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Cooperative Networks

Analysis of the urban network of a food-consumption cooperative in Barcelona and a proposal for cooperation as a collective project for the city Jorge MartĂ­n Sainz de los Terreros August 2012 / SO449 Independent Project Master in City Design and Social Science 2011-2012, LSE


Acknowledgements The present paper owes much to many that have helped me in the process. First, I have to thank all the members of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. Their extremely positive, constructive and open attitude to such a research was amazingly encouraging. Among them, I would like to thank in particular all those who participated in the interviews, informal chats and focus groups that were organised. Agnès, Aniol, Almudena, Álvaro, Bea, Carlos, Dunkan, Fernando, Gloria, Ignacio, Joan, Laura, Lluisa, Montse, Nuria, Nuria, Oti, Pilar, Selva and Tania, this work is partly yours. Second, Tres Quarteres farmers, Gloria and Kesia, thank you for the invaluable insights of the organisation and functioning of their project, the information about relationships in the region and their willingness to participate in a project that have made their own. Third, thank you to the staff of the Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre, and particularly to Alda Puig, the centre’s director, who attended me when she was on her maternity leave, and Marta Colina, the centre’s coordinator. Both provided me an understanding of the minutiae of the relationships among the different entities, institutions, organisations and governing levels. Also, I would like to thank to my classmates from the Cities Programme and my tutor Fran Tonkiss who have given me the confidence to continue. Finally, I would like to dedicate this paper to my parents, Patricia and Juan, and very specially to Elena, my girlfriend. She has given me the inspiration and courage to develop the ideas of the paper, and, most importantly, has continuously supported and encouraged me during the project and throughout the year.


Jorge Martín Sainz de los Terreros August 2012 SO449 Independent Project Master in City Design and Social Science 2011-2012 London School of Economics and Political Science All images are the author’s own unless otherwise stated. Cover image: Urban Networs Copyright (c) 2012 Jorge Martín Sainz de los Terreros. This work is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial - No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To see a copy of this license, refer to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/


Contents Introduction

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A storage room two hours a week Food consumption in the city Methodology 1. Contextual Framework

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1.1 Urban Social Networks 1.2 Consumption as political action 1.3 Agroecological Food-Consumers Cooperatives 2. Case Study

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2.1 Pam a Pam Cooperative 2.2 Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre 2.3 Neighbourhood 2.4 Tres Quarteres farm project 2.5 Process 2.6 Relationships 3. Proposal

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3.1 Cooperation as a Project For The City 3.2 Connecting People 3.3 Providing Places 3.4 Strategies Conclusion

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Bibliography

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Annexes

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Annex1 Field work Interviews Focus groups Informal chats Annex2 Non-accessible documents reviewed Annex3 Consumption cooperatives in Barcelona Annex4 Neighbourhood database Annex5 Civic Centres in Barcelona Annex6 Neighbourhood Centres in Barcelona


Introduction A storage room two hours a week. Wednesday, 18th July 2012. Around 7pm, one of the two women running Tres Quarteres farm parks their van in the proximity of the Parc-Sandaru Centre Civic. In the service entrance there is a member (or two) of the Pam a Pam Cooperative waiting for their weekly baskets to be delivered full of vegetables, fruits and eggs. They unload the boxes, get into the building, take the service elevator to the third floor, walk to a storage room and leave the boxes on some shelves arranged for this purpose. Then they take the empty boxes from the previous week and give them to the farmer who puts them into the van and leaves for her next delivery. After that, two members of the Cooperative wait for every member of the group to get there, take their box, empty it into their bag or shopping cart and leave until next week. Meanwhile they chat. About 9pm, they clean the shelves, sweep the room, turn off the lights, close the room, leave the keys in the reception and go home. That’s it. So simple and so complex at the same time! This may be an average delivery day in the Pam a Pam Cooperative [Original in Catalan, meaning Step by Step], a self-organised food-consumption cooperative in Barcelona. However, average days never happen. Each day has its own specific conflicts and surprises: some extra tomatoes this week because during the summer there is a surplus of production; half a dozen of eggs missing; ‘I think I didn’t ask for fruit this week and I have some in my basket’; someone not coming to collect their basket; ‘I have got a new job, congratulations!’; a comment over the news about the eviction of an immigrant squatted factory close by in the neighbourhood; ‘this week the order for next month has to be paid’; ‘could someone cover for me next week?, I will be on holidays’; ‘could someone sign this petition to change the mortgage law?’, and a long etcetera.

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Opposite page Images extracted from a video shot the 18th July 2012 in the room used by the Pam a Pam Cooperative in the Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre.


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Food consumption in the city The present paper proposes a project for construction of urban networks through cooperation in Barcelona. My aim is to develop a proposal to enhance cooperation at the neighbourhood level. In doing so, I will attempt to study the different social and spatial relationships built over the process of formation of a food-consumption cooperative in the city, and develop a proposal engaging both civil society and public institutions to promote the formation of new groups. I claim that through analysing the complexities of this formation-process, relationships could be understood, and hence, links could be enhanced among existing actors and new social bonds and ties could be fostered, generating tejido asociativo [civic fabric](1) in the city. The proposal is a hypothetical commission from the Council of Barcelona. Assuming the fact that the Pam a Pam Cooperative is the first food-consumption cooperative in Barcelona hosted by a public facility, I develop the proposal considering that the interest of the Council is to analyse the experience, and to assess the possibility of expanding it to a network of cooperatives in the municipality. A basic concern guides the thoughts developed in the present paper: How can cities be designed promoting sustainable development while at the same time fostering social relationships and ties? The response is sought through a project engaging with social relationships which promote sustainable principles. On one hand, in recent years, there has been a growing concern about sustainability in cities. Sustainable planning proposals, green cities strategies, or alternative proposals, such as the transition movement, engage with questions trying to integrate sustainable principles in cities. Within these discussions, food production and consumption issues are growing in importance. Scholars, such as Steel (2006), acknowledge the relevance of the food industry in shaping cities and its territories. Awareness on these lines is increasingly becoming important for planners and politicians. On the other hand, in the post-modern urban society, social relationships and ties tend to be detached from everyday routines and a high level of individuality hinders social capital formation. To foster social capital, voluntary membership and informal collective action is acknowledged by several scholars as an important asset (Putnam 1993, Blockland and Savage 2008). Building on these ideas, I claim that collective action and cooperation is needed. The paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, I engage with contemporary literature addressing social and spatial relationships. As the topic is very broad, I attempted to highlight different perspectives in the field of urban studies, referencing literature in relation to urban networks, network theory, social capital and politics of scale. The idea is to understand a broad theoretical framework which will work as the general background for the following discussion. Special stress is given to the idea that processes in the city respond to the double networked and bounded condition: networked because ‘cities are dense networks of interwoven sociospatial processes’ (Swyngedouw 2003, p.899); bounded because we are governed with administrative boundaries politically attached to limits, laws and rules. In the second part, I analyse the case study of the Pam a Pam Cooperative, a self-managed food-consumption cooperative based in Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre in Barcelona, (1) The term tejido asociativo is a very specific term in Spanish which refers to the fabric of civic and social organisations, not only from a quantitative approach of relationships among them but also from a qualitative perspective. Throughout this paper, I will use the English term civic fabric to express this concept, even if civic in English refers to a wider social scope. 3


explaining the relationships among the different actors of its social network. Here, I have studied the links, ties and relationships needed to develope a process of setting up similar projects through temporal and scalar analysis. The third part proposes a strategy to generate new cooperative groups of this kind with the support of public authorities. The project develops an assessment of the current situation of Barcelona regarding social ties at a neighbourhood level and provides a guideline of strategies to follow at different administrative levels, from the city, the district and the neighbourhoods to, ultimately, specific facilities and centres. The basic idea is to develop a platform of interaction among different actors, engaging civil society and authorities, which, acknowledging the double condition of networked and bounded society, could operate through boundaries and scales, understanding the city as an open system (Sennett 2008).

Methodology To address the complexity of the different relationships among the varied and heterogeneous actors involved in the processes, various methods of analysis are used. In the first part, I engage with theory and explore different approaches to the understanding of urban social networks. In the second part, I develop ethnographic research, including participant observation, formal interviews, informal chats, focus groups, films, as well as desk work involving documents review, meeting minutes reading and internet research. During May 2011 to September 2011, I participated as an active member in the cooperative studied. This fact allowed me, in the process of analysis developed in July 2012, to access internal information of the cooperative. In this case, participant observation provides a deeper level of understanding of the minutiae and the subtle details of relationships. The intention is to seek a subjective analysis of the relationships among the participants in the processes. Although a subjective approach may sometimes lack accuracy, I believe it gives the research a depth of perception of relationships beyond constrained perspectives, which will attempt to enlighten the present paper. As such, subjectivity is understood as a methodology to approach urban analysis. For the proposal, I build over the findings of the previous parts. In addition, I analyse the city through data collection and socioeconomic parameters mapping. I use municipal data bases and edited maps with GIS software. I have crossed the information strategically to generate proposal maps, identifying areas and neighbourhoods for intervention, and places to develop certain activities. As for the limitations in this part, firstly, data collected through internet usually lacks accuracy. Even when engaging with municipal data, the only data base available was from 2009. Secondly, as the Federation of Consumption Cooperatives of Catalonia highlights (FCCUC 2010), food-consumption cooperatives are collectives with a very low level of legal formalisation. As such, data collected from those groups may be partial. I think these facts should be amended in a subsequent phase of the present project.

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1. Contextual Framework 1.1 Urban Social Networks ‘Social capital is both a way to establish borders and a way to establish relationships across borders and communicate understandings of the other’s identity and social positioning. Meanwhile social capital can only be reproduced relationally.’ (Blokland-Potters and Savage eds. 2008, p.12)

Policy makers and planners acknowledge the growing importance of complex social relationships in the post-modern city, and, recently, are increasingly encouraging the development of tools to foster interaction. Blokland-Potters and Savage (eds. 2008) underline the importance that the term ‘social capital’ has taken since its wide popularisation in the 90s by Putnam (1993, 1996). Social capital, according to Putnam, is the ‘features of social organisation such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit’ (1996, p.67). In other words, and according to Blokland-Potters and Savage, Putnam suggests that social capital are ‘social ties that might produce co-operation and trust’ (eds. 2008, p.2). Far from considering social relationships and ties the ideal of friendship and community, I assume they are not always positive. In fact, as we will see, conflict is a central part of the day-to-day functioning. The idea of building social capital, at last, would be related to the capacity to deal with this conflict-solving. As Sennett suggests, promoting cooperation could provide individuals with the skills to do so (2012). Therefore, a question arises: How can we foster social ties to produce cooperation and trust? Or, the other way around, if cooperation is fostered, may it produce social ties, social relationships and trust? I believe it will, and the following lines may support my argument. In the present section I will develop a theoretical and conceptual framework based on the discussion of what social capital is and how social relationships can be developed and enhanced. Relationships To develop a different spatial understanding of the city and the urban, beyond dichotomies – namely, urban-rural, society-nature, and so on - I think we have to understand how social relationships are developed in the city. The underlying question of the present research and proposal is how social relationships are performed in an urban society and how we could foster stronger social and civic relationships among individuals. Traditionally, the community was the space where people develop their relationships. A space where many had a defined role and where life was enacted in ‘harmonious equilibrium’, defined by Sennett as a closed system (Sennett 2008, p.1). A system where relationships were frozen in a stable condition and where processes of change were rather difficult to develop. Also, most relationships were overlapped. Family, friends and work where performed within the same social circles. Nowadays, interactions, relationships and ties are much more complex. We have different roles in different social realms, and tend to change the conditions we live in much more quickly and more often than before. We, as individuals, belong to different social groups of friends, family, acquaintances, workmates and colleagues, exercising multiple memberships, and within each of these groups representing differentiated roles. We live in what sociologist François Ascher calls the ‘hypertext society’ (2004, p.39). As words with different meanings in different texts, individuals define their identity exercising multiple memberships with different ‘meanings’ within different social realms. As such, 5


we define ourselves and our own individuality through multiple collective actions. These collective actions are performed in an urban networked society. Networks, Places and boundaries According to Swyngedouw and Heynen, ‘cities are dense networks of interwoven sociospatial processes that are simultaneously local and global, human and physical, cultural and organic’ (2003, p.899). Different theories have been developed underlining the importance of such urban relationships and recognising their complexity. Many scholars, in recent years, have developed an understanding of the city as an assemblage of human and non human actants which interact and relate in the space (Amin and Thrift 2002, Latour 2005). Referring to actans rather than actors is understanding that, in those relationships, the involvement in interaction is not only from humans, but also from infrastructures, products and places. Networked relationships

