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Q3 SPATIAL STRATEGIES FOR GLOBAL METROPOLIS 2017-2018 MSc 2 Urbanism | Delft University of Technology Press

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ABSTRACT Today’s metropolitan areas, specifically Amsterdam (AMA), comprise a multitude of interconnected centers; places where our daily activities for work, living, leisure, and travel are highly concentrated. Optimized public transport networks handle the flows of people between these centers however key resources, such as waste and food, are dependent on unsustainable and inefficient logistics processes. When it comes to urban distribution channels; goods, services and vital utilities inherently public in nature are left out of the loop of public transit and are left reliant on singular, oil-guzzling systems. Through methods of scenario-driven strategic thinking and parametric planning, this paper seeks to question the impact and spatial implications of extending public transit models to the distribution of resources in the AMA region. It builds upon the important paradigmatic shift in the pluralizing, digitizing, and combining of shared economy principles with the socio-technicalities of the circular economy, resulting in the conceptual objective of pursuing shared circular economies. Design objectives stem from the interconnected and overlapping flows of resources following the formulas of public-transport oriented development and the subsequent modal split into the virtual and physical future of the AMA, a future that is efficient and sustainable.

STUDENTS: MARCEL DE GROOT (4377192) | JOS KENTER (4286650) | WENQIAN LING (4706749) | BRITTANY TRILFORD (4738535) TUTORS: PROF. DR. DIEGO SEPULVEDA & PROF. DR. LUISA CALABRESE


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REDEFINING LOGISTICS · NEWS

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · EDITORIAL Letters from Editors

Our Team

Thank you for picking up our paper! We hope that this project provides normative but provocative goals for the future planning of the AMA region and the future of circular economic principles globally. We aim to challenge readers and urge them to break down the defense walls of current conceptualizations relating to our project. Think bigger. Read this newspaper with an open mind, an open waste bag, and step into the open door of the next tram; we will take you on a journey. We hope that this journey induces a logical ordering of spatial interventions over time and that temporal uncertainties do not hinder your imagination as it did to us at some fleeting moments. We faced the challenges of visualizing multi-scalarity, proving economic feasibility, and spatializing inherently conceptual behavioural shifts at the regional scale. Luckily, we have a team of dedicated aspiring urbanists willing to take on these tasks using a diverse spectrum of shared knowledge, experience and motivation. We each had different motivations for creating this project; some needed strong visual outputs, insightful moments of learning, and others required an understanding of the deeper questions of purpose; but all were united in the desire to collaboratively create an innovative and strategic spatial plan for the AMA. We prioritised the free sharing of knowledge and ideas in our group so as to learn from each other in a meaningful and active way. Our presentation styles differed but we learnt a lot in the process of molding a cohesive group style. Visualizations remained personal but in sync with group ideals and aesthetic concepts. One key overarching concept was the use of the newspaper. Newspapers are still the number one medium for shaping public opinion. Their credibility, knowledge, format, values and information-gathering skills remain a formidable force in cityscapes to this day. We have taken inspiration from their standard themes, concepts, and processes in order to show you our work from many different angles. All conceptual ideas have to be strategized at some point, and so did ours eventually. The translation from a provocative ideology into a feasible strategy brought several ethical dilemmas with it. Would our strong believe in the potential outcomes of the controversial concept justify a rigid top-down approach? Or would it be wiser to let go of full control in return for more flexibility (and perhaps a more humane approach)? The questions asked us to define our position as urbanists. Additionionaly, current trends as digitization led to passionate discussions about role of data- and privacy policies in our project. The conflicting interests of efficiency and privacy will eventually need to be aligned in some way or another. Ethical challenges like this one, and many others, have made us aware of the constant and complicated decision making that comes with the role of the urbanist. Marcel de Groot Jos Kenter Wenqian Ling Brittany Trilford April 11th 2018

Understanding the Challenge This project aims to utilise a diverse toolbox of theoretical frameworks, formats, datasets, and strategic and regional spatial planning approaches to understand, translate and shape the concept of the ‘circular economy’ into our Redefined vision and strategy. Our group explored a plethora of ideas and evidence in order to develop a critical stance on planning and circularity in the context of this academic quarter. For ten weeks, we discussed and debated spatial interventions to find the most strategic, innovative, operational and effective enactable within policy.

MARCEL DE GROOT, our logistical whiz, shares the insight that “to make such a project you have to be an urbanist thinking like an industrial designer, logistic engineer, mechanical engineer and even like a trash man, which made this project an intruiging journey and also a start of a much bigger journey for me”

WENQIAN LING, our regional planning map-making guru from China loves that “this idea of combining commuters and goods/waste, throws new light to the existing system which is really a good start for developing the circular economy in AMA region.”

PRODUCTS: A Spatial Vision: A Redefinition of Regional Planning through Flows This vision builds up upon our insights into the complexity of current regional development trends, conditions and challenges for the AMA region. Against this background it promotes a desirable, innovative future that serves as a normative frame and guiding principle for development strategies.

JOS KENTER, our core Dutch urbanist, had this to say; “Every group project brings together people with different interests and visions. But I think it is safe to say that we managed to come up with a project that has excited and intrigued us all from the start.” BRITTANY TRILFORD, our concept and policy developer from New Zealand, explained that “this project was all about us learning core regional planning principles so that we could push them to their conceptual and imaginative limits.”

Why A Newspaper?

A Development Strategy: This strategy consists of a series of spatial interventions in the form of key projects and spatial policies, a timeline that orders interventions chronologically and conceptually, and an analysis of stakeholders involved in bringing our spatial change to fruition.


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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK KEYWORDS: Amsterdam metropolitan area, circular economies, sustainability, public transportation, waste management, green logistics, network optimization, social responsibility, nodes, modal split, polycentricity

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INTRODUCTION

This report is fundamentally about provocatively introducing the principles of green logistics to public transportation and waste management, overlaying them with multiplied circular economy concepts, and exploring the urban plan that results. While specifically questioning why public transportation is a good model for circularising logistics and waste management systems in the AMA region, it become necessary that the report also deal with the conceptual questions and taboos raised in the research process. This paper speaks to the general questions of disciplinary distances between the fields of Urbanism, Logistics and Mass-Transportation from the perspective of an Urbanist and how one might deal with subsequent academic taboos to determine the regional plans plausibility. In the papers quest to redefine the flows and functioning of public processes in the AMA region, it also ponders the spatial implications of the global paradigmatic shift from a consumption to production mentality, such a behavioural shift would be required for the project to be feasible. The theoretical case study of waste is explored through exploring its urban perceptions and the social responsibility that results from the aforementioned necessary shift.

planning, the growing role and power of the metropole, and the subsequent increased politicization of regional plans. Authors position themselves as experts probing the future as opposed to facilitators performing regional design through implementation. Due to the heavily politicized nature of maps and regional planning visualisations, this paper chooses to pursue the systems of flows, their interactions and networks. Thus concepts align with those of the circular economy more than that of urban metabolism due to the focus on efficiency over resilience. In this sense, theories concentrate on flow accounting. Theories explored in this paper support the development of two outcomes: A Spatial Vision called ‘A Redefinition of Regional Planning through Flows’ and a Development Strategy. The vision builds up upon the papers insights into the complexity of current regional development trends, conditions and challenges for the AMA region. Against this background it promotes a desirable, innovative future that serves as a normative frame and guiding principle for development strategies. The development strategy consists of a series of spatial interventions in the form of key projects and spatial policies, a timeline that orders interventions chronologically and conceptually, and an analysis of stakeholders involved in bringing spatial change to fruition.

YMONOCE RALUCRIC selpicnirp ytilibaniatsus

ymonoce derahs eht

YTICIRTNECYLOP

sedon sedom The project is positioned within the contextual changes of the Urbanism discipline that imposes the importance of actor complexity and owten skrparticipatory

TAHW EHT

ytiladon

LACITEROEHT KROWEMARF

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical framework presented here is the structure that holds and supports this research study. It introduces and describes theories used to explain why this research problem exists and questions the factors that contribute to the presumed effects. Theories are categorized into three simple yet overlapping analytical constructs; the WHAT section highlights various theorized definitions and principles integral to the conceptualization of this regional plan while also aiding in discerning relevant, critical, and important facts among accumulated knowledge; the HOW section delves into the methodological priorities and theories that provide a common language and frame of reference for defining the boundaries of this project; lastly, the WHY section details specific theories that enabled the prescription and evaluation of solutions and strategies for this project while also guiding the interpretation of theories in the WHAT and HOW sections.

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the shared economy

THE WHAT nodality

seirots

WOH EHT

POLYCENTRICITY nodes modes networks

Mass-transit public design

THE WHY

ngised desab-ecnedive SCENARIO-DRIVEN STRATEGIC THINKING

GREEN LOGISTICS

NETWORK OPTIMIZATION

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stories

THE HOW NODE PLACE MODEL

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evidence-based design

REFERENCES ABEND, G. (2008) "The Meaning of Theory." Sociological Theory 26 : 173–199; Swanson, Richard A. Theory Building in Applied Disciplines. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers 2013. ANDERSEN, M. S. (2007). “An Introductory Note on the Environmental Economics of the Circular Economy.” Sustainability Science, 2(1), 133-140. ASHER, H. (1984). Theory-Building and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences. Knoxville, TN: University of

Tennessee Press B E RTO L I N I , L . ( 1 9 9 6 ) “ N o d e s a n d P l a c e s : Complexities of Railway Station Redevelopment.” European Planning Studies, 4(3), 331-345. BERTOLINI, L. (1999) "Spatial development patterns and public transport: the application of an analytical model in the Netherlands." Planning Practice and Research 14.2: 199-210.

BERTOLINI, L., & Le Clercq, F. (2003). “Urban Development Without More Mobility by Car? Lessons from Amsterdam, a Multimodal Urban Region.” Environment and planning A, 35(4), 575-589. BERTOLINI, L., & Spit, T. (2005). “Cities on Rails: The Redevelopment of Railway Stations and their Surroundings.” Routledge. BURGER, M., & Meijers, E. (2012). “Form Follows Function? Linking Morphological and Functional

WHY

A Circular Shared Economies The ‘circular economy ’ is the fundamental promotion of the notion that waste-output from a one actor can function as a valuable input for another (Graedel and Allenby, 1995). By definition, a circular economy therefore promotes the optimization of resource management and minimisation, as well as the adoption of cleaner technologies (Andersen, 2007) while maintaining or adding to the value of products, materials and resources in the system most efficiently, for as long as possible and ultimately eliminating the concept of waste (European Commission; Gregson, 2015). The ultimate goal of a circular economy is to generate economic growth without environmental pressure or degradation. As this project takes contemporary and popularized ‘shared economy’ principles (Hamari et al, 2016) within a complex system as the baseline for regional analysis, it assumes circularity to be plural and collaborative. It considers outputs, inputs and actors to be inherently spatio-temporal, evolving and diversely interconnected. In the interest of circular economic resilience, the project theoretically pursues the plurality of systems resulting in the conceptual objective of pursuing shared circular economies.

