Peripheral refraction and the development of refractive error Hema Radhakrishnan
University of Manchester, UK
The concept that the state of image focus in the peripheral retina might influence refractive development goes back several years. Interest in this area has increased recently due to the recognition that the incidence of myopia is increasing in many parts of the world. Animal studies have provided evidence that non-foveal areas of the retina can affect refractive development. Myopic eyes have been shown to have a relatively hyperopic peripheral retina and hyperopic eyes have a relatively myopic peripheral retina. Peripheral refraction has been shown to act as an indicator of the likelihood of myopia development in humans. Peripheral and axial refraction is also dependent on the eye movements of the individuals, with strenuous near work being capable of producing temporary shifts in the axial and peripheral refractive error. Effects of prolonged oblique viewing and reading on axial refractive error and peripheral refraction will be discussed.