is the need for “esteem (self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, and respect by others)” that ranks second (Maslow, 1943).

Given this, further studies can also focus on these

achievers featured themselves, and their perception on the portrayals made of them, and what are the effects of the Filipinos’ reactions are to them in the U.S. and back home.


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A direct comparison of the reception and the content analysis can be done as well. Informants can be made to watch “adobo NATION” episodes and can make references to the particular content where they perceive the portrayals. Since these portrayals are made on transnationalized media, and given that there are already three players in the international field, the researcher suggests a more thorough study of the representations made by all three networks: GMA Pinoy TV and TV5 Global Pinoy Network, aside from ABS-CBN TFC. Furthermore, this research focused on news-magazine show “adobo NATION.” The recommended, study can see parallel situations and comparisons in all three networks’ programs on. If there are no similar types of program, alternatives can be taken into consideration. For example in the drama genre, “Maalaala Mo Kaya” can be compared to GMA Pinoy TV’s “Magpakailanman” and TV5’s “True Confession.” Lastly, this research studied both males and females across ages and income brackets. The researcher suggests further that the study focuses on the portrayals of women as females are often the victims of stereotypes in real life or otherwise. For example, females or motherhood are often portrayed as: a. motherhood is one of the most fulfilling roles of a woman can have; b. woman can be strong but it detracts from their perceived finer qualities; c. many women are dumb and gullible; d. women tend to be quarrelsome and nosey, petty often irrational highly materialistic, e. women should defer to their husbands at all times, and stay with him through thick and thin;


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f. women are objects of pursuit and must look good to please men. Beauty entitles a woman to some respect; g. men are always the main breadwinners who must support the family at all cost; h. women depend on men for everything, including protection and fulfillment; i. women are given to superstitious beliefs; j. women are promiscuous and sexually desirable; k. intelligent, assertive, well-to-do women dominate men and are therefore a threat for them; l. women are intensely jealous and possessive about men and rein constant and fierce competition with other women in this area. (dela Cruz, 1988, p. 90)

3. Practical Implications The study has contributed to the understanding of the OF psyche and provided a different perspective of looking at the issue of diaspora and migration. Given the rise of a new kind of representation, further studies can delve into the many layers of Filipino achievers. Filipino achievers can be studied according to their fields of excellence vis-a-vis their probability for success, and how these are defined and measured. With the success of these OFs, they are also more able help their families in the Philippines and earn the country more pride. Moreover, Filipinos showcasing their talents and skills to the rest of the world help build the image of the Filipinos and the Philippines and discourages, or to some extent, erases representations that are otherwise pejorative.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Anokwa, K., Lin, C., & Salwen, M. (2003). Concept and Cases: International Communication. Thomson Wadsworth. Banal-Formoso, C. (2001). GMA Gold 50 Years of Broadcast History. GMA Network Inc. Barthes, R. (1988). The Semiotic Challenge. New York: Hill and Wang. Braudy, L., & Choen, M. (1999). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Coulthard, M. (1977). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. Essex, UK: Longman Group Limited. Curran, J., & Morley, D. (2006). Media and Cultural Theory. Rutledge. Dela Cruz-Azarcon, P. (1988). Images of Filipinas in Media. Asian Social Institute. de Wind, J., & Portes, A. (2007). Rethinking Migration : New Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Berghahn Books. Eco, U. (1979). Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Essential English Dictionary. (2007). Peter Haddock Publishing. Fiske, J. (1987). TV Culture. Routledge, London. Garland, J.V., & Philips, C. (1940). Discussion and Methods: Explained and Illustrated. The H.W. Wilson Company Griffin, W. (2000). A First Look In Communication Theory. Mc Graw Hill. Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices. London: Sage.


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Hulteng, J.L., & Nelson, R.P. (1983). The Fourth Estate. An Informal Appraisal of the News and Opinion of Media. Kapitan. (2003). Eugenio Lopez Sr. ABS-CBN Publishing. Littlejohn, S. (2002). Theories of Communication. Magill, F. Socialization: The media in Survey of Social Science: Sociology Series 5 p. 1845-2244. Maslow, A.H. (1943). Theory of Human Motivation. New York: Wiley. McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (1981). Communication Models for the Study of Mass Communication. London. Odegard, P.H., Carr, R., Bernstein, M., & and Morrison, D. (1961). American Government : Theory, Politics and Constitutional Foundation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1961. Owen, T.A. (2006). Transnational Media and Contoured Markets. Sage Publications. Naficy, H. (1993). The Making of Exile Cultures: Iranian Television in Los Angeles. London: University of Minnesota Press. Nunan, D. (1993). Introducing Discourse. London: Penguin Group. Oxford

Dictionary. Retrieved oxforddictionaries.com/definition/English/environment.

from

Paltridge, B. (2006). Discourse Analysis. University of London. Philips, N., & Hardy, C. (2001). Discourse Analysis: Investigating Process of Social Construction. London: Sage Publication. Pido, A.J.A. (1986). Pilipinos in America:Macro / Micro Dimensions of Immigration and Integration. Center for Immigration Studies. 1986 Root, M.P.P. (1997). Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. Sage Publications. Sanchez E.N. (1999). The Quest for Filipino Identity. UMI Dissertation service.


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Van, D., & Teun, A. (2003). Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Academic Press.

JOURNALS ABS CBN TFC Sales Kit. (2010). Visual Convergence. Almario, V. (2010). UP Diksiyunaryong Pilipino. U.P. Press. Alunan, G. (1995). Destination Middle East: A Handbook for Filipina Women Domestic Workers, Q.C. Kanlungan Center Foundation. Asis, M. (1995). Overseas Employment and Social Transformation in Source Communities: Findings from the Philippines, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. Pido, J.A. (1986). The Pilipinos in America. New York: Center for Migration Studies. Robins K., & Aksoy, A. (October 2001). From Spaces of Identity to Mental Spaces: Lessons from Turkish-Cypriot Cultural Experience in Britain. Journal of Ethnic Migration Studies 27. Tharoor, I. (2010, April 26). The Next Aquino. Time Magazine, 23. Yengoyan, A., & Makil, P. (2004). Philippine Society and the Individual (Selected Essays of Frank Lynch). Manila Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University. Zarate, M.J. Ang Konsepto ng Bagong Bayani sa Naratibo ng Overseas Filipino Workers. Pamantasang De La Salle-Maynila, Pilipinas.


166

WEBSITES Adobo NATION Wins Its First Emmys. (July 2012). Retrieved from abs-cbnnews.com. Adobo

NATION Wins Its First www.balitangamerica.com.

Emmys.

(July

2012).

Retrieved

from

Commission on Overseas Filipino Workers. (2011, July 22). Philippine Population. Retrieved from http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/statistics/Stock%202009.pdf. Filipino Chef in the White House. http://search.state.gov/search/.

(September

History of RPN 9. (November http://www.rpn9.com/about_us.htm.

2008).

2010).

Retrieved

Retrieved

from

from

History of Philippine Television. (2008, September 21). Early Days of Television. Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/pinoytv/earlydays.htm. I

Confess. (2013, August confess/artikulo/87693.

Adobo

NATION Episodes. cbn.com/mm/episodes).

9).

Retrieved

Retrieved

from

November

telebisyon.net/balita/I-

2010

from

www.abs-

Philippine Overseas Employment Agency. (December 2006). OFW Global Presence. Retrieved from http://www.poea.gov.ph/html/statistics.html. Philippine Census. (August 2010). http://www.census.gov.ph/.

Population

of

Filipinos.

Retrieved

from

Steps Up News Delivery. (2010, October 26). Retrieved http://www.sunstar.com.ph/davao/entertainment/tv5-steps-news-delivery).

from

TNS Media. Television Ratings as of November 2010. TV

5


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THESIS Bacud, S.Q. (1992). A Comparative Study of the Images of the Filipino Woman as Portrayed in Local Television Drama Anthologies and the Filipina’s Perception of Her Image in Philippine Society. Cruz, G.V. (2000). Filipino-Americans: Their viewing habits of Filipino Cable Television and Filipino Films on Video. Jayme, R. (1979). A Study on the Effects of Temporary Work Outflows from the Philippines. University of the Philippines Library San Juan Jr. E. (1998). Trajectories of the Filipino Diaspora. San Juan Jr., E. (2006). Filipinos in the U.S.A. and Around the World: Whence and Wither?. Santiago, A. (2006). Imaging The Filipino Woman: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Melodramatic Films Made By Filipino Mainstream Directors from 1990 to 2000. Zamora, M. (2006). Filipino Diaspora in London: Negotiating Culture and Identity.


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Annex A. Content Analysis Sheet

Projection of the Image of OFs in Television Programs Specifically Produced for OFs Coder’s Name : Program Episode : Date of Airing : Episode ___ of ___episode : Genre : Time started :

Time ended:

VISUAL CODES 1. Location of the subject (you may choose more than one) a. Pacific b. Eastern c. Central d. Mountain e. 2. Status of the subject a. Migrant b. OFW c. Tourist / Transient 3. Length of time allotted for the subject: _____ minutes 4. Setting a. hospital b. hidden area c. progressive house as a result of overseas work d. Others (please indicate) 5. Characters projected of the subject: a. Modern day heroes bringing in dollar remittances b. Industrious workers sacrificing for family c. Blue-collar worker d. White-collar workers e. Victims of racism and discrimination f. Victims of employers g. Adulterer / adulteress h. Others (please indicate) 6. Personalities/characters portrayed: a. teacher or caregiver in North America; b. construction worker or domestic helper in Middle East; c. health worker or domestic helper in Europe; d. entertainer in Japan and e. domestic Helper in the Asia Pacific f. adulterer / adulteress


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7. Costume a. teacher’s uniform b. hard hat c. maid’s uniform d. skimpy clothing e. nurse’s uniform 8. Props a. chalk or white board marker b. construction supplies c. medical supplies d. feather boa; fan or other exaggerated fanfare e. household tools f. hidden mobile phones, letters, lipstick on the collar and discarded condom *Treatment of the personalities: Personality/Characterization Treatment Keywords Teacher Eager to prove that Teacher she is as good as her foreign counterparts Construction worker Physically fit to Construction perform hard labor Worker but emotionally weak because of distance from home Domestic Helper Melancholic for DH caring other people’s children while not being able to care for her own Caregiver Frustrated at not Caregiver being able to fulfill her graduate degree bu is forced to work otherwise because of economical needs Adulterer / Adulteress Restraining Lover herself/himself to avoid the love of another who is closer proximity wise Filipino achiever Achiever


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9. Number of references to these characters: ___ AUDITORY CODES 10. Dialogue a. Positive / enlightening b. Negative / defaming 11. Accompanying music a. melancholic b. joyous c. not applicable 12. Sound Effects a. melancholic b. joyous c. not applicable CINEMATIC CODES 13. Lightings a. Bright b. Dark 14. Camera shots or framing a. extreme close-ups b. close-ups c. medium shot d. long shot 15. Scaling a. OFs in general tend to occupy the frame more than other characters in the story b. The employers of these OFs occupy more of the frame c. Philippine-based characters occupy more of the frame POST-PRODUCTION 16. Editing a. cut to cut b. dissolves c. special effects 17. Other observations such as titling


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Annex B CODEBOOK Instruction for Coders You will be asked to code thirteen (13) episodes of the entire forty five minute (45) program adobo NATION. In each program body (minus commercial gaps), identify references to the REPRESENTATIONS (how overseas Filipino migrants, workers and tourists are projected); IMPORTANCE (length and number of times allotted to tackle the imagery); SETTING (where the subject matters are located); TREATMENT (how they are presented in terms of dialogue; music, editing and even visual effects). 1. Coder’s Name – please write your name 2. Program Episode – please write the name of the program and the episode title 3. Date of Airing – please provide the exact date when the program was first aired 4. Episode ___ of ___episode – please indicate episode number (episode number can be located at tape cover) 5. Genre – please specify whether drama, comedy, horror, suspense or action 6. Time started and Time ended – please record time when you started and ended coding 7. Location of letter-sender at the time of the story written about - you may choose more than one: a. United States b. Middle East c. Europe d. Asia-Pacific e. Philippines 8. Status of letter -sender – please choose from any of the following a. Migrant b. OFW c. Tourist / Transient 9. Length of time allotted for the topic on overseas permanent migration, contracted work or temporal visit – please indicate in minutes, actual length in minutes allotted for the topic 10. Portrayals made – please choose from any of the following a. Modern day heroes bringing in dollar remittances b. Industrious workers sacrificing for family c. Blue-collar worker d. White-collar workers e. Victims of racism and discrimination f. Victims of employers


