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El Anill

Mexico City, Mexico

Mexico City’s car culture is severe; along with a growing population, the amount of vehicles on the road has risen as well. Since the introduction of the “hoy no circula” law, a law restricting the circulation of a vehicle on a certain day of the week according to the color of a license plate, the amount of vehicles has doubled, as individuals have found a loop around the restriction by buying a second vehicle. The rise in the vehicular population has caused an increase in contaminants, massive congestion that leads to economic loss, excessive travel time, an overload on the city’s infrastructure, and parking problems. Since there are millions of individuals entering the city on a daily basis, can there be a system that provides a service to alleviate congestion?


Mexico City D.F. and its metropolitan area have evolved drastically over time... Source: Metropoli 2025, El Colegio Mexiquense, INEG

1910

1,710,263

1920

1,783,355

1930

+

2,219,688

Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico

2,903,564

1940

= ZMVM

D.F. (Distrito Federal)

Metropolitan Area

4,393,065

1950

6,768,727

1960

10,707,350

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 = 100,000


1824

1929

=

1980

8,851,080 Population

2005

16,620,991 18,051,539 21,701,925 24,026,942


Although the metropolitan area is much bigger in size, Mexico City D.F. is much more dense...... Source: Agenda Estadistica 2009

Iztacalco 395,025

17,692 per km2

Iztapalapa 1,820,888

Tlahuac 344,106

4,239 per km2

Xochimilco 404,458

14,917 per km2

Milpa Alta 115,895

486 per km2

3,176 per km2

Venustiano Carranza 447,459 13,260 per km2

Tlalpan 607,545

Gustavo A. Madero 1,193,161

2,007 per km2

12,772 per km2

Atzcapotzalco 425,298

Magdalena Contreras 228,927

12,124 per km2

3,777 per km2

Miguel Hidalgo 353,534 7,773 per km2

Cuauhtemoc 521,348

16,547 per km2

Alvaro Obregon Benito Juarez 706,567 7,688 per km2 355,017 Cuajimalpa 13,773 per km2 173,625 2,611 per km2


But as Mexico City increases in population and density, so do the amount of vehicles... 1,814,187 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

4,028,300

= 200,000


Vehicular population per delegation... Source: INEG

386,687 Iztapalapa 339,930 Gustavo A. Madero 325,723 Coyoacan Azcapotzalco

Gustavo A. Madero

324,458 Benito Juarez 313,440 Cuahtemoc

Venustiano Miguel Hidalgo CuauhtemocCarranza

296,166 Miguel Hidalgo

Iztacalco

Cuajimalpa

Alvaro Obregon

Benito Juarez

248,515 Tlalpan Iztapalapa

Coyocoan

Tlahuac

Magdalena Contreras

Xochimilco

220,377 Alvaro Obregon 199,509 Azcapotzalco 178,640 Venustiano Carranza 163,662 Iztacalco

Tlalpan

105,827 Xochimilco Milpa Alta

82,325 Cuajimalpa 75,748 Magdalena Contreras 69,519 Tlahuac 17,890 Milpa Alta


Emission of contaminants through human activity Source: semarnat

Source: idandecommercial

.3%

1%

2% 2% 2%

3% 3%

3%

3%

5%

s

ile ob

% 3 3

m

to au

6%

17 %

12%

8%

1. automobiles (33%) 2. other forms of combustion engines (17%) 3. electric plants (12%) 4. liquid ammonia (8%) 5. industrial processes (6%) 6. use of solvents (5%) 7. fires (3%) 8. use of transport by rail and air (3%) 9. fossil fuels (3%) 10. distribution of fuel (3%) 11. mining (2%) 12. industrial combustion (2%) 13. other areas (2%) 14. fugitive dust (1%) 15. commercialization of perishable goods (0.3%)


m) (12:00a drivers 900,000

24 hour circulation timeline of Mexico City Source: ZMVM

0,00

( rs

ive

dr

,

32

0 dr

iver s

(8:1

5pm

) 21 20 19 18

23 24 1

2

3

16

pm)

m-6:30

(6:00am 0 drivers 1,000,00

4

2,000,000 drivers (6:45am-7:00am)

5

24 hrs

6 7

17

(6:00p

2,700,000 drivers (7:0 0am-7:15am)

8 15

11 14 13 12

10

9

2,300,0

00 driv ers

1,7

000

(2

:3

drive

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pm) (2:0 0 2,10 0,00 0 dr iver s

m)

a 1:45 rs (1

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1

e riv

0,

460,

rs

m 0p

90

)

m

0p

:0

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0 00

)

-6:45am

22

drivers 00,000

0 00

am

10

4:

1,30

)

am

15

: -4

00

0

dr

ive

rs

(9

:3

0a

(7:15a

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am)

m

)

On August 6th, 1997, a study was made in Mexico City to figure out the amount of drivers on the road within a span of 24 hours. The result pulled in impressive figures, as at one point, there were nearly 2.7 million cars circulating on the road. Today there are over 4 million vehicles circulating within the city and over 6 million circulating with the metropolitan area combined; the figure has nearly doubled in a span of 13 years, and congestion has indeed gotten much worse.


