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Project Proposal

Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

Prepared by: Dr. ENSERMU KELBESSA (National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University) & JOSE LUIS VIVERO (IUCN/SSC Global Trees Specialist Group)

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

CONSERVATION STATUS OF ENDEMIC PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA 1.- NAME OF APPLICANT AND ORGANISATION: Dr. Ensermu Kelbessa, National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and Jose Luis Vivero, IUCN/SSC Global Trees Specialist Group 2.- CONTACT DETAILS Dr. Ensermu Kelbessa, National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 3434, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: Jose Luis Vivero, TCOS-Special Program for Food Security, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale della Terme di Caracalla, 00100, Rome, Italy. Work email: ; personal email: 3.- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project aims at preserving the rich and threatened plant diversity of Ethiopia by providing accurate and useful information on the conservation status (IUCN Red List) of the 600 plant species endemic to Ethiopia. The following results can be expected: (a) complete Red List assessments for all 570 species of endemic plants in Ethiopia, assessed using the latest version of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, and accompanied by the full set of supporting documentation, pre-entered in the IUCN SIS-DEM; (b) an executive summary of the main findings of the project, with distribution maps, to be accompanied later by a booklet on the Conservation Atlas of Endemic Flora of Ethiopia, containing introductory chapters, authored chapters and data entries with detailed maps for all the reviewed species (depending on financing); (c) 2 national MSc graduates will be participating in this project, (d) a one-week training module on Plant Conservation will be delivered in 2 universities, and (e) a National Red List Workshop will be convened, in collaboration with the IUCN Red List office in Cambridge and the IUCN/SSCCI/CABS Biodiversity Assessment Unit in Washington DC, to bring together a handful of key national and international experts to validate and approve the underlying documentation and threat rankings for each species. In order to accomplish these results, a set of desk and field activities will be undertaken: bibliographical and herbaria review, field trips to ground-truth the presence and to study ecology and threats of the 100 most threatened plants. Finally, as a spin-off effect, the establishment of a Plant Conservation Network with national and international researchers will be also pursued, as well as linking this network with the IUCN/SSC East Africa Plant SG, plus dissemination of results in symposia, international fora and scientific papers. 4.- PERSONAL SUMMARY Dr. Ensermu Kelbessa is the curator of the National Herbarium of Ethiopia (ETH), as well as an Associate Professor of Systematic Botany at Addis Ababa University. He has been involved in the Red List Initiative since its inception, and he has been collaborating in other activities on plant conservation in Ethiopia for many years, publishing over 25 papers, including two papers on plant endemism and its threats (See CV attached Threatened Endemic Plants of Ethiopia, 1992; and Diversity and Endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, 2001). He has described and published a considerable number of new plant species. At present, he is one of the Principal Researchers of a GEF project entitled “Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation of Medicinal Plants”, where he is responsible for the “In-depth Biological Survey” of the Bale Mountains National Park.