Scenario Driven Strategic Thinking in Concept Development The realization of this project grew from scenario-driven strategic thinking. The theory enabled the productive practice of ambiguity and disagreement in the initial phases of concept development. As a methodology, it was used to counter hubris, expose assumptions that would otherwise have remained implicit, contribute to shared and systemic sense-making, and foster quick adaptation in times of crisis. Scenarios aided in navigating the complexity required of this project and conflict whilst managing disagreement w h i l e av o i d i n g t h e e x t re m e s o f g r o u p t h i n k a n d f ra g m e n t a t i o n . This project used a scenario as a theoretical tool to test a story of how various elements might interact under certain conditions, but also as a communication tool along with the format of a journalistic newspaper to show project situations from different points of view. Using scenarios forced this project-work to acknowledge that subjective judgment and intuition are an integral part of the process and the importance of uncertainty when striking a balance between relevant and challenging. This project aimed to introduce discontinuities into theory in order to do more than extrapolate from the present and encompass methodology more wholesome than forecasting.

Green Logistics and Public Transportation Within the realm of urbanism, aligning the models of public transportation with that of logistics and waste collection comes with distinct disciplinary obstacles. Despite their shared intentions, processes, products and sustainable upgrades, these powerful schools of thought remain theoretically segregated. This detachment stems from their definitional differences and brings unique challenges and impacts when combined in the framework of an urban plan.

eliM tsaL ehT

As this paper seeks to spatialise the definition of shared circular economies w i t h i n t h e A M A re g i o n , i t f i n d s theoretical foundation in the notion of polycentricity. The onus of polycentric theory is the balanced distribution of urban centres and their subsequent spatialities and functionalities. It is used to address the distribution of economically relevant functions over the spatiality of the system in such a way that the urban hierarchy is “flattened in a territorially balanced w ay ” ( B r u g e r e t M e i j e r s , 2 0 1 1 ) . Important to note here are the lessons in nodality and centrality included in polycentric urban theory. While nodality and centrality reflects the “absolute and relative” (Ibid.) importance of centers in a regional system, their importance must be spatially balanced to achieve polycentricity. This is the spatial and functional aspiration of this project and led to the heavy reliance on nodal development.

Polycentricity.” Urban studies, 49(5), 1127-1149. CORVELLEC, H., (2013) “What is Theory?: Answers from the Social and Cultural Sciences.” Copenhagen Business School Press GIOIA, D. A., & Pitre, E. (1990). “Multiparadigm Perspectives on Theory Building.” Academy of management review, 15(4), 584-602. GRAEDEL, T. E., Allenby, B. R., & CΟMRIΕ, P.

Node Placement The Node Place theory offers starting p o i n t s f o r a n a l y s i n g n e t w o r ke d urban structures and configuring regional strategies. Parallels can be drawn between the WH AT of nodality in polycentric theory and the methodological priorities of HOW using models of node place theory to provide accessibility between resources and functions. Similar overlaps can be made with circular economic principles in the sense that nodes emerge where input and output resources encounter each other sustainably (Oswald & Baccini, 2003). They develop in “interactional processes between place-bound and network-bound properties” (Bertolini 1996; 1999; 2003; 2005). Nodes are theorized to consist of particular local potentials in order to entice efficiency, polycentricity and circularity. Such potentials are explored in this project.

TNEMPOLEVED DETNEIRO-TISNART

NOITAZIMITPO KROWTEN

LEDOM ECALP EDON

TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT

HOW

SCITSIGOL NEERG

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The Last Mile

WHAT

EHT YHW Polycentricity

CIRCULAR ECONOMY sustainability principles

? NEVIRD-OIRANECS GNIKNIHT CIGETARTS

?

?

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cilbup tisnart-ssaM ngised

(1995). “Matrix Approaches to Abridged Life Cycle Assessment.” Environmental Science & Technology, 29(3), 134A-139A.

in Collaborative Consumption." Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 67.9 : 2047-2059.

GREGSON, N., Crang, M., Fuller, S., & Holmes, H. (2015). “Interrogating the Circular Economy: the Moral Economy of Resource Recovery in the EU.” Economy and Society, 44(2), 218-243.

HIRSCHMAN, E. C. (1986). “Humanistic Inquiry in Marketing Research: Philosophy, Method, and Criteria” Journal of marketing Research, 237-249.

HAMARI, J., Sjöklint, M., and Ukkonen, A. (2016) "The Sharing Economy: Why People Participate

JARVIS, P. (1999) “The Practitioner-Researcher. Developing Theory from Practice.” San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

LOGISTICS is defined as an applicationoriented scientific discipline. It analyses and models division-of-labour economic systems as time-based and location-based flows of objects (goods , people and waste for example) in networks, supplying recommendations for action on the design and implementation of these networks. The primarily scientific questions in the logistics field are therefore related to the configuration, organisation, control or regulation of these networks and flows with the aim of paving the way for progress in the balanced achievement of economic, ecological and social objectives. Klaus et al. (1993) proposed a broader research agenda for logistics and expresses the notion that there is significant potential for “interdisciplinary exchanges of views and ideas for the future development of logistics as an applied science”. This has led to a forking in the field, introducing the more contemporary branch of ‘integrative logistics’ referred to as Supply Chain Management (SCM). The “systems concept” applied to SCM incorporates an unmanageably large number of variables in order to optimize multi-organizational system performance. The body of principles employed in SCM is considerably larger than that of logistics, and not unlike urbanism, enjoys no obvious boundaries.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION engineering is similarly multidisciplinary and is considered a sub-discipline of civil engineering that involves the science of safe and efficient movement of people and goods by land, air, and sea. A transportation system is defined by the field as the combination of elements and their interactions, which produces the demand for travel within a given area and the supply of transportation services to satisfy this demand. It is oriented towards the design and evaluation of transportation supply projects. The typical systems engineering approach is to isolate the elements that are most relevant to the problem whereby the relationships between them make up an ‘analysis system’. The remaining elements belong to the ‘external environment’ and are taken into account only in terms of their interactions with the analysis system. It follows that there is always a strict interdependence between the identification of the analysis system and the problem to be solved.

Theoretically combining these distinct disciplines results in two key challenges: PLURALITY AND PROXIMITY OF INTERACTIONS Logistics is fundamentally plural in its consideration of systems, and the interactions between elements remain in the foreground of any study. Whereas in transportation engineering, such interactions are theoretically contained in the ‘external environment’. This conceptual externality challenges the multidisciplinary nature of urbanism and a regional plan for the AMA as it encompasses and requires many interactions.

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POSITIVIST SUCCESS Both logistics and transportation engineering are inherently positivist in that they rely on the veracity of empirical research to indicate successful outcomes. They examine regularities and relationships that lead to generalizations and ideally universal principles (Gioia and Pitre, 1990). These universal principles are not only uncovered, but can be used for (normative) predictions. The universality claim is supported by a strong belief in the possibility to conduct research objectively and “value-free” (Peter and Olson, 1983; and Hirschman, 1986). The challenge to any regional urban plan is it’s rejection of such technical objectivity while retaining predictability within the realms of empiricism and partnering that with the more subjective limits of urban design . KLAUS, P., Henning, H., Muller-Steinfahrt, U. and Stein, A. (1993), “The Promise of Interdisciplinary Research in Logistics”, in Masters, J.M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty Second Annual Transportation and Logistics Educators Conference, pp. 161-87. OSWALD, F., Baccini, P., & Michaeli, M. (2003). “Netzstadt.” Springer Science & Business Media.

PETER, J. P., & Olson, J. C. (1983). “Is Science Marketing?.” The Journal of Marketing, 111-125. NOVACK, R.A., Rinehart, L.M. and Wells, M.V. (1992), “Rethinking Concept Foundations in Logistics Management”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 233-67. RAVITCH, S. and Riggan, M. (2017) “Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research.” Second edition. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE


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FOUR MAJOR PROBLEMS FACE THE GLOBAL AND THE AMA; RESOURCE SCARCITY, AIR POLLUTION, CO2 EMISSION AND CONGESTION

TE PERCEPTIO S A N| |W

GLOBAL TRENDS Air conditions in the AMA region have worried many people due to the growing number of vehicles used for commuters and logistics. Logistics transportation (trucks) has contributed 15% to air pollution. To reduce air pollution in the AMA region, we need to significantly reduce vehicle use (especially the trucks) in our region.

CO² emissons from transportation are growing every year and controlling the regional concentration of emissions is a government priority. Research tells us that CO² emissions from road logistics transportation makes up to 25% of the total. With this in mind, we need to take actions to control CO² emissions induced by road transport like making full use of current public transport.

Current traffic conditions in the AMA region are problematic, especially during the peak hour! Despite the majority of congestion being made of commmuter traffic, 13% of road transpor tation issues are due to logistics. Therefore, it is paramount to change the transportation of goods as the trucks account for a large amount of rade usage and space.

100%

other industry

54%

5% car diesel

road transport, passenger

15% ligh/heavy duty diesel vehicle

road transport, goods

transportation

3% other road traffic

energy 0% transformation

46% other traffic and transport 31% other sources

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2017

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ASTE PROCESS W | S ING C I ST |C I G L O

The Netherlands is known for its high import dependency, especially on oil & gas. 50% of domestically used oil and gas facilitates road transport and 23% is purchased for road logistics transportation. In this case, we should think about the solution to reduce the energy used in road transportation in order to respond to the sustainable demands. The method could be encouraing people to use public transport.