What caused the increase? Source: msn

Hoy No Circula Law (1998) Monday

A-02-946 ending 5-6

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

A-02-947

A-02-943

A-02-942

A-02-940

ending 7-8

ending 3-4

ending 1-2

ending 9-0

If your license plates end with these numbers and have these colors, then you cannot circulate with your vehicle on that given day

1998

= = many individuals ultimately bought one or more cars to make up for the lost day

+ 1,600,000 vehicles

2010

What exactly does the commute in Mexico City look like because of it? YOU’RE LATE #$%^&*@!*&$

Travel time can vary between minutes and hours; every year, the city loses amount equivalent to $4,000,000,000

55,400,000,000 pesos in

loss in productivity because of traffic, an


As the amount of vehicles on the road increases, the amount of traffic on the road rises as well. In most cases, a trip that would ordinarily take an individual 10 to 15 minutes, ends up taking them 45 minutes to an hour, or even more. photo Source: cuartoscuro

How long does it take to get to the center of the city (el Zocalo)? Source: google maps Venustiano Carranza, 1.8 miles Azcapotzalco

Gustavo A. Madero

Venustiano Miguel Hidalgo CuauhtemocCarranza

12 minutes, avg. of 9mph

Gustavo A. Madero, 4.9 miles

19 minutes, avg. of 15mph

Iztacalco, 5 miles

19 minutes, avg. of 16mph

Benito Juarez, 5.7 miles

16 minutes, avg. of 21mph

Iztacalco

Cuajimalpa

Alvaro Obregon

Benito Juarez

Miguel Hidalgo, 6.2 miles Iztapalapa

Coyocoan

Azcapotzalco, 7.3 miles Tlahuac

Magdalena Contreras

Coyoacan, 6.8 miles

Xochimilco

Tlalpan

Iztapalapa, 9.1 miles

19 minutes, avg. of 19mph 17 minutes, avg. of 24mph 23 minutes, avg. of 19mph 22 minutes, avg. of 25mph

Alvaro Obregon, 9.7 miles

26 minutes, avg. of 22mph

Xochimilco, 12.1miles

26 minutes, avg. of 28mph

Magdalena Contreras, 13 miles Cuajimalpa, 13.5 miles

30 minutes, avg. of 28mph 31 minutes, avg. of 26mph

Milpa Alta Tlalpan, 15.4 miles Milpa Alta, 23.5 miles Tlahuac, 24.7 miles

29 minutes, avg. of 32mph 53 minutes, avg. of 26mph 43 minutes, avg. of 35mph


parquĂ­metros (parking meters)

franaleros (informal attendants)

private parking

Source: lainformacion.mx

Source: reuters

Source: idandecommercial


With an increase in vehicles, what is the parking situation like? Source: msn, el universal, excelsior, reuters

Option A: parquĂ­metros (parking meters) =

^%#*&!%&#@

2 pesos supervisors get irritated

15 min

park at one of the 17 designated zones for parking meters throughout the city...

=

8 pesos

60 min

Option B: street parking

park at an open spot on a street with the help of a franalero (informal parking attendant)

3 hour time limit

franaleros are organized and work in groups, as each group has its territory on the streets

pay their fee

avoid giving personal information, as in most cases it is used for extorsion

any individual who works has to leave their job several times during the day to pay

hand over the key to the valet

alconsumidor ac a meal

productivity decreases

most often they are associated with organized crime

with the paid fee, the franalero promises to look after the car and clean its exterior while you’re away

or not there at all

at the end of the day your car may be in one piece

the truth is that visible items left behind in the vehicle will be stolen

depending on the value of the vehicle, it may or may not be stolen by other group members

Option C: private parking

drop off vehicle at any private location

= 8 hours = 64 pesos source:

the vehicle is secure and guarded while away

pay hourly fee when back (double than that of public parking)

leave

?