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g. Adulterer / adulteress h. Others (please indicate) 11. Portrayals of other featured Filipinos – same as above a. Modern day heroes bringing in dollar remittances b. Industrious workers sacrificing for family c. Blue-collar worker d. White-collar workers e. Victims of racism and discrimination f. Victims of employers g. Adulterer / adulteress h. Others (please indicate) 12. Representations made – same as above a. teacher or caregiver in North America; b. construction worker or domestic helper in Middle East; c. health worker or domestic helper in Europe; d. entertainer in Japan and e. domestic Helper in the Asia Pacific f. adulterer / adulteress *Treatment of the personalities – please use the following references in your choices 13. Number of references to these characters – please count the number of times references to these characters were made: 14. Dialogue – please note down if the language, specifically the dialogue used are positive or negative POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Successful

Has crab mentality

Achievers

Illegal or undocumented Filipinos

Talented

Not open to new ideas

Creative

Conforms to tradition

Hard-working

Lazy

Helpful

Has crab mentality

Proud

Feels envious over the achievements of others


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a. Positive / enlightening b. Negative / defaming 15. Accompanying music – from you observation, do you find the music any of the following: a. melancholic b. joyous c. not applicable 16. Setting – please record whether the setting where the protagonist is located is any of the following: a. shabby house b. cold workplace c. progressive house as a result of overseas work d. others (please indicate) 17. Costume – please write down if the characters were made to wear any of the following to strengthen their portrayal: a. teacher’s uniform b. hard hat c. maid’s uniform d. skimpy clothing e. nurse’s uniform 18. Camera shots – please document whether most of the shots used were as follows: a. extreme close-ups – camera focuses on the face of the characters, especially a certain part b. close-ups – camera focuses on the entire face of the characters c. medium shot – camera focuses on the upper half or lower half of the body of the characters d. long shot – camera focuses on the entire body of the character 19. Editing – please write down if any of the following editing techniques was used: a. cut to cut – transition from one frame to another is simple appearance and disappearance b. dissolves – transition from one frame to another is a fading out to the next scene


174

c. special effects – transition from one frame to another is characterized by transitions other than the above 20. Other Observations


175

Personal Information Sheet PERSONAL INFORMATION SHEET (PIS) I. Socio-demographics Name : Citizenship : Permanent Migrant __ Transient Worker __ State : _______________ Years in the U.S. __between 1 to 3 years __ 4 to 6 years __ 7 to 9 years __ 10 years and above Present Occupation : Monthly Income : ___ USD 500 to 999 a month

___ USD 1000 to 1999 a month

___ USD 2000 to 2999 a month

___ USD 3000 to 3999 a month

___ USD 4000 to 4999 a month

___ USD 5000 and above a month

Gender : _____ Age : _____ Marital Status _____ Educational Attainment / Course _________________________________________ II. General Assessment 1. Are you currently subscribed to TFC? a. Yes b. No (If not, kindly return this form to the researcher) 2. How long have you been watching Filipino TV programs? _____ 3. What genres do you watch from the station? a. b. c. d. e.

Drama News Current Affairs Talk Variety

f. Comedy g. Game h. Reality i. Lifestyle j. Youth


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4. What shows do you particularly watch? (Please indicate at least two). a. drama b. news c. current affairs d. talk e. variety f. comedy g. youth h. magazine i. sports j. reality 5. In the current affairs genre, which do you watch amongst these programs? a. adobo NATION

b. Balitang America

c. Citizen Pinoy


177

ANNEX D. Adobo NATION Segments A-List – segment where the hosts talk about the headlines relevant to OFs which are then ranked according to positive effect (Tamis) or negative (Panis). Big Time Ka Na – focuses on a Filipino gone big in the U.S. or an overseas Filipino back in Manila. Get Real – discusses relevant news, issue, and tips regarding real estate investments. Kusina Busina – presents Filipino cuisine that can still be enjoyed in the U.S. LA and NY Chika and Aloha Hawaii – talk about the latest events and trends enjoyed by Filipinos in the U.S. Lasap Pinoy – highlights a particular restaurant patronized by Filipino-Americans and even foreigners. Noys in the Hood – features Filipinos who have made it either to ‘underground’ or mainstream Hollywood. OK Nga Rod – together with regular guest Rod Mercado, CEO of Financial Rescue, host Michie Valeriano shares helpful tips on saving, surviving a bankruptcy, and other financial matters which can help Filipinos in the U.S. survive living in a foreign land


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Otokoto – plays a pun on the word ‘oto’ to denote to cars and practical tips from repairs, maintenance to financing. Sari-saring ETC – covers the trivial but interesting matters for Filipino-Americans. Tambayan – places importance on areas frequented by Filipinos in the U.S. Well, Well, Wellness – dissects health issues as well as latest developments in cures and even alternative medicine.


179

Annex E. Focus Interview Questions Introduction: Good afternoon, I am Marianne Ferrer-de Vera, a student of the University of the Philippines in Diliman, taking up the course, Masters in Communication Research. For my graduate thesis, I am studying the representations of OFs made by transnationalized media, specifically TFC. I would like to ask a few moments of your time to answer a few questions regarding this subject matter. Rest assured that your answers will be considered with utmost confidentiality. 1. What representations do you see in these shows which the station portrays of OFs like you? 2. How do you feel about these representations? (Please indicate one reason per representation) 3. Are these representations faithful to how you really are in the U.S.? 4. What do you think are the effects of these representations in terms of how Filipinos back home perceive you? 5. What do you think are the effects of these representations in terms of how fellow Filipinos in the U.S. perceive you? 7. What are the other effects of these representations do you see on yourself? 8. What do you think are the long-term effects of these representations? 9. How do you think should ABS CBN TFC portray you as overseas Filipino workers?


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Annex F. Content Analysis of “adobo NATION”’s season 13 Table 10 A. Episode 1 : May 22 / 23 Program Episode :

1

Date of Airing :

May 22 or May 23

Time started :

11:53

VISUAL CODES 1.

Location of the subject

a. Pacific b. Eastern d. Mountain Time

Central Park, New York City

c. Central e. Others

1. Status of the subject a. Migrant b. OFW Tourist / Transient

Migrant c.

Length of time allotted for the subject : 2:01 minutes

9:59 to 12:02 (Total : 2:01)

Setting

Others (progressive area of New York) a. hospital b. hidden area

c. progressive house as a result of overseas work d. Others (please indicate) 1. Characters projected of the subject : a. Modern day heroes bringing in dollar remittances b. Industrious workers sacrificing for family c. d.

Blue-collar worker White-collar workers

e.

Victims of racism and

Talented Filipino


181

discrimination f.

Victims of employers

g.

Adulterer / adulteress

8. Costume

Others (fashionable wear)

a. teacher’s uniform b. hard hat c. maid’s uniform d. skimpy clothing e. nurse’s uniform f. Others 9. Props / Signs

Guitar

a. chalk or white board marker

Scarf

b. construction supplies c. medical supplies d. feather boa; fan or other exaggerated fanfare e. household tools f. hidden mobile phones, letters, lipstick on the collar and discarded condom 10. Number of references to these characters:

2

AUDITORY CODES 11. Dialogue a. Positive / enlightening b. Negative / defaming

(11:59) “Pag may nakakasalubong kang Pilipino, you feel at home. I tried doing some gigs in Times Square, they really support you. That’s one thing I really love about Filipinos.” (Translation : If you encounter a fellow Filipino, you feel at home. I tried doing some gigs in


182

Time Square, they really support you. That’s one thing I really love about Filipinos.” 12. Accompanying music

b. Joyous

a. melancholic b. joyousc c. not applicable 13. Sound Effects a. melancholic

c. Not applicable as the segment used Ruiz’s music

b. joyous c. not applicable CINEMATIC CODES

a. Bright

14. Lighting a. Bright b. Dark 15. Camera shots or framing

b. close ups and c. medium Shots

a. extreme close-ups b. close-ups c. medium shot d. long shot 16. Scaling a. OFs in general tend to occupy the frame more than other characters in the story b. The employers of these OFs occupy more of the frame c. Philippine-based characters occupy more of the frame

a. Stella Ruiz occupied the frames most of the time. According to Eco’s theory of signs, this renders importance to the subject. (Eco, 1979)


183

POST-PRODUCTION

b. dissolves

16. Editing a. cut to cut b. dissolves c. special effects 17. Other Observations Other portrayals 12:14 Mapunta sa Pilipinas ma-dito successful. Yan ang Pinoy.]= (Translation : Whether in the Philippines or here [in the U.S.], Filipinos are successful). We’re Filipinos so we’re good. Dream big and make it big. Filipinos are the best) 12: 24 Huwag tayong matakot. Kayang-kaya natin yan. Pinoys are the best.]= (Translation: Don’t be afraid. We can do it. Filipinos are the best.) Table 10 B. Episode 3 Episode No.

3

Date of Airing

June 5 / 6

Time started

4:04

VISUAL Location

San Diego, California

Status of subject

Migrant, second generation

Length of time

2:54

Setting

Central Cultural del Raza


184

Characters

Second generation Filipinos (Kuya-Ate Mentorship Program)

Costume / Signs

Toga

Props

Cap

No. of reference

2

AUDAL Dialogue

“Fosters a lot of good things for our community. (4:04 – 4:12) …for the entire community to really show our pride, culture and heritage. Ahm it fosters a lot of good things for our community and I think it should keep going.”

Music

Pop-jazz

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Too bright or too dark

Camera

Medium shot

Scaling

OFs in general tend to occupy the frame more than other characters in the story

POST-PRODUCTION Editing Other Observations

Cut to cut


185

Table 10 C. Episode 3, Portrayal 2 Episode

3

Date

June 5/6

Time

7:26

Location

San Francisco

Status

Migrants

Length

14:06-14:12 (:12)

Setting

TFC Studio

Characters

Zach Zamora and Michi Valeriano

Costume

Casual clothes

Props / Signs

Book

No. of Reference

2

Dialogue

(14:06) Which kind of describes how Filipinos are in the world. (14:10) Filipinos love to play with words (14:12) All the puns

Music

Joyous

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Bright

Camera

Medium and CU shot (on the book)

Scaling

The cameraman interspersed shots of the author and the host in medium shot

Editing

Cut to cut

Others


186

Table 10 D. Episode 4, June 12.13 Episode

4

Date

June 12/13

Time

7:26

Location

Los Angeles

Status

Migrants

Length

7:26 to 9:47 or 21 minutes

Setting

Search to Involve Pilipino - Americans

Characters

Edward Mallilin, co-chair for Fil-Am Creative and Ana La Chika

Costume

Filipiniana

Props / Signs

payneta, belo, sinkil, payong, pamaypay

No. of Reference

1

Dialogue

(9:23 – 9:34 or :11) “I think the challenge is we have so many gifted people in the community and how do you give them an event, a chance to artistically express themselves and I think we did that not just the two of us but our entire group did that and I hope will continue to support us and our, our future events.”

Music

Joyous

Sound Effects

Trumpets

Lighting

Bright

Camera

Medium and Far shot

Scaling

The shots were mostly of the graduating students

Editing

Cut to cut


187

Others

Table 10 E. Episode 4 June 12/13 Episode

4

Date

June 12/13

Time

3:29

Location

San Francisco

Status

Migrant

Length

:2

Setting

TFC Studio

Characters

Michi Valeriano

Costume

Casual wardrobe

Props

None

No. of Reference

1

Dialogue

(3:29-3:30) Mabuhay naman talaga tayong mga Pinoy. (Translation : We Filipinos are a great people.�

Music

Joyous

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Studio lights

Camera

Full shot of the host

Scaling

Camera focused on host Michi Valeriano

Editing

Cut to cut

Others


188

Table 10 F. Episode 4, June 12/13 Episode

4

Date

June 12/13

Time

30:21-30:33

Location

New York

Status

Migrants

Length

:27

Setting

Madison Avenue

Characters

Monette of NYC Chika in the City, Jericho Rosales, and Karylle Talonghari

Costume

Filipiniana

Props / Signs

Payneta and National flag

No. of Reference

2

Dialogue

(30:21-30:33) ang isa sa mga pinakaabangan at pinakahihintay upang taas noo nilang ipakita ang ating kulutra ay ang pagdiriwang ng ating kalayaan.”]= (Translation : One of the much-awaited events where Filipinos can showcase their pride is the Philippine Independence Day 32:30 to 32:43 (:13)We’re just very excited and siyempre we take pride bilang mga Pilipino and andito tayo lahat sa New York. It just means buhay ang ating pagiging nasyonalista.]= (Translation : We’re just very excited and of course, we take pride as Filipinos. We’re all here in New York. It just means the spirit of nationalism is alive). 32:14 – 33 :16 (2 minutes) It makes me so proud to see all the Filipinos out


189

here expressing their pride. Music

Joyous

Sound Effects

Trumpets

Lighting

Bright

Camera

Medium and far shot

Scaling

Focus on Filipinos

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 G. Episode 5 Episode

5

Date

June 19/20

Time

26:16 – 26:20

Location

San Francisco

Status

Migrants

Length

:

Setting

TFC Studio

Characters

Michi Valeriano, Boots Ocampo and Gemar Ocampo

Costume

Contemporary clothing

Props / Signs

Kapampangan food; food implements

No. of Reference

1

Dialogue

26:16 Boots Ocampo : “Kapampangan…masarap ang luto.”