Bounded relationships In bounded relationships actors are accountable to scales and power control

In addition, and importantly, these theories underline that these urban networks operate in very different environments and realms. The ‘urban’, in such context, does not only mean processes occurring within the built environment but also those ones which are happening through its limits and beyond (Graham and Marvin 2001, Heynen et al. eds. 2006). These issues were already suggested in the opening line of Lefebvre’s Urban Revolution when saying ‘[s]ociety has become completely urbanised’ (2003, p.1). This implied that nature as such should not be understood as detached from society. Thus, when referring to urban processes I will mean the ‘socionatural metabolism’ involving network interaction that shape geographies, territories, regions and cities (RapaSwyngedouw 2003). Even if we live in a networked society, we still live in places. Castells argues that two different spaces explain society, the one of flows and the one of places: the former controlled by the networks of what he calls the ‘dominant activities’, operating without territorial contiguity; the latter localised ‘within the boundaries of territorial contiguity’ and the everyday (1999, p.297). However, he poses that the space of flows is ‘experiencing […] the growing influence and pressure of the grassroots’ (ibid, p.297). I argue that this influence is also reverting to the space of spaces, while grassroots operate in the networks to meet and act in places. As such, contiguity and proximity become crucial for urban interaction. Places are always in context, in a specific location, in which local socioeconomic conditions shape their possibilities. Public places are meeting points, not representative of any bounded territory but their own. They are located, situated. Places are the centre of their own territory and there is where networks operate. Networks blur the way we use and navigate the city, and thus blur the way boundaries and their representatives are accountable to us.

Tree structure

Semi-lattice structure. Source: Author’s edition based on Alexander 1965.

Alexander already discussed somehow this networked condition in his paper City is not a tree (1965), where he suggested that structures and relationships in the city are not based on tree structures but in semi-lattice structures. I agree with his proposition, however, we still project, plan and govern cities as tree structures. Places are politically attached to boundaries, limits, laws and rules. We still are governed under the paradigm of the bounded city. Hence, territorial limits legally demarcate areas of influence imposing hierarchies, power structures and control and generating uneven geographies. Acknowledging this double condition of bounded and networked urbanity is one of the objectives of the present paper. The question is how can we operate at the same 6


time in the bounded and networked city? The answer can be found in reading Sennett’s proposal for the open city and his understanding of limits (2008). There, he suggests that we should recognise limits as borders rather than boundaries, considering them as porous interfaces between entities. This allows for an understanding that goes beyond boundaries and acknowledges networks. This allows for porosity between entities, not only operating at similar levels, but also on different scales. Scales and ‘Scapes’ In the discussion of networks, an interesting issue is how actors operate. I aim to demonstrate that they operate among entities of similar level, and also through scales, and as scales themselves. As such, politics of scale emerges in this context as a crucial topic. Relationships are shaped and developed among groups, things, individuals and places, and operated through spatial boundaries and through scales, even simultaneously, through different temporal and spatial scales. The concept of scale is a social construct, and hence, it could be understood as subjective. I understand scale is somehow an invention to bound scopes. Many authors have discussed the terms in which scale is used, evaluated, conceptualised and produced (Swyngedouw 1997, Brenner 2000). Both Brenner and Sywngedouw, when talking about scale, recognise its ‘fluid and relational’ condition which I would like to stress (Cidell 2006, p.200). Thus, scale can be reconstructed, reimagined and reconsidered to rebound scopes. Ultimately, my aim is to develop a subjective understanding of urban networks. To do so, and rather than building an understanding of territories, I will borrow Appadurai’s term ‘scape’ (1999) to express the subjective, changing temporality of constructs. Urban networks, rather than static objective conceptions of society, are fluid, temporal and subjective. Each of us understands our own networked territory as a ‘scape’, as a changeable space where one interacts. Actors, being individuals or groups of individuals, have their own understanding of things and act according to that. I understand that in this context, ‘scapes’ could be a way to rethink scales.

1.2 Consumption as political action ‘Consumption is political action from the moment that this society we live in is based in consumerism’ (Joan Carol, interview 9th July 2012)

We, as consumers, interact with most of what is around us through consumption and we do it as a routine. Every action we do can be measured and valued through exchange value. Consumption could be enacted in critical or uncritical manner, taking into account broader systemic economic issues related to it or not, but it is clear that we are political by consuming. Cooperative consumption challenges the system by promoting the reduction of intermediaries and, more importantly, by attaching a social perspective to the mere economical one. Capitalism as an economic model tends to detach consumption and production using a number of intermediate actors which develop the role of controlling chains of distribution and supply (Grievink 2003). This current economic system encourages reduction of prices and competition for the sake of business. Linkages between actors in these exchanges lack a social-ecological perspective, and relationships are mainly valued 7

The supply chain funnel in Europe Source: Author’s edition based on Grievink 2003.

Consumers

160.000.000

Customers

89.000.000

Outlets

170.000

Supermarket

600

Buying desk

110

Manufacturers

8.600

Semi-manufacturers

80.000

Suppliers

160.000

Farmers/producers

3.200.000

0 102 103 104 105 106 107 108


in economic terms. Exchange value overcomes the social values attached to production, namely use values. During the last 40 years, neoliberal policies have deregulated markets to provide the means to carry out those purposes promoting fragmentation and delocalisation of enterprises and businesses and globalising the economy. Cheap labour and cheap oil for transport have fostered an economic network where distance and scale have lost their significant traditional role. Since the late 80s, there has been a growing concern in relation to the negative effects of those policies, and a number of actors from very different perspectives and backgrounds have developed multiple responses and proposals to overcome them. Grassroots organisations and civic movements have spoken out to challenge the current economic system, from anti-globalisation movements to environmental activism, trying to promote a more sustainable and just world. Recently, responses have broadened their scope, challenging governing structures, such as the uprisings in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya during 2010 and 2011, or the western reaction to the financial crisis with the Occupy Movement in England and USA. In Spain, in May 2011 the Indignados movement took the streets of most of the biggest cities in the country to protest against a political class who, as the slogan says, ‘did not represent citizens’. In this environment, many have chosen alternative ways of developing relationships in relation to exchange. Among others, some alternative ‘radical’ proposals challenge the current model - such as degrowth proposals for the economy, social alternative currency (with social value attached) or time banks and skills banks (Vivas 2010). Even if these initiatives challenging current beliefs and mindsets are necessary and valuable, I think many of them are more symbolic than realistic. Acknowledging that idea, there is a growing claim to react from a more feasible and grounded daily basis. Many of these political movements have understood the importance of linking these ‘global struggles’ with everyday actions (Vivas 2010a). Cooperative consumption lies in this realm, considering a realistic way to act and react.

1.3 Agroecological Food-Consumers Cooperatives For Sennett, ‘cooperation can be defined, drily, an exchange in which the participants benefit from the encounter’ (2012, p.5). Consumption cooperatives are collectives of different people living in a local area who join together to buy products in bulk as an alternative consumption manner to avoid or reduce intermediaries such distributors or suppliers and to link consumption and production not only economically but also socially (Vivas 2010a, Iwadare 1991). Consumption cooperative groups develop different forms and structures depending on their different historical, cultural, socioeconomic, political and spatial contexts; and, ultimately, depending on the products they consume. For the purpose of the present project I have focused the research in a specific type of consumption cooperative group: the self-managed agroecological food-consumption cooperative. Even though some of these groups would define themselves as organic or ecological consumption groups, the concept of ‘agroecological’ consumption fits better within the current discussion, as it is a wider concept that addresses not only the ecological side of the claims but also the social and political implications of it (Vivas 2010a). 8


Organisation The organisation of self-managed cooperatives may vary from one group to another, however, and for the sake of clarity, I will explain their basic constitutive elements. In the early steps of cooperative life, members meet and agree on the basic rules to follow: objectives, organisation, social and economical commitment, legal status, membership fee, ideology, and so on. They are normally organised in committees which are in charge of different areas and issues. These committees meet regularly in a general assembly when needed, to discuss broader issues, conflict or problems, following democratic decisionmaking processes to solve them. Most of the times, as already mentioned above, the level of legal formalisation is very low among these initiatives, being self-management and voluntary actions crucial for the development of processes - important fact to take into account for the present project. Also, on a weekly basis, these groups join for a short period of time at a meeting point where they collect goods delivered by farmers, producers or suppliers and distribute them among the members of the group. There are a number of individuals in charge to run these tasks every week, shifting turns and with a minimum commitment to attend every two or three months, depending on the size of the group. The weekly basis makes this type of groups very special for the purpose of the research. As they have a commitment with producers who deliver the goods, they have to meet every week, allowing for regular encounters. I believe these weekly meetings and routines bind relationships more effectively than scattered or singular gatherings. The meeting point is generally a place which is usually used for other purposes and groups - such as self-managed social centres or cultural or social associations’ premises - inducing also inter-organisational relationships. These relationships with other groups mainly consist of exchanging and sharing. They share facilities and expenses, they share people through multiple memberships and they exchange and share products and 9

Source: Author’s edition based on Vivas 2010b and FCCUC 2010 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

2010

0

2005

5 2000

In Spain, these types of cooperatives began to be developed during the late 80s. They were mostly formed in dense cities and conurbations such as Madrid or Barcelona. Since the beginning of the 90s, the agroecological food-consumption cooperative movement in Catalonia has been growing steadily, with significant increase in recent years. In 2010, there were 126 group registered in Catalonia. Among those, 82% (104) were in the region of Barcelona and 31% (40) within the municipality of Barcelona itself (FCCUC 2010). In parallel, ecological agriculture has sky-rocketed in recent years, from 396 producers in 1991 up to 27767 in 2010 (MMAMRM 2010).

Growth of food consumption cooperatives in Barcelona.

1995

Many reasons would make people join these groups, but there are basically three areas of interest. First, already mentioned previously, individuals with a political commitment: social justice, fair trade, alternative political stands, anti-globalisation, and so on. In general, most of them would come from grassroots organisations in the spheres of political activism, being people who hold strong political stances wanting to react from a day-to-day routine. A second group would be people who are more sensitive to ecological awareness, global climate changes and food sovereignty concerns, usually supporters of ecological movements. Finally, despite that the importance of militancy and activism in the cooperative movement being widely present, it has to be acknowledged that not everyone participating in these initiatives would be an active member of an anticapitalist organisation. This leads us to the third group, being people who simply want to eat healthy and fresh food.


information, developing complex social structures and alliances, and building social capital. The number of members also may vary in each organisation but the self-managed ones do not normally exceed 30 familiar units. The organisation in familiar units is due to weekly orders. One familiar unit is the basic unit of the group. It can be formed by several individuals, but has a singular vote in the assemblies. Organisations over 30 units usually require more complex management and tend to become professionalised; which implies a decrease in members’ involvement and commitment regarding routines. As such, many cooperatives when approaching a maximum number agreed, do not accept more members and develop a waiting list. The waiting list works as usual: when a unit leaves the group, a new one can take their place. These waiting lists could be very important for the development of the present project, as they could represent a valuable resource to start up new cooperatives in the proximity of existing ones.