the result is up in the


What is the monetary situation per establishment type? Source: alconsumidor ac

minimum per hour

maximum per hour 6 pesos

14 pesos avg

20 pesos

0

8 pesos

0

10 pesos

0

16 pesos

35 pesos avg

24 pesos

40 pesos

80 pesos

0

plaza/commercial shopping center

department stores

independent locations

hotels

84

$60,930

own

er ta x 5,0 0

3,3 12 ark ing 1 lic p pub

9,3 60 ing ark

e8 ran c

84

$78,194

00

8,0

own

er ta x 5,0 0

0

2 l en ciricen viron cu se lat pla men ion te tal ca ren test rd ew s 5 re al ne 29 75 wa 1 l2 20

8

et p

m

29,4

er ta x 5,0 0

1 7,1

stre

r ove

0

,07 11

*average salary per year in Mexico: 72,000 pesos (6,000 monthly) *gas price avg: 10 pesos(L) x 56.7 liter tank (15g) = 567 x 52 weeks = 9,360 pesos

line

ce

an

en

t ain

0

left

r ove left

2 l en ciricen viron cu se lat pla men ion te tal ca ren test rd ew s 5 re al ne 29 75 wa 1 l2 20

gaso

own

0

insu

,00 e8 ran c

m

29,4

00

8,0

24

line

ce

an

en

t ain

26,6

gaso

king

$64,882

00

8,0

,00

0

84

insu

,00 e8

m

29,4

ce

an

en

t ain

car fees + private parking

private parking = average daily charge = 128 pesos (2x public parking) x 4 days = 512 pesos x 52 weeks = 26,624 pesos annually

par

line

public parking = average daily charge = 64 pesos x 4 days = 256 pesos x 52 weeks = 13,312 pesos annually

priv ate

gaso

car fees + public parking

ran c

street parking = average daily charge = 45 pesos x 4 days = 180 pesos x 52 weeks = 9,360 pesos annually

insu

car fees + street parking

0

Source: msn, el universal, cnn

0

What do the economics of maintaining a vehicle look like with an average salary?

2 l en ciricen viron cu se lat pla men ion te tal ca ren test rd ew s 5 re al ne 29 75 wa 1 l2 20


What if there were a system that could help alleviate congestion and help save money on daily gas and parking fees ?

Azcapotzalco

The idea is to create a park and ride system derived from a series of nodes located around the exterior of the city. Specifically, these nodes are located at the beginning of subway lines in hopes of attracting those coming from the outskirts of the city and those within the delegations in order to avoid having to drive into the city. The surrounding park and rides around the city creates a ring, hence the spanish translation, “El Anillo�.

Gustavo A. Madero

How do park and rides work?

Venustiano Miguel Hidalgo CuauhtemocCarranza

Cuajimalpa

Alvaro Obregon

Benito Juarez

Iztacalco

park and ride

Iztapalapa Coyocoan Tlahuac

Magdalena Contreras

Commuters drive their vehicles to the park and rides located in nodes scattered in a ring throughout the outskirts of the city

Xochimilco

Tlalpan

Milpa Alta When vehicles are parked, commuters then have a choice of taking various forms of public transportation, or even lower-emissions forms of transportation such as bicycles.

el perifĂŠrico

el circuito interior

metro stations


What are the different forms of transportation that can be used in place of using a private vehicle? Source: ciudadmexico.com.mx, metro.df.gob.mx, ste.df.gob.mx, rtp.gob.mx

2

Private Chofer eclipse rent a car rates

7

Metrobus 5 pesos (37 cents) Monday-Friday 4:30am12am Saturday&Sunday 5am-12am *transfers to lines 1,2,&3 are free

100 pesos ($7.40) per hour (minimum 4 hours) 120 pesos ($8.88) per hour (minimum 8 hours) for trips outside of the city

Microbus (Pesero)

8

RTP Bus

9

3.00 pesos (22 cents) 5km 3.50 pesos (26 cents) 5-12km 4.50 pesos (33 cents) 12km+

*leaves from the main metro stations, connecting different lines and stations

*20% rise between 11pm-6am

3.50 pesos (26 cents) 12km 4.50 pesos (33 cents) 12km+

6

Suburban Train

Short trip (0-12km) - 6 pesos (44 cents)

Street Taxis

4

2 door - 5.80 pesos (43 cents)+.78 pesos (.06 cents) for every 250m or 45 seconds 4 door - 6.40 pesos (47 cents)+.78 pesos (.06 cents) for every 250m or 45 seconds

Tren Ligero (light train)

12

Long Trip (12-25.6km) - 14 pesos ($1.02)

Radio Taxis 1 hour

2.00 pesos (14 cents)