Music

Matter-of-factly

Sound Effects

Lively music


190

Lighting

Studio lights

Camera

Medium and CU shots

Scaling

Focus on Filipinos

Editing

Cut to cut

Others Table 10 H. Episode 5 Episode

5

Date

June 19/20

Time

28:03

Location

San Francisco

Status

Migrants

Length

:01

Setting

TFC Studio

Characters

Michi Valeriano, Mel, Angel and Jun Pare

Costume

Contemporary clothing

Props / Signs

Kapampangan food; food implements

No. of Reference

1

Dialogue

28:03 – 28:04 “Bakit ba itong mga kapampangan na ito ang gagaling magluto?”

Music

Matter-of-factly

Sound Effects

Lively music

Lighting

Studio lights

Camera

Medium and CU shots

Scaling

Focus on Filipinos


191

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 I. Episode 7 Episode

7

Date

July 10/11

Time

10:10 to 12:06 (:26)

Location

Sari-Sari ETC

Status

Migrants

Length

:26

Setting

Stage

Characters

NA

Costume

Filipiniana

Props / Signs

Angklung

No. of Reference

2

Dialogue

10:10 to 10:19(:09) “The first time the group performed it was in December. After we started playing, we had a standing ovation. I think that we were very good. Everybody was excited to see us play.” 10:21 to 10:34 (:12)“It’s KAPPA’s mission is for the children esp. the second and third generation to appreciate the customs and traditions especially their heritage in American mainstream.” 10:36 to 10:43 (:7) “Malayo tayo sa bansa natin. Ito na lang ang way natin para maramdaman ang ating pagkaPilipino.” 11:54 to 12:06 (:12) Am really proud


192

that we have this here. Virgina is not really known for much in the Filipino community. But we do have a large community and to have one thing that sets us apart as a community - that really sets us apart.� Music

Tanging Yaman (native Filipino)

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Stage lighting

Camera

Medium to wide shot

Scaling

Dominance of shots on the kids playing Angklung

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 J. Episode 8 Episode

8

Date

July 17 / 18

Time

:41

Location

Studio

Status

Non-overseas Filipino. Topic was accessories

Length

:2

Setting

Studio

Characters

Suzette Hernandez

Costume

NA

Props / Signs

Accessories like hats

No. of Reference

1


193

Dialogue

:41 Basta hip, fun at gawa sa Philippines, mga bonggang accessories, I will always wear.�]= (Translation : As long as accessories are hip and fun and made in the Philippines, I will always wear them).

Music

Fast-paced

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Studio lighting

Camera

Close-up

Scaling

No reference to OFs

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 K. Episode 9 Episode

9

Date

July 17 / 18

Time

2:14 to 4:02 (:48)

Segment

A-List

Location

Studio

Status

Non-overseas Filipino in a U.S. awarding body

Length

:48

Setting

Studio

Characters

Julius Santos, Suzette Hernandez, Michi Valeriano

Costume

Casual

Props

NA


194

No. of Reference

1

Dialogue

3:17 to 3:31 (:14) “It’s a known fact that Philippines is a country na good English speakers.”

Music

Fast-paced

Sound Effects

Stinger

Lighting

Studio lighting

Camera

Medium shot

Scaling

Camera shots are directed toward host who is saying a line

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 L. Episode 11 Episode

11

Date

July 31

Segment

A-List

Time

5:03 - 6:40

Location

Studio

Status

Migrant worker

Length

: 43

Setting

Studio

Characters

Subject not shown

Costume

Casual

Props

NA

No. of Reference

3

Dialogue

“Ang galing talaga pag nakikita mo ang


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iyong kababayan mong nakikipagtagisan ng talent sa isang mainstream show.]= (Translation : It’s great to see your fellowmen competing with each other in a mainstream show) is pure pride in the talent of Filipinos.” 5:00-5:57 (:57) “Si Sean Samson, Filipino-American he was born and raised in California but he was British trained. Nanalo siya ng Best Collection Award…oo sa fashion…sa International Talent Support. Natutuwa ako kasi si Sean may degrees under his belt. So it means t means talagang nagpursige siya. Ang gusto ko diyan, mayroon dream siya, backed by education tapos perseverance, na-reach niya yung dream niya.” Music

Fast-paced

Sound Effects

Stinger

Lighting

Studio lighting

Camera

Medium shot

Scaling

Camera shots are directed toward host who is saying a line

Editing

Cut to cut

Others Table 10 M. Episode 11 Episode

11

Date

July 31

Time

9:03

Location

Studio

Status

Migrant


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Length

3:43

Setting

Studio

Characters

Nina Rodecker

Costume

Subject not shown

Props

None

No. of Reference

3

Dialogue

6:40 “Alam niyo bang isang Pilipina ang pinarangalan sa Washington DC dahil sa kanyang katangi-katanging negosyo…A Filipina named Nina Rodecker who started the business Tasty Clouds. Cotton candy as the word implies. Pinagaralan siya bilang one of the top entrepreneurs of America. We all agree this is tamis because it is a good news? Are we contented of entrepreneurship of Filipinos here in the U.S.or the Philippines given the situation that us being the second largest ethnic group in the country eh panglima lang tayo sa mga Asian Americans when it comes to the number of businesses…The idea itself is something that we should brag about na may Pilipina sa pedestal. But at the same time it should serve as an inspiration. We should start investing aside from just working hard. Kasi for one we can actually earn more money by being our own boss and at the same time providing more opportunities for our ka-nation.”

Music

Joyous

Sound Effects

Stinger

Lighting

Studio lighting


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Camera

Medium shot

Scaling

Camera shots are directed toward host who is saying a line

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 N. Episode 12 Episode

12

Date

August 14/15

Time

3:27

Location

San Francisco

Status

Transient worker

Length

3:27 to 8:07 (5:20)

Setting

Premiere

Characters

Jericho Rosales

Costume

NA

Props

NA

No. of Reference

3

Dialogue

7:52-8:07 “There are a lot of talented people on the Philippines that I hope. I am just a small part of a new wave of Filipino directors that bring these people into mainstream entertainment world not that there’s something wrong with the entertainment industry. I just hope we spread the joy to the rest of the world”

Music

Fast-paced

Sound Effects

None


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Lighting

Medium lighting

Camera

Medium shot

Scaling

Medium shot of the director

Editing

Cut to cut

Others

Table 10 O. Episode 13 Episode

13

Date

August 15

Segment

Tambayan

Time

31:13

Location

San Francisco

Status

Migrants

Length

31:13 to 36:33 (20)

Setting

Studio

Characters

XOXO

Costume

NA

Props / Signs

Musical instruments

No. of Reference

2

Dialogue

31:13 to 31:38 (:15) “With nearly 50,000 subscribers in their youtube page and multiple videos with over a million views this Fil-Am trio has achieved online star status thanks to their yukelele infused R&B music. (To the guests) Boy online stars. How do that sound?�


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Music

Accoustic

Sound Effects

None

Lighting

Studio shot

Camera

Full shot

Scaling

Close up, medium and full shots

Editing

Cut to cut


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Annex G. Focus Interview with TFC Subscribers

Carolina Asuncion “Pag nasa U.S. ang tao tinitingala nila (Filipinos in the U.S.A. are highly regarded).” ON PORTRAYALS 1. Okay lang yun. I mean, positive para sa ano, kasi para sa mga Pilipino rin naman yun all over the world (That is okay. I mean (it is) positive because it (portrayal) is also for the Filipinos all over the world). 2. Well, para sa akin kasi pagka-positive ang labas sa amin, nakakatulong rin sa amin yun para mabigyan naming ng experience, ng kaalamanan, you know, openminded Pilipino (I mean [the portrayals] are alright because the positive portrayals help us become aware of how others see us and at the same time we learn from these portrayals).” EFFECT ON ONESELF 3. Sometimes it is sad, it is so hard because you know marami kasing Pilipinong...maraming advantages and disadvantages sa mga Pilipino kasi siyempre pinapakita lahat ng mga hindi magaganda sa Pilipinas so hindi masyadong okay. Pero totoo yun (Sometimes it is sad, it is so hard because you know (we are) there are a lot of Filipinos...there are advantages and disadvantages because even the bad side of the Philippines is shown so it is not okay as well. However, that is the truth). FAITHFUL PORTRAYAL 4. Yun na nga, nagiging malungkot tayo kasi nga siyempre nakikita natin na yung mga kababayan natin nahihirapan like sa government natin you know…so medyo masama ang effect (That is it. We are saddened by the fact that our fellow Filipinos are having a hard time, say with government). EFFECT ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 5. You know as a Filipino nakikita ko naman kasi ano you know, minsan siyempre nakakaawa sila which is nagpupush sa atin na tumulong sa ating mga


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kababayan (As a Filipino, I feel for my fellow Filipinos because some of them are the ones who inspire us to help).” EFFECT ON ONESELF 6. Para sa akin naman, ano, maging ano lang parang maging isang, magtulungan pa rin tayo kahit na hiwa-hiwalay kahit nakakalat tayo sa buong mundo (For me, we need to help each other even if we are spread across the world). LONG-TERM EFFECTS 7. Malaking tulong naman sa ating Pilipino. Kahit saan tayo magpunta, nandoon pa rin yung pagkakaisa. Pag negative sa akin malungkot (It is of a huge help because we are united anywhere we go. But if (the portrayal) is negative, it saddens me). HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 8. Kasi kung sa atin naman, pag nasa U.S. ang mga tao, kapag narinig nila yung America tinitingala nila. Hindi naman lahat ng Pilipino dun is (sic) maganda ang buhay. Meron din siyempreng naghihirap. Ginagawa namin lahat para maging okay (People regard Filipinos in the U.S. very highly. However, not all Filipinos in the U.S. have a good life. The reality is there are those who also suffer but we all do our best to survive).”

Raquel Mendoza “Parang na-apreciate namin. We’re proud to be Filipino. Di katulad dati-dati na ashamed ka to be Filipino. Ngayon wala na. Nakatulong din yung achievers ng Filipinos. Parang ngayon nagbabago na.” PORTRAYALS OF OFS 1. Mostly kasi sa “adobo NATION”, yung talent ng Pinoy pinapakita roon atsaka about ano rin, kasi siyempre we are outside the Philippines, yung pagiging generous ng Filipinos, we keep on helping mga families sa Philippines and how to save. Ang talagang inaano ko doon yung OK Nga Rod kasi yung sa financial, how to save, how to consolidate (“adobo NATION” mostly shows the talent and generosity of Filipinos outside the Philippines and how they keep on helping their countrymen back home. It also shows how to save and how to consolidate).


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OWN FEELINGS 2. Of course I am proud. Kasi nga mostly ang pagiging Pinoy sa ibang bansa makikita mostly hard-woking kami. Hardworking kami. Proud na proud (Of course I am proud because we are portrayed mostly as hard-working. We are so proud). FAITHFUL PORTRAYAL 3. Yeah kasi mostly kasi kaibigan namin is Pilipino. Alam namin ang problem, ang iniisip ng Pilipino. Parang extension ng Pilipinas. Kaya fluent na fluent pa rin akong mag-Tagalog. Naano ako kaso you are nothing but……nababaluktutbaluktot. Kasi born kami sa Pilipinas so yung accent namin Pilpino. Speaking in Tagalog (Most of our friends are Filipino. We know what their problems are and what they are thinking. It is like an extension of the Philippines here. That is why I am still fluent in Tagalog (Filipino). I am trying the same way (the famous line goes) ‘You are nothing but (a second rate, trying-hard copy cat). KABABAYANS’ FEELINGS 4. I think proud din sila. Kasi nga, mostly tumatanyag. Unti-unti nang nakikilala ang kagandahan sa ibang bansa. Walang discrimination. Diniscrimate nila ako, I filed discrimination (charges). I know the rules. Parang ganoon. Oo. Tsaka kasi dapat kasi before nung bagong dating ako, minamaliit ang mga Pilipino. Parang walang alam. Pero naprove ko sa kanila na it is wrong. Alam ko yung policy sa ibang bansa. And then I win (I think they are also proud because most of them are either slowly getting known or are already popular. There is no discrimination. If they discriminate me, I file charges. I know the rules. Things like that. When I just came here, Filipinos were looked down upon. It was like they did not know anything. And then I win (the argument). OTHER FILIPINOS’ FEELINGS 5. Yeah masaya kami. Parang naapreciate namin. We are proud to be Filipino. Di katulad dati dati na ashamed ka to be Filipino. Ngayon wala na. Nakatulong din yung achievers ng Filipinos. Parang ngayon nagbabago na (Yes we are happy. We appreciate it. We are proud to be Filipino unlike before when we were ashamed to be Filipino. It is a different story now. It helps that there are Filipino achievers. It is like things have changed).