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

Jose Luis Vivero is currently a Food Security officer at FAO HQs in Rome, with previous experience in Guatemala, Ethiopia and Georgia. He has been leading the Red List Initiative since 2000, which aims to assess the threat status of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. This initiative achieved preliminary results in September 2003, with a paper containing 596 redlisted taxa presented during the AETFAT meeting in Addis Ababa. Recently, The Red Lists of Endemic Trees & Shrubs of Ethiopia and Eritrea has been just published. He has carried out taxonomic research in Afroalpine flora and has co-authored a chapter on the “Ethiopian Highlands” in the CI book on Biodiversity Hotspots. Previously, he was a researcher in the Córdoba Botanical Garden (Spain), working with threatened plant species of Andalucía. Member of the IUCN/SSC Global Tree Specialist Group, working at present with threatened trees of Ethiopia and Guatemala, where he directs a project to prepare the Red List, funded by FFI, UK. 5.- INTRODUCTION Ethiopia possesses one of the richest assemblages of plants in the entire Africa. In this mountainous and geologically active territory, Afromontane habitats and Somali-Masai savannas among others have blended to create a special regional identity. The elevation of the important mountains, as well as the longlasting environmental stability of eastern savannah lowlands, allowed the evolution and diversification of the flora. All this has given rise to a unique and remarkable flora with numerous endemics. The country exhibits an enormous variety of plants and animals, many of them endemic to this area (Fjeldså & Klerk 2001, Friis et al. 2001, Friis et al. 2003, Hillman 1993, Vivero 2001, Williams et al. 2004, Yalden & Largen 1992). The Flora of Ethiopia has a truly unique environment for its region and this, together with its isolation, has been a potent stimulus for rapid speciation in its colonists (Kingdon 1989). Ethiopia has a wild flora of some 7000 taxa, including subspecies as well as species (Vivero et al. 2005a). The region has been a crossroads for important plant migrations from different regions. The whole Horn of Africa region is not just rich in endemic species but also in native populations of useful or economically important plants and their relatives (Zohary 1970) At present, the Ethiopian flora, like that of so many African countries, faces a multitude of threats: fuelwood and charcoal logging, forest encroachment, fire, agricultural development and the construction of large public works, excessive grazing, and over-collection of species for commercial use among others. Extinction processes may be hastened by the extremely narrow distribution and limited ecological tolerance of some species. Scanty information on threatened Flora Although Ethiopia, including Eritrea, has been considered a minor core area for endemism and biodiversity (Davis et al. 1994, Hamilton 1982, Harlan 1969), its importance as a threatened biodiversity hotspot has not been duly acknowledged due to the scanty, outdated and incomplete knowledge about its flora and fauna (Vivero 2003). Thus, out of the 25 terrestrial hotspots identified by Myers et al. (2000), neither the Ethiopia-Eritrea Highlands nor the Horn of Africa as a whole were deemed to meet the criteria to qualify as biodiversity hotspots. However, in the latest analysis led by Conservation International, the Horn of Africa, including the offshore island of Socotra, is considered a biodiversity hotspot in its own right, while the Ethiopian Highlands are considered as one of three primary components in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot (Mittermeier et al. 2004) Despite the incredible species richness and endemism of the Horn of Africa flora and the high rates of habitat destruction due to civil conflicts, natural hazards, and subsequent people displacement, only 56 plant species are included in the 2004 IUCN Red List (IUCN 2004), all of them woody plants, only 20

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

endemic to Ethiopia and 20 threatened. Moreover, only partial Red Lists of plants of Ethiopia and Eritrea have been published to date (Oldfield et al. 1998, Walter & Gillett 1998, Hilton-Taylor 2000), all of them based on published volumes of FEE or partial lists for Afroalpine, endemic or woody taxa (Ensermu et al. 1992, Friis 1992, Hedberg 1957, Viswanathan 1986). A Red List of the Endemic Trees and Shrubs of Ethiopia and Eritrea has just been published thanks to the support of FFI, prepared by the authors of this proposal (Vivero et al. 2005b). The ongoing Red List Initiative This Red List Initiative was initiated in 2000 by Jose Luis Vivero, and soon after was supported by the two primary researchers of the National Herbarium, Dr Ensermu Kelbessa and Dr. Sebsebe Demissew. The rationale behind this endeavour was the scanty information available about threatened plants of Ethiopia and Eritrea, and the enormous amount of rare and endemic species found in the area with no protection at all. This situation sharply contrasted with those of neighbouring countries like Kenya or Yemen, where plant conservation activities have been carried out for years. For more than two years, the current list of threatened endemic plants was prepared and it was finally published during the XVII AETFAT meeting, held in Addis Ababa (Vivero et al. 2005a). The taxa included in the Red List of Endemic Flowering Plants have been drawn from the published volumes of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea Vols. 2 (part I, II), 3, 6, 7 (Hedberg & Edwards 1989, Hedberg at al. in press, Edwards et al. 1995, 1997, 2000) and from the manuscripts under preparation for the same flora. To date, the Red List Initiative was undertaken with no funding, and this project will contribute to the Conservation Atlas of Endemic Flora of Ethiopia (CAFE), a document that will surely become a key reference work for plant conservation activities in this biodiversity-endowed country and it will position Ethiopia to make major advances in understanding, conserving and making sustainable use of their flora (for example, identifying and delineating Key Biodiversity Areas and sites known to hold the last remaining populations of a highly threatened species [i.e., Alliance for Zero Extinction or AZE sites]). 6.- JUSTIFICATION Due to its historical uniqueness (the only country in Africa with no colonial power), traditional isolationism, long-lasting conflict-torn situation, and exacerbated poverty, Ethiopia has not been subject to thorough and extensive scientific research in many biodiversity fields. No management and conservation plan is currently implemented in Ethiopia for the conservation of any of the critically endangered plant species. No field research is conducted so as to assess threat status of any plant, and very few plant conservation activities are undertaken in two of the various, though only gazetted, protected areas (National Parks, Natural Reserves, etc). Few reputed universities and research centres are presently carrying out plant studies in the area, and the same can be applied to any other conservation activities funded by international agencies. Given the high degree of threat to Ethiopia´s rich and unique natural heritage from poverty, conflict and livestock pressure, limited biodiversity funds and projects are delivered to this country, in what seems to be an all too common paradox. Botanists have yet to explore the high mountain peaks (above 4000 m), many of which may harbour species new to science, particularly considering the high level of endemism of the Afroalpine flora (Hedberg 1994). However, the conservation status of the Ethiopian flora has not been properly assessed using the latest version of the IUCN red list categories and criteria, and the plant species that appear in the previously published Red Lists (Oldfield et al. 1998; Walter & Gillett 1998) have been assessed by reviewers external to the area, based on literature. Due to lack of a formal field project, we could not compile, analyse and incorporate all required data and supporting documentation to be included in the SIS-DEM in order to submit the Red List assessments to the IUCN Red List office in Cambridge for its review and approval. Therefore, the preliminary assessment is not officially considered final by IUCN, and hence cannot be considered for use in the identification of Key Biodiversity Areas. This situation will be

