Web Sessions (2005 – 2010) Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (Ministry of Justice) and Directorate General of Citizen Attention (Ministry in charge of Presidency)
1st Web Session. ‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why’. Alfons Cornella Organisations with a differential value are the ones that act as a system capable of receiving information, transforming it and offering it in the form of services, and with a management model that gives more with less.
2nd Web Session. ‘Discover the Government of Catalonia's new website’. Marta Continente In the transition towards the knowledge society, the Government has to make data communications infrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act as a catalyst of collective knowledge.
3rd Web Session. ‘Learning in the digital age’. Sergio Vasquez Communities of practice open up the possibility of participating in a network of people with a common practice, in a relationship of trust and based on the functions offered by ICT (knowledge sharing and interaction between people).
4th Web Session. ‘From the analogue to the digital society: Where are we? What needs to be done?’. Antoni Farrés Analysis of the situation in Catalonia and how we have to position ourselves in the context of the knowledge economy, which makes up the economic and social environment of the twenty-first century.
5th Web Session. ‘How do CC licences help the Government make knowledge accessible to society?’. Ignasi Labastida Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool for providing citizens with the knowledge created by the Government by offering a flexible system for managing the copyright on all kind of works.
6th Web Session. ‘Internet tools that make people interact in the Government’. Roc Fages Technology helps us manage conversations between people to exchange knowledge and good practices using interaction tools on the Internet such as blogs, wikis and other resources.
7th Web Session. ‘In what direction is training in organisations going?’. Javier Martínez Aldanondo Understanding how we really learn and how technology can help reconsider the journey from onsite learning to virtual learning.
8th Web Session. ‘Can the Government persuade people by Internet?’. David Boronat There are public governments that, by following the strategies of the private sector for gaining customer loyalty, use the Internet intensively to raise awareness, communicate and involve citizens.
9th Web Session. ‘What can the Government do with the knowledge it generates?’. Mario Pérez-Montoro How to set up knowledge management projects through communities of practice and other resources, as in the case of the Ministry of Justice.
10th Web Session. ‘Social networks on the Internet: the added value of our contacts’. Albert Armengol Networking is the technique that shows us to construct and maintain professional relationships with benefits for both parties, strategically managing the network of contacts.
11th Web Session. ‘Why do we need to innovate in the Government?’. Joan Majó The Government has to adopt the strategy of innovation to be up to the challenge of modern times, possessing the internal and external knowledge to be competitive and to generate value in its services.
12th Web Session. ‘Can we achieve an Government 2.0? Collaborative tools and attitudes’. Carlos Guadián There are already examples and case studies that show how web 2.0 tools and resources give us possibilities for working collaboratively in the Government.
13th Web Session. ‘The transformation of online learning through social networking and video’. Gregor Gimmy The social network and video can change the way people learn on line and raise the question of what can be done in the Government. Sclipo case study.
14th Web Session. ‘Collective intelligence and web 2.0’. Ricardo BaezaYates The current impact of social networks on the Internet, known as web 2.0, where content is generated by people and intelligence is collective.
15th Web Session. ‘Do people need to have a digital identity? How to construct it’. Juan Freire It is essential to have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society and it needs to be constructed strategically.
16th Web Session. ‘Darwin in the information society: adaptation (and benefits) or extinction’. Ismael Peña-López Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new knowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to create value in society.
17th Web Session. ‘Networking in the Government: where do we start?’. Genís Roca Social network projects in the Government must have clear aims and methodology and have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy in a dual leadership.
18th Web Session. ‘New forms of institutional communication’. Jordi Segarra The communication of organisations must be based on the generation of information, debate and participation. Messages are no longer addressed to a group but to a person, as technology allows our users to be individually segmented.
19th Web Session. ‘Institutional leadership on the Net’. Antoni Gutiérrez Rubí In the digital society, traditional communication is not sufficient to maintain a dialogue with the citizen. Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of communication and a different organisational model that fosters creative talent.
20th Web Session. ‘Digital skills and learning’. Boris Mir The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill is learned but creates the conditions to make it possible. Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.