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EFFECT ON ONESELF 6. Minsan yung mga achievers, kaya naman pala. You can do it pala. Parang ganoon ang thinking. Pag napapanood, kaya naman pala. Give it a try. At least may natututunan. Naiinfluence ko yung co-worker ko. Dati wala siyang imik. She does not know how to speak in English. Ako naman kahit baluktot ang English ko pero if I am right I will fight for it. Pareho na kami, U.S. citizen na rin siya. Natututo na rin siya sa influence ko ([When we see the achievers we think] we can do it as well. You can do it as well. That is the kind of thinking when we watch them [achievers]. Give it a try. At least you learn something. I influence my co-worker. Before she did not say a word. Even I did not speak English well but I am right I will fight for it). Sometimes, not everybody has a positive attitude. Others are against it [portrayals]). What do we call the term, ingit, some form of jealousy. Although they should be proud of that kind na nirerepresent din nila country nila (They should be proud of the kind of representation because they represent the country). Others, we raise money for them. Oh they all have these great rewards anyway that kind of attitude. Why don’t we have that? Giving money or contributing is a form of appreciation. It is not because they need that. Inaapreciate mo yung kanilang achievements (You appreciate their achievements). But others they are not like that.� LONG-TERM EFFECT 7. Mas maganda kasi parang marami ka nang natutunan. Alam mo na how to apply. You have to share. Kasi kung may good news you have to share (It is a good show because we learn a lot. You know for example, how to apply. You have to share. If you have good news, you have to share).

HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 8. Mostly na-tackle na nila. Kasi minsan iba-ibang story. Pero yung talagang tumulong ng masyado din ay yung sa pagsa-save. Kasi tayong mga Pilipino nung bagay ako dun. Ano ba yung retirement? Now na nadi-discuss na iyon. So natututo na rin ako (They are able to tackle almost about anything. Sometimes the stories are different. The topic that really helps is the one about saving because Filipinos are into this. Retirement is also discussed. Now that these are discussed, I also get to learn about it).


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9. Wala. Kasi nga di mo alam eh. Nobody’s teaching you how. Wala kang naririnig. Wala namang tungkol sa ganong discussion. May portion doon that helps. Kasi parang yun na talaga ang wina-watch ako. Pag pine-present yung pagluluto. Sila na rin hindi na rin nahihiya na sabihing they are half Filipino (None. I do not really know. Nobody is teaching you how. You cannot hear any complain. There is no such discussion. There is however a portion there that helps. That is what I get to see when I watch, including cooking. They are also not ashamed to say they are Filipino).

Rebecca Mendoza PORTRAYALS 1. For me yung you know by watching, through them narerelive pati yung homesickness. But they are really trying hard to i-represent the Filipino tradition din na yung mga through games, tsaka mga respect for elders, tsaka with yung saya the way they handle the whole game shows at lahat. It is very entertaining. Oh yeah, yeah we do. Halos lahat, hindi lang regular yung “TV Patrol” kasi minsan yung time. Pero yung regular, almost regular yung “Happy Yipee Yehey.” Game shows. Yeah yung “ASAP Rocks” tapos minsan pumupunta na rin kami sa GMA. We have both. That’s only recently. No we do not have DirecTV. Because you can subscribe to one, just the TFC or a combination of this – or lahat ng channels. [Anong company kayo subscribed?] Ang aming ano Bright House. Pero DirecTV kami nung araw. But we felt we were paying a lot na dalawa ginagamit. Kaya sabi ko oh let’s just pick and choose. Kasi noon we had all the channels. Dati we had TFC, ANC, there are six channels. Dadalawa lang ang pinapanuod namin. We chose this because it is very entertaining for us ganyan (For me my homesickness is relieved when I watch them. They are really trying to represent the Filipino tradition through games, respect for elders and the happiness through the whole game shows and everything. It is very entertaining. We do (enjoy them) and not just “TV Patrol.” The show where we see this most is “Happy Yipee Yehey,” the game shows and “ASAP Rocks.” Sometimes we watch GMA because w have both. But that is only recently. No we do not have DirecTV because you either subscribe to one or to all. Our cable company is Bright House but we used to have DirectTV. We felt we were paying a lot for two uses. So I decided to just pick one. Before we had all six channels – TFC, ANC and there are six channels but we only watch two. We chose this (TFC) because it is very entertaining.


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2. Hindi ako masyadong regular sa “adobo NATION” pero you know they have mostly positive stuff kagaya ng mga food ano rin mga Filipino ano, food, entertainment, restaurants. Lately, nag-improve yata sila ng styles. Meron silang bagong format ng show nila. You know, hindi ko actually, ano, but I have not seen any negative so far. Pinoportray, shinoshowcase nila yung mga celebrities, yung mga nananalo sa contests. Yung mga may achievements. Inaano nila, iniinvite nila. That is good kako para maboost ang morale ng mga Filipinos. That is right (I do not watch “adobo NATION” regularly but they they have positive stuff like food, entertainment, restaurants. Lately, they have improved their style. They also have a new format. You know (I really do not know) but I have not seen any negative so far. They showcase celebrities and winners of competitions and their achievements. They invite these Filipinos). FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 3. "We feel, you know we felt good. It is good they are doing that. At least narerecognize yung mga achievements ng Filipinos ba. Lalo na rin yung mga Pinoy achievements dito. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. Nagfefeature lang sila di katulad ng TV Patrol. That is right. Maganda, maganda that is a good show actually. (We feel, you know, we felt good. It is good they are doing that. The achievements, especially of the Filipinos are recognized. I do not have anything against that. It is just that they are doing a great job. They feature more than the likes of what TV Patrol features. That is right. It is beautiful, beautiful and that is a good show actually." Yun bang Geny Lopez award wasn’t that part of the show? Kasi I have, we have a, like popular group back home sa Florida where tawag namin Bayanihan. Nirecognize kami ng Geny Lopez. No, I am part of the group but I did not go kasi yung first three lang ang pinili (Wasn’t Geny Lopez part of the show (adobo NATION). We have popular group back home in Florida which we call Bayanihan. Gawad Geny Lopez recognized us. No I am not part of the group but I did not go because only the first three were chosen). FEELINGS OF FILIPINOS BACK HOME 4. Usually yung mga achievers dun na pinoportray they are what I know sa States sila yun bang Filipino descent sila so they really did not come from here originally. They are good (They portray achievers who are not originally from the States but are of Filipino descent).


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5. Hindi naman sila. I think they are very appreciative, they are very faithful. Very proud naman sila (It is not them. They are very appreciative. They are very faithful. They are also very proud). Gaya nina Aragon, di ba she was featured there but she is not from here? We really love si Lea Salonga from nung kanyang kabataan. Hanggang ngayon kung saan siya nagcoconcert. Kasi pag nagcoconcert siya doon talagang pinapanood. Di ba pag sa atin, parang di siya masyadong sikat. Pero doon high class. Maganda ang achievements din niya. Kaya ano, that is very nice (For example Aragon was featured but she is no exactly from the Philippines. We love Lea Salonga from the very start. Until now, we continue to watch her. In the Philippines, celebrities who are no longer very popular continue to be patronized. In the US, these Filipino celebrities are popular and considered high class. We have a lot to be proud of. That is what it is. The only thing is we need more exposure. Get more exposure. Kagaya nung Dragon Boat Race they were really, really good. Very proud din sila. Nagpunta talaga sila sa Tampa. We raised money. They just went there for invitation. I do not know the competition. Nagraise kami ng funds for them. Binigyan namin sila ng big gathering. Parang appreciation. (We have a lot to be proud of. That is what it is. The only thing we need is more exposure. Get more exposure. For example the Dragon Boat Race was really good. They were very proud. They went to Tampa and we raised money. They just went there for invitation. I do not know the competition. We raised funds for them. We gave them a big gathering, sort of like an appreciation). FELLOW FILIPINOS THOUGHTS 6. Minsan, not everybody, yeah, has that positive attitute towards that. Yung iba naman they have some against that. May mga alam mo na? What do we call the term – ingit, some form of jealousy (Sometimes, not everybody has a positive attitude. Others are against it [portrayals]. There is what we call – envy, some form of jealousy. They should be proud). Although they should be proud of that kind na nirerepresent din nila country nila (Although they should be proud of the fact that they represent the country). Others, we raise money for them. Oh they all have these great rewards anyway. That kind of attitude. Why don’t we have to that? Giving money or contributing is a form of appreciation. It is not because they need that. Inaapreciate mo yung kanilang achievements (You appreciate their achievements). But others they are not like that.


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NEGATIVE PORTRAYALS 7. Yung kagaya nung sa ano news of course you know there are a lot of...you know yun naman that is the truth. Ah sa pagkatao. Kagaya ng, ala namang show. It is mostly game shows we watch that is why. Ano pa ba yung ibang shows…sa Eat Bulaga there is a lot of cursing but compared to TFC, we tend towards watching TFC parang napapansin ko may mga ganung ano eh di magandang words sometimes. Kaya di ako nanunod kasi nakokornihan din ako dun (For example in news, there are a lot of your know, the truth about the personalities. We watch game shows mostly. In Eat Bulaga, there is a lot of cursing compared to TFC, we tend towards watching TFC. We notice there is the use of bad words (in Eat Bulaga) and none in TFC. We do not watch [Eat Bulaga] because it is crass). LONG TERM EFFECTS 8. It should be a good effect although I have not seen an actual [effect]. Yung mga halimabawa like Lea Salonga. They are a lot of them, not just Filipinos pati foreigners. Nagaano rin sa kanya. Tapos I think it is a good effect unless yung mga ano...hindi naman namin alam yung ibang ano...Most of our friends that have TFC they really have a good feedback. At least meron kang choice (It should be a good effect although I have not seen an actual [effect]. For example Lea Salonga. There are a lot of them, not just of Filipino descent. I think it is a good effect unless, I do not know about the others. Most of our friends who have TFC really have a good feedback. At least we have a choice). OTHER PORTRAYALS 9. Yung, I can’t think of anything, like more recommendations for improvement? Rooms for improvement. Maybe they can portray more like in MMK, we like the stories so far pero hindi 100%. Pag nanunuod ako I really cannot critique. I enjoy almost everything. Minsan naka-stagger sa trabaho. Hindi (I don’t have TFC at work). Pag nagtratrabaho ka minsan may schedule sa home minsan di mo nagagawa. Minsan, I like them because they change their programs every three months bec before I know it, iba na naman. May variety. Yung issue kay Willie that is really a big issue abroad. That is how we felt. Tapos biglang nagkaroon ng alitan. Napalitan naman ng something good. Both actually benefitted. On the otherhand, sabi namin well di naman ako nagju-judge parang he owns the show. Kasi ano siya very generous. He tends to give whatever is from his pocket (I cannot think of any more recommendations for improvement. Maybe they can portray more like MMK. So far we like the stories a hundred percent. When I


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watch, I really cannot critique. I enjoy almost everything. Sometimes it deters work as well as household chores. I like it that TFC changes its programs every three months. Before I know it, there is a different show. The issue on Willie Revillame is big issue abroad. That is how we felt. And then there was a rift and the program was changed. Both actually benefitted. On the otherhand, we cannot judge because owns the show and is very generous. He tends to give whatever is from his pocket.

Ronnie Mendoza “What comes to my mind is that Filipinos have a lot in them to show to other countries. Our educational background is of a higher qulity. We have a lot to be proud of. That is common to all Filipinos.” PORTRAYALS on TFC 1. Homesickness. Respect for elders. We see the Filipino mark in them. We also watch American shows. Iba ang Filipino (the Filipino is different) – what they saw, they say what they mean and we understand what they saw. I see the culture because they try to, specially dun sa respect, in the way they talk to the elders (I see the culture because they try to [show it], especially with the elders). That is only recently. Not only because because they are Filipinos. It relives us of homesickness. That is general news? FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 2. I am glad that I am able to observe them and I am glad that Filipinos are getting attention. Apo ni Sylvia La Torre? I know Sylvia but not (her granddaughter) I am glad that I am able to observe them and I am glad that Filipinos are getting attention. The granddaughter of Sylvia La Torre. I know Sylvia (but not her granddaughter).” FEELINGS OF FELLOW FILIPINOS 3. What comes to my mind is that Filipinos have a lot in them to show to other countries. Our educational background is of a higher qulity. We have a lot to be proud of. That is common to all Filipinos.


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FELLOW FILIPINOS IN U.S.’ THOUGHTS 4. Wala ako masyadong contact. Either they do not show it or they do not care or they do not show it anyway. Pero kami we show our appreciation for fellow Filipinos....more positive yes (I do not have much contact. Either they do not show it or they do not care or they do not show it anyway). FELLOW FILIPINOS in the PHILIPPINES 5. I’d say 90% we watch TFC. It is what we enjoy. It is what means more to you than you watch. If I do not like their antics, I would not watch it. LONG TERM EFFECTS 6. TFC, we pay to get the service. It is something we buy because we like the service. If we do not like it we would not buy it. It is worth the money we pay. HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 7. MMK I enjoy watching that because yung mga stories niya are very realistically. Totoo lahat iyon di ba (MMK? I enjoy watching that because the stories are very realistic. They are all true, right)?