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

addressed by the current project, as the goal will be to prepare the Species profiles together with the necessary supporting documentation, according to the IUCN Red List requirements displayed in the Species Information System-Data Entry Module (SIS-DEM). Finally, it is worth mentioning how well this project fits with the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, adopted during the Convention of Biological Diversity COP-6 in The Hague (April 2002). Red listing assessments of the conservation status of all known plant species at national and regional levels are among the sixteen specific outcome-oriented global targets for 2010 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. The ambitious Strategy has 16 targets for delivery by 2010. Assessments of the conservation status and distribution of plant species will be particularly valuable to support Targets 2, 5 and 7 (see Box 1). Box 1: The value of plants species assessments in implementation of the CBD Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (Targets to be reached by 2010) Target No. 2: Preliminary assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species at national, regional and international levels undertaken. a.- Priority will be given to under-evaluated, but biodiversity-rich areas, like Ethiopia, largely neglected by major conservation initiatives. Target No.5: Protection of 50 per cent of the most important areas for plant diversity assured. b.- Presence of globally threatened plant species is one of the three criteria for selection of Key Biodiversity Areas, therefore species assessment is important as an aid to site selection. Target No. 7: 60 per cent of the world’s threatened species conserved in situ. c.- The mapping of threatened plants will definitely contribute to evaluate how well the System of Protected Natural Areas in Ethiopia covers the area of occurrence of most critically endangered species, so as to ensure adequate representation of threatened species.

7.- GENERAL OBJECTIVE To contribute to the conservation of plant diversity in Ethiopia by providing accurate and useful information on the distribution and conservation status of all endemic plant species in Ethiopia. 8.- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The following objectives will be pursued with regard to endemic plant species of Ethiopia (to): 1) Undertake complete and fully documented Red List assessments for the 570 plant species known to be endemic to Ethiopia. This work shall involve data compilation and entry into the Data Entry Module of the IUCN Species Information System (SIS-DEM), including: collating information on Taxonomy, Distribution Range, Population, Habitat and Ecology, Threats and Conservation Measures; completion of the IUCN Authority Files; and an assessment of the Red List status of the each species as per the 2001 IUCN Red List categories and criteria . 2) Compile detailed distribution maps of all endemic plants of Ethiopia, based on reliable point locality data collected in herbaria and bibliographical information, and complemented, where possible, by field work to ground-truth the data compiled in the office. 3) A national Red List workshop will be organized/convened in April 2006, bringing together a small gathering of key participants from the national and international botanical community to

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

review the data gathered and to provide sign-off and validation of the Red List assessments for each species. 4) Strengthen technical capabilities at University level on “Taxonomy, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Threatened Plants of Ethiopia”, with a training module (1 week) to be developed and delivered in two Universities of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa and Alemaya Universities. Two MSc graduates will be working on this initiative. 9.- EXPECTED RESULTS AND PRODUCTS