1st web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training ‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: what for?’ Alfons Cornella i Solans, Director of Zero Factory SL www.infonomia.com, specialist and consultant in knowledge economy for a number of organisations. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 14 April 2005. 190 people attended. Infostructure (content + services) complements infrastructure (machines + tools) Although we have technological applications to manage information, technology is not in itself the factor that makes an organisation competent and stand out from others. An organisation generates added value when we understand it as a system able to receive information, transform it and offer it as a service. When information is managed well, we can do more with less (greater efficiency and productivity). Alfons Cornella illustrated this with slides showing the Ministry of Justice website and the ‘a un clic’ (a click away) applications on the home page of the Ministry’s intranet. Googleization + relevance Googleization (access to information using a search engine) leads to the danger of infoxication. It is therefore advisable to balance exhaustive searches for information against the criterion of relevance. The capture of this information is not automatic, however: it calls for method, resources and effort. This criterion is the inspiration for the structure of the intranet. Constant innovation Within organisations a new professional culture is needed, that of innovation. Although there will be people and units with greater facility for innovating, all members of the organisation need to be encouraged to do their work in this spirit. This involves proposing ways to improve what one does using technological resources and providing the added value of information. Managing what the people in the organisation know and experience People’s experience is a source of greater efficiency and it should be passed on to the rest of the organisation. The knowledge management model proposed by Alfons Cornella is as follows: 1. Work. Reducing the distance between employees and the information they need. The example given was the search facility for forms on the intranet. 2. Learning. Connecting people with questions and the person who has the answers. It was proposed that the directory of people and identification data on the intranet should include information about the areas in which they are experts. 3. Teaching. Transferring best practice. This was illustrated by the future community of family mediators in the e-Catalunya project (promoted by the General Directorate of Citizen Attention). Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Technology x information = information to innovate (an information-oriented organisation is needed) A specific common objective is needed. Driving forces are needed which promote the use of information technologies to improve services. It must be made part of everyday activity (innovation and knowledge management). It needs to become part of the process (the organisation has to work in this way; it should never be optional).
Diffusion service. Barcelona, April 2005
2nd web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training The new Gencat and other systems for attention to the public Marta Continente i Gonzalo, Director General for Citizen Attention, Presidential Department. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 24 November 2005, 16.00 h. Introduction In the transition to the knowledge society, the Government must make data communication infrastructures accessible, make information transparent and act as a catalyst for collective knowledge. New model for internet channels 1. Changing from “all services by all channels” to “each service has its own ideal channel”. 2. The effect of search engines must be taken into account. 3. Importance of push tools (browsers, newsletters, alerts, RSS news syndication, podcasting, blogs, etc.) as they arouse surfers’ interest, encouraging them to visit websites. Gencat.net 2005 Process of transformation: 1. Diagnosis: website analysis, usability, surveys and consultancy. 2. To move towards a new model: interactivity, transparency, network databases, transversal structure by topics and services, multimedia, customising information, relational webs. 3. It has been implemented in certain projects: statistics portal, integration of databases, taxonomy (classification from the viewpoint of the public), a browser (Google adapted for Gencat), content manager (Vignette), Citizen Attention System-Information portal and new Gencat. Citizen Attention System-Information portal In 2005 migration to a new application took place and work is under way on integrating the Citizen Attention System with Open Administration of Catalonia on-line transactions. Information portal: internal consultancy for 012 operators and citizen attention offices (additional information which is not publicly available). A cultural change is needed for the internet channel to become an integral part of the Ministry’s processes (and even become the backbone of systems for providing citizen attention). e-Catalunya The Government of Catalonia’s social website, complementing the gencat.net portal. Members of the public will have access to public information from groups with portals. However, groups will also have a private area, where they will have substantial storage space for their own content together with free communication tools (messages, forum, virtual congresses, wiki, social network, etc.). The Ministry of Justice is a pilot participant – together with the Ministry of Health – with the family mediation group. Diffusion service. Barcelona, December 2005