Kenneth Ocampo PORTRAYALS OF OFS 1. Well for me, as a point TFC subscriber in the United States, it gives us awareness on what’s going on in the States and also back home because I know they’re giving like news and, news about the Philippines, discussing it one by one, details what’s going on and having opinions and I know that they are also asking Filipinos over there about the, opinions, what’s going on. Well think it’s all negative and positive. You’ll see some people are negative about the drop of the peso to dollar. You know. Some people are not into. Yeah I guess the news. It really helps what’s going on right here. PERSONAL FEELINGS ON PORTRAYALS 2. Of course you feel pity about those people you know. On the other hand you feel glad that you are not one of them. Back home even though, even though you


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say na eight hours, sometimes double shift. The time, people over there work, especially Filipinos ([are beyond]. They work really hard. And you know looking at those, kahit na pagod na, pagod na pagod and then you will see people starving to death, you know namalimos sa kalye. You feel glad that you have work. Even na pagod na pagod ka. Maswerte ka pa rin to find a job over there (Of course you feel pity about those people you know. On the otherhand, you feel glad that you are not one of them. Back home, Filipinos work, sometimes beyond eight hours, sometimes double shift. The time, people over there work, especially Filipino. They work really hard. And you know, looking at those tired Filipinos and then you’ll see people starving to death, you know beggars, you feel glad that you have work even if you are very tired. You are still lucky to have a job. Siyempre reality di ba?. I mean people back here should also know what is also going in there. Di lang shopping or like the fun stuff in Las Vegas or spending money. People there do spend money but they work their butt off, hard for it. Like me I work eight hours a day and then in one year I say to my self you deserve a vacation [that’s right] at least five days. You know, know going to LA for just three days is still worth it. Because you can never (word) anything. You need time for yourself. Ang hirap especially ang hirap mag-go around like me my day off is different sa mga day off ng kaibigan ko. Yeah it is really hard to “Oh let us get together unlike here. All night, every night. Over there? No,no,no. Ang hirap. And sometimes you go to salon. You go to TV, computer, FB kasi yun lang yung puwede mong gawin. Kasi you do not want to bother them kasi day off does not mean... Actually this is one of my longest vacations ever. For almost a month, I stayed in Cebu for a month for my school, medical mission. And then nag-stay ako sa Lucena (Reality of course. I mean people back here should also know that that is what is going on in there. Not just shopping, like the fun stuff in Las Vegas, or spending money. People there do spend money but they work their butt off and hard for it. Like me I work eight hours a day and then in one year, I say to myself you deserve a vacation of at least five days. You know, now, going to L.A. for just three days is still worth it because you can never replace it with anything. You need time for yourself. It is difficult especially to go around because my day off is different from my friends’ day-off. Yes it is really hard to say ‘Oh let us get together.’ Unlike here, all night, every night. Over there, no, no, no. It is difficult. Sometimes, we go to a salon and you go to TV, computer, facebook (FB) because those are the things you can do. Actually this is one of my longest vacations ever. For almost a month, I stayed in Cebu for a month, my school, medical mission. And then I stayed in Lucena).


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FAITHFUL TO REALITY “I think yeah they are close to reality pero I think more on…I don’t know, most of the time, you know most of the part na napapanood ko yung news, opinion. Anong opinion nila and they are discussing it. I think it is more on reality. (I think they are close to reality but I think more on...I do not know most of the time, you know most of the part I watch are the news, opinion. What their opinions are and they are discussing it. I think it is more on reality).” EFFECTS FOR PEOPLE BACK HOME 3. Siyempre nag-woworry din sila di ba? I mean every Filipino will do. Representation yan ng Filipino di ba (They [people in the Philippines] worry. I mean every Filipino will do. That is our representation as a people right)? Actually I went to Hong Kong (HK). Remember may nangyaring HK hostage and so they were very rude sa amin (Remember there was a hostage-taking and so the HK nationals were very rude). Yeah. We did not expect it that way. I called up my mom and she was like “Well you know what something happened.” Something about HK and Chinese people. And I guess you know baka isipin nila ang mga Pinoy ganoon. Sa kapwa Asian. So kahit long years na yung tumagal, naalala ng HK people (And I guess you know that other races will think of us that way. So even if years have passed, HK people still remember). It is the same as the Americans. It will stick to their minds - kung anong ginawa ng mga Filipinos (what Filipinos did to their fellowmen). And sometimes, ginawa ng kapwa mo Pilipino mo represented ka na di ba? Mahihiya ka rin na kapwa Pilipino mo may ginawa na ka-somethingan. Hahabulin ka na nun anywhere you go (Sometimes just because other Filipinos did it, you will also be of the same mold. You will also feel ashamed because of what these other Filipinos do. Not only at work. 4. It is really bad you know what happened. Tiningin nila walang ginawa ang mga Pilipino sa interest ng nangyari, the entire world (People will think the Filipinos did nothing about it). Maybe you will never know maybe any other Asian will not respect us the way they used to. 5. Nakita ko talaga kung ano talaga yung good way and bad way. But if you ask me sa States, I think as far as I’ve been living there for five years, maganda naman ang background ng Filipinos. Actually, lahat ng puwede mong puntahan, restos malls, mga carehome puro Filipino talaga siya. Kasi what they like about Filipinos they are very loyal. Walang reklamo. Kahit double shift pa sila. Kahit na gaano kahirap ang trabaho pipilitin talaga nila. Walang masabi. Kahit saan ka pumunta. They would rather have Filipinos kesa Puti. Puti is very tamad. They


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do not do anything. Nakaupo lang sa work. But Filipinos you can put them anywhere (I see both the good and positive side. Ut if you ask me in the U.S., as far as I have been living there for five years, the Filipinos’ background is good. All the places where you can go to, restaurants, malls, carehome, most of them have Filipinos. What other races like about the Filipinos is their loyalty. They do not complain even when they are on double shift. Even if hard at work, Filipinos everywhere do not air their grievances. That is why foreign employers prefer Filipinos. The Westerners are lazy and do not do anything. They just sit around doing nothing. Filipinos on the other hand, can be put anywhere). LONG-TERM EFFECT 7. Lahat ng Filipinos ang buhay sa Amerika it is not as easy as you think. Pipila sa States (For all the Filipinos out there, life in the U.S. is not easy as you think. People line up for the chance to go to the States). Once you are there, you are a caregiver. Hindi mo makukuha ang sarap ng trabaho (You cannot get the job you want). My mom and my step-dad petitioned me. Pinatapos ako ng high school. I’m (sic) only 17 and my age was in the middle of having fun, going around kasi magco-college nako (I finished high school. I was only 17 and in the middle of having fun, going around because I was heading to college). I started first year of college. Lalabas ka lang. Lahat ng tao nakakulong (You want to go out but the others just stay in their homes). For two years I was really crying. I do not want to be here. Antagal naming di nagsama ng mom ko. Nag-OFW sa Singapore. Yung amo niya nagpunta sa California and then nagdouble date, nagkaanak na (I was separated from my mother for so long. She worked as an OFW in Singapore. Her employer set her up for a double date and then got pregnant). When they asked me to be here. Yung dad kong nandito may family na siya (my father here has a family of his own). It was really pretty tough. Everyday I pray something will change, to find friends. Ako yung tipo ng tao I choose friends kasi di ako madaling magtiwala. As the years went by natuto akong magdrive (I am the type of person who does not easily trust people. I learned how to drive. It was easier to find a job. I can go anywhere. It was easy if you are very masipag. Wala kang maririnig na reklamo. Ayaw ng foreigners nago-overtime (It is easier if you are hard-working. You would not hear any complain. The foreigners on the other hand, do not like going overtime.


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Amelia Pineda “Ah oo naman, oo naman kasi totoo namang andaming successful na Pinoys. Napakadami nga eh. Atsaka at least nagiging known tayo, nagkakaroon ng place in the map ika nga (“Oh yes because there are a lot of successful Filipinos. They are a lot. Because of the recognition, we are earning our place in this world).” PORTRAYALS OF FILIPINOS 1. Oo positive naman yung pinapakita doon especially yung mga successful na mga Pinoys na nasa America. Di ba nakikita nila iyon? …Yung mga successful Filipinos I think that is one big plus para sa kanilang show…kasi parang inaano nila yung pride ng Pinoy – pinapakita how they strive atsaka mga achievements nila na ano tsaka mostly naman sa kanila sinasabi nila they are proud to be Pinoys (The successful Filipinos are one big plus for the show because they herald the Filipino pride. They show how Filipinos strive and succeed. Most of their content show that the hosts are proud to be Filipinos).” FEELINGS 2. Oo positive naman. Oo kasi parang inaano nila yung pride ng Pinoy – pinapakita how they strive atsaka mga achievements nila na ano tsaka mostly naman sa kanila sinasabi nila they are proud to be Pinoys (Yes they are positive. It is like they fuel the pride of the Pinoy. They show how they strive as well as achieve their goals. These shows also show that they are proud to be Pinoy). FAITHFUL PORTRAYAL 3. Ah oo naman, oo naman kasi totoo namang andaming successful na Pinoys. Napakadami nga eh. Atsaka at least nagiging known tayo, nagkakaroon ng place in the map ika nga (Yes of course because there are a lot of successful Filipinos. There are truly a lot. And we are also becoming known). FEELINGS OF FILS BACK HOME 4. “Proud sila siyempre lalo na yung time ng, nung nina Charice Pempengco nung simula ng siya ay anong tawag doon – na ma-feature. Oo it goes around. Di nga alam kung sino yun. Yung mga kasa naming sa trabaho, uy panoorin niyo si ganoon, ganoon fast. Very good singer. Ganoon ([I was] proud of course, especially during the time of Charice Pempengco. It goes around. I did not even know who she was. My co-workers just prodded me to watch).”


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FEELINGS OF OTHERS 5. Oo, oo naman (proud sila). Yes, they are proud). LONG-TERM EFFECTS 6. Eh di magiging proud ka na ikaw ay Pinoy. Number one. Siyempre you support them in whatever way you can. Kasi hindi naman lahat ng tao sa America have good jobs to see the shows kasi mahal din yung mga shows. At least kung meron through television makikita nila iyon ([Because of the portrayals], we feel proud to be Filipinos. Of course you support them in whatever way you can. Not all of Filipinos in the U.S. have good jobs to pay for the shows. At least on television, we get to watch our favorite celebrities). 7. Oo pricey din yun. So mostly positive yung nakikita sa “adobo NATION”. Oo naman (Yes they are pricey a well. We see a lot of positive portrayals in “adobo NATION).” OTHER PORTRAYALS 8. Puwede namin kasing ipakita ang negative but in a different way. Para makita yung mga Pinoy sa abroad yung condition ng Pilipinas. Pero minsan yung mga pinapakita sa TV doon parang amazing. Parang mga mahirap na tao siyempre nakakaawa. Oo so dapat parang may redeeming value (The program can still still show the negative side but in a different way. This way Filipinos can see the real condition. On the otherhand, the portrayals on television are different. There are poor people but there should be redeeming values in the end). FEELINGS OF FELLOW OFs 9. Siyempre the same way. Same way kasi Filipino sila. Gusto nila maganda rin yung background nila. You know. Work, economy nila. Siyempre i-interviewihin ka at work. Siyempre, naiipon yung padala. Siyempre representation mo iyon as Filipino. Basically the same way. (Other Filipinos view these portrayals the same way. Of course they would also like to have a good background – work and economy-wise. They will interview you at work. They will save to earn money to send home. That is how Filipinos are).” LONG TERM EFFECTS


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10. “Nakita ko talaga yung good way and bad way. But if you ask me, I think as far as I have been living there for five years, maganda ang background ng Filipinos. Same lang dito like sa Philippines pagdating dito (I see both the good and bad side to it. But if you ask me, as far as I have been living there for five years, Filipinos have a good background. It is the same here as it is in the Philippines). OWN FEELINGS 11. Siyempre nasasaktan ka rin di ba? Kapwa Pilipino mo. Kapwa Pilipino mo inaakusahan. Ampangit kasi in a way naaawa ka rin. Siyempre parang ang bad ng feeling sa sarili. Dinadala yung bad sa Philippines sa States. Ampangit naman na yung pangit sa Pilipinas dinadala mo sa States. Dapat anywhere you go dapat good traits (Of course we are hurt because they are our fellow Filipinos who get charged. It is ugly because you pity them in a way. Of course it feels bad. You bring the bad image of the Philippines. HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 12. “Dapat talaga good and bad para makita ng mga Pilipino here and there. No one is perfect in this world. Kelangan talaga good and bad (It is best to see both good and bad portrayals. No one is perfect in this world. We need both good and bad).”