1) The first, and most important, product will be complete and fully documented Red List assessments for all 570 endemic Ethiopian plants (with data pre-entered into the SIS-DEM). As there are over 8,100 higher plant species listed in the 2004 IUCN Red List ( to date (Baillie et al. 2004), and considering that 570 plant species could be included in the Report, this result represents a remarkable thrust towards raising the conservation profile of Ethiopia. It will also make Ethiopia one of the few countries, alongside Ecuador and South Africa (due 2006), to have all its endemic plant species included on the global IUCN Red List. The information gathered could form the basis for the Environmental Protection Authority to propose the threatened plants to be gazetted in the law, to guarantee their protection. 2) An Executive Summary of the main findings of the project will be produced at the end of this project, being later on accompanied by a summary paper to be prepared and submitted to a peerreviewed journal. 3) Detailed and reliable distribution maps of all endemic species (particularly for the threatened species or those known to have very small distribution ranges of less than 50,000 km2) will be prepared, based on point locality data collected from bibliographical references and herbarium data. This information will be ground-truthed in some cases, and confirmed by knowledgeable national experts. 4) At university level, two M.Sc. graduates will be incorporated to the initiative to support data collection, field research and threat analysis. One Ph.D. Graduate will be also participating (part-time) in this initiative, working at Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden, Florida (USA). A one-week training module on “Taxonomy, Conservation and Local Sustainable Use of Threatened Plants of Ethiopia and Eritrea” will be prepared and delivered in two universities, for lecturers, last-year undergraduate students and MSc students. 5) A Red List Workshop for Plants of Ethiopia will be convened, in collaboration with the IUCN Red List office (Craig Hilton-Taylor) and the IUCN/SSC-CI/CABS Biodiversity Assessment Unit, to bring together a handful of key Ethiopian and international experts to validate and approve the underlying documentation and threat rankings for each species. The workshop venue is yet to be established, as financial as well operational considerations are determinant in such decision. 6) During this workshop, a Conservation Network for Plants of Ethiopia could be formed, and both information exchange and institutional networking could be promoted amongst attendants in order to continue working in the Conservation Atlas of Flora of Ethiopia. This Ethiopian Network should be linked to the IUCN/SSC East Africa Plant Specialist Group, profiting from having many botanists with extensive knowledge on Eastern African Plants during the Workshop.

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

7) Finally, another planned product, not funded by this project though, could be the publication of an awareness-raising booklet titled “The Conservation Atlas of Endemic Flora of Ethiopia�. This Atlas, to be produced within one year after completion of the project, provided additional funds are available, would be formed by the summarized species profile for all the 570 endemic plant species included in the list. The catalogue would be a paperback book, with colourful pictures of threatened plants, printed in glossy paper (preferably outside Ethiopia) and containing introductory chapters, authored chapters and data entries for all the reviewed species. The data will contain information on taxonomy, distribution (with a map included), ecology, biology, threats and conservation status. 10.- PLANNED ACTIONS 10.1. DESK WORK: Collection of existing documentation and herbarium data to prepare the Species Profiles The first steps will be to collect, classify and analyse the existing data to fill the SIS Data Entry Module for all the species, starting with those considered as threatened by the previous assessment. There will be a review of existing literature of plant species, natural areas and available floras to collect all published data about the species included in the working Red List. In order to accomplish this task, the different libraries present in the country will be visited: the National Herbarium library (with a considerable amount of papers and books), the library of the Institute of Biodiversity Research and Conservation (IBRC), the Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS), the Ethiopian Wildlife and Conservation Authority (EWCO), Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), the Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation (EARO), the Institute of Ethiopian Studies (IES), the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the libraries of Mekelle, Awash, Wondo Genet Forestry College and Alemaya Agricultural College. Besides, small libraries belonging to several international institutions such as the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Bank, European Commission and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) among others. So as to optimize the literature and herbaria review, contacts should be promoted with some supporting institutions abroad, namely Uppsala University (Sweden), Kew Gardens (U.K.), the Botanical Museum of University of Copenhagen (Denmark), Missouri Botanical Garden and Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden (USA). These botanical research institutions have full access to most journals, books and grey papers and technical dossiers (not published) and they will be very helpful to get important but difficultto-get papers. Dr Jamie Gordon, working at Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden, will be working parttime in this project, providing assistance in this issue, among others. Jose Luis Vivero will be also very instrumental in getting access to numerous documents. The second issue included in the desk work is the Herbarium review. There is one important herbarium in Ethiopia, the National Herbarium, where considerable amount of specimens are kept as a result of numerous collecting trips undertaken by international and national botanists. A great part of these funds have been labeled and registered and most specimens have been taxonomically determined at generic level, due to lack of time and funding for a more detailed taxonomic research. Many doubtful specimens (some of them likely to form new species) have been kept at generic level and thus the endemic species are likely to increase in coming years. Apart from the National Herbarium, there are other herbaria in the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the IBRC, the Mekelle University, Wondo Genet Forestry College and Alemaya Agricultural College. Those herbaria harbour many specimens not taxonomically determined. As a consequence of several botanical expeditions carried out in both countries for more than a century, numerous type specimens, without duplicates in Ethiopia, have been collected and taken out from the