Userda9

Verdneda XCS - Ciutat Vella XCS - Eixample Esquerra XCS - El Congrés XCS - Gràcia XCS - Sant Antoni XCS - Sants Hostafrancs

Riverhort Tota Cuca Viu

Pixapins

Mespilus

Panxacontents

La Unió

Les Trementinaires Les Verduretes Les Horteres

La Senalla La Tòfona La Garandola

L’Aixada

Germinal Sants Germinal Farró Germinal Poble Sec Germinal Sarrià I un rave!

El Rusc Estevia

El Borró

Average Barcelona

El Carretó El Guaret El Pinyol Vermell El Rec de Sant Andreu

Number per group

Ecorocaguinarda

Source: Author’s edition based on Vivas 2010b

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Cooxino Cydonia

Number of units per cooperative group in Barcelona

Ass. Consum Ecològic Pirineu Ass. Med. Grodema Coop. de Consum Ecològic del Clot Coop. Pam a Pam

Usually cooperatives exchange goods for money. However, in relation to its political activist stance, it is becoming increasingly common to avoid monetary exchanges, and promote other methods of exchanging – e.g. bartering, social money or time banks, among others. Even if there is monetary exchange, some groups avoid carrying it out through formal channels, avoiding bank accounts, transfer fees and taxes, involving a very peculiar informal economy in the whole system. This situation may be an issue some times for producers as they cannot justify most of their revenues, and may weaken relationships and network structures.

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2. Case Study 2.1 Pam a Pam Cooperative The Pam a Pam Cooperative consists of a group of people who come together in May 2011 to start up a food-consumption cooperative group. They are neither constituted as a legal body nor do they have any formal relationship among them. They do not have a bank account nor are they members of any particular political body. They are just a group of neighbours who have met to consume in a constructive manner. They initially agreed about some internal rules and commitments to follow, and they meet every Wednesday for two hours in the Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre to collect and distribute the goods provided by a variety of producers and suppliers. The group has 15 consumption units and around 25 members, with a variable degree of commitment, depending on their personal circumstances. There are people with different educational background and origins, and a variety of ages, ranging from late 20s to late 50s. Members joined the group for different reasons. Even if most of them had a critical approach to consumption, some just wanted to engage in a local group to have regular social relationships. However, they agreed that they would consume in term of understanding it as a political action. As such, they developed three basic criteria to assess producers. If possible, products should be: (1) from local production or the closest possible to the delivery place among the options, fostering a reduction in transport and promoting local growth; (2) ecological, grown without pesticides and chemicals, and not transgenic; (3) based on fair trade. Consequently, they have developed an assessment of products with regards to scalar, ecological and social criteria. An important number of individuals were already members of other organisations and groups. Some had already met before in some of them or, even, in several. Some people were in organisations engaged with ecological activism, such as Barcelona en Transició (4 member) or Som lo que sembrem (3 members) or Som energia (3 members); also, some were involved in more political organisations, such as the PAH (organisation working with people affected with mortgage laws) (1 member) or the Indignados movement (2 members). Others met before in less politicised local groups, such as a local Gospel Choir (4 members) or the OVI (an organisation to foster independence for people with disabilities) (2 member). In addition, and as a consequence of being part of the cooperative, some members joined others groups and initiatives with similar or complementary goals – e.g. three members joined two different urban orchards in the vicinity. Pam a Pam regularly orders vegetables, fruit, eggs, honey, meet, cheese, bread and biscuits. The producers with whom they have an agreement are various. Among those with who they have the strongest commitment to is Tres quarteres, two young farmers who provide them with vegetables in baskets and also supply the fruits and eggs. To communicate amongst themselves, apart from regular weekly meetings, they use e-mails and the internet. Also, since October 2011, they have a blog where they post both internal information of the group regarding orders or minutes of meetings, and external information in relation to workshops, conferences, interesting links and articles.

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2.2 Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre The Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre is a municipal facility opened to the public in 2007, located in El Parc i la Llacuna Neighbourhood in the district of Sant Martí in Barcelona. Formerly, Sandaru’s factory produced sparkling drinks. Once the factory closed in the late 80s, the owner decided to donate the building to the municipality, with the condition that it had to be used as a municipal facility for elderly people. Since the late 90s, the original building was used for that purpose, but it was too old and big for such use. Thus, the municipality decided to rebuild it to include some other services for the neighbourhood. Presently the building hosts the civic centre, social services from the district and an elderly association. The Centre is managed by Tasca, a private company which works in the socio-cultural service industry, employing six people. They have a concession contract which they can renew every three years, and work in partnership with the municipal authorities. Tasca is mainly in charge of the civic centre, which sets to provide ‘neighbours the first step to express themselves culturally’ (Alda Puig, interview, 5 July 2012). To do so, they use two different methods: (1) programming activities and events, and (2) providing or renting spaces to different organisations and entities. As for the relationship with the Sant Martí district local authorities, they meet regularly with the officials in the district from the Department for the People’s Services, who also manage four other civic centres, as well as municipal libraries and sports centres. They respond to both technical officials and politicians, to whom they report their annual achievements and present a prospectus for the following year. They are also accountable to the ICUB (Barcelona Institute of Culture) like the 52 other civic centres in Barcelona which are networked through this institution.

Original Sandaru’s factory Source: Parc-Sandaru 2012a

New Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre opened in 2007 12


In general, the functioning of the civic centres in Barcelona is similar; programming activities and offering spaces to associations to develop their activities. Their difference is in their functioning regarding management, direction and funding. Some centres are mixed managed with public officials involved and some are independent, which is ParcSandaru’s case. Also, for the development of the activities programmed, the centre has to raise funding for itself as the concession contract with the municipal government only covers employers’ wages and infrastructural expenses (Alda Puig, interview 5 July 2012). The rest of the funding is obtained by renting the spaces available in the centre and through grants, coming from public programmes from different governmental levels (European, Spanish and/or Catalan funds). The civic centre hosts a number of organisations of two kinds. First, neighbourhood groups, which are mainly people from the local area who ask for a space to develop their activities - e.g. groups of mothers with children or local sports associations. Second, organisations related with sustainable approaches – e.g. Barcelona en Transición, Som lo que sembrem, Barnamil and Som energia. The Pam a Pam Cooperative lies between the two types of initiatives, linking neighbourhood engagement with sustainability. Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre programme for July 2012. The Pam a Pam Cooperative is among the services, entities and groups. Source: Parc-Sandaru 2012c

The importance of civic centres is, mainly, in relation to the space and time that they manage, and the ability they have to propose imaginative uses for it. The capacity to propose uses beyond the original constrains of spaces. Meeting places are mere means for the purposes of these groups, valuable for the people as far as they are used. In Joan Carol’s words, ‘those places are not where things happen but where we make things happen’ (interview, 9 July 2012). This underlines the use value of places is what should be acknowledged.

2.3 Neighbourhood In 2007, the Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre opened its doors in a difficult context. Even if El Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou neighbourhood is not a problematic area in terms of socioeconomic problems and is very strategically located, before the centre opened there was a lack of social cohesion that the team in charge of the Civic Centre acknowledged as a challenge. As Alda Puig acknowledges: ‘It was a very complex neighbourhood. There was neither a commercial street nor civic fabric’ (interview 5 July 2012). The area is in the middle of many things, but in none of them: the historical centre, the Ciutadella Park and the Norte Park, the Poblenou industrial area in North, and the beach in the South-East. Its boundaries are mainly demarcated as ends of the other areas, 13


Leaflet announcing the neighbourhood party organised by the Civic Centre Source: Parc-Sandaru 2012b

as left over space. However, a subjective analysis of the cooperative, through mapping individual places, suggests that these boundaries are not clear, and neighbourhood ‘scapes’ or individual territories operate beyond those limits. To develop the map, I organised a focus group where we discussed neighbourhood scale, and pinned on a map several subjective questions (see below). Apart from the question regarding ‘your occupation’ - which shows a heterogeneity of places - the resulting map, surprisingly, showed a confined scope of places in a relative local area, but not limited to the administrative boundaries. When the Centre opened there was one neighbour’s association, one sports club, one elderly association and a committee to organise the annual party of the neighbourhood. The association had only three active members and the annual event was, according to Alda Puig, ‘not as successful a as other neighbouring areas ones’ (interview 9 July 2012). During the 5 years the Centre has been functioning, the number of local associations has increased to more than 10, and they organise a parallel annual neighbourhood party called ‘Fes-te del barri’(2) involving most of the organisations hosted in the centre.

(2) A play of words in Catalan meaning ‘Become part of the neighbourhood’ and similar to ‘Festa del Barri’ which means ‘Party of the neighbourhood-.

Subjective neighbourhood analysis. Photograph of the subjective map made in the focus group and a comparison with administrative boundaries.

Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre

Parc-Sandaru Location Neighbourhood Boundary Your place? Your occupation? Your leisure? Your favorite place? Your bar or restaurant? Your action? Other?

14


2.4 Tres Quarteres Tres Quarteres is, according to them, ‘a young women’s farming project which produces locally and healthy, with ecological principles, rooted in the territory to support food sovereignty’ (Tres Quarteres, interview 12 July 2012). They produce vegetables without pesticides, using local seeds and promoting traditional local varieties of some vegetables - e.g. tomatoes and spinaches. Gloria and Kesia, two young agricultural engineers, cofounded the project in the spring of 2009, after finishing their studies. After spending one year looking for land and another one and a half years in temporal plots, in November 2011, they found a 5’5 Hectares plot in the Maresme area, where they have settled their project. They have rented for 7 years and share with a twin project called La Nansa. In the area, they have joined a network of agroecological producers, with whom they mainly exchange product and buy manure together. Among them they have fixed prices for products, agreed on every year and money is used in exchanges as a value, but no currency is involved. In general, they rely on mutual trust and verbal agreements. They produce their own vegetables and supply fruits and eggs which they buy from local producers. The commitment with the different groups is to supply a basket per unit every week. The baskets are closed, meaning they commit to serve a non-specific variety of vegetables and an amount of kilos each week. This way of providing vegetables is better for starting projects as they have the ability to arrange the baskets depending on what the field has available, preventing them to either buy from other producers what they do not have or losing a surplus of production. The leeway in the amount of kilos supplied depends on the season. In winter the range of kilos decreases. In the summer, they might even have a surplus which they sometimes give for free as a way of balancing the lack of production in the winter. The basic problem they confront is contacting new consumers. Nowadays, they have 5 consumer groups, among which Pam a Pam forms part of, serving a total of 65 units. The groups are quite heterogeneous in terms of reasons for consumption, the relationship with the producers or the commitment. To have a viable project they need to at least double the number of consumption units that they have now. Their consumers have mainly come to them through word of mouth. Even the Cooperative contacted Tres Quarteres through La Nansa (their partners in the field), who were contacted previously by one of the members of the cooperative with whom they were friends from primary school. Most of these relationships are latent but weak relations and their scope limited. According to them, contacting new consumers groups is very difficult. For small entrepreneurs marketing is not an easy task to develop. However, they have been trying to promote talks and informative sessions in different associations and centres. Besides, they also organise visits to their field for schools and associations. Apart from promoting territorial awareness and environmental education, these initiatives also provide them some extra income and, ultimately, new consumer groups.