3rd web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Learning in the digital age Sergio Vasquez, expert in e-learning and knowledge management, lecturer at the European School of Management in Paris, and an advisor to communities of practice in the Ministry of Justice. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 February. 170 people attended e-learning as a new form of learning Virtual learning (e-learning) should not mean adding a computer to traditional face-to-face classes. The aim is for education and training to be more effective. Success and failure in virtual learning The speaker mentioned various cases of success (“la Caixa” area communities) and failure (Cisco UNIX courses, “la Caixa” Virtaula, courses by a multinational auditing firm, etc.) Virtual learning must avoid technocentrism (relating everything to technology) and infocentrism (memorising content). He thus prefers to refer to “working with assistance”, meaning that users must be borne in mind when designing courses: speaking to them and observing them to find out what they need. Situated learning and communities of practice Learning must be a social phenomenon, with a location in time and space, and should have everyday work situations as a source. People can rarely be expected to share their best ideas or practices and will be reluctant to use the ideas of others for fear of being seen as incompetent. For knowledge management to be shared there must be a setting, communities of practice, in which people are linked by a common, recurring practice, and which develop around what is important for its members. The model of teacher and learner is the best system for learning. Communities of Practice at the Ministry of Justice For this purpose at the Ministry of Justice communities of practice have been set up in the areas of prison services (teaching staff, educators, technical staff, social workers) and the treatment of young offenders. Conclusions 1. Sharing both positive aspects and problems, feeling part of a common organisation and being able to communicate with others are features which help to motivate the members of a community. 2. It is important, then, to know what we want to share, establish ground rules and work on what the members of the community consider to be important. 3. The benefits of communities of practice affect not only their members (learning, solving problems, sharing knowledge, etc.) but also the organisation (reduction in costs, saving time, incremental innovation, etc.). 4. Communities of practice open up the possibility of being part of a network of people with a common practice and, at the same time, allow people to develop confidence and establish links with experts outside the community, increasing the members’ social resources. 5. Information technologies facilitate the sharing of knowledge and participation and interaction within the communities. 6. Innovation occurs when the community’s ideas are implemented. Diffusion service. Barcelona, February 2006
4th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training From the analogue society to the digital: where are we? what do we need to do? Antoni Farrés Sabater was Mayor of Sabadell from 1979 to 1999, is a member of the Cercle del Coneixement, has taken part in the programme “Els matins de Catalunya Ràdio”, and is a specialist in the use and application of ICT in business and society in general. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 13 June 2006. 90 people attended. Industrial society - Catalonia’s development in the 20th century came about through its rapid integration in the industrial revolution, alongside leading countries such as England. - Industrial society saw the convergence of the steam engine, mechanical engineering and the science of materials. - The industrial economy shaped the economic and social environment for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. The knowledge society - Today another convergence is shaping a new economy: information technology, telecommunications and the technologies of content. - The knowledge economy shapes the economic and social environment of the 21st century. - The European Council in Lisbon (23-24 March 2000) stressed the need for a radical transformation of the European economy. Current situation Farrés supported his explanation with data and graphics from Spanish and European programmes. - According to the World Economic Forum report, Spain ranks 31st in the world (its position has been falling), while Catalonia does not occupy a strong position in the Spanish context. - This is the starting point for his talk: how to stimulate growth in Catalonia. Challenges for Catalonia in the knowledge society 1. The education of its people, especially the young 2. Adapting production to the new network models. 3. Catalonia’s incorporation in world knowledge and innovation networks as a node generating value. 4. The implementation of policies designed to preserve the quality of life and welfare. Electronic Government - Spain and Catalonia are in a stronger position in European rankings in this area. - However, priority has been given to transactions which transfer money to the Government (tax authorities, etc.) - All transactions between the Government and the public, employees or companies should be conducted electronically (with support services for the public). Conclusions 1. The philosophy behind the change to the knowledge society should be explained to the public. 2. A comprehensive strategic agreement is called for to promote the full incorporation of Catalonia into the knowledge society, involving not only political parties but also the public and private sectors. Paraphrasing Torres i Bages, he concluded that “Catalonia will be digital or it will not exist.” Diffusion service. Barcelona, June 2006
