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railwaycity SHARONBAUWENS

subNETWORK JORIS CAUWENBERGH


This journal is made by four students architecture working around and investigating Norway, Trondheim and the possibilities of a new sustainable neighbourhood in Trondheim. This journal shows all the decissions made and the reasons why we made these decisions. Sharon Bauwens, Joris Cauwenbergh, Yann-Ee Yau and Jan Swiatczak


SHARONBAUWENS

JORIS CAUWENBERGH


borders & NETWORK


FRAGILITY / connection of the city to the fjord & surrounding nature We noticed the city has no connection to the surrounding fjord or hills. Yet this fjord was the main reason Trondheim became a successfull and rich city in the history and still today. It was the combination of the river Nidelva, that formed a natural valley and the connection to the entire world via the fjord that made the city as important as it is today.

and focusses today on an intellectual industry or economy with its famous university.

The former industry forms scar tissue in todays city. It’s unusable, unavailable but still very precious land. The industry tissue takes in the most exclusive land and also possibly the priciest land with its connection to the surrounding fjord and river. Today we see the city lost all contact with its precious We want to recover the connection between the city fjord. The manmade industral island in between the and fjord. fjord and the city cuts of the city and its inhabitants. But today this island isn’t of use anymore, the city lost its main industry (the shipbuilding industry)

existing networks with visible focal points,... and underlayer only the experience remain as a image in your head, and can change or adapt in the future,...

Light/ hide, moods, gradient, transparant/ translucent positive imperfection/ attraction, ! human <> machine ! strive ! <> mass product transformation/ sentimental-sensorial, personification, evolution

MEMORY easyly forgotten, relations between peoples, short meetings on street corners, GROWTH, the small line

stories that are related to a place that has

between succes and failure

changed over time,...


SUSTAINABLE Trondheim could be sustainable when it follows a development path where the present progress does not take place at the expense of future generations (i.e. bad planning, debt, environmental degradation, etc. does not export present problems to the future). There should be an equilibrium between different issues. In other words, the goal is an across-theboard development, instead of handling issues one by one.

Future...

ENVIRONMENTAL urbansprawl, waterurbanisme, the use of local resources,...

resources & DENSITY


SUSTAINABILITY / LOW IMPACT What matters eventually is how people live in Norway. This is a research to the lifestyle of Norwegians and their tradition of living and a comparison their current lifestyle, housing and the modern architecture. The traditional houses always had one room used IRU OLYLQJ VOHHSLQJ HDWLQJ ZRUNLQJ7KH ÂżUHSODFH was placed centrally in the dwelling and heated up the entire house. Windows were small and scarce due to the cold climate. A lot of local and logical materials were used for building. They used local stone as foundation to protect the house from snow

and used massive logs of wood to build up the walls. We also researched modern housing architecture The roof was made of slate shngles or tree bark with in Norway today and found interesting projects in turf and grass on. regard to the free nature and open space. Today, most interesting is the idea of the common QDWXUH1RUZHJLDQVEX\ODQGEXWGRQÂśWGHÂżQHLWDV theirs. The nature in Norway is for everyone, so you FDQSLFNDĂ&#x20AC;RZHULQVRPHRQHHOVHÂśVJDUGHQ This does not mean Norwegians donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have an outdoor space of their own. Mostly all Norwegian houses have an outdoor balcony or south-orientated terrace close to the living area. This is usually cozy DQGGHFRUDWHGZLWKĂ&#x20AC;RZHUVGXULQJVXPHUWLPH

212IÂżFHGLGDSURMHFWLQ1RUZD\WKDWJDYHDQHZ look on Norwegian housing. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a housing block with 4 different dwellings, the dwellings are shifted according to the slope of the hill. With this shift, room is available on the roof of the appartment below to make an own little private garden or sundeck. The architects made sure the green nature is still available for everyone on the roofs but at the same time each family has its own private outside space.