= 3,5-4 kgs 5 vegetables 8€

15

= 4,5-5 kgs 7 vegetables 11€

= 6-7 kgs 7 vegetables 13,5€

Weekly Baskets


Gloria and Kesia in the fields

Tres quarteres and their groups location + Cooperatives and Producers in Barcelona region. Source: Author’s edition based on CREAF 2012

4

(1) A group of people working together in a company; (2) A group of neighbours who meet in an artist’s association; (3) Family and friend; (4) A shop agreeing to be the distribution point; (5) Pam a Pam. Cooperatives Producers

Tres quarteres 3 5 1 2

Built environment Agricultural land Forests

16


2.5 Process A number of reasons made it possible to start up the cooperative. First, a number of individuals from the neighbourhood were interested in agro-ecologic food consumption. As they did not know each other, they individually asked the Civic Centre if there was any existing group of that kind in the neighbourhood to join. Secondly, the Civic Centre already had an annual event programmed regarding sustainability (Sant Ponç) which they thought could work as a catalyst for other activities throughout the year and as a call for organisations and groups who would like to create new sustainability action groups. As a consequence, on the 8th of May 2011, the Centre programmed a lecture called Cooperatives with the intervention of a person coming from an already established cooperative in another neighbourhood. The talk dealt with issues regarding how to begin a cooperative, steps to follow, legal organisation, and so on. Ultimately, that lecture was the catalyst of the new cooperative. The ones interested in setting up a group exchanged email addresses and decided to meet the following weeks. The fact that a Civic Centre in Barcelona promoted such initiative is key. Even if the lecture itself is not so relevant, as many initiatives of this kind are developed in Barcelona, linking it with an offer of space to develop activities in the premises is remarkable, as it triggered what can be considered a ‘pilot project’ in the city. Usually, the centre provides spaces to entities of groups already constituted. To get these spaces, the groups have to be legally constituted and have to sign an agreement with the centre. Despite this condition, in the case of the cooperative, as they were not constituted as a legal body, a verbal agreement with the director of the centre was enough to begin. This fact is very important to take into account, because it allows processes to occur, acknowledging the importance of temporality. In fact, it has not been until one year later that the centre asked for that condition. Importantly, the individual agency of representatives -in this case the director of the centre- allows for certain informality needed to develop the formation-process. From then on, the Centre provided access to two different spaces: (1) a meeting room and (2) an under-utilised storage room. The agreement with the Centre was that the utilisation of those facilities should be in exchange for some kind of activity or event to engage neighbours with sustainability. As a result, the group has developed diverse activities in the Centre. For example: In November 2011, they organised three workshops about ecology at home called ‘Green Homes’; in May 2012, they organised a exchange market for children; in June 2012, they have been involved in the organisation of a vegan cooking workshop, and so on. Apart from these activities, members have met for Christmas and just before the summer to celebrate special occasions and dates. They have also developed a close relationship with the producers. Some go to help them with the harvesting and they have gone to visit their site a couple of times and celebrated with a big ‘vegetable BBQ party’ in March 2012.

17


Cooperative Interactions

Source: Author’s edition based on Parc-Sandaru 2012a and Cooperative member’s photographs

Event (people)

Meetings (people)

Baskets delivered

E-mails sent

Blog posts

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

02-08/05/2011 09-15/05/2011 16-22/05/2011 23-29/05/2011 30/05-05/06/2011 06-12/06/2011 13-19/06/2011 20-26/06/2011 27/06-03/07/2011 04-10/07/2011 11-17/07/2011 18-24/07/2011 25-31/07/2011 01-07/08/2011 08-14/08/2011 15-21/08/2011 22-28/08/2011 29/08-04/09/2011 05-11/09/2011 12-18/09/2011 19-25/09/2011 26/09-02/10/2011 03-09/10/2011 10-16/10/2011 17-23/10/2011 24-30/10/2011 31/1006/11/2011 07-13/11/2011 14-20/11/2011 21-27/11/2011 28/10-04/12/2011 05-11/12/2012 12-18/12/2011 19-25/12/2012 26/12-01/01/2012 02-08/01/2012 09-15/01/2012 16-22/01/2012 23-29/01/2012 30/01-05/02/2012 06-12/02/2012 13-19/02/2012 26-26/02/2012 27/02-04/03/2012 05-11/03/2012 12-18/03/2012 19-25/03/2012 26/03-01/04/2012 02-08/04/2012 09-15/04/2012 16-22/04/2012 23-29/04/2012 30/04-06/05/2012 07-13/05/2012 14-20/05/2012 21-27/05/2012 28/05-03/06/2012 04-10/06/2012 11-17/06/2012 18-24/06/2012 25/06-01/07/2012 02-08/07/2012 09-15/07/2012 16-22/07/2012 23-29/07/2012

First meeting, included in the sustainable cycle of “Sant Ponç” 08/05/2011 First visit to Tres quarteres 23/09/2011

“Green Homes” Workshop With Barnamil 21/11/2011

Screening of “In Transition 2.0” With Barcelona en Transició 4/07/2012 Christmas Dinner 20/12/2011

BBQ in Tres quarteres field With the other consumption groups provided by them 10/03/2012

Exchange Marker for children 12/05/2012

Summer Dinner 19/07/2012

18


2.6 Relationships I have mapped the network of relationships among actors involved with the cooperative, differentiating them according to the areas they operate in. The task has proven difficult, mostly because individuals, through multiple memberships, operate on different scales or territories. The network core or hub is the Pam a Pam, and as such, the map could be considered its ‘networked scape’. The map has been built from interviews, chats and personal knowledge of the case. All these relationships were developed, and are still developed, through different means: regular meetings, email exchange, informal chats, dinners, visits to similar projects, and organisation of events and activities.

Network of relationships of the Pam a Pam Cooperative

Relationships Regular

} Pre-Bound Singular Post-Bound Regular } Latent

Relationships (lines in the drawing) among actors can be divided into: latent or regular; singular; and previously bound or bound through the process. In the first months of the process of formation, most external relationships were singular contacts with previous latent acquaintance involved in similar experiences. The group needed information – e.g. how to write down the rules for the organisation - and some people they knew were contacted to provide it. Those contacts were basically with other consumption cooperatives. Most relationships were mediations between Pam a Pam and the final producers or products. Nuria N

Rous Selva

Bea

Aniol

Producers and Suppliers Public bodies Other groups Individuals

Montse Espai 3

Almudena

Ignacio

Joan

Mums&tots

Diver punt

Agnès Fernando

Alvaro

Marta Nuria

Elena Tania Pilar

Municipal level

Lluisa

Associació de Veïns

Commisió Fes-te del Barri OVI

Hort Fort Pienc

Colectivo Brasil Catalunya Intercanvi lingüistic

Coro de Gospel

Germinal

Barna mil

Pixapins

Districte Sociadad Flamenca el Dorado

Barcelona en Transición Tasca Barcelona Consensus

La Gleva

ICCUP

Aurea Social Can Masdeu

Xarxa de consum solidari

Council

Aurora del Camp

Regional Level

Cooperativa Integral Catalana

Kosturica La Nansa Marta Can perol

Serveis Socials Centre de Gent Gran

Laura Gloria M

Hort Forat de la Vergonya Luca Laia Tota cuca viu

Municipal level

Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre

Elba

Xavi

Pachamama

Unió esportiva Parc

Alda

Xavi

Oti

Cooperativa Pam a Pam

Neighbourhood level

Fruites Montmany La Xarxeta Produector Eggs

Regional Level

19

Cooperatives

Gloria J

Carlos

State level

Actors

PAH

ILP

Kesia

Gloria

Viladecans

Tres Quarteres Ecotall

La Repera

Formatges La Cleda

Xarxa de Productors Vallés Xarxa de Productors Maresme

Llavors Orientals

Producció de plantels Ara Coop

Som lo que sembrem

Som Energia


A sequence of the relationships through the year would provide a richer understanding on how these relationships develop, as a process rather than a static picture. Repeated relationships have been mostly developed among individuals within the cooperative and with both employers of the Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre and Tres quarteres. In these specific relationships, day-to-day interactions are based on dealing with conflicts. The way those are solved, the ability to manage and improvise solutions, and the skills of participants to have a positive attitude to emerging issues have been key to develop constructive social ties. Interestingly, the level of interpersonal trust and affinity has increasingly grown. Finally, two conflicts have been underlying during the year that have to be acknowledged, one solved and the other not. As for the latter, the Centre recognises the fact that there could be complaints from neighbourhood grocery shops in relations to possible unfair competition promoted in public facilities. I will not examine this issue in depth, but it is important to take it into account during the process of development of the proposal. The now solved problem was that the Civic Centre closes in August for holidays, and for farmers, in general, August is their highest season. From the beginning the group had to find an alternative place for that month. The alternative came from the Neighbours Association of the area. They are only three individuals nowadays, and they are willing to invite new people in to the association. They have premises on the ground floor of a building in the vicinity which is publicly owned and they only open 2 days a week from 7pm to 9pm. The cooperative has contacted them and they have agreed to host them in August in exchange to be part of the association. As such, three members of the cooperative have joined them and during August 2012, they are using the place to deliver their goods. Within the network of the Cooperative, surprisingly, neither the civic centre nor the producers have met each other throughout the year, despite the fact that they share something which provides very interesting outcomes to both of them. On one hand, Pam a Pam generates neighbourhood social ties and social capital, a valuable source for the Civic Centre to build over. On the other, the Cooperative provides consumers to develop Tres Quarteres project. My question is: What if the cooperative was not there? Would it not be interesting to bridge a relationship between public facilities and producers? Could it not be possible to make a project mediating between the two?

Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre Cooperativa Pam a Pam

What if?

Tres Quarteres

20


3. Proposal 3.1 Cooperation as a Project For The City This part develops a proposal for a cooperative city in Barcelona. The idea is to propose strategies fostering cooperation in the city by promoting the formation of new consumption cooperatives which could provide stronger social ties and bonds to organisations, institutions and individuals within the city and beyond, and, hence, increase social capital in the city and its territory. Drawing out from the case study of the Pam a Pam Cooperative, I will propose strategies to bridge production in the territory and urban public facilities within the built environment through cooperation and consumption. I consider that building consumption cooperatives in the city could foster collective action and social ties within the city and promote at the same time a more sustainable society. The proposal has been shaped by two assumptions stemming from the previous case study. First, in a dense city like Barcelona, there are enough people willing to join cooperative consumption initiatives, however, it is very difficult to put them in contact. I consider this is due to two reasons: there are not enough effective information channels, and in some areas there is a weak civic fabric. The information channels could be provided by different means: (a) cooperative themselves or networks of cooperatives, (b) public facilities, and (c) producers or networks of producers interested in having new customers. A stronger civic fabric could be fostered by public institutions in neighbourhood facilities providing the means and promoting inter-organisational activities. Second, land property values in Barcelona are expensive compared to other Spanish cities. Even if in recent years, due to the real estate crises, rents and leases have decreased to levels of 2004, in the current financial crises, many people are struggling to get to the end of the month and unemployment rates are increasingly rising up. For small cooperative groups, renting premises to develop their projects is not profitable, as the amount of hours a week they use it is very low. Accessing publicly owned vacant places or sharing underutilised places in public facilities or in others organisations premises, as we have seen, could be an interesting possibility to be considered. This proposal, on this line, subscribes to the importance of use value of places, and the role that public ownership could have promoting the use of places for social welfare. In short, the proposal will analyse the city with two goals in mind: connecting people and providing places. To do so, first I will assess the existing opportunities by analysing available data and mapping places and areas regarding these two objectives.