5th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training How do the Government’s Creative Commons licences help to make knowledge accessible to society? Ignasi Labastida i Juan, Doctor of Physics from the University of Barcelona. Responsible for the promotion and implementation of Creative Commons licences in Catalonia and the rest of Spain. The event was chaired by Joan Turró, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice and it was introduced by Marta Continente, Presidential Department Secretary for Telecommunications and the Information Society. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 19 October 2006. 120 people attended. Introduction One of the challenges of the new economic era is to make knowledge available for innovation in products and services. Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool to achieve this by offering a flexible system to deal with royalties for all kinds of works. The idea is to authorise some uses of the work instead of restricting and banning them from the outset. The classic notion of “all rights reserved” is thus changed to “some rights reserved”. What are Creative Commons licences? Creative Commons is an American non-profit making organisation founded in 2001. At the end of 2002 it launched a project for licences, offering them to anyone who did not want to reserve all rights for their work but were prepared to cede some rights under certain conditions. The licences are free and works do not have to be registered. They are legal texts which allow the author to grant the rights corresponding to the work for purposes which are considered suitable. Copying, reproduction, distribution and public dissemination are always allowed when acknowledgement is given to the author in credits, but limitations may be placed on commercial use or the possibility of producing derivative works, or these may be subject to the terms of the licence for the original work. The six standard licences currently available are the result of combining these conditions. The iCommons project dates from 2003 and was introduced to adapt licences to the requirements of each state in the USA. This year the University of Barcelona became the Spanish affiliate institution for Creative Commons. The licences are now adapted to Spanish legislation on intellectual property and are available in all the official languages. Different government applications of Creative Commons licences The conclusions of the study by the British consortium Common Information Environment on the application of CC licences to the public sector show that the dissemination of public resources using these licences is viable. Examples already exist, such as the Governments of Brazil and Mexico, institutions such as the British Council, policies on research by the National Health Institutes in the USA, etc. In Catalonia we also find examples, such as Recercat (Catalonia Research repository), RACO (Catalan Open Access Reviews), Zona Clic (Dept. of Education). It should also be noted that on 27 June 2006 the proposal to apply CC licences to all Government of Catalonia publications was approved by the Editorial Board. Conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
We do not need to perpetuate the traditional model of “all rights reserved”. Only necessary reservations should be made. It should be made easy to access and reuse information for which we have all paid. What is allowed must always be made clear, applying minimum restrictions. A full study of the possibilities and applicability of the licences should be carried out.
Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2006
6th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Internet tools that allow people to interact with the Government Roc Fages, consultant journalist specialising in the Internet. He writes regular commentaries on electronic government in the broadest sense in his cyberdiary www.goldmundus.com. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 30 January 2007. 175 people attended. Introduction Technology allows people to exchange knowledge and good practice through interactive internet tools, such as blogs, wikis, and other resources, especially using interactive web 2.0 tools. Interaction and blogs Blogs are personal or collective on-line diaries where information on different topics appears as articles or posts. They follow a chronological sequence which is regularly updated, allowing readers who visit the blog to add comments. There are various tools for creating blogs: Blogger, e-Catalunya, etc. RSS content syndication also means that we can receive a notification when the blogs that interest us are updated, using local applications such as Feedreader or web access applications such as Bloglines (like Roc Fages’ own blogline). Blogs have become a tool for both private and public participation. Ministers, mayors and other politicians have created their own blogs to comment on measures which have been adopted or to reflect on everyday life in a city and gather the opinions of those who read them (e.g. the blog by the Mayor of Mataró Joan Antoni Baron, the blog by Government workers Alberto Ortiz de Zárate and Iñaki Ortiz). Some companies use corporate blogs to maintain contact with their staff and interact with users or customers (IBM, Microsoft). Interaction and web 2.0 Web 2.0 includes tools which allow quick, easy, real time cooperation on the net. The e-Catalunya platform is an example of the way in which different professionals can work together with others in the same field, taking part in discussions and taking advantage of each other’s contributions. The platform makes available to members tools such as wikis and blogs, and the storage of all types of files to interact and share knowledge. Leadership plays an important part in its use. Participation can be enhanced through interaction from mobile phones: the e-lens project, based on a tagging system with chips which allow information to be received and modified on a mobile phone (pilot scheme in Manresa), and Zexe.net, a website about accessibility in Barcelona where people with disabilities take photographs of places which are not accessible and publish them on the web. Conclusions 1. Interaction goes beyond internet. Now we need to look at tools (blogs, wikis, RSS, etc.) and integrated platforms for interaction (computer, TV, mobile phone, PDA). 2. Interactive tools should be explored and exploited to encourage participation. 3. We should use interactive tools which are useful and user-friendly. Blogs and wikis are the ideal tools for interaction between users and the Government. Used internally, by staff, they encourage reflection and cohesion within the organisation. Used externally, they promote the institution’s brand by encouraging participation in the generation of ideas. Diffusion service. Barcelona, January 2007