Corazon Wyray PORTRAYALS 1. What representations do you see in these shows which the station portrays of OFs like you? Maraming TNT. We even see them talking on groceries. We always tell them it is difficult (There are a lot of illegal migrants. We even see them talking in groceries. We always tell them it is difficult). FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 2. How do you feel about these representations? (Please indicate one reason per representation) I hate it because they will be demoralized. They will not get their rightful treatment that is supposed to be done per hour in the US. People get paid per hour


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but because they are undocumented, they can just go for anything that anybody offers them. They have to hold on to the wounds of the swords because they have no choice. They just have to follow. And sometimes what happens for three months? I have a lot of friends who work in home care seven to eight months they were never paid. They come to my house. I feed them. You can not even file charges against them. Where is your proof that you have to be wokring here in the States. You are undocumented, you are here as a tourists. In fact ang gagawin pa nung caregiver, merong TNT na living in that house. Ako ilan ang kunukupkop ko (In fact, I would take the illegal migrant into my custody). Oh yes, especially like you know you got them for seven months na ginawa mong alila sila but you dont want to pay them. So ikaw pa mismo, palalalabasin sila sa immigration. Here it is a no. You can call. There is a residence, there is a TNT there. No it is now shown (on TV). It is only when may makikita sila na magbaback up na lawyer, that is the time that they fight. (They learn to fight when they have a lawyer to back them up). But most of the time they do not win. During the time of this case going on, pag dumating na ang immigration officer to pull them out wala ka nang iinterviewihin next bec they are out of the country (When the case is on-going, the immigration officer has no one to interview because the suspects have left by the time of the interview). And the moment they pick you up, barefooted they are going to get you flying barefooted. You can not say ‘hey I forgot my papers.’ If they are going top pick you up in your bra and panty you are going to fly the plane with your bra and panty. I dont know why a lot of them go to the States undocumented. Even if you want to help them, mahirap kasi kami mismo we might get...we will be going to have a bad image like we send people there undocumented. Mahirap din. Ako I work for the government. Ako pa nga dapat ang magturo kung sino but I do not. Naawa ako kasi you can never say kung anong reason nung tao (Even If you want to help them, it is difficult because we ourselves we might get…we will be going to have a bad image like we people there undocumented. It is also difficult. I work for the government. I should be the one to tell on these people but I do not. I pity them because you will never know where that person is coming from). FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 3. Are these representations faithful to how you really are in the U.S.? The whole story behind it is kept to the public. They do not show the whole storybehind it. Kumabaga ini-iscreen din ang mga sinasabi mga ganoon (They also screen what is said). We just shake our heads, because we know the whole story is this long ang they cut them up and they try to skew in this what you get because you come in here undocumented because this is not what you are going to get. Just go home. What are you doing here? Ay ako talaga hindi ko alam but


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for me I worked for one year with Philacor here and then I worked for the government (I really do not know. I know I worked for Philacor here and then I worked for the government). Nagwork ako sa government t sabi nga ng daughter ko when you work for the government you are halfway safe. You have got your pension, you have got your social security and you have overtime pay. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 4. What do you think are the effects of these representations in terms of how Filipinos back home perceive you? They think they made it good when they went to the States because they will be earning dollars. But they do not think of the way these people undergo. They share rooms or seven in one room because all of them are undocumented. I know somebody in New York live in rooms. Yung iba pa nga mga asawa pa ng artista. They work there nagbibigay, nagaalaga ng matatanda (Some of them are the spouses of celebrities. However, they are all undocumented). Kaya nga itong pitong ito pag nahuli, isang news lang, malalaman yung apelyido nila. Magtatally lang sa isang artista dito na akala nila is doing well (That is why these sevenwho have recently been arrested, one news and mention of their family names and people will do the Math. Celebritites who Filipinos here think are doing well are actually not). Hindi nila alam na yung sinusweldo pinambabayad lang sa 20k house to rent. Yung tao kuba na run. (They do not know that the $20,000 they are spending for can only pay for the rent. The Filipino in the U.S. is working hard for nothing). They work as maids. Ang sasarap ng mga buhay ng asawa at anak. Yung nanay andun caregiver (The relatives in the Philippines live the glamorous life but the mother is a caregiver working in the U.S.). I feel sorry for them. Tatlo yung asawa ng mga...but I will not name names (He or she has three partners but I will not name names). But when they come to me in California, I treat them nice. I was raised in a Catholic school, the way you were raised, that is your culture. Even if you have an American blood but you were raised here, you credit all the nuns that raised you in Saint Scholastica, definitely you will have that soft heart. Buti nga kung ako ang makakasalubong nila. Eh what happens yung yung mapagsamantala (They are lucky if they encounter me. What happens if they encounter someone who takes advantage)? That is why when I go there as a tourist. I tell them no, you are not going to enter this place undocumented. I can see your future. I work in nagbibigay ng license. Pag nagpasok sila ng undocumented, pag may nagdoor bell, darating naka block na yung immigration officers, they are just going to pull them out. Di naman natin puwedeng icover up ang papers (I work in a company that releases licenses. When they accommodate someone undocumented and if there is someone who knocks on their door, they lead them to the immigration officers). On the spot they were taken. I could not


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help them but I warned them. Tumawag muna sila sa telepono. Makikita kung fake o di fake. Kung nabili niyo lang ang papel niyo sa LV or LA. Ayaw nilang maniwala. After 911 everything was different. Diyan sila nakakabili sa San Diego. 911 was for all purposes (They would call on the phone. They will see who is fake or not fake. When you see your papers in Las Vegas or Los Angeles. They will not believe you. 911 was for all purposes). EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 5. What do you think are the effects of these representations in terms of how fellow Filipinos in the U.S. perceive you? They like it because they benefit from it. Kasi ang hirap maghanap ng maid sa States (It is hard to find a maid in the States). They get cheap labor. They can do anything they want. They can do nothing about it. It is for their personal. The next thing you will do, in the middle of the night you have to find shelter para di makita ng pinanggalingan mo (The next thing you will do, in the middle of the night you will find shelter so they will not trace you). You will be jumping from one place to another. Papunta ka ng Seattle. Kapag ika’y nasa California, it is easy to find you. Madaling mahanap (You go to Seattle. When you are in California, it is easy to find you. It is so easy to search). Minsan uutang sa iyo. Tapos uutang ng suweldo sa iyo tapos di nila balak babayaran. Sige magreklamo ka sasabihin kong undocumented (Sometimes they borrow money from you. Ang then delay the salary and do not give you eventually. When the Filipinos complain, they say they will report you). They take full, 100 percent advantage. These are the ones that take advantage. Ang mga puti maaawa pa minsan-minsan (The whites pity them). They are the ones who are kind-hearted. Pag sinabi mo lang ang istorya kakaawan ka. Pag narinig nila ang kuwento mo kaawaan ka nila. Marami akong white friends. When you meet Filipinos and they tell you their life story, [you feel] it is the truth. Don’t you think na pag ganito ang ginawa sa kapatid mo, sa auntie mo, don’t you think you will feel hurt (When you share your story, they take pity. When you hear their story, they take pity. I have a lot of white friends. When you meet Filipinos, they will tell you their life story which is the truth. Won’t you think when this happens to you, your sister, or your aunt, won’t you feel hurt?). EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON ONESELF 7. What are the other effects of these representations do you see on yourself? Alam niyo ba yung kapwa Pilipino, kunwari kayo mag-asawa kayo papuntahin niyo yung mother niyo para magalaga ng anak niyo without giving even a dollar (I know of a Filipino who petitioned their parents to save on child


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care). I have a friend may hospital sila sa Florida. It is a children’s hospital. The father served them for eight solid years magmula nang ipinanganak yuung kaisaisang anak .(The father served them since the first child was born) This is a true story. When I learned that, I called my friend and told him ‘get out of there.’ [With] such house, maghanap ka ng pamasahe. Maghanap ka sa ibang kaibigan mo (With that distance, you should find means for transport. You ask from friends). Fly to my house in California. Kinunan ko siya ng license para makawork siya sa Walmart and he is working in Walmart (I got him a license and a job at Walmart). You know what it is true. Pupunta silang mag-asawa sa grocery I cannot even bring a cart with me. Sisigawan siya ng manugang – ‘you cannot choose what food to eat.’ Tapos nun pauupuin sa restaurant. Kami nang bahalang umorder para sa inyo (When they go tot the grocery, they cannot even bring a cart with them. The in-law shouts ‘you cannot choose what food to eat.’ In a restaurant, the couple says they will just do the ordering). You cannot make choices. Is that how you treat your father? And he is a real son. Oh yes! Doktor! Yung wife? Andun kasamang mag-asawa. Ngayon yung asawa, walang income, they are sending money to one of their daughters here, umalis na yung mother pumunta sa ibang friends. Yung wife nagpunta sa akin kasi yung sister ko may homecare. Ihanap mo nga ng trabaho si Cecile so she can send money here (The wife continues to be with the couple. The husband meanwhile, has no income to send to the daughter left here in the Philippines. Now the mother has left to be with other friends. She went to me because my sister had homecare. ‘Can you look for a jon for Cecile so she can send money here)? One dollar was never filled in his wallet. His wallet never had a dollar. Fred, here’s ten dollars as a goodluck to your wife. Silang pamilya were super rich dati. Yung isang anak niya, yung second son niya is a lawyer. Di makapasok yung magasawa sa bahay kasi dahil sa in-law. Anong malas sa buhay mo sa buhay Cecile. (One of the couple’s child, the second son is a lawyer. The couple can no longer go back to that son’s house because of the in-law. I said ‘what bad kuck Cecile’). Ako naman I have five kids, one died so I have four. Yung tatlo may asawa wala akong naging problema sa manugang. Ikaw lang nagkaroon ng ganyan (I have five kids, one died so I have four. I have no problems with them or their spouses. You [Cecile] is the only one with that kind of problem. And these are professionals – doctors, lawyers and the daughter is teacher or management. Tapos nag-asawa siya ng airforce. Sabi ng friend ko bahala na ang diyos. (She married someone in airforce. My friend said ‘I leave it to God.’ No it is not the what is. Mas matanda pa sila sa akin (They are even older than me). The guy is 75 the girl is 73. Ginaganyan pa sila hanggang ngayon (Until now, the couple still suffer the same fate). They even wanted to migrate back in the Philippines. You know I cannot help you there in the Philippines. Ako rin buhay ko rin with my other two kids. Mother ko nga I can’t bring in from the Philippines kasi wala siyang pera from


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the Philippines. Wala akong pagkukunang pera sa kanila (That is also my lofe, with my two other kids. I cannot even bring my own mother to the Philippines because she had no money. I could not find money for them). That’s what’s hard in the Philippines. Gaya niyan di sila makauwi. Nagcicitizen pa lang. Sabi ko nga sa kanya may bahay akong malaki sa Baguio, sa Pangasinan, sa Filinvest. Yung isa Villa Amor Una subdivision tapos yung isa sa Nelsonville. Yung isang anak ko sa Nelsonville, yung isa yung matangkad Villa Amor Una (Like them, they cannot go home. They even applied for citizenship. I told them I have a house in Baguio, Pangasinan, and Filinvest. There is one in Villa Amor Una and another in Nelsonville). Kaya nga sabi ko, kawawa ang mga Filipino sa US (That is why I believe the Filipinos in the U.S. should be pitied). They have an impression that life in the US. If you have money you can eat big time, all the steaks in the world. I disagree with how Filipinos act to this. They should feel the burden. They do not know the reason behind these people. They do not tell you I am here, like I have a sick problem. I have a problem with my family. I am a working mom. I am the only one. They do not tell you the good [part]. But you know there is a problem somewhere. You just cannot picture it. They do not tell you the truth. But why give them a hard time? If you can share them a part of you of what you can do - pag kumita ka nga ng ganitong pera this time, make sure wag ka munang mag ano, i-save mo na iyon para kung mahuli ka or what nakaprepare ka when you get home (If you can share them a part of you, of what you can do, when you can earn a certain amount of money at this time, make sure, you save it so that you are prepared when you get home). Do not keep it in your place. Try to find a way to send it home para hindi nandito ang money mo because you cannot pick up your money. If you bought a car wala na yung kotseng binayaran nila. Wala (Try to find a way to send it home so that your money would be here when you are not able to get your money here. As you can see in the news, the whole family cannot even get the house). When you see in the news, yung buong family, even the house di nila makuha. The whole family was deported. What happened pto those money? Pag Pinadala sa ‘Pinas ginapang nila pagdeport nila they can be better here (When they send the money to the Philippines, they will not find difficulty in sending it back). You cannot go home to get your money. All the while ang iniisip nila good times. Di nila iniisip a few miles away para maging protected sila. I do not blame them for doing it kasi dito mahirap maghanap ng trabaho (They only think of the good times. They only think of the distance but do not think of how to get protection. They do not realize that is hard to find work here). If you can find a way to get to the States, fine but make the most out of it. Magpa-pafacial ka dito, maghahanap ka ng BF ditto (Take a facial, find a boyfriend).