21


Source: all images and maps in this part are author’s editions based on several Databases: Ajuntament de Barcelona 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, FCCUC 2010, CREAF 2012 and Vivas 2010b.

54

49

51

43

40 39 22 28 D5

27

33

D6 31

23 24

32

0

1km

2km

3km

72 70 71

65

D10

14

68 67

2

15

69

4 3

10

16

73

5

D1 D

9

20 17

59

6

7

8

19

18

D9

66 D2

D4

64

26

21

Barcelona List and location of neighborhoods and districts in the city

58

52

48 60 D8 47 47 45 466 D7 41 422 44 62 61 36 38 37 63 29 35 34 30

25

57

53

50

N

56

55

11 D3

13

Districts D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10

12

Ciutat Vella Eixample Sants - Montjuic Les Corts Sarrià- St. Gervasi Gràcia Horta - Guinardó Nou Barris Sant Andreu Sant Martí

Neighbourhoods 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

el Raval el Barri Gòtic la Barceloneta Sant Pere, Santa Caterina i la Ribera el Fort Pienc la Sagrada Família la Dreta de l'Eixample l'Antiga Esquerra de l'Eixample la Nova Esquerra de l'Eixample Sant Antoni el Poble Sec la Marina del Prat Vermell la Marina de Port la Font de la Guatlla Hostafrancs la Bordeta Sants - Badal Sants

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

les Corts la Maternitat i Sant Ramon Pedralbes Vallvidrera, el Tibidabo i les Planes Sarrià les Tres Torres Sant Gervasi - la Bonanova Sant Gervasi - Galvany el Putxet i el Farró Vallcarca i els Penitents el Coll la Salut la Vila de Gràcia el Camp d'en Grassot i Gràcia Nova el Baix Guinardó Can Baró el Guinardó la Font d'en Fargues

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

el Carmel la Teixonera Sant Genís dels Agudells Montbau la Vall d'Hebron la Clota Horta Vilapicina i la Torre Llobeta Porta el Turó de la Peira Can Peguera la Guineueta Canyelles les Roquetes Verdun la Prosperitat la Trinitat Nova Torre Baró Ciutat Meridiana Vallbona

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73

la Trinitat Vella Baró de Viver el Bon Pastor Sant Andreu la Sagrera el Congrés i els Indians Navas el Camp de l'Arpa del Clot el Clot el Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou la Vila Olímpica del Poblenou el Poblenou Diagonal Mar i el Front Marítim del Poblenou el Besòs i el Maresme Provençals del Poblenou Sant Martí de Provençals la Verneda i la Pau

22


3.2 Connecting People This first category poses the following questions: Who are the people who could be willing to start a project like this? What are the mechanisms to engage a group of different people together in a collective project like this? And ultimately, how do you find the people interested? The analysis examines the city with this question in mind matching two different concepts Density and Civic Fabric. Density The Barcelona municipality is the second biggest municipality in Spain with 1.615.448 inhabitants (after Madrid with 3.265.038), and the densest big city by far in the country, with a medium density of 158,67 inh/Ha (INE 2012). In comparison, Madrid has 51,98 hab./Ha (INE 2012). This peculiarity in density is mainly due to its topographical conditions, constrained by the sea in the south-east and by the Collserolla Mountains in the north-west. Within the boundary of the municipality itself, there are also two big neighbourhoods with very low population and density: (1) la Marina del Prat Vermell, which covers the Port and the industrial are associated, with 0,76 inh/Ha, and (2)Vallvidrera, el Tibidabo i les Planes, a neighbourhood in the limits of the hills of Collserolla, with a 3,73 inh/ Ha. . This increases the density of the built environment, and raises density in the rest of the city to over 200 inh/Ha. Even more, in certain specific areas such as the historic centre and several historic neighbourhood (former villages embedded in the city) density reaches levels over 400 inh/Ha.

Population Density

Built populated environment

(2)

(2)

(inh./Ha) 0-100

Populated areas

100-200 (1)

200-300 300-400 >400

23

(1)

Non-populated areas Voids and open spaces


For the purpose of this project, density is an important factor to take into account. Specially in Barcelona, those areas with very high density, many times lack parks and open spaces which makes difficult the implementation of urban orchards or similar projects. As an alternative, cooperative consupmtion in a viable substitution of this type of initiatives engaging sustainability and territorial awareness. As such, the two very low density neighbourhoods of the city will be considered with lower priority for intervention. I understand these two areas should have a specific analysis due to its particular character. Civic Fabric To assess the level of strength or weakness of civic fabric, I have mapped the density of associations per capita in the different neighbourhoods. Particularly, neighbourhood associations are very important actors in this fabric, as they, in general, have spaces provided by the municipality, linkages and responsibility in Neighbourhood and District Committees. However, a limitation in this analysis is that, despite the number of associations per inhabitant could be high, the level and amount of relationships among associations is not guaranteed. Further analysis on this line should engage local authorities to develop a thorough analysis of this kind in every specific location, contacting different associations and surveying the level of ties among them.

Density of Associations

Neighbours’ Associations

24


3.3 Providing Places The second category relates to the following questions: How do you manage the places for encounter? Where are those places and for who? Who offers those places? The analysis looks for possibilities and opportunities in the city through three main categories: Inequalities, Civic Places, and Existing Cooperatives. The first one assesses difficulties of access and the second two opportunities and resources. Inequalities Barcelona has an uneven geography. Maps showing income, land property value and education level by neighbourhood show a clear tendency of the neighbourhoods in the centre and towards the western part of the city to be wealthier and with a higher average education level than the northern and the southern areas. Also, land property values are higher, and, if comparing the ratio between income levels and land value, inequalities increase. The proposal should promote access to places for those who are less capable to do so. I consider that a more important effort should be done in those neighbourhoods with less economic recourses. As such, priority in the first phases of the project should be focused in those neighbourhoods. Civic Places In Barcelona there are 52 Civic Centres and 36 Neighbourhood Centres. Together they comprise the network of public centres for citizen participation. The Civic Centres are bigger facilities, and more or less evenly distributed through the city. They are accountable to each district and also are networked through the ICUB (Barcelona Institute of Culture). As we have seen before, they sometimes share facilities with other services Income

Land value

(Daily â‚Ź/inh.)

(Ratio. Barcelona =100)

40-70

38-68

70-90

69-86

90-115

87-110

115-150

111-141

>150

142-243

(Ratio. Barcelona =100) 39-66 67-91 91-102 103-117 117-167

25

Income / Land value

Education level

(Average level. 1=No Studies-5=University) 2.13-2.55 2.56-2.98 2.99-3.36 3.37-3.53 3.54-3.93


such as elderly, youth, children and social services, which provide them with linkages and ties in the areas they serve. The Neighbourhood Centres are smaller facilities with a special engagement in more deprived areas, as we can see in the map. They provide similar services than civic centres, but focus on specific population. In this analysis of places I have chosen to map their specific location and add a generic covering area of 500 m. radius. This area responds to a 5 minute walk in a flat area, which I consider a walkable distance for someone carrying a load. Understanding that many parts of the city are steep and that some places are less accessible than others. A more accurate study of accessibility of every centre should be developed in other to properly assess the results. Existing Cooperatives Finally, and most importantly, I have located the existing food-consumption cooperatives which have data available online. As far as I am concerned, there are other groups and initiatives that are still not available in the web, either because they have not published their data, or because they have not contacted websites which link cooperatives and producers, which is where I have collected most of the data. Presently, there are several websites with data available on line, and projects which try to develop relationships between consumption groups, but none of them provides a full picture of the current situation. Existing consumption cooperatives are important as they could provide two valuable resources: (1) individuals interested in promoting informative talks and conferences to explain their experiences; and (2) access to waiting lists of those groups.

Civic Centres and Neighbourhood Centres

Existing Food-Consumption Cooperatives

Civic Centres Neigh. Centres

26


3.4 Strategies The following strategies provide an overview of what could possibly be done to foster the formation of new cooperatives in Barcelona. The aim would be to promote activities in relation with cooperative consumption, environmental awareness and sustainability, acting as catalysts to foster subsequent social ties. In order to do so, a range of different events will be proposed, engaging locals with activities and providing basic initial information. The programme should be implemented in each case as a temporal intervention to promote collaboration between entities, rather than as a permanent concession. The proposal seeks to foster the formation of groups, and the provision of places will be conditioned to a continuous commitment from those groups with local programmes. The spaces will be provided as long as the groups would revert this effort into benefits for the local community. General strategies at the municipal level • Cooperative database project: An updated database of the different cooperatives in Barcelona and its coordinated management would be crucial for the successful development of the current project. • Platform for connection: Beyond the consumption cooperatives, it could be effective to provide information of producers that are located in areas surrounding Barcelona. This could be done in association with networks of producers and consumers. • Communication: Programmes fostering territorial awareness and environmental education should be promoted at the neighbourhood level. These programmes could include information in relation to local production and food sovereignty. Currently there are several groups and organisations already developing projects of this kind that could be engaged with the initiative. Among them I want to underline three possible interesting contacts: (1) the Federation of Consumption Cooperatives of Catalonia (FCCUC), (2) La repera, a collective project to develop links between producers and consumers, and (3) Ara coop, a project who helps and assess cooperative projects. Other similar initiatives are Ecoconsum, a network of cooperatives with link to local producers and the Xarxa de Consum Solidari, a network which involves also a fair trade consumption project. Beyond this, and involving supramunicipal institutions, such as Barcelona Regional, a framework for relationships with networks of producers should also be enhanced. In the Barcelona region, there are already several networks of this kind – e.g. La Xarxeta, Xarxa de productors ecologics del Maresme or Xarxa de productors de Gallecs, among others. Spatial strategies at neighbourhood level Through matching data, maps and goals, I propose different strategies regarding the situation of neighbourhoods and public centres. The general approach will be assessed by the two basic goals I was seeking to achieve: connecting people and providing places. The implementation of strategies will lie in the development of different ties among actors involved in each neighbourhood depending on these two conditions through the diagram on the next page. The responsibility of promoting relationships would be developed from two levels: (1) from neighbourhood level in areas with lack of facilities and (2) from specific centres in those areas with facilities. The relationships would be established between public bodies 27


Diagram of intervention strategies Lack of facilities

Weak civic fabric

Strong Civic fabric

Neighbourhood and district level engagement.

Provision of places in vacant public facilities.

Linkages from neighbourhood level with organisations for promotion of events.

Strategies across borders with centres, cooperatives and associations in surrounding areas.

Provision of places in vacant public facilities.

Strategies across borders with civic centres in surrounding areas.

Civic Centres engagement.

Imaginative solution for provision of places within existing facilities.

Civic Centres and associations engagement.

Promotion of linkages between civic centres and existing associations and cooperatives.

Available places

Promotion of programmes to foster formation of new cooperatives.

Map assessing priority for intervention at neighbourhood level.