7th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Where is training going in organisations? Javier Martínez Aldanondo, Head of the Knowledge Management Division of Catenaria, is one of the leading figures in e-learning and knowledge management in the Spanish-speaking world. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 21 March 2007. 120 people attended. Introduction Normally we do not remember knowledge passed on in a conventional face-to-face course. However, we do remember experiences, stories and what we learn from making mistakes. To learn we need to remember: we don’t need courses or content, but someone who knows how to teach and how to do what they are teaching. In training, there are 3 revolutions which are pending: 1st revolution: training linked to the organisation’s results Training objectives should be part of the strategic objectives of the organisation. Training is intended to change behaviour, so it is necessary to find out what doesn’t work, what staff do and what the organisation would like them to do, what problems they have, who the experts are, what are the main mistakes they make, etc. Indicators are also needed to assess the training. 2nd revolution: learning by doing Practice is needed to learn: if what we teach cannot be practised, it may not be worthwhile teaching it. Mistakes are the most important part of learning, as we learn from our mistakes. The aim of this learning is to store experience which we can take advantage of in the future. 3rd revolution: learning with technology flexibility mustn’t be the only advantage of e-learning: it must offer things we cannot get from a face-toface class. It is people who are intelligent; technology is only a means. The problem of e-learning is that it has transferred face-to-face teaching to the virtual context without adapting it: often we just read on the screen what we used to read in a textbook, but the computer is an instrument that allows us to practise, get feedback, work in a network, etc. Conclusion There are two basic problems in training: 1. We tend to teach things that nobody needs, we don’t teach the things people really need, and when we do teach them it isn’t when people need them. 2. We need to change the way we teach because it is doomed to failure. There are three pillars on which the learning process is based: a. People learn by doing, practising things they are interested in. If you don’t practise, you don’t learn. b. Mistakes are the most important part of learning. c. Stories are a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge whose value is incalculable: we learn from others, with others and teaching others. Learning (and doing it faster than our competitors) is an indispensable skill for survival in the present system, where change is a constant. Organisations can only last if they help workers to adapt to these changes, i.e. to learn. The change calls for cooperative working practices, intensive use of technology, innovation, and, above all, a focus on people. Diffusion service. Barcelona,March 2007
8th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Can the Government persuade people by internet? David Boronat is an Internet specialist and a founder member of the company Multiplica. He writes regular comments about persuasion skills on the internet at www.persuabilidad.com, a website which discusses the role of persuasion in turning users into customers. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 27 March 2007. 130 people attended. Introduction Governments should be aware of developments in the private sector in the use of strategies to capture the attention of users and turn them into loyal customers. They should use the internet more intensively to raise awareness, communicate and involve the public emotionally, to project local culture or to promote a high standard of management. The private sector on the internet Businesses have users, with whom they need to establish dialogue and whose emotions they must engage. Challenges for companies on the internet: - Saying things differently, speaking the usersâ€™ language and explaining things simply and visually. - Recognise the importance of e-mail addresses and make intelligent use of e-mail. Multi-channel facilities are also important as is getting to know users without asking them for too much information (e.g. using cookies) - Offering favourable conditions for customers who are willing to operate electronically with them. The Government on-line The Government on-line: - It must be attractive, persuasive and promote certain local values. - Like businesses, it must explain things to users and the public in the simplest, most visual way, in familiar language. It should also encourage people to contact it on-line. - It has to sell its programmes and its on-line services (and make sure that the public use them), but it also has to be transparent (explaining Government action, its strategic priorities and its objectives, and publishing their results). - Push services should be promoted and lessons learnt from success stories (e.g. a high percentage of visitors to the Barcelona City Council website go there to look at the streetguide and this page could be used to draw attention to important information). Conclusion The Government has a genuine ability to use the internet to persuade people. Currently there are many examples of the persuasive use of internet by Governments: - Chilecompra (Chilean Government): on-line system for purchases and public contracting. - My eCitizen (Government of Singapore): privatisation of institutional information. - One Cent Now (Toronto): raising public support for regional projects (cyberactivism). The Government has, then, to be able to make use of strategies and resources from the world of business to approach the public and other customers and establish a relationship based on trust leading to loyalty. Diffusion service. Barcelona,March 2007