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

region to be kept in Herbaria abroad. European Herbaria harbour a considerable number of type specimens of Ethiopian plants, although the National Herbarium of Addis Ababa (ETH) keeps the largest collection of Ethiopian specimens (77,000). The herbaria of importance for old collections and types are the following: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K) and the British Museum of Natural History (BM) in United Kingdom, Florence (FT) in Italy and Paris Museum of Natural History (P) in France. Two trips to one of these countries are planned (one from Ethiopia and one from Europe). 10.2.- FIELD WORK: Contrasting (ground-truth) desk information with field data, checking out known areas and populations for 100 threatened species, certifying extinction for some species and collecting biological and ecological data. Targeted field work will be quite instrumental on this research, as there are scant, outdated and absent (in many cases) information about most endemic plants. Many plants are only known from one locality, based in the collection that served to describe the species, and they have not been collected since. The lack of biological and ecological information for many plants is such that a token can better illustrate the situation: there are 14 endemic plants that have not been collected since XIX century, with at least 8 presumably considered extinct. Field trips will have then a twofold purpose: 1) To ground-truth information collected during the desk exercise about 100 threatened plants (the rarest and least known species) on ecology, population structure and threats and conservation measures. These data will supply the information needed to back to IUCN criteria for category assignment. 2) To collect relevant information on the possible boundaries of potential Key Biodiversity Areas. Those boundaries will have to be established considering the geographical aspects as well as the social considerations (community-driven planning). Different priorities will be assigned to specific plants to conduct the field work. Due to time and funding constraints, high priority will be given to those presumably Extinct and least known (only collected few times or long ago). In order to optimize the field trips, plant species will be gathered by area of occurrence and preliminary lists of targeted species will be prepared prior to the field trips, so as to know in advance which species could be tracked in each field trip. 20 field days have been scheduled for such purpose. 10.3.- Information analysis and preparation of distribution maps for each species Once the information required has been collected from the published and unpublished documents, herbaria and field work, it has to be analyzed and incorporated into the Data Entry Module of the IUCN Species Information System. This database will be submitted to IUCN before deadline (end of April 2006) so as to incorporate the assessed plant species into the 2006 IUCN Red List. Each assessed species needs to have a map within the profile, and these maps have to be based on reliable (not outdated or unverified) point locality data (coordinates with latitude and longitude), compiled according to set and agreed upon standards. The researchers will collect and validate these coordinates and they will later be transformed into range maps for each species. The mapping exercise will be done at the end of the project (last two or three months), and it will form the basis of following initiatives to design the Network of Protected Areas of Ethiopia (Key Biodiversity Areas). 10.4.- Establishing a Plant Conservation Network with national and international botanists In order to tap the technical resources present in the country (botanists, environmentalists and foresters) and to gather the non-published knowledge, it is deemed essential to set up a Conservation Network of