CREATIVE UNDERTAKINGS that develop profitable

CREATIVE HUMAN BEINGS who develop their

innovations. innovation is an important part of

resources and competences, while grasping the

enterprises day-to-day efforts to develop better products for their customers and generate greater

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;SELF-ORGANIZATION and DEVELOPMENT â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

possibility to apply them. Creative human beings share knowledge with other people, and use their creativity to

value for their owners. no undertakings today escape

A CREATIVE SOCIETY with a sound framework and a

produce new and better solutions.

the demand to make continuous improvements.

favourable climate for innovation. We must have high regard

The authorities will help to release the creative impulse

The authorities must provide enterprises with more

for inquisitiveness, thirst for knowledge and the creative

by offering sound education, research, and adaptation

possibilities to be innovative, and must provide support

urge. A creative society allows people to attempt something

of working life, as well as by working to bring about a

and regulations where the market fails to provide the

and fail, while also appreciating those who succeed.

culture that encourages creativity and entrepreneurship

necessary impullses.

The norwegian welfare state provides a good starting point

in society.

for a creative society with a significant capacity to restructure and innovate.


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LEEG


HOUSE: today

HOUSE: today (modern arch

HOUSING: ON

E: today

MAIN ROOM (recreation) + FIRE IN THE CENTRE O

WINDOWS + LIGHT! (fore TYPICAL + SIMPLE SHED

FREE NATURE SPACE IN T + PRIVATE SUNSPACE NEA

TO SHARE / LOWER COSTS APPARTMENTS (community

USE OF LOCAL (WELL-KNO

MATTER

ROW house

GREEN border + point

BUILDup area SMALL large fully build

PACKEDhouses

GREEN center shared

BUILDup area / claimed squares

STACKEDhouses

GREEN Functional shared

BUILDup area small strips in between

VILLA objects on fenced plot

GREEN center shared

BUILDup area / claimed squares

MORFOLOGY ROW house courtyard/ light yard

GREEN enclosed In and around

BUILDup area


h.) - what remains/

N OFFICE

) MATTER / MICRO SCALE: HOUSING OF THE HOUSE What matters eventually is how people live in and used massive logs of wood to build up the walls.

We also researched modern housing architecture The roof was made of slate shngles or tree bark with in Norway today and found interesting projects in turf and grass on. regard to the free nature and open space.

Norway. This is a research to the lifestyle of and their tradition of living and a eign Norwegians architects) comparison their current lifestyle, housing and the modern architecture. Today, most interesting is the idea of the common QDWXUH1RUZHJLDQVEX\ODQGEXWGRQÂśWGHÂżQHLWDV SHAPE The traditional houses always had one room used theirs. The nature in Norway is for everyone, so you IRU OLYLQJ VOHHSLQJ HDWLQJ ZRUNLQJ7KH ÂżUHSODFH FDQSLFNDĂ&#x20AC;RZHULQVRPHRQHHOVHÂśVJDUGHQ was placed centrally in the dwelling and heated up This does not mean Norwegians donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have an the entire house. Windows were small and scarce outdoor space of their own. Mostly all Norwegian due to the cold climate. A lot of local and logical houses have an outdoor balcony or south-orientated materials were used for building. They used local terrace close to the living area. This is usually cozy stone as foundation to protect the house from snow DQGGHFRUDWHGZLWKĂ&#x20AC;RZHUVGXULQJVXPHUWLPH

THE NBH AR HOUSE / APPARTMENT

S: HOUSES ARE DIVIDED IN y feeling)

OWN) BUILDING MATERIALS Rosenborg gate St Olavs gate

Nonnegate

Nedre Bakklandet General Buddes gate

212IÂżFHGLGDSURMHFWLQ1RUZD\WKDWJDYHDQHZ look on Norwegian housing. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a housing block with 4 different dwellings, the dwellings are shifted according to the slope of the hill. With this shift, room is available on the roof of the appartment below to make an own little private garden or sundeck. The architects made sure the green nature is still available for everyone on the roofs but at the same time each family has its own private outside space.