9th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training What can the Government do with the knowledge it generates? Mario Pérez-Montoro, holds a doctorate in Philosophy and Educational Science from the University of Barcelona (UB) and is a lecturer in the Faculty of Librarianship and Documentation at the UB. The talk was introduced by Joan Mauri, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 5 June 2007. 200 people attended. Introduction In the knowledge economy, information is the main source of activity for organisations and is the value added to goods and services which gives them a competitive edge and makes them attractive to users (these are the prerequisites of innovation). Organisations are structured round knowledge and see learning as a way to improve and thus adapt to processes of change. Managing knowledge in organisations Type of knowledge: - Tacit (personal and difficult to transmit) and explicit (can be verbalised and transmitted). - Individual (each person’s tacit and explicit knowledge) and corporate (belongs to institutions). - Internal (critical knowledge which allows an organisation to fulfil objectives) and external (to relate to other organisations and people). Knowledge management consists in designing a system that incorporates all the types of knowledge in the organisation and transforms it into corporate knowledge in order to to achieve its objectives. Corporate knowledge suffers, however, when staff leave and when knowledge becomes outdated. Traditional learning and other forms such as virtual learning, cooperative learning, experience, etc. help to compensate for the knowledge lost in this way. The cost of knowledge and what we can obtain in exchange Obstacles: resistance to change and to sharing, lack of time and incentives, need for technological training and for group work, lack of a common organisational culture, intolerance of mistakes, etc. Personal benefits: solving everyday problems, improving decision making, greater flexibility, access to new forms of learning, gaining professional recognition, etc. Collective benefits: increasing the organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency, reducing the knowledge deficit, avoiding duplication of knowledge, benefiting from investment in training, greater commitment to the organisation, creating an ecological context for knowledge (only useful knowledge remains in the organisation). Schemes to implement knowledge management: the Ministry of Justice model - Strategic stages in the project: 1. Identifying potential communities. 2. Providing logistics. 3. Assessing the contribution to the organisation. - Community of practice: e-moderators (leaders) + 15 groups working according to the project’s methodology. 190 people working on the project and approximately 900 associated with it (outside groups, etc.) - Working pattern: face-to-face meetings + collective work via the e-Catalunya platform. - Presentation of problems, proposal of standardised solutions and development of products (models for documents, standard procedures, etc.) - Dissemination of the project: intranet (knowledge portal), website, e-moderators’ blog, digital review. - Assessment: activity indicators (no. of activities per group and tool), production (no. of face-to-face sessions and no. of products developed) and impact (related to efficiency and experience). Conclusion “Where culture and knowledge are concerned, you only lose what you keep, you only gain what you give.” Antonio Machado Diffusion service. Barcelona, June 2007
10th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Social networks on internet: the added value of our contacts. Albert Armengol holds a degree in Medicine and Surgery from the Barcelona Autonomous University (UAB), an MBA from ESADE and is founder of eConozco www.econozco.com, the world’s first on-line Spanish language contact network. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 October 2007. 170 people attended. On a face-to-face level, networking is the development and dissemination of good management of our networks of personal and professional contacts. On-line social networks Together with forums, wikis, e-mail, instant messaging and blogs, social networking programs are tools which help to construct an organisation’s knowledge through cooperation. It is interesting to observe the differences in the graphic representation of contact networks in organisations: organisational relations, corresponding to the hierarchy, and inter-personal relations, which are those we refer to as social networking. What is networking? Networking consists in developing and sharing our network of contacts; it is, then, a very suitable resource for developing cooperative work projects. There are two types: personal and professional. Within networking we can distinguish between strong links (contacts with whom we share a group of contacts similar to our own) and weak links (people we have just met). Strong links provide a framework of trust while weak links provide diversity and it is desirable to strengthen them through network projects. What is on-line networking? On-line networking (social networking software) involves a network of professional contacts which can be extended to the contacts of our existing contacts. In this way an extensive network of relations can be built up. Through on-line networking we can find people whom it would be very difficult to contact otherwise. Online networking thus allows us to be in the right place at the right time. The concept of on-line networking first appeared around 2002 on open websites. To join a social networking website, we first need to post a good professional profile or CV, so that we will be accessible to people who may want to contact us (passive visibility). Within on-line networking, there are social and professional networks. From a geographical perspective, networks range from local (such as e-Catalunya http://ecatalunya.gencat.net, with communities promoted by the Government of Catalonia or which are Catalan in scope) to others which are international, such as the German Xing (which has bought eConozco and Neurona and is the leader in Europe) and Linked-in (leader in the English-speaking world). Conclusion. “Dig the well before you are thirsty” (Chinese proverb) Just as we can determine specific uses for other internet tools (forum = discussion; blog = expression of implicit knowledge, conversation; wiki = joint production of final document), social networking programmes help us to manage and extend our network of contacts efficiently and facilitate the structuring of collective intelligence. Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2007