140 pesos ($10.36) + 12 pesos (89 cents) per km

*prices can always be negotiated

Metro

10

3 pesos (21 cents) Monday-Friday 5am-12am Saturdays 6am-12am Sundays & Holidays 7am-12am

Trolebus 11 (cable bus) 3 pesos (21 cents) Monday-Sunday

Bicycle Rental Centers FREE! (just leave ID)

14

3


The types of social classes who can afford them... Source: el universal, INEGI

1

1,000 pesos ($75) for 30 minutes 13,000 pesos ($962) for 20 trips

Middle Class

Upper Middle

some rides are relatively free, but some can charge fees of more than 20 pesos ($1.48)

Aerotaxis

Upper Class

Pedicabs (bicitaxis) 5 in the Historical Center

13

300 pesos ($22) - 45 minutes a day for 1 year +10 pesos (74 cents) for 46-61 minutes +35 pesos ($2.59) for 61+ minutes

Lower Class

Poverty Line

Eco-bici


1

Where are the nodes located? Estación El Rosario 6

Estación Ciudad Azteca B

5 minute intervals by

7

Estación Politécnico

7

6 6

5

Estación Indios Verdes 3 6

8

Estación Martín Carrera 4

6

3 8

Estación Cuatro Caminos

7

2

5min

10min

15min

1

20min

30min

35min

40min

1

5

1 A

Estación Pantitlán A

Estación Observatorio

25min

9

5

5

1

9 2 Estación Barranca del Muerto

3

4

7 2

Estación Tasqueña 2

3

Estación Universidad 3

1

Estación Constitución de 1917 8

Estación La Paz A

4

6


Which stations have the most commuters on a daily basis? source: metro.df.gob.mx

According to Mexico City’s Metro statistics, on the list of the most heavily used metro stations, 8 out of the 17 stations on the list are located on the outskirts of the city. There are currently 13 stations on the outskirts of the city where metro lines first begin; the idea is to locate each park and ride at each one of these stations. Unlike stations located within the city, stations located on the exterior contain large lots for buses and a connection to train platforms. Providing park and rides that live in harmony with existing services in each of these locations is the main goal.

m

= 1,000

= stations located in the exterior

Estación Chipancingo

45,582

Estación Zaragoza 58,462 Estación Pantitlán 82,660

Estación Deportivo 18 de Marzo 45,754 Estación Chapultepec 59,306 Estación Tasqueña 98,644

Estación Merced 52,144

Estación Ciudad Azteca 61,350

Estación Tacubaya 52,763

Estación Insurgentes 56,817

Estación Buenavista 56,889

Estación Zócalo 73,361

Estación Observatorio 74,678

Estación Universidad 76,346

Estación Constitución de 1917 109,649

Estación Indios Verdes 126,354

Estación Cuatro Caminos 127,708


Estaci贸n Cuatro Caminos

m

127,708

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Indios Verdes

m

126,354

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Constituci贸n de 1917

m

109,649

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Tasque帽a

m

98,644

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Pantitl谩n

m

82,660

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Universidad

m

76,346

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Observatorio

m

74,678

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Ciudad Azteca

m

61,350

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Polit茅cnico

m

45,513

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Barranca del Muerto

m

45,160

daily commuters


Estaci贸n La Paz

m

43,978

daily commuters


Estaci贸n Mart铆n Carrera

m

37,147

daily commuters


Estaci贸n El Rosario

m

29,284

daily commuters


one site must be developed........


Estaci贸n Constituci贸n de 1917 Photo Source: el universal

109,649

daily commuters

Although this station ranks 3rd in commuters, the delegation in which it is located in, Iztalapalapa, ranks number one in population, population density, and population of registered vehicles.


Azcapotzalco

Gustavo A. Madero

Venustiano Miguel Hidalgo CuauhtemocCarranza Iztacalco

Cuajimalpa

Alvaro Obregon

Benito Juarez Iztapalapa

1,820,888people

Coyocoan

Tlahuac

Magdalena Contreras

Xochimilco

Tlalpan

Milpa Alta

386,687vehicles


m

N


Anillo PerifĂŠrico Eje 8 sur (Calz. Emilia Iztapalapa) Existing bus lot

Proposed building area on site

m


A New Typology: Every day, millions of individuals in Mexico City str massive congestion, or trying to find parking within a densely populat tion. What if there was a new parking typology that provided free par nection to existing transportation programs? What if this typology con viduals on a daily basis along with providing coverage on the building drive and waste gas going to several locations to pick up necessities s markets are located within the building to save time, gas, and money. functions as a park and ride, but a building that benefits both its user ties, public spaces, and parks. On a daily basis, for the millions of indi parking in order to take the train into the city is extremely difficult. It’ they can provide, but by providing these series of stations on the outs those neighborhoods and from the outskirts, a service never before se tives provided.