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

Plants of Ethiopia with the different university departments, research institutions and NGOs present in the country (Asmara, Mekelle, Alemaya, Jimma, Debub, Addis Abeba, Gonder, Bahrdar, Arba Minch, Nazareth, Wondo Genet, IBRC, EWNHS, WWF), as well as international researchers working in plant conservation in the area. The kick-start events to establish this network will be the training seminars to be delivered in two universities at the end of the project, to draw interest in students and lecturers on plant conservation in both countries. Provisionally, this national network will be chaired by Dr Ensermu Kelbessa, and it will have as first output to provide inputs (review and validation) for the Species Profiles of the Endemic Plants. This first goal will serve as a triggering exercise for this network, and the Network can later on, based on the experienced acquired, to prepare an initiative to elaborate the complete Red List of Plants of Ethiopia and Eritrea (including Pteridofites and rare but not endemic plants). Some members of this Conservation Network will also be part of the IUCN/SSC East Africa Plant Specialist Group. 11.- INPUTS REQUESTED 11.1.- PERSONNEL The principal researcher and team leader will be Dr Ensermu Kelbessa, curator of the National Herbarium and lecturer of the Addis Ababa University. He will be based in Addis Ababa and he will be working part-time in this project (see CV attached). The second researcher will be Jose Luis Vivero, working part-time throughout the year, and full time two weeks in Ethiopia: one week at the beginning of the project to train the researchers on SIS DEM management and IUCN Red List requirements, and another week to prepare and attend the National Workshop. He will provide technical backstopping to the project, supervising the fund raising activities and being in charge of publishing activities outside Ethiopia (see CV attached). No funds will be assigned to pay his part-time contribution, but travel costs will be covered by the project. Two research assistants (national MSc graduates) will be working full time (one 10 moths and another 8), and they will carry out the herbarium and bibliography data collection, prepare the field trips, summarising the information needed and entering the data in the SIS DEM database. They will also determine precisely the point data (coordinates) for all localities (to provide accurate information to the mapping specialist). One GIS/mapping specialist: This young specialist will be working full time for three months, mainly at the end of the project to prepare the maps of the species´ distribution ranges. He will produce full-color extension maps for each species with proper legends and quantitative data about range surface. One PhD graduate researcher (Dr Jamie Gordon of Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden) will be working part-time in this initiative, supporting data collection, analysing conservation status, and backstopping the mapping exercise. Funds to support his work will come directly from Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden and thus they are not included in the budget. 11.2.- TRAVEL Updated field information for most threatened plants is deemed essential to evaluate their “real” distribution and conservation status. Botanical field work has been very restricted and seldom in Ethiopia, and it is of utmost importance to check the likely extinction of more than 15 plants and to undertake botanical collections of some areas never explored to science. It is planned 20 field days for two people during the project., 10 days of visits for one person to different institutions and herbaria within the country and 10 days for the one-week modules in two universities. Due to long distances incurred in many trips within Ethiopia, and considering the affordable price for nationals of well-served local flights and the risk

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia

of driving along roads in Somali region and the Ethiopian and Eritrean border, 3 local flights have been budgeted. Most important cities across the area are covered by Ethiopian Airlines. Finally, two international flights (with accommodation expenses for five days) have been added, to enable Dr Ensermu to visit two herbaria in Europe, and to enable Jose Luis Vivero to visit Ethiopia to meet Dr Ensermu Kelbessa´s team at the beginning of the project. This visit will have a threefold objective: (a) to train the full-time researchers on how to fill the DEM-SIS, (b) to discuss technical and administrative matters with Dr Ensermu, and (c) to meet different Governmental officers in the Wildlife Conservation Department, the Environmental Protection Authority and the Addis Ababa University to advocate for the project results and future coordination. Moreover, another international trip within Europe is also scheduled: one for Jose Luis Vivero to visit the IUCN Red List Office in Cambridge (UK) to be trained on Redlisting procedures and training manuals. The Red List Workshop with 20 attendants is also budgeted with the aim of bringing together plant researchers with extensive knowledge on Horn of Africa plants, taxonomy, plant conservation and Red List processes. 11.4.- ADMINISTRATION Apart from the stationery, 20 days of car rental and fuel costs have been included. The Addis Ababa University will provide sometimes a four-wheel car (Toyota Land Cruiser) that is shared with other units in the Faculty of Science. If not available, the project will need to rent external cars for the field trips.

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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia



Project lifespan 2005-2006

Activity Review National Herbarium Library Other local libraries in Addis Ababa International Agencies´ libraries National Herbarium review Establishment of Plant Conservation Network Field trips Trip to IUCN Red List (Cambridge) JLV International trip to Europe EK International Trip to Ethiopia JLV Species mapping Training weeks (2) National workshop Report IUCN Red List Final Project Report First draft paper for peer-reviewed journal












13.- TOTAL BUDGET (including workshop costs) ITEM PERSONNEL





1000 1000 450

1000 1250

Christ. Fund

Man/month Man/month Man/month Man/month Man/day

200 225 225 250 6

10 10 8 3 20

2000 2250 1800 750 120 6920

Field days (per diem) Herbarium visits Local flights International flights Per diems abroad Trip to IUCN Cambridge