11th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Why do we need to innovate in the Government? Joan Majó Cruzate. Doctorate in industrial engineering and Director of the Catalan Broadcasting Corporation. He has worked in the business world and for local and international institutions related to telecommunications, research and science. The talk was introduced by Joan Mauri, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 23 January 2008. 175 people attended. What is innovation? In the business world innovation is understood as the ability to turn knowledge into profit. In the noncommercial world, including government, innovation is the ability to turn knowledge into value to improve services. Innovation is always a tool to achieve goals and not a goal in itself. Rather than developing a better product, innovation means thinking of a new one which people can clearly see the usefulness of. The ability to innovate is a general characteristic of a country or a region. It is part of a culture, it is in the people and spreads from them. There are four indispensable requirements for innovation, its development and implementation: educational and professional system networks, business models and government policies. Innovation in economic processes The objective of companies is to be competitive and make profits. Business development involves three areas: being competitive in cost, quality and innovation. Today western countries can only be competitive through innovation, as other countries are more competitive regarding prices and they have the same technological capacity to make quality products. In the European Union the capacity of different countries and regions for innovation has been monitored. Based on 17 indicators, such as the number of graduates in science and engineering, the percentage of the population aged 25 to 64 with higher studies or undertaking institutionalised retraining, the percentage of GDP devoted to research and development, etc., the progress of European countries towards innovation is measured. The figures show that in recent years Catalonia’s position in innovation has dropped. How can we innovate in Government? It is difficult in government to accept innovation and overcome inertia. Things are done well but we continue doing the same things. In the public arena, rather than exchange knowledge, we need to exchange experience and always bear in mind the need to improve service to the public. For example, to innovate we need to provide services which fit in with the public’s new habits (internet, mobile phones, etc.) Conclusion Innovation is a change in consumer habits in response to people’s needs. A good example of an innovative product which has been widely accepted is the mobile phone and the associated applications which allow the user to access a range of content and services. Innovations in procedure lead to improvements in the quality of service. We must be imaginative and anticipate people’s real needs in the future to plan our activity in this area. Diffusion service. Barcelona,January 2008
12th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Is Government 2.0 achievable? Tools and attitudes for cooperation. Carlos Guadián Orta www.k-government.com, consultant specialising in internet communication and content. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 April 2007. 200 people attended. The web 2.0 concept is changing the mentality of users and of the Government Internet, and in particular web 2.0 provides channels for communication which affect the way we relate socially, our learning and acquisition of knowledge. With web 2.0 the net is like a big conversation which allows the formation of communities with common interests and maximises each member’s contribution. The user goes from a purely receptive role to being the centre, as everything is two-way. This is how the global conversation is shaped. In this new setting a cooperative attitude is essential, an interest in producing knowledge and sharing it. How to integrate the web 2.0 model in the Government The Government must manage the change carefully, ensuring that the attitudes of directors and managers are positive and that proper training and technical solutions are provided. It is important for Government staff to gain confidence in this new cooperative system so that they can contribute professional knowledge and learn from the system. The Government’s role is not to control people but to cooperate with them; the public add value to services. Tools and resources for cooperation on internet: blogs, RSS, bookmarking and social filters for news, social network, wikis, etc. Various tools and resources which help users managa this change are available on the internet. They include the Wordpress and Blogger blogs, RSS (Bloglines, Google Reader, Thunderbird), social bookmarking, such as Del.icio.us, social news filters (Digg, Menéame), browsers for news or posts (Wikio, Blogsearch), social networks (Linkedin, Facebook), wikis, etc. Experiences with web 2.0 in the Government There are Government departments, such as the Ministry of Justice, which are already fully committed to web 2.0. The Compartim program is a good example. This and other experiences (like the e-Catalunya platform) treat the service they provide as a platform on which a network of relationships is built among their staff and with the public. Conclusion Web 2.0 makes it easier for everyone to participate in a free medium. To reap the maximum benefit from this new system it is essential for organisations and individuals (including Government bodies and their staff) to adopt a cooperative attitude which favours the development and sharing of knowledge. There have already been valuable experiences within the Government. We need to extend our knowledge of the tools which facilitate work in this new environment (blogs, RSS, bookmarking, browsers, social news filters, wikis, etc.) and our confidence in using them. Diffusion service. Barcelona, April 2008
13th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training The transformation of on-line learning through social networking and video Gregor Gimmy www.sclipo.com, founder and CEO of the Sclipo company. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 11 June 2008. 194 people attended.