SUSTAINABLE

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CIRCULARITY IN THE AMA

POTENTIALITIES OF CIRUCLAR ECONOMY PRINCIPLES FOR THE AMA REGION The AMA is exploring the possibilities and opportunities to catalyse the transition from linear towards circular economies. A necessary transition in order to deal with global trends such as resource depletion, global warming and population growth. One of the trends that we identified as critical for this transition, is the growing production and consumption patterns, and the logistic processes on which these flows rely. Most cities in the region are still heavily dependent on this linear process of produce – consume – waste for their economic growth. By analysing these patterns, the conclusion was drawn that the current modes of logistic processes are reliant on singular, oil-guzzling systems. Road transport still makes up for the vast majority of the logistic modal split, whilst the train is good for no more than a mere 4%. This is where our concept came into play; to combine logistic processes within the AMA with its excellent public transport system, in order to create a more sustainable and efficient way to transport both people and goods. Previously

Resource use

High congestion

Regular congestion

Air pollution concentrate area

CO2 concentration >35%

CO2 concentration 30% - 35%

CO2 concentration 25% - 30%

Air pollution high concentrate area

separated fields of mass transit, logistics, supply chain management, waste processors and distributors or goods, will be brought together, creating the potential for a more holistic approach to achieve efficiency and circularity. Besides a better integration of the stakeholders involved in the transportation of flows, we hope that by breaking the produce – consume – waste paradigm the waste perception will change, in order to eventually decrease the average consumption and waste production of the AMA citizen. In essence, the aimed paradigmatic shift realised by bringing fields of expertise together and by the involvement of the citizen as an essential agent in the whole process, leads to a shared objective, that enables circular economies to emerge and grow within the region. The end result is a project that provides a framework for stimulating and enabling future circular economies, rather than closing loops on its own.


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ENTERTAINMENT

DIFFERENT CHARACTERS IN THE AMA CITIES IN THE AMA HAVE BEEN SHAPED THROUGH TIME, RESULTING IN UNIQUE CHARACTERS AND MORPHOLOGIES. THE DIFFERENT PASTS WILL INFLUENCE THE WAY THE CITIES WILL DEVELOP AND GROW IN THE FUTURE. LETS HAVE A LOOK AT THREE CITIES WITH EACH THEIR OWN STORY, TO GET AN IDEA OF HOW THEY WILL DEVELOP IN THE COMING DECADES. JOS KENTER

Amsterdam is known for its historic innercity; the fine-mazed structure of canals and historical facades. As seen on the figure on the right, the city then developed concentrically and expanded mostly in the southeastern and west ern direction. With the city reaching the point where further expansion in these directions was no longer possible, new challenges have arisen. The municipality of Amsterdam is now forced to densify and redevelop. The main areas allowing for future housing development are almost all positioned along the Ij river; the Houthavens, NSDM terrein and, futher eastwards, the artificial islands of Ijburg. Densification and intensification is possible at several locations throughout the city, but the focus is on the areas around a few main train stations, especially Amsterdam Zuid. New infrastructural developments are then also aimed to bring and strenghten the accessibility of these new housing areas. The Noord-Zuidlijn, opening in 2018, will provide a direct and fast connection between Amsterdam North and South and the city center. Proposed lines for the future are the extension of this NoordZuidlijn to Schiphol, the Oost-Westlijn and the Ijmeerleen, which is meant connect Almere and the second phase of Ijburg to the Central Station of Amsterdam. The construction of these new infrastrutures is not only meant to shorten travel distances and commuting time, but also to bring economic activity to the new development areas, along with densificatoin around the nodes. It it a sign that Amsterdam has already begun creating a framework that allows for further growth through densification.

<1800 - 1850 1850 - 1930

<1800 - 1850 1850 - 1930

1930 - 1960 1960 - 1990 1990 - 2005 >

1930 - 1960 1960 - 1990 1990 - 2005 >

ALMERE | NEW TOWN

VOLENDAM | VILLAGE

p o p u l at i o n d e n s i t y

p o p u l at i o n d e n s i t y

city growth

city growth

10.000

10.000

p t n e t w o r k e x pa n s i o n

p t n e t w o r k e x pa n s i o n

urban fabric

pt network

pt network

Volendam, the village

The village of Volendam is home to 22000 inhabitants, and a large tourist attraction in Noord-Holland, due to its historical harbour and preservation of folk culture. The villages has a high dependency on the tourist industry. Most of these tourists come by bus from Amsterdam. Another important connection is the busline to the trainstation of Purmerend. As the villages growth is stagnating, it should prevent further urban sprawl, but densify around its key public transport nodes.

m o r p h o l o gy

m o r p h o l o gy

public transport

Amsterdam, the historical center

Almere is, by far, the fastest growing city in the country. Within 40 years, the city has grown to a size of roughly 200.000 inhabitants. Future predictions are a growth of anywhere between 70.000 and 100.000 til 2040, which would get Almere into the top 5 largest cities of the Netherlands. With unique characteristics, uncomparable with the other 4. Starting with the polycentric model, Almere consists of 5 different clusters, with Almere Stad being the clear center of the city. Exept for Almere Stad, all other clusters are low density residential zones, meant to house the large amount of commuters working in or around Amsterdam. The public transport system consists of a single spine, the train coming from A m s t e rd a m a n d g o i n g to L e l y s t a d . Commuters take the bus (or walk) to the station of their cluster, to get on to the train. With new clusters planned to be developed around the edges of the city the current infrastructural system will have to change, in order to give access to the newly build areas. The introduction of a second line, as planned by Amsterdam and Almere, the Ijmeerlijn, is one of the options that the city will have to consider if it wants to make regional public transport accessible for everyone. Another issue the city will have to face is the lack of density. To make the public transport feasible and efficient, the city has to start to densify around the nodes of the public transport system. The Transit Oriented Developement criteria will play a big part in the new developments of Almere Pampus and Almere Oosterwold.

AMSTERDAM | HISTORICAL CENTER

urban fabric

The AMA consists of vastly different cities and villages. In this story we will have a closer look at three of them, Amsterdam, Almere and Volendam. These cities are chosen based on their different characters and function; which can roughly be described as the historical center, the new town and the village. In the thematic maps each of these will be analysed in more detail, both (the morphology of) their urban fabric and the public transport system.

Almere, the new town

public transport

Historical center, new town, village

n o da l d e n s i t y

n o da l d e n s i t y

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velsen velsen

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THE AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA IS GROWING. BUT THERE IS A LIMITATION TO ANY FORM OF GROWTH; TWO OF THE MOST CRITICAL TRENDS ARE THE URBAN EXPANSION AND THE INTENSIFICATION OF EXISTING INFRASTRUTURE. WHERE, HOW AND WHEN WILL THESE LIMITS BE REACHED, IF NOTHING CHANGES?

e x pa n s i o n l i m i tat i o n s e x pa n s i o n l i m i tat i o n s LIMITS OF URBAN EXPANSION

zaanstad zaanstad

purmerend purmerend

haarlemmermeer haarlemmermeer

amsterdam amsterdam

amstelveen amstelveen

hilversum hilversum

REACHING LIMITITATIONS r e ac h i n g t h e l i m i t r e ac h i n g t h e l i m i t

RESOURCE SCARCITY

A nightmare?

p o pituisl at i o nbad Well, pretty p o p u l at i on to be honest. The

infamous Hollandse B r u g shuarsfac b e een a s u r fac e bottleneck for many years, but with the d e ngrowth s i t y of enormous n p o pdu e l at i osni/tk my2 commuters p o p u l at i o nfrom / k m 2 my hometown the traffic p o p u l atjams i o n g r obecoming wth p o p u l atunbearable. i o n are g 2r0 o1 8w- 2t0h4 0 2018 - 2040 DRIES TEUNISSEN 41y, Almere

Hi Dries, lets start with a short introduction. Who are you and where are you from?

I'm Dries, professor at the University of Amsterdam, teaching Social Geography and Planning. That means I'm commuting on a daily basis from Almere, where I live, to the the city center of Amsterdam. A true nightmare.

n o d e sbut Maybe an obvious question, n d ieo nssthe t r a i n + t r a m + b u s sotat have you considered taking t r a i n + t r a m + b u s s tat i o n s train instead? o da lit dwould e n s ibet yhard Absolutely. Inmean, n o da l d e ndse si/comfort tk my2 for me to hand in some ofn othe nodes/km2 and independency of the car, but the c o make m m umy t i ncommute g f l o wa lot train would c o m m u t i n g o: owworry s i z e | r at i of iln to ut less stressful as I don't have s i z e | r at i o i n : o u t about being held up by others. The m o da s p current lit thing is, however, thatl the m o da l s p l r oa d | r a i l | o etr too train connection to Amsterdamt hiis r oa d | r a i l | o t h e r crowded. The capacity should go up!

Mike, could you tell us a bit about yourself? I own a small groceries near Javaplein, for about 25 years now.

And have you noticed any big changes in those 25 years?

simply block the roads and alleyways for all other traffic. Especially during their morning supply routine. In my opinion, the center of Amsterdam is no space for these vehicles! You don't see the big cargo ships going through the city center either, do you?

Oh, don't even start about it...the last 5 years have been the worst. Big companies are taking over our neighbourhood, and with them come the large cargo trucks. Me and my constumers have been complaining about them for years now, but in vain.

What exactly is the issue with these trucks?

Everything! The noise, their smell...their size most of all! They

MIKE DE BOER 32y, Amsterdam LIMITS OF EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE

i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l i m i tat i o n s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l i m i tat i o n s

s u r fac e density

p o p u l at i o n / k m 2

p o p u l at i o n g r o w t h 2018 - 2040

nodes

t r a i n + t r a m + b u s s tat i o n s

n o da l d e n s i t y nodes/km2

commuting flow s i z e | r at i o i n : o u t

m o da l s p l i t r oa d | r a i l | o t h e r

zaanstad

velsen

purmerend

e x pa n s i o n l i m i tat i o n s

hilversum

haarlem

amsterdam

amstelveen

almere p o p u l at i o n

haarlemmermeer

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 9 LARGEST CITIES r e ac h i n g t h e l i m i t

e x pa n s i o n b o u n da r i e s e x pa n s i o n b o u n da r i e s schiphol noise schiphol noise r e c r e at i o n a l z o n e s r e c r e at i o n a l z o n e s de stelling de stelling

Limitations in the AMA

The AMA region strives to, and will grow rapidly in the coming years. The 9 largest cities, pictured in the diagram on the left, are expected to grow with 239.000 inhabitants before 2040. The question arises, where do we build to house all these new AMA citizens? The city of Amsterdam for example is expected to attract 93.900 new residents, and it is limited in its growth in almost all directions exept the east (map "Limits of Urban Expansion). Densification seems the only option for the city. One of the only parts where the region is still able to "breathe" and expand is around Almere. 75.000 dwellings and 100.000 jobs are planned for this new to develop area Along with the densification, and urban expansion (where possible), comes a g re a t e r p re s s u re o n t h e e x i s t i n g infrastructure. Both the road- and railnetwork are already operating on and beyond their maximum capacity on many of the main commuting trajectories.

i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l i m i tat i o n s

3 3

a m s t e r da m h aaamrslteemrmdae rmm-e e r haarlemmermeer

z a a n s ta d - a m s t e r da m z a a n s ta d - a m s t e r da m

2 2 1 1

e x pa n s i o n b o u n da r i e s schiphol noise r e c r e at i o n a l z o n e s de stelling

a l m e r e - a m s t e r da m a l m e r e - a m s t e r da m

1 main commuting flow low 1 mh ai gi nh cc oo mn gmeustti endg rf oa ds

hciognhgceosnt ge de srtoa e ddr oa d s c o n g e s t e d r oa d u n d e r c a pac i tat e d r a i l u n d e r c a pac i tat e d r a i l


Redefining Logistics

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13 03

Redefining Logistics

ENTERTAINMENT

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF WE HAVE BEEN WRITING ABOUT TRENDS IN THE AMA AND THEIR LIMITATIONS. BY QUANTIFYING ONE OF THEM, THE COMMUTING FLOW, THIS STORY WILL LOOK INTO THE MODAL SPLIT AND ITS SIDE EFFECTS OF THE FUTURE. WHAT IF NOTHING CHANGES IN THE WAY WE COMMUTE BEFORE 2040?