ruggle with transportation and parking issues; whether it’s sitting in ted metropolis, there has not been a concept to alleviate the situarking services to save its users money while also serving a direct conntained a diverse group of markets to meet the necessities of indig’s maintenance through commission and rent? Instead of having to such as meat, fish, bread, clothing, textiles, etcetera, a variety of . The intent with the concept is to not only create a building that rs and the surrounding community with a variety of markets, activiividuals who enter the city, finding parking within the city or finding ’s a well known fact that Mexicans love their cars and the privacy skirts as a meeting point for the many that travel into the city from een, the outcome could potentially be successful due to the incen-


Concept and Program

e

nc

tra

en

2

3

str ee t li

ne

1

it

ex

Vehicular circulation is taken above ground from the periferico and out towards the bus lot

4

Along the vehicular circulation path, parking is accessed

5

Underneath the parking and circulation, a variety of programs including markets are placed to serve the necessities of the users of the facility, and at the center, an open public center space is formed.

6

tra

in

sta

tio

Access to circulation is placed in the corners and the open center space, allowing for the movement of individuals onto the concourse area above.

In order to keep a unified design, a connection was made above, linking all 3 parking sections; in the process, a roof park was formed

n

in order to connect individuals to the train station, a connection bridging over the street and into the station was added at the second level.


2,944 sq ft

9

328,800 sq ft 5,120 sq ft

8,400 sq ft

3,200 sq ft

parking

6,400 sq ft

plaza

6

exhibition space

5

open seating area

15,680 sq ft

textile market

recreational field

10

bicycle rental

13 12 11 7

information/lobby/nursery

14 8

linens market

15

furniture market

24 hrs

clothes market

17 16

3

bakery/pastry

18

2

cafe

21 20 23 24 1

fish market

19 22

meat market

produce market

concourse with markets

food court

roof park

6,460 sq ft 8,000 sq ft

6,950 sq ft

41,893 sq ft

4

6,000 sq ft 8,000 sq ft

4,400 sq ft

4,000 sq ft

41,100 sq ft 4,220 sq ft

3,200 sq ft


How does parking work?

= 0-4hrs

drive up to the entrance to the ticket box

4-12hrs

12+hrs

choose between 3 buttons labeling different time frames


=

parking is at no charge because the commission and rent made from the markes and shops will pay for maintenence of the building

El Anill

El Anill

ubicación

ubicación

Constitución de 1917

Constitución de 1917

Iztapalapa, México D.F.

Iztapalapa, México D.F.

10/07/2012 08:26

10/07/2012 08:32

espacio 7

espacio 7

197728

197728

a ticket will be issued asking you to drive and park at the designated color

park at the lift, insert the ticket into the booth and step out as the vehicle will be taken to its spot.

another ticket will be issued to pick up the vehicle so the owner can leave


eje 8 sur

eje 8 sur

hortensia

N

de las torres

de las es torr

petunia


ic rifĂŠr o pe anill

o


Plans (sub-level - roof level)

8 2

9

3

1

7

9

6 4

8

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

10 10

sub-level (roadway)

ground level 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

main plaza furniture market textiles market clothing market recreational field

6. produce market 7. dining hall 8. bike rental 9. exhibition hall 10. paradero (bus resting area)

first level 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

lobby/information/nursery fish market meat market produce market linens market

6. bakery 7. open seating area 8. cafe 9. exhibition hall 10. connection to train station

second level (vehicul


lar circulation)

1

2

third level 1. amphitheater

2. concourse

fouth level - roof (parking)

roof level


aerial view of the proposed park and ride at Iztapalapa’s Constitución de 1917 station looking North East

view looking in from the indoor soccer field


aerial view looking South West


view of the amphitheater

view looking in from the indoor soccer field


view of the concourse level with outdoor markets


view of the vehicular circulation level

view looking in from the indoor soccer field


view of the main plaza


view of the park located on the roof

view looking in from the indoor soccer field


North Elevation


North Section

Constituci贸n de 1917 8


roof level

roof level

third level second level first level


West Elevation

8 MartĂ­n Carrera

8 MartĂ­n Carrera

092

095


West Section

8 Martín Carrera

8 Martín Carrera

095

095


roof level roof level

third level second level first level


“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed.� - Mahatma Gandhi


El Anillo