Man/day Man/day Flight Flight Man/day Trip+per diems

15 15 100 1000 100 500

20 10 3 2 10 1

300 150 300 2000 1000 500 4250

1000 500 500 2000






Travel WORKSHOP 20 attendees

Fairchild Tropical BG

Principal Researcher Research Assistant 1 Research Assistant 2 GIS/Mapping specialist Driver

Personnel TRAVEL

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15 international flights 5 national flights Materials+other costs

Trip+3 days Trip+3 days

1000 500 2000

15 5 1

15000 2500 2000 19500

Map Month Month car/day liter/day

600 10 30 20 15

0,25 10 10 20 20

150 100 300 400 300 1250

12420 31920 3192 35112

Travel ADMINISTRATION Printing Internet connexion Stationery car rental fuel Travel

Subtotal 1 (without workshop) Subtotal 2 (workshop included) Contingency 10% TOTAL


1350 750

120 2570




300 150 300 1000 500 1500

0 150

100 300


400 300 800



4570 430 5000

4550 450 5000

19500 500 20000

3300 340 3640


14.- BIBLIOGRAPHY Davis, S.D., V.H. Heywood & A.C. Hamilton, eds. (1994). Centres of Plant Diversity. Vol 1: Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia and Middle East. World Wildlife Fund for Nature and IUCN, Oxford, UK. Edwards, S., Mesfin T. & I. Hedberg, eds. (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 2, part 2: Canellaceae to Euphorbiaceae. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa and Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala. Edwards, S., Sebsebe D. & I. Hedberg, eds. (1997). Flora of Ethiopia ad Eritrea, Vol. 6: Hydrocharitaceae to Araceae. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa and the Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala. Edwards, S., Mesfin T. & I. Hedberg, eds. (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 2, part 1. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa and the Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala. Ensermu K., Sebsebe D., Zerihun W. & S. Edwards (1992). Some threatened endemic plants of Ethiopia. In: S. Edwards & Zemede A., eds., The status of some plant resources in parts of tropical Africa. Botany 2000: East and Central Africa. Monograph Series nº 2. NAPRECA, Addis Ababa University. Fjeldså, J. & H. de Klerk (2001). Avian endemism in northeastern tropical Africa. Biol. Skr. 54: 259-271. Friis, I. (1992). Forest and Forest Trees of Northeast Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin Additional Series nº XV Friis, I., Edwards, S., Ensermu K. & Sebsebe D. (2001). Diversity and endemism in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-what do the published Flora volumes tell us? Biol. Skr. 54: 173-193. Friis, I., M. Thulin, H. Adsersen & A.M. Bürger (2003). Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in the Horn of Africa. Biol. Skr. 56. Hamilton, A.C. (1982). Environmental history of East Africa (study of Quaternary). Academic Press, London. Harlan, J.R. (1969). Ethiopia: a centre of diversity. Econ. Bot. 23: 309-314. Hedberg, I & S. Edwards, eds. (1989). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 3: Pittosporaceae to Araliaceae. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa and Asmara, and the Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala. Hedberg, I., Sileshi N. & S. Edwards, eds. (in press). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 4, part 1: Apiaceae to Dipsacaceae. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa and Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala. Hedberg, O. (1957). Afroalpine vacular plants. A taxonomic revision. Symb. Bot. Ups. 15: 1-411. Hedberg, O. (1994). Afroalpine centres of biodiversity and endemism. In J.H. Seyani & A.C. Chuki, eds. Proceedings XIIIth Pleanry Meeting AETFAT, Malawi, 2: 877-882. Hillman, J.C. (1993). Ethiopia: a compendium of wildlife conservation information. Vol I. New York Zoological Society, New York and EWCO, Addis Ababa. Hilton-Taylor, C., compiler (2000). 2000 IUCN Red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories, Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. 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Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia FINAL PROPOSAL  

Project Proposal Dr. ENSERMU KELBESSA (National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University) & JOSE LUIS VIVERO (IUCN/SSC Global Trees Specialist...

Conservation Status of Endemic Plants of Ethiopia FINAL PROPOSAL  

Project Proposal Dr. ENSERMU KELBESSA (National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University) & JOSE LUIS VIVERO (IUCN/SSC Global Trees Specialist...