ALMERE

AMSTERDAM + 7 5 . 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta+n t7 s5 . 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta n t s +100.000 jobs +100.000 jobs

VOLENDAM + 9 4 . 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta+n t9 s4 . 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta n t s +200.000 jobs +200.000 jobs

JOS KENTER The largest commuting flows

The largest outgoing commuting flows in the AMA are from Amsterdam to Haarlemmermeer (21.000), Almere to Amsterdam (19.000) and Zaanstad to Amsterdam (15.000). The largest incoming flow is to Amsterdam; everyday 87.500 people make their way into the city from within the AMA. The total number is even higher, as commuters from the rest of the Netherlands are not included. The diagrams on the right show the daily commuter flows, going in and out of Almere, Amsterdam and Volendam. They portray "the daily life" of the city, who's going in and who's going out. Together with the modal split, a clear image is created showing the amount commutes by car, train or other (bike, walking). By using the data about expected population growth and added jobs for 2040, estimations have been made for the growth of the commuting flows, with the assumption that the modal split itself does not shift. The (hypothetical) outcomes do create a striking image. From 72.000 extra cars entering Amsterdam on a daily base via roads that are heavily congested to 26.000 extra train passengers from Almere, along trajectories that already struggle to handle the current rush hours.

Present 2018 COMMUTING IN

r oa d rail

r oa d rail

other

other car in

public transport in

Present 2018

C O M M U T I N GC OOMU M T UTING IN

car in

future 2040

future 2040

Present 2018

Present 2018

future 2040

future 2040

Present 2018

Present 2018

future 2040

future 2040

COMMUTING OUT

car out

public transport public transport in out

car out

public transport out

Impact in 2040 (for Almere + Amsterdam + Volendam)

The following trends will be further accelerated if commuting flows aren't reduced and the modal split does not change by 2040.

other IN

other IN

other out

other out

+ + CO2 Emission

Traffic Congestion

Parking Space

+ 303

+ 38%

+ 1,2

kiloton CO2/day

daily car commutes

million m2 needed

= 12.000

= 115.000

= 230

households

extra cars

soccer pitches

+

39000

39000

26000

26000

3600

3600

+

72000 72000

+

+

35000 35000 7000

7000

Conclusion/Problem Statement 1 | Different Characters in the AMA

Conclusion/Problem Statement 2 | Reaching Limitations

Conclusion/Problem Statement 3 | A Day in the Life of

AMA: different cities, different morphologies

Critical Trends: Urban Sprawl, Intensification Infrastructure

2017: Car still the dominant mode of transport for commutes

Being: the Historical Center, New Town and Village

Urban Sprawl is limited: cities will need to densify

2040: 300.000 new jobs generate a large commuting flow

They will grow differently in the future

AMA is growing eastwards: growth in Flevoland

2040: unsustainable Modal Split and its size are problematic

Most growth in Amsterdam (94.000) and Almere (75.000)

Flevoland: unable to handle large commuting flows

Shift Modal Split: from car to Public Transport

Amsterdam: brownfield transformations and/or densification

Most important PT connections need a higher capacity

Decrease Modal Split: less commutes in general

Almere: greenfield developments with lower density

Roads are congested: shift in modal split and/or less commutes

Physical challenge: more connections, higher capacity, faster PT

Public Transport is important for sustainable growth

Amsterdam: releaving urban fabric from cars and cargo transport

Mental challenge: stimulate PT usage, demotivate car use

Almere should expand according to T.O.D. criteria

All cities: reducing cargo transport is relieving noise, pollution, space

Less cars: reduction CO2, less congestion, more space available

PT connections Amsterdam - Almere need to be added/strenghtened

Less cars creates space for densification/public space/green...

Polycentricity and independency: less commutes needed

PT connections to create resilient, polycentric clusters in rural AMA


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Redefining Logistics

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · COMIC

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · POLITICS

CONCEPTS DEVELOPED THE TRANSPORT OF KEY RESOURCES SUCH AS WASTE AND GOODS ARE DEPENDENT ON A SYSTEM OF INEFFICIENT LOGISTIC PROCESSES. THEREFORE A NEW LOGISTIC PROCESS IS PROPOSED IN ORDER TO TACKLE THE INEFFIENCY OF TRANSPORTATION

CURRENT LOGISTIC PROCESS We have remarked two thing in the current situation: at first we are still dealing with the produce - consume - waste paradigm. The producer and the waste processor are separated from each other, which doesn’t make it easier to make a transition from a linear to a circular system. Additionally, logistic processes also still take place in a linear, not sustainable way. Produce

Consume

Waste

Secondly, the current logistic system is dealing with some so to speak "empty" trips, which is of course not efficient. So to speak we have a garbage truck that drives away from the waste processing point and enters the city without anything and leaves the city full with waste. On the other side, when a truck wants to deliver some goods, this truck will start at the distribution enter on the edge of the city and enters the city fully loaded, but then this truck will leave the city empty.

LET’S SEE HOW THIS CONCEPT PLAYS OUT IN DAILY LIFE FROM DISTRIBUTOR TO CONSUMER

PROPOSED LOGISTIC PROCESS In our proposed situation we were wondering if it's not possible to combine the two flows of transport by combining waste processing and goods distribution. Also by putting them in one roof, potentials are created to use waste as a resource into the goods distribution in order to break the linear produce - consume - waste paradigm.

Consume

Produce

Furthermore, the combination of those two big logistic processes can at least decrease 50% of the empty rides. With this combination together, only an appropriate vehicle or modality is required in order to preventing empty rides by transporting together the flows in the same vehicle by entering the city with goods and leaving the city with waste.

Waste

Optimized public transport networks already handle the flows of people in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area. So therefore, why not combine the transport of people with logistic processes using a single, already existing network, like that of public transport?

TO READY O T T C Y E D L L A RE CO T C E L L O C

TO READY T C E LL O C

TO READY T COLLEC

TO EADY BUZZ, THERES THE RTEXT TO CONFIRM ITS ON ITS OLLECT C WAY. IT WILL BE AT THE LOCAL KIOSK AFTER CLASS TODAY

BUZZ, THERES THE TEXT TO CONFIRM ITS ON ITS WAY. IT WILL BE AT THE LOCAL KIOSK AFTER CLASS TODAY

BUZZ, THERES THE TEXT TO CONFIRM ITS ON ITS WAY. IT WILL BE AT THE LOCAL KIOSK AFTER CLASS TODAY

HEADING HOME

HEADING HOME

HEADING HOME

YOUR LOCAL KIOSK WILL HELP YOU RETRIEVE YOUR PACKAGE

YOUR LOCAL KIOSK WILL HELP YOU RETRIEVE YOUR PACKAGE

THE TEXTED CODE BLEEPS THE MAILBOX OPEN AND...

THE TEXTED CODE BLEEPS THE MAILBOX OPEN AND...

HAPPY WITH YOUR RECYCLE THE BOX

HAPPY WITH YOUR RECYCLE THE BOX

YOUR LOCAL KIOSK WILL HELP YOU RETRIEVE YOUR PACKAGE

FROM CONSUMER TO DISTRIBUTOR

BAN THE EMPTY RIDES TO READY T C E L L CO

HEADING HOME BUZZ, THERES THE TEXT TO CONFIRM ITS ON ITS WAY. IT WILL AT THE LOCAL KIOSK AFTER HEADING HOME BUZZ, THERES THEBETEXT TO CONFIRM ITS ON ITS CLASS TODAY WAY. IT WILL BE AT THE LOCAL KIOSK AFTER CLASS TODAY

YOUR LOCAL KIOSK WILL HELP YOU RETRIEVE YOUR PACKAGE YOUR LOCAL KIOSK WILL HELP YOU RETRIEVE YOUR PACKAGE

THE TEXTED CODE BLEEPS THE MAILBOX OPEN AND... THE TEXTED CODE BLEEPS THE MAILBOX OPEN AND...

HAPPY WITH YOUR PURCHASE, YOU RECYCLE BOXPURCHASE, YOU HAPPY WITHTHE YOUR RECYCLE THE BOX

IMAGINING YOUR DAILY LIFE

DROPPING THE RUBBISH OFF ON YOUR WAY TO CLASS THE THE RUBBISH NEXT DAY. DROPPING OFF ON YOUR WAY TO CLASS THE NEXT DAY. HERES THE TRAM TO TAKE YOU AND YOUR RUBBISH PERHAPS BRINGING YOUR HERES THE AWAY, TRAM TO TAKE YOU AND YOUR NEIGHBOURS NEW BRINGING SHOES. RUBBISH AWAY,THEIR PERHAPS YOUR NEIGHBOURS THEIR NEW SHOES.

THE TE AND...