56

55 54

49 43

41

422

30 25

High Yes

Low High

Yes

No Low High Yes Low High

Low density

31

24

Low

40/33/17/48/53/49

High

71

19

36/67

High

42

Low

47/65/43/45/37/70/38/55/69/14/39/59/51

High

41/46/72/57/16/13/34/3/8/54/56/58

Low

32/8/30/26/64/19/25/24/20

High

21/7

Low High Low

63

High

62/66/15/11/1/68

Low

5/9/6/27/10/35/29

High

23/4/18/2

High

12/22

65

69

4 2 10

15 14

68 67

9

16

71

66

20

Low

72

5

8

18

73

6

26

21

17

61

64

7 Neighbourhood number

No No Low

32

23

59

70 33

27

60

63

35

34

28

58

52

37

29

22

Associations density

Income / Land value ratio

Civic Centres

Cooperatives

39 38

51

48 47 47 466 45 44 62 36

40

57

53

50

3

11

13 12

31 50/52/44/60/61/73

28


and organisations or entities - particularly with existing consumption cooperatives or neighbourhood associations. The neighbourhood would promote relationships with other neighbourhoods and districts, with organisations within their boundaries and beyond them, through a strategy based on contiguity and proximity. Centres will promote links with other centres in their proximity and with those with similar programmes and activities through contiguity, proximity and affinity. In addition, they will promote linkages with existing cooperatives in their local areas, and, ultimately, promote interventions within their local coverage areas in different neighbourhoods and districts without facilities.

Proposed connections between Centres and Cooperatives

Public Centres

Public Centres

Cooperatives

Cooperatives

Links Centre/Centre

Coop coverage area

Links Centre/Coop.

Shared coverage area

Links Coop./Coop.

Centre coverage area

Proposed connections between existing Cooperatives and Neighbourhoods with lack of Cooperatives

29

Proposed 500 m. coverage areas.

Proposed connections between existing Public Centres and Neighbourhoods with lack of Public Centres

Cooperatives

Public Centres

Links Coop./Neigh.

Links Centre/Neigh.

Coverage area

Coverage area

Neigh. with no Coop

Neigh. with no Centre


Proposal for linkages among different actors in different scales within administrative boundaries and across.

Cooperatives and coverage area Public Centres and coverage area Links Centre/Centre Links Centre/Coop. Links Coop./Coop. Links Coop./Neigh. Links Centre/Neigh. Links Coop./Distrcits Links Centre/Distrcits

Municipal boundary District boundary Neighbourhood boundary Built environment

30


Conclusion The present paper has dealt with the analysis of urban networks and the understanding of their complexity through cooperation. I have analysed the different social-spatial relationships built over the formation-process of a food-consumption cooperative in the city of Barcelona to develop a proposal engaging both civil society and public institutions to promote the formation of new consumption cooperative groups. I have proposed new relationships among different actors - being individuals, groups, institutions and governing levels - within neighbourhoods and across their boundaries. I believe this proposal ultimately could (1) enhance links among existing actors and foster new social bonds and collective interaction, generating civic fabric and (2) promote sustainability and territorial awareness. I propose a city which acknowledges its territory through fostering social and spatial interaction; multi-scalar relationships that link sustainability in the region through social capital in the neighbourhoods. I propose a city which acknowledges its double condition of bounded and networked through cooperative consumption. I propose a city which acknowledges the border condition of its administrative boundaries benefiting from porosity and contiguity. In short, I propose the ‘open city’ that Sennett suggests (2008) as a system which operates through fluid, relational and temporal processes, growing and benefiting from exchanges and social interaction.

31


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Grupos_de_consumo (2012) ‘Grupos de consumo agroecológico’, [online], available: http:// gruposdeconsumo.blogspot.co.uk/ [accessed 15 August 2012]. Harvey, D. (2008) ‘The Right to the City’, New Left Review, (53), 23-+. Heynen, N., Kaika, M. and Swyngedouw, E., eds. (2006) In the nature of cities : urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism, London ; New York: Routledge. INE (2012) ‘Instituto Nacional de Estadística’, [online], available: http://www.ine.es [accessed 10 August 2012]. Iwadare, H. (1991) ‘Consumer Cooperatives in the Spotlight’, Japan Quarterly, 38(4), 429435. Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the social : an introduction to actor-network-theory, Clarendon lectures in management studies, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. Lefebvre, H. (2003) The urban revolution, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. MMAMRM (2010) Estadísticas 2010. Agricultura Ecológica - España, Ministerio De Medio Ambiente Y Medio Rural Y Marino. Parc-Sandaru (2012a) ‘Centre Civic Parc Sandaru’, [online], available: http://www.ccparcsandaru. cat/ [accessed 20 August 2012]. Parc-Sandaru (2012b) ‘Fes-te del Barri’, Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre, Districte de Sant Martí Parc-Sandaru (2012c) ‘Programació d’estiu’, Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre, Districte de Sant Martí, Putnam, R. D. and Canadian Centre for Management Development. (1996) The decline of civil society : how come ? so what ?, John L Manion lecture, Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Management Development. Putnam, R. D., Leonardi, R. and Nanetti, R. (1993) Making democracy work : civic traditions in modern Italy, Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. Repera (2012) ‘On ens trobem els grups de consum?’, Web de la Repera, jornades de trobada i debat entre pagesia i consumidors en l’agroecologia [online], available: http://repera.wordpress. com/2009/07/24/on-grups-de-consum/ [accessed 25 August 2012]. Sennett, R. (2008) ‘The Public Realm’, available: http://www.richardsennett.com/site/SENN/ Templates/General2.aspx?pageid=16 [accessed 10 August 2012]. Sennett, R. (2012) Together : the rituals, pleasures and politics of cooperation, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Steel, C. (2008) Hungry city : how food shapes our lives, London: Chatto & Windus. Swyngedouw, E. (1997) ‘Neither Global nor Local: ‘glocalization’ and the politics of scale’ in Cox, K. R., ed. Spaces of globalization : reasserting the power of the local, New York: Guilford Press, 137-166. Swyngedouw, E. and Heynen, N. C. (2003) ‘Urban political ecology, justice and the politics of scale’, Antipode, 35(5), 898-918. Vivas, E. (2010a) ‘Consumo agroecológico, una opción politica’, Viento Sur, Num. 108. Vivas, E. (2010b) ‘Grups i cooperatives de consum agroecològic a Barcelona’, available: http:// esthervivas.com/2010/01/19/grups-i-cooperatives-de-consum-agroecologic-a-barcelona/ [accessed 10th July 2012]. 33


Annexes Annex 1

Field work

Interviews • 5 July 2012. Alda Puig, Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre’s Director. Wordclouds have been generated from personal notes with the internet software ‘Make a wordcloud’. Settings: entries by count / minimum word repeatition twice / excluded words: under 2 letters, pronouns, prepositions and numbers. Source: http://worditout.com/wordcloud/make-a-new-one

• 9 July 2012. Marta Colina. Parc-Sandaru Civic Centre’s Coordinator.

• 9 July 2012. Joan Carol. Member of the Pam a Pam Cooperative.

34


• 12 July 2012. Gloria and Kesia. Co-founders of Tres quarteres. Visit to the field.

Focus groups Maps generated by participans • 4 July 2012. Pam a Pam Cooperative. Delivery day. Subjective map focus group. 10 participants. • 5 July 2012. Agnès Maluquer and Ignacio Ramos. Members of the Pam a Pam Cooperative.

35


• 10 July 2012. Fernando Sanchez-Migallón and Lluisa Rojas. Members of the Pam a Pam Cooperative.

• 10 July 2012. Beatriz Joven and Gloria Justel.Members of the Pam a Pam Cooperative.

36


• 18 July 2012. Pam a Pam Cooperative. Delivery day. Video shoot. 15 participants. Informal chats • 24 May 2012. Álvaro Perez. Member of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. • 25 May 2012. Joan Carol. Member of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. • 9 July 2012. Aniol Olmedo. Member of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. • 11 July 2012. Pam a Pam Cooperative. Delivery day. Montse Oliva, Otilia Roman, Nuria Nubiola. • 19 July 2012. Joan Carol. Members of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. • 9 August 2012. Gloria Torret. Co-founder of Tres quarteres. Skype.

Annex 2

Non-accessible documents reviewed Source: CoopPamaPam 2012

• ‘Objetivos y Normas de la Cooperativa’ [Goals and Rules of the Cooperative]. Published in the blog. Privately access. • 33 Meeting Minutes of the Pam a Pam Cooperative. Between May 2011 and July 2012. Published in the blog. Privately access. • 389 emails exchanged among members. Personal information. • Weekly orders for producers and suppliers. Published in the blog. Privately access. • Information provided by producers, such as products, prices, ideology. Published in the blog. Privately access. • Pamphlets and leaflets from similar projects and initiatives.

37


Annex 3

Consumption cooperatives in Barcelona Source: Vivas 2010b and FCCUC 2010

Name

Area / District

Address

Year

Units

Associació de Consum Ecològic Pirineu

Can Baró / Horta-Guinardó

c. Josep Serrano, núm. 57-71

2008

25

Associació Mediambiental Grodema – Grup de consum

Roquetes / Nou Barris

c. Romaní, núm. 6

2010

Consum Ecològic del Clot

El Clot

c. Fontnova, núm. 12

2006

30

Cooperativa Pam a Pam

El parc i la llacuna

C. Buenaventura Munoz

2011

15

Cooxino

Raval / Ciutat Vella

c. Vistalegre, núm. 15

2008

20

Cydonia

Clot / Poblenou

Passatge Bosch i Labrús, núm. 16.

1996

45

Ecorocaguinarda

El Guinardó

c. Xiprer, núm.13

2009

El Borró

Sant Andreu

c. Balari i Jovany, núm. 14, baixos.

2004

25

El Carretó

Poble Sec

c. Font Honrada, núm. 32-34

2007

50

El Guaret

Sagrada Família / Eixample Dreta

c. Padilla, núm. 210, baixos (

2008

20

El Pinyol Vermell

Gràcia

c. Sant Pere Màrtir, núm. 37 baixos

2008

25

El Rec de Sant Andreu

El Congrés

c. Cardenal Tedeschini, núm. 67

2004

El Rusc

Gràcia

c. Massens 58

2009

33

Estevia

Poblenou

Germinal Sants

Sants

c. Rossend Arús, núm. 74

1993

70

Germinal Farró

Farró / Gràcia

c. Sant Hermenegild, núm. 18, botiga 2.

2005

50

Germinal Poble Sec

Poble Sec

c. Radàs, núm. 27

2008

20

Germinal Sarrià

Sarrià

c. Pedró de la Creu, núm. 28, baixos

2003

25

I un rave!

Sagrada Família / Eixample Dreta

Passatge Conradí, núm. 3

L’Aixada

Gràcia

c. Virtut, núm. 15, baixos

2004

40

La Senalla

Gràcia

c. Fraternitat, núm. 8-10

2010

25

La Tòfona

Gràcia

c. del Robí, núm. 5

2002

45

La Garandola

Sagrada Família / Eixample Dreta

La Unió

Poblenou

c. Marià Aguiló, núm. 35

2006

20

Les Trementinaires

Vallcarca

c. L’aldea, núm. 8

2008

25

Les Verduretes

Gràcia

c. del Robí, núm. 5

2006

18

Les Horteres

Casc antic /Ribera

Carrer del rec

2012

15

Mespilus

Poblenou

Camí Antic de València, núm. 95-97

2008

36

Panxacontents

Sants

. Violant d’Hongria, núm. 71

2006

30

Pixapins

Fort Pienc / Eixample Dreta

c. Ali-Bei, núm. 94-96

2009

15

Riverhort

Horta

c. Rivero, núm. 13

2008

12

Tota Cuca Viu

La Ribera / Ciutat Vella

c. Bou de Sant Pere, núm. 3

2001

Userda9

Prosperitat / Nou Barris

c. Formentera, núm. 59,

2000

Verdneda

Verneda

Fluvià, núm. 204

2003

26

XCSolidari – Ciutat Vella

La Ribera / Ciutat Vella

Pl. Sant Agustí Vell, 15

2004

50

XCSolidari – Eixample Esquerra

Eixample Esquerra

c. Rosselló, núm. 42, baixos

2006

30

XCSolidari– El Congrés

El Congrés / Sant Andreu

c. Cardenal Tedeschini, núm. 67, local

2010

XCSolidari – Gràcia

Gràcia

Plaça del Sol, núm. 19-20

2006

30

XCSolidari – Sant Antoni

Sant Antoni

c. Viladomat, núm. 78, 4a planta

2006

30

XCSolidari – Sants Hostafrancs

Hostafrancs / Sants

c. Rector Triadó, núm. 8

2008

10

38


Annex 4

Neighbourhood database Source: Ajuntament de Barcelona 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, FCCUC 2010, CREAF 2012 and Vivas 2010b.