MATTER

claimed & DENSITY

diversity, vitality, street life, people watching, cafe culture, events and local traditions/ pastimes, openinghours, flow, attractors, transaction base, fine grain economy

symbolism & memory imagineability & legibility sensory expierience & associations image knowledgeability receptivity psychological access cosmopolitan/ sophistication fear

activity

place form

scale Intensity Permeability Landmarks Space to Building Ratio Stock (adaptability and range) Vertical grain Public realm (space system)


MATTER / MICRO SCALE: PEOPLE & HOUSING In Norway, there is a tendency of single people living alone in familiy housing. Single people don’t have a single person lifestyle. They still want their own personal well-sized kitchen, living room and if possible 2 bedrooms. This has an effect on energy and land consumption, because all these rooms have to be heated and built for only 1 person. For example: the energy used for 1 house with 3 inhabitants sharing communal space (kitchen, living room, corridor) is per person much less than the energy used for 1 house with only 1 inhabitant which has to heat the same amount of rooms and space, only used by this person.

This single lving also affects social problems. Single people who can afford a bigger, more luxurious but mainly also a more isolated place to live will live in this area instead of the mainly poorer social housing. The paper ‘one person households’ by K. GramHanssen discusses this topic : ‘On one hand it implies increased housing consumption as well as increased energy consumption as those who can afford it chooses to live alone in big houses or apartments. On the other hand there may also be a social problem associated with living alone, if less

wealthy singles are obliged to live in less attractive dwellings compared with people living as couples that typically have two incomes.’ Since several years this topic is hot in Norway. Fantastic Norway made an architecture project that created a communal house for single mothers. It consists of several single ‘houses’ with one big communal space combining them. Also the crown prince of Norway married a single mother not a traditional princess, this is a sign that in Norway singles and single mothers are becoming a hot topic.


The impact of natural resources and energy on humans as well as the relationship between urban and rural areas." With most of Norwegian cities being close to the sea, forests, or mountains, Norway wants to show, how these cities incorporate nature to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants.

rough oasis in the city


FRAGILITY-SUSTAINABILITY-MATTER / COMPARISON VENUSTAS-FIRMITAS-UTILITAS For the tryptich Fragility - Sustainability - Matter there can be made a comparison with the 3 qualities of architecture, made by Vitruvius. According to Vitruvius all architecture should consist out of these 3 features. These 3 main characters are Venustas or beauty, )LUPLWDV RU ÂżUPQHVV DQG 8WLOLWXV RU IXQFWLRQDOLW\ We can compare these 3 qualities with the 3 terms we had to discuss in the introduction to this exercise being: Fragility, Sustainability and Matter. This being said, the venustas or beauty could be compared to fragility, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an aspect that strikes you,

3

that gives strength to architecture but at makes it breakable or vulnerable at the same time. Firmitas could be the sustainable feature, sustainability is eventually what gives a solid or ÂżUPIRXQGDWLRQDQGIXWXUHIRUDOODUFKLWHFWXUH7KLV is what is important today and what should be the starting point of every architect and all architecture WRGD\,WÂśVQRWMXVWDERXWJLYLQJDUFKLWHFWXUHDÂżUP base or foundation today but as well in 10, 100, 1000 years. 8WLOLWDVLVHYHQWXDOO\ZKDWPDWWHUVZKDWLVLPSRUWDQW in each building or in all architecture. Architecture should be useful, practical and buildable.

NATURAL BORDERS low designed, just creating oppurtunities to get people to meet, and invent activities on their own

Fragility is also about nesting, a theme Japanese architect Fujimoto has studied a lot. Fragility and beauty is about making a home and feeling at home. Sustainability is about having little impact on earth and nature. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important to make sure that what you build doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t affect earth in a bad way. The most functional buildings are slumhouses made with easy and local found material. The houses are functional in the way that they often are the size the inhabitants want them to have. If the inhabitants need an extra room, they can easily go and get some more material and build the needed space.

Trondheim has many pleasant and quite different neighbourhoods. In the centre of town you'll find the special wooden houses of Bakklandet, terraced flats along Nidelven and the classic wooden town houses from the 17th and 18th centuries.