Redefining Logistics

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REDEFINING LOGISTICS ¡ TRAVEL

REDEFINING LOGISTICS ¡ TRAVEL

CITY ANALYSIS

REGIONAL ANALYSIS

Rail

Waste collect point

Waste 1 million kg

PT catchment area 3 mins walking

Tram

Post/goods (DC)

Waste >1.5 million kg

PT catchment area 10 mins walking

When we look at the city of Amsterdam, the public transport (PT) system (railway, tram, metro and bus lines) is well developed in comparison to other cities in the egion. In addition, the catchment area of the public transport system covers a large percentage of the populated area. Based on data including population density and average waste

produce amount per person, we located the highest consumer household waste area and all the distribution centers for waste and logistics goods. After combining the information of public transport, associated catchment areas and a waste/goods location map, it was clear

Redefining Logistics

PT catchment area 10 mins biking

Rail

Train/tram stop

Tram

Bus stop

New house New indus

New office

PT catchment area 3 mins walking

Growth area

PT catchment area 10 mins walking

to see where could be serviced by our proposed system and where could not. The conclusion therefore, is that the catchment area of the current public transport system is the key to ensuring that our proposed system is accessibility to every citizen.

Kg waste/goods per km2 >1,850,000 740,000-1,850,000 111,000-740,000 18,500-111,000 <18,500

serviced by exsiting network unserviced by exsiting network

1million >1.5 kg million kg

PT catchment area 10 mins biking potential DC cluster

Waste collect point Post/goods (DC)


Redefining Logistics

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19

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · POLITICS

THE FUTURE OF AMA

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · POLTICS

OUR VISION OF THE AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA EXPLAINED IN A MAP AND THREE LAYER SCHEME

THE SOFTWARE

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nod

e

Redefining Logistics


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21

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · POLITICS

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · POLITICS

DEFINING THE VISION

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new n io ibut distr ter cen S/

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h

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1|

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ld

ta & re

il wa

nal o i g re

term

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The vision consists a redefined, more important role for public transport as it is now limited to transport people. The AMA nowadays and in particular Amsterdam already enjoys a highly optimized public transport network, however key resources, such as waste and goods, are still dependent on unsustainable and inefficient way of transportation. The way in which the transportation takes place now doesn’t match with the ambitions and efforts putted in the sustainability agenda. The AMA has the potential to be frontrunner of smart solutions in the field of preservations of raw materials; however in the context of pursuing the conceptual goal of circular economies, also the transport sector can contribute to this sustainable ambition. In order to shift the ongoing transport system into an innovative and desirable transport system, the vision is delving into spatial implications of extending public transit models to distribution and waste processes. With this, also the digitization trend is taken into account as the so-called ‘software’ in the form of an online platform application, which provides real time assistance to citizens and companies to manage consumption, waste and transport needs.

A BEHAVIOURAL SHIFT World Cloud Captures Public Opinion in Conceptual Timeline

e

2| c

POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT, MUNICIPALITY AND COMPANIES. STEPS TO ENSURE THE FUTURE RUNS AS SMOOTHLY AS A NEW TRAM

l st oda

ca ity-s

atio

le

The Platform / Protection of data should be considered as priority.

Advertising at the node (agency) should be avoided being too commercial.

Land value ( real estate ) around the node should be controlled within reasonable criteria.

1) Individualised data will be anonymised by a third party. Nodal averaged outputs can be open data.

1) 20% of adver tising space should be dedicated to informative social responsibility projects.

1) New future housing developments should be within a 10 minute radius of a PT node

Public transport policies should trump housing development policies.

n

o netw

rk

com

rc me

ial

s hou

od n | 3

eho

2) Platform must be run by a public third party.

ld

e

To speak in spatial terms, the vision is working on three different layers on three different scales proposing a modification on each segment of the transit model with the node in particular as the so-called ‘hardware’. The first layer contains big distribution centres where both waste and goods flows are integrated. This will be the starting point of changing logistics, while the third layer arrange the start of agency as drop-off point for waste and pick-up point for goods. In the second layer an intermodal station operates as transfer point between those two main developments. Thus the future nodal stop will become an essential element of daily life, which in turn should serve as a catalyst for the modal shift as well.

There should be rules about controlling the noise around the nodes.

Support Activators of the System should be taken into consideration.

Equal development / investment should be applied across the region.

Accessibility of the node should be organised more easier to reach.

1) Trams cannot operate waste/goods services between the hours of 01:00 and 6:00 and during peak hours

1) Promote research funding into network optimization / SCM

1 ) Fu t u re i n ve s t m e n t i n n o d e s c a n b e proportional to use

1) Support for local stores at new nodal developments

2) Provide grants to academic institutions and think-tanks investing in green logistics in the post-circular economic world 3) Invest in active mobility infrastructure (bike parking)

The use of excess road space should be carefully organised.

Postage - Online shopping less street shopping.

1) Price cap on public transport

1) Allow small trucks limited access to the city

2) Imposed restriction on last mile company mergers.

2) Excess road space should be used to densify and improve surrounding neighbourhoods

1) Consider public transport subsidies on Saturday to encourage people go to the city center.

Power of the Monopoly Problem / Unionization should be avoided.

3) In order to protect elderly and disabled, a price cap will be imposed on last mile services

smelly

- delays

predictable

awareness

+

admired

power to the unions dependency

complicated dirty a part of the commute savings profitable daily collective investment fuel intensive omnipresent - hide an experience powerful celebrated spontaneous social capital private challenging place-making present weekly tolerated

inconvienent

time-consuming THE PRESENT

adjustment period

unprofitable

public complaints

-

polluting unpredictable a priviledge expensive waste producing -

/ a necessity

easy

public

+

disciplinary collision

-

plastics paper

collaboration

isolated knowledge

agency

sustainable communal activity easy + hyper-public data-driven accepted responsibility affordable

unified joint programming

reduced polycentric urban diversity

accessible

startups, academic departments, ministeries

-researched

production

social cohesion

visible connected +

+

+ THE FUTURE

participatory efficient

encouraged digitalized

traditional

consumption

2) Design criteria for the node

3) Platform software must be encrypted and protected.

2) Soft surfaces around public transport networks should be considered prioritized.

individualized

ignorant

l

k wor

in

The vision starts with a critical review on the current way of logistic execution plotted versus the current complexity of current regional development trends and conditions of the AMA region. With redefining the current logistics, a future with a better integrated transportation of flows is suggested by supplying a normative frame and guiding principles, while breaking the produce – consume – waste paradigm to change the waste perception and even let decrease the average waste consumption as well of the AMA citizen.

SHAPING POLICY

ste

net

Redefining Logistics

productivity

+ +


Redefining Logistics

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Redefining Logistics

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · ENTERTAINMENT

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · ENTERTAINMENT

REDEFINING NODES

PLATFORM 2.0: MANAGEMENT APP UPDATED

IN THIS SECTION WE TAKE A LOOK AT THE EXISTING DIFFERENT NODES THAT NEED TO BE REDEVELOPED FOR THE NEW CRITERIA DISTRIBUTIONNODE SYSTEM. AFTER ANALYSING EXISTING NODES, WE START WITH THE PATTERN LANGUAGE OF EACH NODE AND THEN DEFINE OPERATION AND PROGRAM OF EACH NODE INTERMODAL STOP

NODAL STOP

NODE CRITERIA

DISTRIBUTIONAL INTERMODAL STOP STOP DISTRIBUTIONAL STOP

NODAL STOP INTERMODAL STOP G

W

Kiosk

W

NODE Kiosk

TR AI N

DROP

G

INTERMODAL STOP

DROP

W

NODE Kiosk

G

Small istribution centre for transhipment

AM

M

OD E

G

Kiosk

TAKE

TR S/ BU

AM

INTERMODAL STOP

TAKE

Big DC

DISTRIBUTIONAL

DISTRIBUTIONAL STOP

E OD

TR S/ BU

MODE TRAM

MODE TRAM

W

NODE

M

Kiosk

DROP

M

G

INTERMODAL STOP

W

M

A TR

W

NODE

E OD

G

DROP

M

TAKE

TAKE

G

OD E

S/ BU

MODE TRAM

DISTRIBUTIONAL STOP

NODE

MODE TRAIN STOP

INTERMODAL STOP

NODE

NODE

TR AI N

Kiosk

NODE

DROP

W

G

Big DC

W

Big DC

OD E

W

TAKE

M

G

NODE

E OD

DROP

M

TAKE

IN

NODAL STOP

DISTRIBUTIONAL STOP

TR A

Flow of CRITERIA people NODE Flow of goods Flow of waste

MODE TRAIN

MODE TRAIN

INTERMODAL STOP

INTERMODAL STOP

NODAL STOP Small istribution centre for transhipment

Program of Requirements

STARTING POINTStarting OF point changing agency > Waste collection point (waste enters

Small istribution centre for transhipment

Program of Requirements

Transfer point of agency andOF economy TRANSFER POINT

Program of Requirements

Starting point of changing economySTARTING

POINT OF

the new > Waste collection point (waste could enter the NODAL > Entry point for goods which entered AMA by NODAL new distribution system here) STOP distribution system here) airplane and cargo ship) STOP > Small distribution kiosk (one can collect their > Small distribution kiosk (one can collect their > Exit point for waste for eventually processing post from the node) post from the node) somewhere else Program of for Requirements Program of Requirements Program of Requirements reserved delinked > Distribution point (where intermodal transfers > Regular waste and goods logistic activitie under Program of Requirements > Transhipment space (space Program of Requirements Program of Requirements Starting point changing agency pointpost of agency Starting point of changing economy carriages in order to meet the time requirements take place [waste from Transfer tram to train, from and economy 1 roof Starting point changing agency Transfer point of agency and economy Starting point of changing economy Wasteservices) collection point (waste enters the new > Waste collection point (waste could enter the point for goods and to prevent interfering>people train to tram]) > Railway connection to >theEntry current railway infra- which entered AMA by > Waste collection point (waste enters the new >system Waste here) collection point (waste could enter the > Entry point for goods which entered AMA by new distribution airplane and cargo ship) > stops Management & the processing centre existing (in system order tohere) structureThe to enter the public transport network The nodal stop becomes the here) local stop where agencydistribution starts. distributional stops are newprocessing big distribution centres at The intermodal are already big railway distribution system new distribution system here) airplane and cargo ship) > Small distribution kiosk (one can collectstreamline their > and Small distribution kiosk (one can collect their > Exit point for waste for the eventually temporary storage > Small distribution kiosk (one can collect their > Small kiosk (one can collecttranshipments their > Exit point for waste for eventually processing post from the node)distribution post from the node) somewhere else which threats the goods and processes This stop contains the regular bus and tram stops where you the edges of the AMA, stations where a transhipment of goods and waste take post from the node) post space from the node)reserved for delinked somewhere else intermodal transfers > Transhipment (space > Distribution point (where > Regular waste and goods logistic activitie under (space reserved for delinked Distribution (where intermodal transfersHere you Regular waste andtogoods logistic activitie under can from now on> Transhipment drop yourspace waste and pick-up your posts andin> order the waste. 1This between modalities. can>[waste also drop your waste carriages toplace meetpoint the time requirements take place from tram train, post from roof is the starting point for a change in the economy carriages in order to meet the time requirements takeinterfering place [waste from tram to train, post from 1 roof and to prevent people services) train to tram]) > Railway connection railwaywhich infra- entered AMA by goods. Waste enters, while goods leaves the system here. The and logistics. Entry pointto the forcurrent goods and pick-up your posts and goods. Distribution point where and to prevent interfering people services) train to tram]) > Railway connection to the(incurrent infra> Management & processing centre order railway to structure to enter the public transport network > Management & processing centre (in order enter transport distribution is controlled by small kiosks airplane and cargo ship. Railway connection is required with intermodal transfers taketo placestreamline (wastestructure fromtotram topublic train, transhipments andthe temporary storage network streamline transhipments and temporary storage