District

D1_Ciutat Vella

Code

1 2 3 4 D2_Eixample 5 6 7 8 9 10 D3_Sants-Montjuic 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 D4_Les Corts 19 20 21 D5_Sarria-Sant Gervasi 22 23 24 25 26 27 D6_Gracia 28 29 30 31 32 D7_Horta-Guinardo 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 D8_Nou Barris 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 D9_Sant Andreu 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 D10_Sant Marti 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73

39

Area/Neighbourhood

Population Area

Density

Barcelona el Raval el Barri Gòtic la Barceloneta Sant Pere, Santa Caterina i la Ribera el Fort Pienc la Sagrada Família la Dreta de l'Eixample l'Antiga Esquerra de l'Eixample la Nova Esquerra de l'Eixample Sant Antoni el Poble Sec la Marina del Prat Vermell la Marina de Port la Font de la Guatlla Hostafrancs la Bordeta Sants - Badal Sants les Corts la Maternitat i Sant Ramon Pedralbes Vallvidrera, el Tibidabo i les Planes Sarrià les Tres Torres Sant Gervasi - la Bonanova Sant Gervasi - Galvany el Putxet i el Farró Vallcarca i els Penitents el Coll la Salut la Vila de Gràcia el Camp d'en Grassot i Gràcia Nova el Baix Guinardó Can Baró el Guinardó la Font d'en Fargues el Carmel la Teixonera Sant Genís dels Agudells Montbau la Vall d'Hebron la Clota Horta Vilapicina i la Torre Llobeta Porta el Turó de la Peira Can Peguera la Guineueta Canyelles les Roquetes Verdun la Prosperitat la Trinitat Nova Torre Baró Ciutat Meridiana Vallbona la Trinitat Vella Baró de Viver el Bon Pastor Sant Andreu la Sagrera el Congrés i els Indians Navas el Camp de l'Arpa del Clot el Clot el Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou la Vila Olímpica del Poblenou el Poblenou Diagonal Mar i el Front Marítim del Poblenou el Besòs i el Maresme Provençals del Poblenou Sant Martí de Provençals la Verneda i la Pau

inh. 1.638.103 49.315 21.045 16.351 23.136 33.202 52.890 43.609 42.183 58.559 38.742 41.018 1.085 30.128 10.336 16.208 18.823 24.507 42.438 47.664 23.954 11.650 4.295 23.802 15.832 24.270 46.829 30.461 15.687 7.299 13.332 52.801 34.838 26.287 9.159 35.836 9.608 33.081 11.494 7.228 5.261 5.618 480 27.909 25.957 23.993 16.593 2.210 15.411 7.359 16.233 12.418 26.848 8.070 2.200 11.355 1.314 10.574 2.372 13.808 55.813 29.002 14.111 21.858 38.917 27.562 13.457 9.202 31.433 11.132 24.527 19.542 26.457 29.626

Inh./Ha 160,35 448,97 249,97 124,45 207,63 357,43 503,24 205,37 341,71 437,77 483,68 89,08 0,76 240,13 342,18 395,12 326,49 596,92 386,59 337,43 125,90 43,11 3,73 78,25 200,84 108,58 282,29 359,93 129,80 203,93 207,18 398,19 536,35 469,55 238,68 273,92 146,19 351,33 341,02 42,12 25,70 76,32 26,93 90,55 457,70 285,26 468,59 184,91 252,06 92,85 252,96 523,00 451,37 144,09 12,44 319,49 21,98 130,59 103,17 73,38 303,14 298,26 346,69 516,31 524,68 396,03 120,79 97,59 203,50 90,00 192,46 176,85 354,93 263,86

Ha 10.216,02 109,84 84,19 131,39 111,43 92,89 105,10 212,34 123,45 133,77 80,10 460,45 1.428,41 125,46 30,21 41,02 57,65 41,06 109,78 141,26 190,26 270,24 1.152,39 304,17 78,83 223,52 165,89 84,63 120,86 35,79 64,35 132,60 64,95 55,98 38,37 130,83 65,72 94,16 33,70 171,60 204,67 73,61 17,83 308,23 56,71 84,11 35,41 11,95 61,14 79,25 64,17 23,74 59,48 56,01 176,84 35,54 59,78 80,97 22,99 188,18 184,12 97,24 40,70 42,33 74,17 69,60 111,40 94,29 154,46 123,69 127,44 110,50 74,54 112,28

Land value Ratio Land Value €/m2 % 262,50 100,00 222,88 84,91 219,10 83,47 343,29 130,78 174,10 66,32 277,90 105,87 227,21 86,56 267,37 101,86 248,07 94,51 257,67 98,16 218,31 83,17 230,78 87,92 233,60 88,99 277,27 105,63 249,60 95,09 282,74 107,71 290,89 110,82 237,07 90,31 232,04 88,40 328,74 125,24 332,61 126,71 326,35 124,32 300,41 114,44 297,68 113,40 353,48 134,66 304,31 115,93 283,62 108,05 246,76 94,00 294,73 112,28 242,65 92,44 263,49 100,38 186,20 70,93 226,28 86,20 250,37 95,38 254,18 96,83 236,86 90,23 280,06 106,69 233,86 89,09 256,37 97,67 265,20 101,03 345,04 131,44 301,61 114,90 102,89 39,20 251,92 95,97 251,70 95,89 302,91 115,39 208,59 79,46 199,46 75,99 258,92 98,64 278,91 106,25 242,31 92,31 252,33 96,13 258,36 98,42 224,17 85,40 226,89 86,44 236,59 90,13 258,40 98,44 262,42 99,97 307,04 116,97 233,61 88,99 261,21 99,51 248,59 94,70 229,77 87,53 238,46 90,84 225,37 85,86 247,27 94,20 289,56 110,31 346,63 132,05 264,64 100,82 439,83 167,55 283,80 108,11 283,70 108,08 255,86 97,47 247,47 94,28

Ratio Income % 100,00 61,97 94,33 64,42 88,79 109,13 98,40 143,56 122,60 114,32 99,54 68,67 74,20 75,62 87,18 81,65 77,37 81,37 85,27 128,91 128,05 198,31 172,19 176,05 222,60 184,47 195,10 147,65 111,88 89,66 110,09 98,76 101,69 92,82 81,92 87,84 107,73 64,93 73,13 80,54 79,99 97,98 94,64 82,08 80,11 70,18 57,83 43,34 76,95 70,87 55,00 57,17 66,72 51,45 65,59 53,88 61,20 69,88 44,32 57,11 82,10 81,21 78,58 86,93 89,22 85,45 103,12 141,10 86,54 107,87 53,73 82,43 76,58 67,76

Ratio Income /Land Value % 100,00 72,98 113,01 49,26 133,88 103,08 113,68 140,94 129,73 116,46 119,69 78,11 83,38 71,59 91,69 75,81 69,82 90,10 96,46 102,94 101,06 159,51 150,46 155,25 165,31 159,12 180,57 157,07 99,64 96,99 109,67 139,23 117,96 97,31 84,60 97,34 100,97 72,88 74,88 79,72 60,85 85,27 241,45 85,53 83,54 60,82 72,77 57,04 78,01 66,70 59,58 59,47 67,79 60,25 75,88 59,78 62,17 69,90 37,89 64,18 82,50 85,75 89,77 95,69 103,92 90,71 93,49 106,85 85,84 64,38 49,70 76,27 78,57 71,87


Eduation Level 1-5 3,21 2,95 3,29 2,91 3,32 3,45 3,38 3,79 3,69 3,53 3,36 2,98 2,13 2,74 3,17 3,09 2,99 3,00 3,16 3,53 3,41 3,86 3,51 3,81 3,92 3,85 3,89 3,77 3,54 3,27 3,53 3,54 3,50 3,28 3,06 3,25 3,25 2,64 2,80 2,89 3,03 3,22 2,90 2,94 2,99 2,80 2,71 2,44 2,85 2,56 2,45 2,55 2,60 2,45 2,15 2,44 2,42 2,59 2,34 2,73 3,07 3,05 3,10 3,15 3,23 3,14 3,25 3,93 3,18 3,49 2,54 2,96 2,88 2,69

Average Civic age Centres # 54 38,83 1 39,95 1 42,94 1 41,20 1 42,98 1 44,56 1 44,34 1 44,46 44,24 2 45,03 1 41,89 1 43,02 41,37 3 43,42 1 42,62 1 43,10 1 43,44 43,32 1 44,20 2 44,32 2 43,91 39,93 2 41,71 2 40,87 43,06 2 43,44 2 42,04 1 43,60 42,16 1 44,13 43,17 44,29 1 45,05 43,57 44,13 1 43,30 42,47 1 42,11 1 45,29 1 49,31 43,94 43,66 44,31 1 44,56 1 45,16 1 44,02 1 44,95 46,05 43,86 39,92 1 43,34 43,67 42,43 38,37 37,74 1 39,13 37,51 1 39,34 1 38,66 1 42,74 1 43,78 2 45,50 44,22 44,08 41,57 1 42,75 1 36,79 40,92 1 38,70 41,17 1 41,25 45,20 1 44,77

Neigh. Centres # 36 1

2

1

3 1 3

1 1 1

1 2

1

1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3 1 1

3

Density Centres #/103 inh. 1,09 0,41 0,48 0,61 1,30 0,30 0,19 0,23 0,24 0,34 0,26 0,98 9,22 1,99 0,97 0,62 0,53 0,00 0,24 0,42 0,83 0,86 6,98 0,84 0,63 0,82 0,43 0,33 0,64 1,37 1,50 0,00 0,29 0,00 1,09 0,28 0,00 0,30 0,87 1,38 0,00 1,78 0,00 0,36 0,39 0,42 0,60 4,52 0,00 0,00 0,62 0,81 0,37 0,00 4,55 0,88 7,61 0,95 8,43 0,72 0,36 0,69 0,71 0,00 0,26 0,36 0,74 0,00 1,27 0,90 0,82 0,00 0,38 1,01

Other Centres # 291 23 12 3 17 5 8 12 7 4 7 10 4 1 2 1 1 4 5 6 1 6 7 1 6 2 3 3 2 13 3 1 3 3 1 5 3 1 1 2 4 2 1 4 1 2 3 3 1 3 4 1 2 2 4 4 2 8 3 3 2 4 3 2 7 3 1 6 7

Density other centres #/103 inh. 2,92 4,66 5,70 1,83 7,35 1,51 1,51 2,75 1,66 0,68 1,81 2,44 0,00 1,33 0,97 1,23 0,53 0,41 0,94 1,05 2,50 0,86 13,97 2,94 0,00 0,41 1,28 0,66 1,91 4,11 1,50 2,46 0,86 0,38 3,28 0,84 1,04 1,51 2,61 0,00 1,90 1,78 41,67 1,43 0,77 0,42 2,41 4,52 1,30 4,08 1,85 0,81 1,12 4,96 4,55 1,76 15,22 3,78 16,86 1,45 1,43 1,03 2,13 0,91 1,03 1,09 1,49 0,00 2,23 2,69 0,00 0,51 2,27 2,36