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Advise. Find a way na lahat ng kinita mo kahit even if it is under the table, find ways and means to send home (Find a way to send your savings home, even if under the table). Think of the future. You cannot stay in the US forever. Sooner or later somebody is going to find you. Ako tumutulong ako sa kanila. I make use of my money chain. Oh magkano ang gusto mong padala sa Pilipinas. You want to send? Pag magbabayad ka sa sarili mo. When you send that is another USD (I help them. I make use of the money chain. How much do you want to send to the Philippines? How much do you valuate?) I want you to save your USD 10. Puwede ko siyang isama sa pera ko. Yung 100 para kay Mia. Para kay ganoon (I can send it along my money. The $100 is for Mia for example). They just give it to members of the family. Ako na magshoshoulder ng 10. Ang USD 10 any. Bakit ka pa magbabayad ng 10? Alam mo naman na di ko naman nanakawin. Service ko iyan sa kanila. Pag may gusto silang ipadala. Sapatos candies. Okay bigay niyo sa akin (I will just shoulder the $10. Why pay for $10? USD10? Any? That is my service. When you want something sent say shoes or candies, give it to me. Everytime I go home, pagbabalik ako - what do you want. Nagbayad pa nga ako ng USD 120 excess baggage. Dadalhin nila sa bahay tapos pagdating sa airport I had to pay excess baggage. Mommy ibalik mo yan (Everytime I go home and return, I ask them ‘what do you want?’ I pay $100 for excess baggage. They bring it to the house and then I pay for the excess baggage in the airport. My daughter says ‘return all that.’). No you do not do that. What is a $100? Eh yung kasiyahang nadadala ng 100, that is nothing to me (The joy that $100 brings is priceless). God gives you graces, more you share to others the more God gives you graces to share with more people… 100 is 100. Beth nandito ang padala ng mommy mo. Di niya inisip kung gaano kabigat nung pinadala ng nanay nila. Pero the mere fact na may pinadala nanay nila (Beth you mother’s package is here. She does not think of how heavy the package us. They are happy for that. The come to the house. I am leaving this day so you have to pack ahead. ‘Pag money, no problem. They can give me in the airport. I can get it from the airport. Pag may items, I am here to help for those that need help. Magmula ng pagkabata ganyan ka na ka-generous. Pag may darating na pulubi papapasukin mo sa kusina, pakakainin mo pa. Yung mga nagspa-spa sa akin sa bahay may mga old clothes ako diyan bago ko padala sa Sagip Kapamilya gusto mo mamili ka muna baka may anak kang maliit. Sabi ng mga anak ko si mother lahat kakilala. (If there are items, I am here to help those that need help. Since I was a child, I was really this generous. When I see a beggar knocking at my door, I welcome them. When I have stuff for Sagip Kapamilya, I let the women who give me foot spa to choose first. My mother tells me I know everyone). At least I am happy when I saw her face getting all the stuff from me. I am not gonna see


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the faces of those who will be given the coats. Mam ngayon lang ako gagamit ng ganito. Thank God andito dumating ako sa buhay mo (Madam this is the first time I got this kind of stuff. I thank God that I met you). If somebody gives you a hard time, do not think the next person is going you to give you a hard time as well. ‘Forget that and move on to the next. Move on. I always tell them when you give something to someone, do not expect them to give you in return. When you bury somebody make sure they are not going to get up and bury you as well. Either there are other people who are going to bury you. Ang taong nailibing niyo hindi yan tatayo at ililibing ka nila.’ Somebody else is going to give it to them. Kasi ang taong nilibing mo na, wag mo nang sabihin na ito ang bagong buhay niya. They give you good things. Panay mabuti. May narining ka na bang nilibing na masama ang sinabi? Hindi na babangon ang mga patay para sabihin ‘Salamat Corazon.’ (When you bury a person, you need not say the good things he or she has done because that person will not come back from the grave to hear all these things). Do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing. God never sleeps. Glamorosa siya pero sa loob niya may skeletons in the closet (She looks glamorous from the outside but she actually has skeletons in the closet). LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 9. What do you think are the long-term effects of these representations? Parang masyadong...it lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. Parang lahat tayo dehado na tayo. Parang lahat ng Filipinos lahat maids, lahat caregivers. They should not take it generally. There are people who are professionals and still work there as home caregivers because they want to solve the problem on their own. There has to be a solution to it (The [portrayals] sometimes lowers our morality. It really lowers us. Tourists come here just for sex. Just for women. We become stereotyped. For example we are seen as maids, caregivers. They should not take it generally). HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 10. How do you think should ABS CBN TFC portray you as overseas Filipino workers? The truth. That there are Filipinos hiding.


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Raquel Carigma PORTRAYALS 1. Yung reality. Yung mga nangyayari. Totoo naman (The truth, what really happens. [I hope] the truth).

FEELINGS ON REPRESENTATIONS 2. Hindi rin kasi iyon ang totoo eh. Reality eh so bakit hindi natin tanggapin? (It is not the truth anyway. It is reality so we should accept it). FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 3. Wala ring problema (There is no problem [if the portrayals are faithful]).

EFFECTS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 4. Masakit sa kanila sometimes di ba pero yun ang reality ng buhay (It hurts but that is the reality). EFFECTS ON FOREIGNERS 5. Actually ingit sila sa amin kasi usually yung mga patient dun, mga matatanda preferred nila Pinoy. Like me, actually doctor na iyong inaalagaan ko. Malakas pa siya. Mas preferred nila Pinoy. Wala akong ano‌usually gusto nila Pinoy. Atsaka mga Pilipino iba ang care nila atsaka malinis (Actually they [foreign coworkers] envy us because the patients, even the elderly prefer Filipinos. Like me, I care for a doctor. He is still strong. They really prefer Filipinos. Without a doubt, they prefer Filipinos. And Filipinos care differently and leave things spick and span. EFFECTS ON ONESELF 6. Yung reality. Okay lang na nakikita ng ibang tao. Kaya natutuwa ako sa mga nakikita nila run (The truth. It is oaky for other people to see it. That is why I am glad that they see it).


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FOREIGN CO-WORKERS 7. Alam nila between ang work namin, ang difference ng work nila. Alam nila talaga. Minsan nga ginagaya nila kami. Nagiging example kami sa kanila. Ang nagiging problema namin ngayon, competition. Pero still, kami pa rin ang nananalo (They [foreign co-workers] know the difference between how they and Filipinos work. They really know. Sometimes, they even copy us. We sort of set examples. The problem that arises now is competition. However, we still have the edge.

LONG-TERM EFFECTS 8. As of now, okay lahat ng pinapanood namin. Natutuwa nga kami, nakikita ng iba naming kamag-anak ko kung anong ginagawa namin dun (As of now, all programs which we are watching are okay. We are glad because our relatives see what we are doing).

HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 9. Gusto ko yung totoong napapakita. Gusto ko iyong napapakita as in (I want reality to be presented).

FOCUS INTERVIEW (ONLINE) Jennifer Calimlim REPRESENTATIONS 1. I think Filipinos in “adobo NATION� are represented as successful, hardworking and enjoying the best of both worlds as both Americans and Filipinos. FEELINGS ON PORTRAYALS 2. I feel proud that the show highlights how Filipinos survive and thrive no matter where they are and no matter what situations life may throw at them. I get


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inspired when they feature pinoys who are successful in their chosen fields especially those who make it in the Hollywood scene. Also noteworthy is how we pinoys successfully balance the marriage of two different cultures. We are very Americanized in a lot of ways but still remain loyal to pinoy values and traditions. FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 3. Yes I think so. They represent how Pinoys from all generations adapt well to life here in the US, and also the show just highlights how we Pinoys live in different parts of the country. EFFECTS OF PORTRAYALS 4. Perception is still the same - that pinoys here have better opportunities and that it's maybe a lot easier to succeed. A lot of people back home still dream of coming to the US, and yet more people also realize that grass is not always greener in other parts of the world. Now it's more like grass is greener where you water it. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 5. Only positive effects I hope. When I see a Filipino chef who has successfully put up a Filipino resto that is at or above par with other American establishments, it makes me think that nothing is impossible if you dream it and work hard for it. You also get a sense of community among Filipinos no matter which state they live. It makes me feel great to see on the show how native dances are being taught to second generation Fil-Ams. These are all positive representations for Fil-Ams not only to each other but to the rest of the world. EFFECTS OF PORTRAYALS 6. I think it's all positive. LONG-TERM EFFECTS 7. We all can learn more about other Filipinos and how they make a difference in the Filipino community where they live, and hopefully we can apply the same ideas, goals and values to our own communities as well.


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HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 8. Hard-working perservering, nationalistic at heart.

Regina Passion REPRESENTATIONS 1. I rarely watch “adobo NATION” in full but in most segments that I’ve seen, the show portrays most overseas Filipino overseas as Food entrepreneur, creative and talented people (world class talents). It also portrays us being well off living abroad. FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 2. Of course feel proud for promoting such talented and creative people being world-class talents at the same time I am hopeful that more Filipinos abroad would succeed not just being an entrepreneur within their communities but also spreading their products or businesses across the U.S. When people perceive us being well off that makes me so nervous. Most of your relatives will come to you and expect you to give them something. FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 3. Yes. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 4. Think they perceive us being “magaling” because we are able to blend in and survive inspite of being a minority in the US. We are able to achieve something big in our areas. Sometimes it is true that people (especially relatives) back home perceive us who make a lot of money, so they expect that anytime they ask assistance from us, they thought it was just easy. Well in fact everybody has to work hard for a living, and not everybody who lives abroad is having an easy life. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS FOR FELLOW FILIPINOS 5. They would also use these representations to build connections with each other. When they thought of you being an achiever in your field, you get contacts/


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information in case they need your help or vice versa. This is a very good form of connecting with people. OTHER EFFECTS 6. Do better in our craft. LONG-TERM EFFECTS 7. None. HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 8. I am contented with how ABS-CBN portray Filipinos as world class talents. But at the same time, people back home should also know how difficult it is to live and work abroad, and that TFC should also show the struggles of Filipinos in the US and use it as an eye opener and inspiration for people back home.

James Castaneda “….the migrant worker side, taking jobs in order to support family back home, finding ways to bring family to the US, and the like . . .”

FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 1. The stereotype for overseas Pinoys would be, in my opinion, fairly accurate. The main motivation for working overseas would still be economic. There are probably no Pinoy OFWs here seeking asylum or fleeing political persecution. FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 2. Only partially. I moved to be with family. My wife’s reasons were economic. There were few opportunities career wise for her back home. I moved to be with family after four years of separation and trying to convince her to come back to the Philippines. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS


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3. There is no effect on whatever representation TV has for overseas Pinoys as to other people’s perception of me individually because I don’t have a following and there is no “public perception” of me as I am not a public figure. Collectively though, overseas Pinoys will probably be perceived in varied ways by different people based on how their own relatives abroad are, and I assume the representation by TV shows of Overseas Pinoys would be influential in shaping the opinions of those who have no direct knowledge of what an overseas Pinoy does.

EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 4. I do not think my fellow Filipinos, at least the ones I have been exposed to, would change their perception of me based on depictions in television programming.

EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON ONESELF 5. None really. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 6. I guess in the long run, a piece of TV programming that has enough of a following in the Philippines and in the US could shape public perception based on dramatic portrayals of the “Filipino overseas.” For the most part, though, my opinion is that your average overseas pinoy worker would place a greater amount of time worrying about other issues such as financial and legal matters rather than “public perception” of how they are collectively represented. PORTRAYAL OF TFC 7. I do not have much of an opinion on the matter. I believe ABS CBN TFC has both artistic and legal right to produce programming in whatever form it wishes to.

Azalea Maganti REPRESENTATIONS


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1. The hardships, trials and success stories of Filipinos abroad in general. FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 2. They are very apt and timely. FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 3. Yes. It does not matter where in the world we are, the fact that Filipinos aim to provide their families with a better life is usually the main goal. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FILIPINOS BACK HOME 4. I would presume that Filipinos back in the Philippines would understand more on how the plight of migrant workers and families try to survive despite the odds. That despite earning money in dollars does not make migrants richer as others may perceive. It is still a challenge to survive and succeed.

EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 5. Most Filipinos in the U.S, esp. born and raised back home, understand and relate to the migrants who work double time or triple time to send money back home. At times, those who are US born, cannot relate nor care since life in the US has always been a survival of sorts esp. with the continued recession. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON ONESELF 6. Sometimes, self-pity comes into play but love for family will always prevail. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS 7.

More understanding from Filipinos with colonial mentality or crab mentality.

HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 8. ABS-CBN has always represented Filipinos in the truest sense of the word and we have appreciated it.


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Francine Maigue REPRESENTATIONS 1. What I love about “adobo NATION” is that it features a wide array of people, especially business owners. People from the financial sector – a CFO or a CPA that want to help others. They are Filipinos who help other Filipinos. And that is what I love. Filipino chef that is showcasing Philippine cuisine, like Philippine cuisine is the next best thing, teachers or everything else, the local artists that are Pinoy. I love that it is Filipinos doing great things setting up the platform other Filipinos to shine. And that is what I love about “adobo NATION”. It is not just your regular sit-down and chat show. There is no drama. Masaya palagi. It is a positive show. It shows a range of efforts of Filipinos whether in it is in the arts [or not]. Whatever it is.