MATERIAL

+ LIGHT LOCAL materials that reflect the historic use

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;green hill for activities and recreationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

but also the rather simple way, easily perceived or understood, clear or apparent, as could be refered to as a scandinavian style

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;DAYLIGHT, TRANSPARENCY and FLEXIBILITYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;


Arab Muslim writer named Ahmad ibn Fadlan: !orwegian chief or king died on an expedition. The dead king was put in a temporary grave for ten days. During that time they arranged the funeral. When the time had arrived for cremation, they pulled his longship ashore and put on it a platform of wood, and they made a bed for the dead king on the ship.The king was put into his bed with all his weapons and grave offerings around him. Thereafter, the relatives of the dead chieftain arrived with DEXUQLQJWRUFKDQGVHWWKHVKLSDĂ&#x20AC;DPH,WLVVDLGWKDWWKHÂżUH facilitates the voyage to the realm of the dead, but unfortunately, the story does not tell to which realm the deceased was to go. Afterwards, a round barrow was built over the ashes and in the centre of the mound they erected a staff of birch wood, where they carved the names of the dead chieftain and his king. Then they departed in their ships.


CULTURE / FIRE: IN HOUSING & CULTURE Fire was reallty important in the tradition and Fire is embedded in Norwegians tradition of lifestyle of Norway. Fire is good when ice and water funerals. When a viking chief died, the clan made suggest evil. Fire is life when ice threatens life. DEHGRQKLVORQJVKLSDQGVHWWKLVVKLSRQÂżUHZKLOH sailing in the direction of the endless ocean. The Fire is in hands of the god Loki, he is unpredictable, Arab muslim writer Ahmad ibn Fadlan described a little evil but he always outsmarts the Gods and the funeral of a viking chief who died in battle and saves them. He is often recognized as a culture hero, ZDVSXWRQKLVORQJVKLSWREHVHWRQÂżUHDQGWRVDLO OLNHWKH*UHHN3URPHWKHXV7KHÂżUHWKDW/RNLJLYHVWR towards Walhalla. SHRSOHLVDQDPELJXRXVJLIWÂżUVWSURPRWLQJFXOWXUH Fire has a central place in Norwegian houses and (heat, light, cooking, metalworking...), secondly if 1RUZHJLDQWUDGLWLRQ7KHÂżUHSODFHZDVXVHGWRZDUP it appears that man in fact can not control (guns, up the whole house and its inhabitants. It also had a technology). People were afraid but at the same time central place in the household for cooking, working IDVFLQDWHGE\ÂżUH or lightsource.

7RGD\ ÂżUH LV XVHG DV D ZD\ WR PDNH SHRSOH FRPH WRJHWKHU 7KH 1RUZHJLDQ DUFKLWHFWXUH RIÂżFH PDGH an installation near the Trondheim fjord where they FRPELQHWKHZDWHUDQGÂżUHWRFUHDWHDQHQYLURQPHQW that invites people to sit and come together. Today ÂżUH VWLOO KDV DQ DWWUDFWLRQ DQG D SRZHU WKDW EULQJV people together. This especially in Norway where ÂżUHLVWKLVLPSRUWDQW

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;expresses movementâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

SQUARE

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;multi-functionalityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;a connection between the different activities and usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;informal atmosphereâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;


CULTURE / NORWEGIAN RELATION TO WATER & NATURE The attitude of Norwegians towards the water and their waterfront is interesting. On the one hand they love using this water and love to be nearby the water, on the other hand there is still a lot of fear and awe for the scenery and beautiful environment.

surrounding nature. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I was walking down the road with two friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky turned as red as blood. I stopped and leaned against WKHIHQFHIHHOLQJXQVSHDNDEO\WLUHG7RQJXHVRIÂżUH and blood stretched over the bluish black fjord. My friends went on walking, while I lagged behind, On sundays you see a lot of Norwegian families shivering with fear. Then I heard the enormous, hiking and playing nearby the fjord and water. They LQÂżQLWHVFUHDPRIQDWXUH´ love being outside and love to be near the water and go on family outings to the fjord. So the person on the painting isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t screaming, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Edward Munchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Scream, the famous painting made the overwhelming nature that is screaming and this by the Norwegian painter, doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t express fear or a person needs to shut his ears so he wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t hear nature scream from the man on the painting but from the screaming.

OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES You can enjoy fishing, riding, swimming, walks, skiing, skating, trotting and lots more... SPORTS You can join sportsclubs, atletics and orienteering, boxing, martial arts, fencing, cycling, equestrian, football, handball, ice hockey, swimming, skiing, snowboarding, watersports and lots more...