Neighbourhood associations # 282 17 22 6 8 1 2 8 2 2 3 13 1 9 1 5 4 1 26 5 4 2 4 7 2 3 4 2 6 1 1 14 1 1 3 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 5 3 3 2 4 4 1 15 1 2 5 5 5

Density Neigh. Associations #/103 inh. 1,72 3,45 10,45 3,67 3,46 0,30 0,38 1,83 0,47 0,34 0,77 3,17 9,22 2,99 0,97 3,08 2,13 0,41 6,13 1,05 1,67 1,72 9,31 2,94 1,26 1,24 0,85 0,66 3,82 1,37 0,75 2,65 0,29 0,38 3,28 1,12 1,04 0,60 0,87 1,38 0,00 1,78 20,83 0,36 0,77 0,42 1,81 0,00 0,65 1,36 0,62 1,61 0,74 1,24 4,55 0,88 7,61 1,89 12,65 1,45 0,90 1,03 2,13 0,91 1,03 0,00 2,97 1,09 4,77 0,90 0,82 2,56 1,89 1,69

Associations Density associations # #/103 inh. 5.164 315,24 317 64,28 313 148,73 59 36,08 243 105,03 66 19,88 76 14,37 579 132,77 220 52,15 162 27,66 120 30,97 126 30,72 15 138,25 53 17,59 16 15,48 64 39,49 37 19,66 24 9,79 147 34,64 132 27,69 65 27,14 69 59,23 23 53,55 109 45,79 34 21,48 77 31,73 163 34,81 82 26,92 42 26,77 11 15,07 34 25,50 250 47,35 64 18,37 23 8,75 16 17,47 82 22,88 26 27,06 41 12,39 12 10,44 16 22,14 26 49,42 21 37,38 5 104,17 69 24,72 31 11,94 37 15,42 28 16,87 2 9,05 21 13,63 9 12,23 14 8,62 18 14,50 41 15,27 11 13,63 6 27,27 18 15,85 6 45,66 19 17,97 8 33,73 20 14,48 136 24,37 42 14,48 38 26,93 14 6,40 69 17,73 54 19,59 49 36,41 24 26,08 94 29,90 8 7,19 42 17,12 28 14,33 66 24,95 82 27,68

Cooperatives Density Cooperatives # #/103 inh. 46 0,28 1 0,20 3 1,43 0,00 3 1,30 1 0,30 3 0,57 0,00 0,00 1 0,17 2 0,52 1 0,24 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,62 0,00 0,00 2 0,47 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,42 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,33 0,00 1 1,37 0,00 9 1,70 0,00 0,00 0,00 2 0,56 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,39 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,62 0,00 1 0,37 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 2 0,36 1 0,34 1 0,71 1 0,46 0,00 0,00 1 0,74 0,00 4 1,27 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1 0,34

40


Annex 5

Civic Centres in Barcelona Source: Ajuntament de Barcelona 2012b

Name

District

Address

Casal Cívic Estació de Magòria

Sants-Montjuïc

G.V. Corts Catalanes, 247

Centre Cívic Ateneu Fort Pienc

Eixample

Pl Fort Pienc, 1*4

Centre Cívic Barceloneta

Ciutat Vella

C Conreria, 1*9

Centre Cívic Baró de Viver

Sant Andreu

Pg Santa Coloma, 110

Centre Cívic Can Basté

Nou Barris

Pg Fabra i Puig, 274*276

Centre Cívic Can Castelló

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Castelló, 1*7

Centre Cívic Can Deu

Les Corts

Pl Concòrdia, 13

Centre Cívic Can Felipa

Sant Martí

C Pallars, 277

Centre Cívic Casa del Rellotge

Sants-Montjuïc

Pg Zona Franca, 116

Centre Cívic Casa Golferichs

Eixample

G.V. Corts Catalanes, 491

Centre Cívic Casa Groga

Horta-Guinardó

Av Jordà, 27

Centre Cívic Casa Orlandai

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Jaume Piquet, 23

Centre Cívic Casa Sagnier

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Brusi, 51*61

Centre Cívic Casinet d'Hostafrancs

Sants-Montjuïc

C Rector Triadó, 53

Centre Cívic Convent de Sant Agustí

Ciutat Vella

C Comerç, 36

Centre Cívic Cotxeres Borrell

Eixample

C Viladomat, 2*8

Centre Cívic Cotxeres de Sants

Sants-Montjuïc

C Sants, 79*83

Centre Cívic del Besòs

Sant Martí

Rbla Prim, 87*89

Centre Cívic del Bon Pastor

Sant Andreu

Pl Robert Gerhard, 3*4

Centre Cívic del Parc - Sandaru

Sant Martí

C Buenaventura Muñoz, 21

Centre Cívic Drassanes

Ciutat Vella

C Nou de la Rambla, 43

Centre Cívic El Carmel

Horta-Guinardó

C Santuari, 27

Centre Cívic El Coll - La Bruguera

Gràcia

C Aldea, 15

Centre Cívic El Sortidor

Sants-Montjuïc

Pl Sortidor, 12

Centre Cívic Font de la Guatlla

Sants-Montjuïc

C Rabí Rubèn, 22*26

Centre Cívic Guinardó

Horta-Guinardó

Rda Guinardó, 113-141

Centre Cívic Joan Oliver - Pere Quart

Les Corts

Comandant Benitez, 6

Centre Cívic La Cadena

Sants-Montjuïc

C Mare de Déu de Port, 397

Centre Cívic La Casa Elizalde

Eixample

C València, 302

Centre Cívic la Farinera del Clot

Sant Martí

G.V. Corts Catalanes, 837

Centre Cívic La Sagrera La Barraca

Sant Andreu

C Martí Molins, 29

Centre Cívic La Sedeta

Gràcia

C Sicília, 321

Centre Cívic la Teixonera

Horta-Guinardó

C Arenys, 75

Centre Cívic l'Elèctric

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

Ctra Vallvidrera Planes, 6.5 (km)

Centre Cívic les Corts

Les Corts

C Dolors Masferrer i Bosch, 33*35

Centre Cívic Matas i Ramis

Horta-Guinardó

Feliu i Codina, 20

Centre Cívic Pati Llimona

Ciutat Vella

C Regomir, 3

Centre Cívic Pere Pruna

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Ganduxer, 130

Centre Cívic Porta Sóller

Nou Barris

Pl Sóller, 1*LX

Centre Cívic Riera Blanca

Les Corts

Rier Blanca, 1*3

Centre Cívic Sagrada Família

Eixample

C Provença, 480

41


Name

District

Address

Centre Cívic Sant Andreu

Sant Andreu

C Gran de Sant Andreu, 111

Centre Cívic Sant Martí de Provençals

Sant Martí

C Selva de Mar, 215

Centre Cívic Sarrià

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Eduardo Conde, 22*42

Centre Cívic Ton i Guida

Nou Barris

C Romaní, 6

Centre Cívic Torre Llobeta

Nou Barris

C Santa Fe, 2*LB

Centre Cívic Trinitat Vella

Sant Andreu

C Foradada, 36*38

Centre Cívic Vallvidrera Vázquez Montalbán

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Reis Catòlics, 16*34

Centre Cívic Vil·la Florida

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Muntaner, 544

Centre Cívic Zona Nord

Nou Barris

C Vallcivera, 14

Centre Cultural Teresa Pàmies - Centre Cívic Urgell

Eixample

C Comte d'Urgell, 145

Centre Garcilaso

Sant Andreu

C Garcilaso, 103

Centre Pepita Casanellas - La Sala

Sants-Montjuïc

Pg Zona Franca, 185*219

Espai Putget

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Marmellà, 13

42


Annex 6

Neighbourhood Centres in Barcelona Source: Ajuntament de Barcelona 2012b

Name

District

Address

Associació de Veïns de La Vinya Casal de Barri La Vinya

Sants-Montjuïc

C Alts Forns, 87

Casal de Barri Bac de Roda - Poblenou

Sant Martí

Camí Antic de València, 96*106

Casal de Barri Besòs

Sant Martí

C Cristóbal de Moura, 230-232

Casal de Barri Can Baró-El Pirineu

Horta-Guinardó

C Josep Serrano, 59*71

Casal de Barri Can Portabella

Sant Andreu

C Virgili, 26

Casal de Barri Can Rectoret

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Via Làctia, 4

Casal de Barri Can Travi de la Vall d'Hebron

Horta-Guinardó

Av Cardenal Vidal Barraquer, 45

Casal de Barri Cardener

Gràcia

C Cardener, 45

Casal de Barri Casal Font d'en Fargues

Horta-Guinardó

C Pedrell, 67*69

Casal de Barri Congrés-Indians

Sant Andreu

C Manigua, 25*35

Casal de Barri de la Mercè

Les Corts

Torrent de les Roses, 41

Casal de Barri de Prosperitat

Nou Barris

Pl Àngel Pestaña, 1

Casal de Barri de Vallbona

Nou Barris

C Oristà, 8*10

Casal de Barri del Poblenou

Sant Martí

Rbla Poblenou, 49

Casal de Barri Diagonal Mar

Sant Martí

C Selva de Mar, 22*32

Casal de Barri El Polvorí

Sants-Montjuïc

C Iecla, 1

Casal de Barri Folch i Torres

Ciutat Vella

C Reina Amàlia, 31*33

Casal de Barri La Cosa Nostra

Nou Barris

C Biure, 1

Casal de Barri La Miranda

Gràcia

Av Coll del Portell, 74

Casal de Barri La Palmera

Sant Martí

C Duoda, 6*22

Casal de Barri La Pau-Piramidón

Sant Martí

Pere Vergés, 1

Casal de Barri Pou de la Figuera

Ciutat Vella

C Sant Pere Més Baix, 70

Casal de Barri Torre Baró

Nou Barris

Av Escolapi Càncer, 35*37

Casal de Barri Verdun

Nou Barris

C Luz Casanova, 4

Casal de Barri Verneda

Sant Martí

C Santander, 6

Casal de Barri Vila Olímpica-Can Gili Nou

Sant Martí

C Taulat, 3*5

Casal de joves Poble-sec

Sants-Montjuïc

C Margarit, 23

Casal Elkano

Sants-Montjuïc

C Elkano, 24*26

Centre Comunitari de Penitents

Gràcia

C Veciana, 2

Centre de Barri Can Clos

Sants-Montjuïc

Pl Mig de Can Clos, 7

Centre de barri Eduard Aunós

Sants-Montjuïc

C Tortosa, 39

Centre d'Esplai Boix

Eixample

C Londres, 0064

Centre Sant Pere Apòstol

Ciutat Vella

C Sant Pere Més Alt, 25

Coordinadora d'Entitats de Poble-sec - Casal Elkano

Sants-Montjuïc

C Elkano, 24*26

Espai Antonio Miró Peris

Sant Martí

Pl Carme Monturiol, 10

Sala Jove de Baró de Viver

Sant Andreu

Pg Guayaquil, 53*55

Centre Cívic Pati Llimona

Ciutat Vella

C Regomir, 3

Centre Cívic Pere Pruna

Sarrià-Sant Gervasi

C Ganduxer, 130

Centre Cívic Porta Sóller

Nou Barris

Pl Sóller, 1*LX

Centre Cívic Riera Blanca

Les Corts

Rier Blanca, 1*3

Centre Cívic Sagrada Família

Eixample

C Provença, 480

43


44


Cooperative Networks  

The present paper proposes a project for construction of urban networks through cooperation in Barcelona

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