CHANGING AGENCY NODAL STOP

CHANGING AGENCY AND LOGISTICS INTERMODAL STOP

CHANGING LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTIONAL STOP

the current railway infrastructure to enter the public transport network

post from train to tram)

DETERMINING NODES AMA big data management application “The Drive” has recently won global application of the year award for its sustainability and social responsibility efforts. The application, which monitors and manages waste collection, public transportation and postal deliveries in the region, scored top points in the speed, ease of use, and beauty of interface categories. The explosion of digital data generated by the internet of things in the highly connected virtual AMA region is now the most prized accelerator of the circular economy. The saturation of Big Data in the lives of Smart Citizens and their Smart City helps to better understand and thus better manage resources, waste, and pollution in real time.

facilities, and individuals in the neighbourhood in real time. The application helps citizens make circular choices about how to manage their consumption, waste and transport needs. The application boasts two million downloads across app stores and has registered over five million successful journeys. Winning the globally prestigious Smart City award will bring millions of Euros of investment to the Platform, which the CFO says will go towards purchasing more powerful encryption softwares and establishing an inhouse think tank to research opportunities for improvement.

• Better manage resources • Optimizing waste and logistics flows • Reducing pollution • Develop sustainable practices in the home

Taking the needs of consumers at different points on the network into account in real time using the sensory technology of smart grids, allows the region to continuously balance supply and demand of public utilities of waste, post, and public transport, as well as optimize energy use, carbon emissions and urban dead space (storage upstream). Logistic chains are increasingly greener thanks to digital data. Companies now possess information about their stocks and deliveries to be made at their fingertips: customer availabilities, routes, capacities, weather conditions, delays, etc. This data will allow them to adjust their flows in real time and organize their deliveries so that they are more efficient and less polluting. Recently improved sensors now monitor weight, fill level and composition of waste bins, which is then communicated to collectors (PT network), waste

“Our Platform provides the necessary digital infrastructure to make the circular economy possible through facilitating the seamless collaboration of three urban, and previously very polluting, flows; waste, logistics, and transportation. The citizen is at the heart of our operation; we work to improve your environmental performance, your neighbourhood and together, your region” Platform CEO

After defining the three node categories, based on the scope and terminology elements, a further understanding of the three categories is necessary in order to form functional and design criteria for the various types of nodes. Therefore the parameters on the right side have been used to apply to every node (railway station, tram stop, bus stop) in the AMA region to create an understanding of the meaning and purpose of every node. Outcome of the application is a first categorisation on the nodes and with specific spatial

and numerical characteristics. With the charateristics in mind, the next step is to relink the variety of nodes back to the the elements in the scope and terminology. To do so, a pattern language of the nodes is developed, whereby the amount of categories is reduced to 5 as well. In addition to the pattern language, a spatial idea of a node is developed based on the pattern language. After that, the pattern language is applied to the AMA map to find nodal clusters in the region. You can find more about the clustering on page 25

PARAMETERS • • • • • • • • • • •

PRIORITY: ratio of focus on people or goods [ people | goods/waste | mix ] DEPENDENCY: importance of the node for the people [ high | medium | low ] CAPACITY OF NODE: passenger capacity [ high | medium | low ] DENSITY: population density surrounding node [ high | medium | low ] MODE: amount of modalities on node [ high mix | mix | single ] TRANSFORMATIVE POTENTIAL: within policy, growth potential [ high | medium | low ] SOCIAL POTENTIAL: revitalise potential of surroundings [ high | medium | low ] QUALITY OF NODE: livability [ high | medium | low ] DESIGN VALUE: spectacularity of nodal design [ high | medium | low ] LOCATION: where is the node [ urban | suburban | rural ] FUNCTIONALITY & LANDUSE: main function around the node


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NODAL BUS STOP

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · ENTERTAINMENT

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · ENTERTAINMENT

NODAL STOPS RESIDENTIAL BUS STOP NODE

• • • • •

Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. Navigation around the node is clear and predictable Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width Inward bulge development promote centric density

- Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides RESIDENTIAL TRAM STOP NODE - View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width - Inward bulge development promote centric density

• • •

NODE CLUSTERS

Extra space for transhipment

After the analysis of the nodes and defining the pattern language of five types of nodes, the next step will be allocating them on a map. This map shows the position of the defined nodes in the AMA and can provide a good impression of the different kind of node clusters.

Waste/goods carrying tram

Goods collection point

RESIDENTIAL BUS STOP NODE

Waste collection point

Extra space for transhipment Small distribution kiosk

NODAL TRAM STOP

Redefining Logistics

Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node Information wirelessly available and reliable Navigation around the node is clear and predictable Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width

Waste collection point

Waste/goods carrying bus

- Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Information wirelessly available and reliable - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width

- Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides - View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width - Inward bulge development promote centric density

INTERMODAL STOPS INTERMODAL STATION

INTERMODAL COMMUTER NODE

REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT EXPANSION NODE

• • • • • • •

INTERMODAL GROWTH STATION REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT EXPANSION NODE

• • • • •

- Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Programmatically mixed-use and commuter-centered. - New arterial paths lead to the node - Plot size variation in new urban areas CENTRALISED TRAINencouraged STATION NODE - High attraction rates due to design value and social potential - Clear, safe, and fast navigation around the node - Green, open spaces distributed around node radius

Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node Programmatically mixed-use and commuter-centered. a New arterial paths lead to the node Plot size variation encouraged in new urban areas High attraction rates due to design value and social potential Clear, safe, and fast navigation around the node Green, open spaces distributed around node radius - Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Programmatically mixed-use and commuter-centered. - New arterial paths lead to the node - Plot size variation encouraged in new urban areas RESIDENTIAL TRAM STOP - High attraction rates dueNODE to design value and social potential - Clear, safe, and fast navigation around the node - Green, open spaces distributed around node radius

Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node The transition between the modes of transpor tation should be easy/well facilitated High attraction rates possible, because they have to be build from scratch Node is leading in the design of new expansion areas Providing a densified, lively, urban character, while new facilities and activities can be attracted

• • • • •

Drop-off and Collection points located between the modalities for transferring The transition between the modes of transpor tation should be easy/well facilitated High attraction rates required, since the central station is the entry gate of the city Place to be with a commercial role, public space has to be developed in a safe, pleasant en enjoyable manner Providing a densified, lively, urban character

Management & processing centre

RESIDENTIAL BUS STOP NODE

Waste/goods carrying train

We have indentified the followin nodal clusters in the AMA region: Distribution point Waste collection point Waste/goods carrying bus - Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Information wirelessly available and reliable - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties BUS adjacent the node limited to 30m in width RESIDENTIAL STOPtoNODE

- Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Information wirelessly available and reliable - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable INTERMODAL NODE - Properties COMMUTER adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width

INTERMODAL CENTRAL STATION

-

RESIDENTIAL TRAM STOP NODE

Waste/goods carrying tram

Management & processing centre

Waste/goods carrying train

The rural town of Volendam contains a bus network, but tends to distance themselves from the rest of the area

The Haarlemmermeerpolder/Haarlem region as border of the AMA region, which contains certain intermodal potentials for connections with cities in South-Holland

The inner city of Amsterdam contains a nodal tram network with huge intermodal central and growth stations

The north of Amsterdam contains a certain amount potentials in a growth area, whilst still dependend on the bus network

The city of Almere contains a nodal bus network in a potential intermodal growth area

Nodal bus

Intermodal Growth

The city of Lelystad contains a densed bus network, which, however has a lower intermodal potential in comparison with Almere

Nodal tram

Intermodal Central

- Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides - View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width - Inward bulge development promote centric density

Waste/goods carrying train

Intermodal

Distribution point

CAREERS HELP WANTED IN THE CIRCULAR AMA REGION. The region is growing and so should you! Expand your horizons with the following professional opportunities.