FEELINGS ABOUT REPRESENTATIONS 3. Well I am so glad that they have, they have crossed that bridge from just saying, instead of saying it is, what so and so is doing this is what so and so is doing. It is those relationship. It is this which business owners are doing. It is not just about their work. They want to connect with somebody else. They really make an effort in connecting people - whether it is business owner to business owner, artist to artist. Yung ganyan. So as a viewer you feel like ah, the world is not so big anymore. The thing about “adobo NATION” it shows that there are a lot of Philippine resources. Oh my God there are a lot of Filipino business owners. Andaming Filipino lawyers. Andami palang doctors. There are a lot of…there are a lot of Filipinos.

FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS 4. Oh yeah there is no fluff. They are positive but it is not fluff. What I like about is that say the host, the approach is very optimistic. It is very upbeat, high-enery pero they are also willing to talk about serious topics. Like with the turn of the economy. They will sit down with a financial expert. They will sit down with people in real estate. And they will have serious chat. They will present five strategic points. It is presented in a way that is very accessible. You would not feel overwhelmed. What do I do “Oh my God I am gonna loose my house?” There is no scare tactic. They disseminate the information in a positive,


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accessible, honest, truthful way. There is no song and dance. So if you are viewer, you are okay. In one episode you are going to learn how to handle your finances. In the same episode you are going to learnt that there is an upcoming festival that my family can go to. At the same time there is a local artist I should be supporting. At the same time there is a new restaurant I can try. There is a wide array of topics and they do it seamleassly. So you do not feel like oh no this is the financial sector. I am gonna change the channel now. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FILIPINOS BACK HOME 4. At the heart of it is it reinvigorates the pride in being Filipino. My only hope is that a show that is doing well, I mean they just won a regional Emmy. And Emmy of any kind is no joke. I think that says something. I hope they take the hint and I hope they will be able to make it it’s not just on TFC. I wanna support TFC. A show such as this, a show that has been given such great bones by ABSCBN and TFC, I hope they can mark that on a higher level. Adobo is something that is so well known in the U.S. I have aFrican-American friends who cook Adobo. I have Italian friends who make Adobo. I have African-American friends. They take it upon themselves to learn how to make it Adobo. Before, you talk about “adobo NATION” without people going “What?”and now we’re a Filipino show. “adobo NATION”! I know that. I hope that while it has its roots on TFC. I hope it is shown on a wide demographic. They have the ability to do so. They have a good production team. I hope they grow. EFFECTS OF REPRESENTATIONS ON FELLOW FILIPINOS 5. I think if we are taking about the portrayal I think they will be very proud. But also I do not know that, I mean the content is very US-based. Ahm there is this great restaurant. Well that’s great. I am glad there is a restaurant. Looks tasty. I do not know when I will ever get to it. And the sponsorships are directly related to the segments. You know what I mean? That is kind of a hard sell because I think they will eventually raise the the cost of corporate sponsor. I think they will be very proud, when you are talking about the economic issues of Filipinos in the U.S. While it may be interesting to Filipinos here, parang they are like - okay but that has nothing to do with us. Not directly. I am sure there are relatives who may be interested. It is not that interesting but I do not know I can use that information right away. So it is like it is great. I do not know how much they are going to take away from it. The other thing is that. Thing about “adobo NATION” is they show a few things here. I would love…There is so much going on in San Diego. And I would love for them to showcase it. I will be active about it. We have so much


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going on. If they need to produce segments in San Diego, I would be so active. We have so many festivals. We have so many cultural performances. Our talent commutes... they go to LA but their homebase is San Diego. Like we have people, I personally haves students that are going to perform at Geoffrey ballet. We have concerts all the time going to San Diego. Sometimes I feel like GMA reaches out a little bit more. It is just an observation ha? It’s not that, I mean we have so many fans of TFC. If you are a Filipino, there is 99.99% chance you are subscribed to TFC. Just tuning on the two channels, you have more people subscribing to TFC. But when it comes to organizing festivals, GMA is bigger in that sense. There is a lot going on in San Diego. We’re doing stuff to. But I’m serious about that. If they need help. Like we do not have hosts, we do not have hands. I really want to showcase what’s happening in San Diego. And maybe people are not getting the releases. The bay are like North Cal is so different from South Cal. I really want to that. California is a big state. One way to showcase that…that is on reason I got involved in Filipino American Young Leaders of the Philippines (FAYLP). There is so much going on in that community. People will be proud of what they are doing. Jessica Sanchez is from my town actually. Chula Vista alone, there is a pack full of Filipinos. Di ba the economy is hard and that does not really affect Filipinos. But these people are hanging on to their lives. Their students are graduates of top-notch universities. They got it together like they asre invovlved in the arts. They excel in the academe. And they are proud to be part of the Philippines. They are doing well in the arts. And even with that, the Filipinos are proud to be Filipinos. I hope they can showcase these Filipinos. HOW TFC SHOULD PORTRAY OFs 6. What other portrayals. Hmm. I’d like to see more segments that focus on say like what are, and this will help even bring bigger viewership. So it is not just mom and dad are tuning in. More segments for the Philippine team. When you are there, you are going to go to a university. You know what I mean. How do you go about preparing for exams, how are you going to go about preparing for your scholarship exams. Something like that appeals that way. We have so much talent. The hip-hop scene. We have so much talent. It is really about the younger crew. They compete in international competitions all the time. I want them showcased more because they are working so hard. Pero hindi naman we are a proud people (But no, we are a proud people). We have something to inspire the next generation. But it is very serious.


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ANNEX H. ANSWERS OF MOVIE PRODUCTION AND ENTERTAINMENT GROUP AND FILM DIRECTOR JOHN D-LAZATIN 1.

How did TFC come to develop exclusive programs for OFs?

TFC has been a company and we are going to our 18th year. TFC is a subscriptionbased channel. Our market is the OF market all over the world who subscribe. It is not a free channel. Basically how I see it is a U.S. soldier in Iran or in Middle East thrown there would not appreciate the cartoon network. The way I see it, TFC is the cartoon network of the American soldier. After 16 to 18 years around five or six years ago or beyond that we were trying to understand that the market was evolving and there are two markets –there is the migrant and the transient market. The migrants are there people who leave the country and do not see themselves coming back. The transients are basically nakakontrata (contractual workers) but all for the same goal. Now how did the content evolve? We understood na nagaasimilate sila atsaka nageevolve ang market mo sa culture wherever the Filipinos are kasi ang galing galing mangaya ng Pilipino (We understood that they evolve and assimilate according to the culture they are in because Filipinos are good at adapting). Ang pangagaya is more of adapting (Copying is more of adapting). So nung naga-adapt na sa culture sa lifestyle abroad, there are certain Pinoy lifestyle that we felt na kinakelangan ang basic need ng Pilipino (So when they adapted the culture of their second homes, we felt there evolved basic needs of Filipinos). Examples of which are growing within the community, immigration concerns, communication, how do you communicate back to home, what is happening to the local community. Para siyang basic need kasi nag-crecreate siya ng needs in little pockets (It is like a basic need because it created more needs in little packets). Having researched and understood that, I think what happened what we really knew we needed content that was fit to them. Three things arrived, you survive and you thrive. When you arrive, what are the basic needs of arrival: tenure, I mean legal, citizenship, immigration, hence we thought of an immigration talk show five or six years and which has flourished. And then we thought news is what is important – local news and we have TV Patrol. But we looked at the Filipino community. What is happening to the successes of Charice, Jessica Sanchez so we thought of “Balitang America.” But then meron pa. Para bang lifestyle, ano ba yung hilig ng mga tao (Para bang lifestsyle? What do people want)? As you migrate in America there are lifestyle and business that you want to promote. We just thought, there is a market for a semi first generation (gen), 2nd gen, 1st gen cross-over lifestyle program so we thought of Adobo NATION. Because we knew that with a simple life or simple luho (vice) of the migrant market we knew that food was an integral life of a certain Pinoy lifestyle. When you say we are going out, we’re going to a picnic, we are going to gimmik, the Pinoy migrant would always have kainan (feast). So we were thinking what is the staple Pinoy food other than rice? (It’s) adobo so let’s create Adobo NATION. It’s a segmentized lifestyle talk show with hosts who are in their 20s, early 30s, young families, young adults and we cut them into segments but the focal point


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is really food. The focal point is really our version because other than consuming and watching television or TFC or watching local Filipino movies we also consume our Filipinoness - cooking, eating out, going to restaurants etc. so we started, that was the main cut up of the segments. We just got very positive responses. That is basically how it worked out - finding a need, addressing that need and then saying that we need to talk about food. We need to feature restaurants. We need to have a discussion on everything Filipino. If it’s related to food, then we need to talk about it. Arrive, survive and survive. The arriving is the basic need of arrival which is perhaps migration - you want to fix your papers etc. The surviving is you know you want to see what is happening around your community, “Balitang America” which is a daily thing. And then for the thriving Filipinos who have kind of like semi-assimilated or embraced the culture of living abroad, outside the Philippines we created “Adobo NATION.” We keep on growing and growing. And so that is local content.

2. How do you think your programs represent Filipinos particularly in the U.S. in general? Ako, when you watch the show lang, who hosts it? The Filipinos naman of course (When you watch the show, who hosts it? The Filipinos of course). It is television. Number one - pleasing personalities. They have to look good. But in any lifestyle show looking good to me is secondary. Being smart, knowing, or (being) naturally informative. Like Kris Aquino, it becomes the charismatic personality. What was the portrayal that we wanted to do? We just wanted to talk about what we really do. As is. There was just so much restaurants bustling in California. So we said, you know what? These are not featured. Let us put a venue for them. Let us highlight the love for food. Yung sarap ng Pinoy restaurants. It was somewhat like a promotion of one’s culture. And at the same time, there are the local businesses. Let us not take ay the fact that there is a service component to it. Sino pa ba tutulungan? Kung may high end na dermatologist na Amerikano at isa namang equally good na dermatologist sa Beverly Hills. Sino naman ang tutulungan mo? Those little things. (And then we have) success stories in the world of fashion let us say Monique Lhuillier. Mga ganyan (Those things). Robin T-shirts sa Bloomingdales na anak ni Tessie Tomas. We make segments out of these stories and we just share it. What was really the key is they are the stories that you hear which are within the country. It is relatable, it is relevant to them. Kasi ang relevance, relevance to siyempre the community you work or live around (Relevance is syrempre the community your work or live around in). Mga 10 years na, di na relevant ang mga bagay bagay like balita sa Quiapo (After 10 years, news on Quiapo is no longer relevant). Siyempre, ang mga balita ngayon, balita sa Daly City (Of course the one that interests the market are those from say, Daly City). Having to understand that, it is political will for TFC to create that. Hindi naman hinihingi ng subscriber eh (The subscribers did not request for


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it). Kusa nating binibigay sa kanila (We offer the content voluntarily). We need to be steps ahead of competition. At the same time, when we say in the service of the Filipinos, hindi lang worldwide component niya. Yun yung basically tinatry natin iaachieve. And yung “adobo NATION” we try to produce as an expansion of relevant content, yung makubuluhan, yung hindi ka lang nanonood ng balitaang nangyari sa Philippine. Pero ano ba iyong balita outside? (And at “adobo NATION,” we try to produce as an expansion of relevant content and not just news that are from the Philippines and which do not have a direct impact on them. The writing that goes with it, the directing, the hosts, they know what they are talking about it because they live it, they experience it. (For example), when you talk about retirement funds in the States because they themselves are contributing to a policy that will benefit them. When you talk about thriving businesses, they understand that the Filipino is enterprising talaga siya. So yun ang nagmumukhang, it’s what’s turning out to be the selling proposition of “Adobo NATION” (So it seems like the selling proposition of adobo NATION).”

3.

How do you think these representations are received or read by these OFs?

You know, I think, as we create content, as we create new programs like “adobo NATION” (because adobo NATION is going on its 3rd year already), the reaction I want is finally, finally. It shows naman if they like it or if they do not like it. Alam naman namin iyon (We know that). We are just happy that the local chefs, the local subscribers, they express positive feedback for the show. Ako personally gusto kong maging reaction nila is whatever good information or news that you share, adobo NATION wants to say that they were proud and we salute the thriving culture outside the Philippines whether in health, field of fashion, cooking (For me, I want people’s reaction is whatever good information or news that you share, adobo NATION wants to say they were proud and we salute the thriving culture outside the Philippins whether in health, field of fashion, cooking). Positive lang siya (It is all positive). Ideally, hopefully, in the future we have “adobo NATIONs” all over not just in North America, but also if we can expand in Japan and the Middle East. (Because) Currently, “adobo NATION” is just serving the migrant market in the US and Canada. But Canada is expanding. Find their local host and make a global “adobo NATION.”

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