BODY CULTURE IN URBAN SPACE Katieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s class â&#x20AC;&#x153;body culture in urban spaceâ&#x20AC;? went on a field trip today to several sites in Copenhagen. It was a bicycle field trip, which added to the fun. There seems to be a lot of emphasis on sports facilities and community centers within the urban center of Copenhagen. I really like the connection between this and the Valle work that Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m doing. It was interesting to talk with her professor from the Danish Royal Academy â&#x20AC;&#x201D; His studio does work in sports facilities, schools, and health. I like that combination.


NETWORKS


MASTERPLAN / RAILROAD & GREEN CONNECTION Fire was reallty important in the tradition and lifestyle of Norway. Fire is good when ice and water suggest evil. Fire is life when ice threatens life.

Fire is embedded in Norwegians tradition of funerals. When a viking chief died, the clan made DEHGRQKLVORQJVKLSDQGVHWWKLVVKLSRQÂżUHZKLOH sailing in the direction of the endless ocean. The Fire is in hands of the god Loki, he is unpredictable, Arab muslim writer Ahmad ibn Fadlan described a little evil but he always outsmarts the Gods and the funeral of a viking chief who died in battle and saves them. He is often recognized as a culture hero, ZDVSXWRQKLVORQJVKLSWREHVHWRQÂżUHDQGWRVDLO OLNHWKH*UHHN3URPHWKHXV7KHÂżUHWKDW/RNLJLYHVWR towards Walhalla. SHRSOHLVDQDPELJXRXVJLIWÂżUVWSURPRWLQJFXOWXUH Fire has a central place in Norwegian houses and (heat, light, cooking, metalworking...), secondly if 1RUZHJLDQWUDGLWLRQ7KHÂżUHSODFHZDVXVHGWRZDUP it appears that man in fact can not control (guns, up the whole house and its inhabitants. It also had a technology). People were afraid but at the same time central place in the household for cooking, working IDVFLQDWHGE\ÂżUH or lightsource.

+

-

=

7RGD\ ÂżUH LV XVHG DV D ZD\ WR PDNH SHRSOH FRPH WRJHWKHU 7KH 1RUZHJLDQ DUFKLWHFWXUH RIÂżFH PDGH an installation near the Trondheim fjord where they FRPELQHWKHZDWHUDQGÂżUHWRFUHDWHDQHQYLURQPHQW that invites people to sit and come together. Today ÂżUH VWLOO KDV DQ DWWUDFWLRQ DQG D SRZHU WKDW EULQJV people together. This especially in Norway where ÂżUHLVWKLVLPSRUWDQW

TRONDHEIM'S STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY expand areas for commercial use establish planning policies which result in a more predictable planning prces

NEW identity or added identity, should this harbour be something completly diffrent or should it join its existing, less important use with something new and exiting to bring life to both

maintain a compact urban development pattern and stimulate urban regenaration reduce transport dependency through location policy and zoning regulation preserve and develop existing green spaces NYHAVNA large scale building blocks hard materials ( concrete, steel, â&#x20AC;Ś) with rough details

SVARTLAMOEN large scale building blocks hard materials ( concrete, steel, â&#x20AC;Ś) with rough details

traffic wide roads and train tracks

traffic wide roads and train tracks

industrial scales impersonal image

industrial scales impersonal image

ground surface gray asphalt

ground surface gray asphalt


FRAGILE WEEK / SNOHETTA LECTURE The lecture was mainly about the Snohetta Opera building in Oslo. Oslo has the same problems as Trondheim. They have a possible large waterfront but now that is mainly occupied by industry. The city of Oslo wanted a opera house near the water. The building consists of 4 charachteristical properties. The building itself is a machine, the entire building works for 1 or 2 little stages and for a couple of hours of entertainment. Between this machine and the fjord, you have a kind of lock chamber or a huge threshold, a curved wall, that takes you inside the machine and the theatre stages.

This building had to have some grandeur, some monumentality. The architects stated that it’s not verticality that gives monumentality, but that it’s horizontality, so the made a huge carpet coming from the fjord and going over the building. This way people walk on the roof of the building and can look DQG¿QGRXWZKDW¶VJRLQJRQLQVLGHDQGPD\EHFRPH in another time.


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