Data Engineer Waste collection point

Waste/goods carrying bus

- Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides - View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. - Navigation around the nodeEXPANSION is clear andNODE predictable REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width - Inward bulge development promote centric density

Management & processing centre

RESIDENTIAL TRAM STOP NODE

Waste collection point Waste/goods carrying bus

Waste/goods carrying train

Waste/goods carrying bus

Distribution point

Waste/good carrying bus

- Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Programmatically mixed-use and commuter-centered. - New arterial paths lead to the node - Plot size variation encouraged in new urban areas - High attraction rates due to design value and social potential Small distribution- Clear, pointsafe, likeand a fast kiosk for around the node navigation management of the- Green, system andspaces wheredistributed goods around node radius open are temporary saved for citizens

Small distribution kiosk

Management & processing centre

Transhipment platform

Extra space for transhipment

- Drop-off and Collection points located on the edges of the node - Information wirelessly available and reliable - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width Space reserved for transhipment of delinked Tram which have a waste and goods carrier. carriages in order to meet the time requireThe tram leaves the carrier by using the ments and to prevent interfering people transhipment platform to load and unload services waste and goods

Bus which have a waste and goods trailer. The bus picks up the neighbourhood waste and drops the goods in the neighbourhood storage

Train which brings goods to the distribution point on this node and take the waste to bring to a bigger distribution point for processing

Waste/good carrying tram

Goods collection point

Distribution point

Waste collection point

Tram which have a waste and goods carrier. The tram leaves the carrier by using the transhipment platform to load and unload waste and goods

Small distribution point like a storage where goods are sorted and temporary saved for citizens

Distribution where goods are distributed over the modalities and waste is collected either to be transported over rail or to be processed

New waste box where citizens around this node can drop their waste

There eventually need to be extra space reserved to meet the spatial requirements on transhipment

RESIDENTIAL BUS STOP NODE

The data center in Amsterdam Science Park is looking for experienced data engineers to help in the improvement of our unique open data system for the goods/ waste transport system. We offer you a position in a dedicated team with a unique mix of data specialists and experts from the field of supply chain management. Together they make for a challenging and highly innovative work environment, working on one of the most ambitious projects in the country. Do you want to be part of this team, and work on a Digital Platform that will become essential to the AMA, do not hesitate to send us your resume Benefits: A market-level salary, a free annual PT access cards Requirements: - Experience in the field of ICT, Data Management or Data Policy - Knowledge of Hadoop / Hortonworks environment; - Program knowledge, eg Hadoop, Java, Python, R, Kafka, Nifi and Spark; - Experience with SQL / NOSQL; - Knowledge / interest in data security solutions (eg Ranger and Knox); - Interested to grow to a role as Data Solution Consultant

- Bus stop node split across street, drop-off and collection points located on different sides - View of bus path is not blocked by drop-off and collection points. - Navigation around the node is clear and predictable - Properties adjacent to the node limited to 30m in width - Inward bulge development promote centric density

Do you immediately recognize yourself as our new Data Engineer? Apply now via the link or just send an email (datacenter@RL.com) with your CV and the text: I think you should have me!

Senior Project Manager Logistics & Transport Network

The position for senior project manager in Logistics & Transport has become available in Almere. With the ambition of the municipality to introduce a Logistics & PT system, following the footsteps of its big brother Amsterdam, a new team will be formed over the coming months. We are looking for a passionate and experienced manager, who will lead his team in realising one of the biggest transformations in the city of Almere. Benefits: A market-level salary, a free annual PT access card Requirements: - Live in AMA region area - At least 5 years of demonstrable relevant experience. - Knowledge of Transmission networks and concepts. - Able to deal withw resistances, coupled with the pursuit of innovation. - Excellent communication skills in Dutch and English. - Possession of driving license B. Not enough? Check our website (www.redefinedlogistics.nl) for more information about the position and how to apply


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REDEFINING LOGISTICS · FINANCE

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · FEATURES

WHO IS WHO?

PHASING THE LOGISTICS

High interest in the project

TIMELINE

THIS SECTION SHOWS THE TYPOLOGY OF THE STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVED IN OUR PEOJECT AND WHAT KIND OF INTEREST & CHARACTERS THEY HAVE ON THE PROJECT rest in project and whether they are direct or indirect decision maker. And what kind of influence they have on smart city intiatives. The graphic is showing the position of interest and power to make the decision in the project based on the information of the character of each type of stakeholder and what kind of influence they have and what kind of influenced on them from the project.

Historic center Amsterdam

The table below is showing the typology of stakeholder involved in the project: AMA Residents, Temporary inhabitants, Local Business Owners, Public Interest Groups, Municipal Authorities, National Government, Urban planners, Utility and public service providers, Telecommunication Providers, Industries, Academia, Investors, Developers. We discussed about their inte-

Redefining Logistics

Low interest /Indirect decision maker

Direct decision maker New town Almere Rural village Volendam

REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS Density The density of node cluster would increase as more facilities need to be added to process the flow of goods/waste. Land Value Around the node clusters would grow quickly because of the better organised/ reconstructed infrastructure system. Functionality More economic activities and facilities gather around the node clusters because of the better accessibility.

Polycentric development The node clusters have attracted more mix functions and job opportunities to the area, influencing the concentration of the city centre.


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REDEFINING LOGISTICS · TRAVEL

FOLLOW YOUR FLOW AMSTERDAM

Amsterdam has the railway infrastructure in a ring shape, which are pierced by different kind of tramlines, which connects different railway stations by crossing the city

INTERMODAL STATIONS: Amsterdam Central Station | Amsterdam Lelylaan| Amsterdam RAI| Amsterdam Zuid | Amsterdam Sloterdijk | Flevopark | Diemen | Nieuw Sloten

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · TRAVEL

ALMERE

Almere has several bus line connections which connects the neighboorhoods with the railway stations. Some railwaystations are intereconnected by the buslines

INTERMODAL STATIONS: Almere Centrum | A  lmere Oostvaarders | Almere Buiten | Almere Parkwijk | Almere Muziekwijk | Almere Poort

Redefining Logistics


Redefining Logistics

VOLENDAM

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Redefining Logistics

The north of Amsterdam is very dependent on buslines, most of whom are connected to Amsterdam Central Station. Some of them are also connected to smaller railway stations like Purmerend

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Redefining Logistics

DESIGN COMPETITION OPEN CALL LOCAL DESIGN COMPETITION IS NOW OPEN AND CALLING FOR INNOVATIVE ENTRIES. PRESENTED HERE FOR THE FIRST TIME; INITIAL CONCEPT VISUALISATIONS TO INSPIRE YOU. HOW DO YOU IMAGINE THE STATIONS AND TRAMS PASSING THROUGH THE AMA OF 2040? JOS KENTER

Concept Sketch 1 | New Design of the Node

The first visualization is the conceptual lay-out of a node. Clearly visible are the three flows, being the waste (green), the goods (yellow) and the people (red). Then we have the lay-out of the station and its essential facilities, a waste bin, the "Goods-Kiosk" and the platform itself obviously. Please notice, these quick sketches are purely for inpirational purposes, the exact design of the station, or the facilities is left in the hands of the participators of the design competition.

INTERMODAL STATIONS: Amsterdam Central Station | Purmerend | Purmerend Overwhere | Purmerend Weidevenne

Interesting to notice is the number on the bin, which indicates the level of waste it contains. This percentage is monitored by the digital platform, which allows direct communication between the control center, the nodes and the citizen resulting in a very efficient way of waste collection. Another detail, which unfortunately can hardly be seen in the background, is that of a modular Goods-cabin that has been dispatched from the tram, and is now being emptied of its packages.

Concept Sketch 2 | Tram and it's Modular Unit

In contrary to the stations and modular units, the "Trams of the Future" could and might not be so different from the ones we see nowadays. No big changes have to be made for the existing passenger-units, apart from the modular unit that will be attached to them.We propose that the modular unit will be a critical one. Design challenges such as the waste container (for example; odours and grime) are certainly not easy to tackle. We added the introduction of the "Last Mile Service". This service is not part of the design competition, but we do want to point out that this service is might be just as essential in providing an additional/a more convenient option to bring and collect waste/goods to the station.


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Redefining Logistics

REDEFINING LOGISTICS ¡ FEATURES

COMBINING WASTE PROCESSING AND GOODS DISTRIBUTION:

A HAPPY MARRIAGE?

READ HOW AND WHERE THE DISTRIBUTION CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE CITY OF ALMERE, AND HOW IT HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO CONNECT TO THE AMA REGIONAL SYSTEM

OUR REPORTER TAKES A CLOSER LOOK AT THE DISTRIBUTION CENTER OF THE FUTURE Almere Buitenvaart | 15 January 2026 A lot has happened in and around Almere in the last few years; the construction of large new developments such as Almere Pampus has started, the expansion of Almere Poort has been completed and a new office park near Almere Stad is build. One of the ongoing developments which has been quite of the radar is that of the new Distribution Center (DC) near Almere Buitenvaart. The DC will be up and running early 2028 and we were more than exited to visit this new, and revolutionary (dare we say) concept. The DC in Almere is, together with the AEB-SUEZ collaboration in the Port of Amsterdam, the first DC that combines the flow of goods with that of waste. In other words, it is both a ordinary DC and Waste Processing Company in one. The beauty of this design, and that of the Amsterdam DC, is that no trucks nor any other form of road transport is present. These enourmous industrial complexes are depending purely on rail- and watertransport. Ideally, this will lead to a more sustainable and efficient way of treating our waste and logistic processes. Lets hope the new DC's will live up to their expectations in the near future!

BIG DISTRIBUTION CENTRE HIGHLIGHTED

1 INCOMING GOODS

In the regular way, goods are coming into the AMA by among other things, airplane and cargo ships and are temporary stored at the airport or cargo port.

2 TRANSPORT TO BIG DC

After stored at the airport or cargo port, the goods have a little transportation mostly by train (as much as possible) or truck to one of the big distribution centres at the edges of the AMA, where goods and waste are collected, processed and distributed. Special types of waste on the other hand, which is not processed in the big distribution centre, are here on a little transport to a specialized waste processing company. All of the transportation is preferably done by train.

3 ENTERING THE BIG DC

At this point goods of the airport or cargo port will enter the big distribution centre here to be prepared for city distribution. Also some special types of waste will leave the distribution centre here for further transport.

4 PROCESSING IN BIG DC

Here the actual distribution activities of goods and process activities waste take place. The distribution activities and the process activities are quite the same as used in the regular distribution centres and waste collection points. The only difference is that they now are combined in one giant centre to

make transportation more efficient according the vision of AMA. This distribution centre receives train carriers with waste and sends out goods

5 LEAVING THE BIG DC

At this point the goods are leaving the distribution centre by train to transport to the next

1

distribution points which are the intermodal railway stations. Also waste collected from the intermodal railway stations enters the distribution centre here to be processed. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only possible for trains to enter the distribution centre. To use the public transport system, a connection with the current railway infrastructure is required

4

2

5

3

TE S WA

S

OD GO

PROPOSED CONDITIONS New working place

New logistics company

Proposed train line

Train station

Proposed waste company

New household


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REDEFINING LOGISTICS · FINANCE

PILOT 1: THE NODE

THE MUNICIPALITY OF AMSTERDAM COMMITTED THEMSELVES TO A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE WITH CIRCULAR ECONOMY AS ONE OF THE MAIN PILLAR. ONE OF THEIR PROJECTS IS THE REDEFINING LOGISTICS The municipality of Amsterdam is yet putting all their efforts in their sustainability agenda with circular economy as one of the main pillars. A vision for AMA 2040 is in development and is aimed to give direction and follow-ups that the AMA can take. In 2025, Amsterdam has the ambition to be the frontrunner of smart solutions f Also an accelerated transition to circular economy is desired. This will be done by stimulate collaboration between the municipality governments and knowledge institutes. One of the projects the municipality is developing now is the Redefining Logistics project. This upcoming project proposes a new way of logistics in order to tackle the lack of agency on the transport and create a movement to break the produce – consume – waste paradigm. Currently, the AMA has to deal with an inefficient transportation system of goods and waste, which works in two ways. On the first hand, the waste trucks which are collecting waste are enters the city without load and leaves the city with waste. On the other hand we have a distribution truck who enters the city with load and leaves the city empty. And then in combination with public transport, which currently is limited to people, one could wonder why it currently only move people? One would think by combining these two flows and integrate this into public transport that this is brilliant, but then the implementation is not easy as it seems, since the influence reaches up to daily life. The proposal shifts the system both way for distributors, waste producers and citizens of the AMA. A change in the system of course provides a defensive natural reaction, since it’s about citizens waste perception, consumption and behaviour.

"A change in the system of course provides a defensive natural reaction, since it’s about citizens waste perception, consumption and behaviour" There is still lot work to do to apply this system, which requires at the beginning a lot of investments. The earnings or rather said the savings are relatively small, which make the project a risky one for possible investors. The risk factor makes it more difficult to find the required funds to start the project and even to scale up the project in the whole region. Though the municipality is convinced by this concept and stakeholders are involved in a clear and participating way, they really wish to start implementing this system. In order to change the system, the municipality realises the project by launching several pilots to make the transition to a new logistic system and waste perception. Getting your waste transported by public transport and being processed in such big distribution centres might be on this moment a far future. However, the first step will be making the citizen of AMA aware of the upcoming revolution. The municipality will start the first pilot of the project next month by moving waste collection points from the current stops to every tram stop and railway station. The current

Firstly, passengers are equally divided during the day and secondly, every tram remains the same length during the day. For the parameters, the passenger numbers during the peak hours and the average occupancy rate during a day must be known. With the first assumption, an equal distribution can be made for the non-peak hours. In order to determine the theoretical waste and goods capacity, the vacant space in the tram will be used together with the second assumption. These empty spaces are converted into a number of kilograms of waste. By looking at the occupancy rate and using the modular properties of a tram, a higher occupancy rate can be created with space for waste and goods as well, without making the tram significantly longer.

Third but not least, a distinction is made considering the passenger trend of the new North-South metro line. With the coming metro line a modal shift from tram to metro is expected. Therefore, a lower amount of passengers has to be taken into account as well.

THE MUNICIPALITY OF AMSTERDAM PLANS TO START A SECOND PILOT FOR WASTE COLLECTION AND GOODS DISTRIBUTION IN THE COMING YEARS IN ORDER TO DEAL WITH THE LACK OF AGENCY, WHICH THEY STARTED WITH TACKLING IN THE FIRST PILOT. IN THE SECOND PILOT, THE MUNICIPALITY WANTS TO TACKLE THE INEFFICIENT AND UNSUSTAINABLE WAY OF TRANSPORT OF THE TWO KEY RESOURCES AS WELL.

"This pilot, which consists low investments and low risks, is going to test the citizens on their willingnes for a behavioural change" The municipality is very curious to see if people are willing to give up their current collection point and actually are going to the nearest public transport stop to drop their waste, even though it wil be sometimes further away from their house. However, the municipality assumes a succes and a first start of the behaviour change. They are already exploring a second pilot with a few trams taking over the waste trucks. There is also drawings made of a new kiosk design on every tram stop, so that we very soon also have to pick up our packages at the tram stop. It might be clear that your tram stop probably will have an important rule in the future.

REGULAR FREQUENCY | NO NIGHT SERVICE

Firstly we considered two diffent frequencies. The municipality of Amsterdam can choose wether they want to let the trams drive on regular base or on full frequency, which means twelve trams per hour during the whole day, of course consering the consequences of extra driving in terms of under occupation. Secondly there is a consideration made on the time schedules. However, again the municipality of Amsterdam can choose wether they want to let the trams drive only during the day or provide a night service too, of course considering the consequences of night driving in terms of sounds.

PILOT 2B: THE MODE

For the municipality, this will be an interesting pilot. The citizens of Amsterdam now finally can show how much they care about sustainability. The pilot, which consists low investments and low risks, is going to test the citizens on their willingnes for a behavioural change.

WITH A SIMPLIFIED CAPACITY, OCCUPANCY AND FREQUENCY MODEL, AN ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF WASTE A TRAM CAN CARRY IS MADE. THREE OF THE SEVEN SCENARIO'S ARE SHOWED IN THIS SECTION There are seven variants created when filling in the parameters of the model. The most realistic and probable three variants are There are several changes made in the frequency, time schedules and amount of passengers.

REDEFINING LOGISTICS · FINANCE

waste collection will be gradually cancelled during the time so that they can be moved to the public transport stops. You have to visit your waste collection point when it will be cancelled and what your closest alternative is going to be!

PILOT 2A: FEASIBILITY To understand and quantify the feasibility in capacity and demand, a capacity/ occupancy model is developed. The total capacity in this model is based on the frequency of trams times the capacity of one single tram. The occupancy is the actual amount of passengers in a single tram and is an approximation based on two assumptions, which make the simplified model understandable.

Redefining Logistics

REGULAR FREQUENCY || WITH NIGHT SERVICE

FULL FREQUENCY || NO NIGHT SERVICE

After the succes of the first pilot, where waste collection points and goods take-off spots are located at tram stops, the municipality wants to launch a second pilot, where a new distribution and transport system will be introduced whereby the number of garbage trucks will be reduced. In the short future, trams will collect the waste and bring the goods. With this system the municipality wants to combine the transport of people with logistic processes using an already existing network. The next step will be a metamorphose for the tram and train, because from now on, they have to carry waste and goods. To test the performance of waste carrying trams, a new pilot is introduced at tram line 1 from Osdorp to Amsterdam Central Station. To connect all the nodes in the city-scale network to the regional-scale network there needs to be an intermodal station on the line, which has to function like a distribution point for the tram line. In order to create an circular distribution system, where one tram can take a continuous flow of waste and goods and create a balanced pick-up waste and drop-of goods ratio, it is attempted to place a distribution centre at the middle of the line, which is on this tram. In order to create an circular distribution system, where one tram can take a continuous flow of waste and goods and create a balanced pick-up waste and drop-of goods ratio, it is attempted to place a distribution centre at the middle of the line, which is on this tram line railway station Lelylaan. Railwaystation Lelylaan can serve as an intermodal distribution point, which connects line 1 directly to the train network in regional scale. One journey of a tram

with the accumulated amount of waste/goods is showed in a visualisation schema on the bottom of the page. In order to calculate how much waste is produced and required to be collected in the trams, a capacity/occupancy model was developed. After the calculations, it turns out that the capacity is quite big in comparison with the demand and even not necessary. There also have to be noted that the outcome is a theoretical capacity in an optimal and approximated in a maybe too positive way.

“Only 19 trams per day are

required, which means that only 3 trams per hour have to carry waste during non-peak hours” However, it seems feasible at all: only 19 trams per day (12,5% of all trams) are required, which means that only 3 trams per hour have to carry waste during non-peak hours. This is for the municipality a realistic number and thus a good starting point for the municipality in this pilot, which can be revolutionary for the city and the rest of the AMA, in the end.

Accumulated waste/goods on tram line 1 TOTAL 44,271 kg per day

The Journey: Visualization of the journey of a service tram on line 1 PICK-UP : DROP-OFF RATIO along the way + PASSENGER weight Per Stop, Proportional in Weight


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REDEFINING LOGISTICS · FINANCE

IMPACT OF THE PROJECT DIAGRAM SHOWING THE IMPLICATIONS OF OUR PROJECTS ON SOCIAL, SPATIAL AND GOVERNMENTAL LEVEL INCLUDING THE SCALE LEVELS

SOCIAL

SPATIAL

Consious Consumerism

Consumer reduces waste due to carrying capacity of commute. Purchasing power of large goods is reduced.

Privacy of the individual is reduced due to diligent registration of consumer data to serve collective interests. Increased sense of community partnered with decreased sense of identity / individualism.

Access to the nodes determines urban configurations, especially of popular public spaces.

Public transport is perceived as more public; dependency raises user demands

Previously considered private household comfort is extended to the collective conscious (conclusions of the ‘you are what you waste’ mentality is shared with the community)

Nodes and their layout will demand more space, as facilities need to be added for processing the additional flows of goods and waste

Polycentric neighbourhood development; connections drive growth and density aligns directly with public transport planning policies and plans. Points of interest (as deemed by them) become more important.

Transit becomes more valuable daily commodity which raises the social stakes of PT

Polycentric Distribution Development

Network optimization becomes paramount to urban success and liveability

Decentralising polycentric urban growth patterns

By making the affordable Public Transport a uniform mode of transportation, equal accessibility and mobility (and thus socio-economic opportunities) along all citizens is provided. Social cohesion is increased as more diverse demographics interact on public transit modes for a distinct and passive purpose. Classist arguments of the rich against using PT (private car preference) decreases.

Relatively equal development / investment across the region supports all communities and fosters trust in government entities and municipal bodies.

Growth of public transport lines

Reduction of traffic and road use thus the need and space required for vehicular infrastructure decreases.

Transport costs become more predictable

Municipal power increases due to control over goods so directly linked to real estate and legal controls over tax rates

However, the collectivisation grants users a higher protest power; increased unionization.

Postage costs reduced, process made convenient, thus more online ‘shopping’

Institutional research goals shift to focus on network optimization, transportation planning, data management and analysis, stakeholder collaboration and partnerships.

Decreased individualism could lead to a loss of perceived power for the user. Uniting three powerful industries (PT, waste, goods) may overwhelm the sense of freedom of expression.

GOVERNANCE

Transport agencies increase in power and prominence in local level debates

Research funding into network optimization, transportation planning, data management and analysis, stakeholder collaboration and partnerships, will be dramatically increased.

Governmental cash flow stabilizes resulting in better project predictability

Public Power Shift

STAY TUNED FOR NEXT WEEKS PAPER ON CIRCULARITY IN THE RANDSTAD REGION

Real estate becomes centered around nodes as public transport services become integral to a ‘good’ daily life

Higher profit potentials; advertising

ECONOMIC IMPACTS MICRO MESO MACRO

REDEFINING LOGISTICS

Redefining Logistics  

Why public transport is a good model for circularising logistics and waste management systems.

Redefining Logistics  

Why public transport is a good model for circularising logistics and waste management systems.

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