Traditional education suffers from certain shortcomings in its infrastructure, as it is limited to a certain place and time, and lacks interaction. Web 2.0, and in particular social network technology, video and webcam, offer us new opportunities to improve learning, because they enable us to learn from the best, wherever they may be (delocalisation), know who and what is the best, reduce the cost of assessment, facilitate the learning of any subject, however uncommon it is, and find and store relevant audiovisual material and interaction. Web 2.0 and social networks With web 1.0 people could receive information, shop and search, while web 2.0 also allows them to create content (texts, photos, audio, video) without having knowledge about programming. As there is interaction between users, content can be assessed and shared more easily. The common features of web 2.0 are that users have a public profile (public area), they can create and share content, and interact publicly and privately. This interaction raises usersâ€™ profiles and promotes the content they create. Web 2.0 can be used in different ways, according to usersâ€™ objectives: suggesting and finding content (digg, Technorati), establishing their presence on the net (Blogger, Youtube, Flickr, MySpace), developing friendships (Facebook), teaching and learning (Sclipo), professional networking (Xing). Social network+education = Sclipo: social education The combination of the social network with the objective of teaching and learning has made Sclipo a pioneer in social education. Sclipo is a social network where anybody can publish an indefinite number of videos (there are no restrictions) to facilitate the learning of any content, including subjects of minority interest. Assessment of content is very extensive because participants give direct and indirect assessment (number of views, forwarding to friends, voting, comments). Choosing the best material is easier on Sclipo because the users themselves choose the best content, which reduces the cost of assessment. SclipoLive is a pioneering service which provides synchronic teaching via a web camera and records teaching content and chats (notes indexed to the video of the class), as well as saving audiovisual content and relevant interaction so that they can be found easily later. In the near future there will be a new version, in which there will be one teacher for several students, and it will be possible to add texts to complement the video. Conclusion The internetâ€™s main value is for learning. On-line learning is a wonderful opportunity with great potential to improve education through social network technologies combined with an audiovisual support. Customised solutions can also be provided for companies and government bodies so that good practice can be shared by all staff. Diffusion service. Barcelona, June 2008
14th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Collective intelligence and web 2.0. Ricardo Baeza Yates www.dcc.uchile.cl/~rbaeza/spanish.html, Director of Yahoo! Research, Barcelona and Santiago de Chile. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies. Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 9 October 2008. 200 people attended. The web 2.0 concept. Impact on today’s internet It is currently estimated that between 1 and 2.5 billion people have internet access and the number is expected to reach 5 billion by 2015; internet traffic has increased 20-fold in the last 5 years and there are over 181 million web servers. The main characteristics of web 2.0, which consists of social networks or social media, are the fragmentation of the ownership of content and the fragmentation of access. Characteristics of web 2.0: content generated by people and collective intelligence The main ingredient of web 2.0 is the community dynamic: in its new products the distinction between creators, synthesisers and consumers is blurred. For example, let us consider the case of Flickr www.flickr.com: the users themselves generate the content, organise it, distribute it, and develop new uses for it. The web 2.0 ecosystem consists of blogs; social networks like MySpace www.myspace.com, Facebook http://ca-es.facebook.com, Friendster www.friendster.com; the sharing of favourite links http://delicious.com; instant messaging; sharing photos (Flickr) or videos www.youtube.com; participation in groups http://es.groups.yahoo.com and individuals answering questions from others http://es.answers.yahoo.com. South Korea is the most advanced country in social networks. Data mining on web use In 2004 the journalist James Surowiecki published the book The wisdom of crowds. On web 2.0 data mining based on people’s wisdom improves the user’s experience through the data collected: it is a essential for improving web searches (browser rankings), the content and the structure of information (based on the anchor text). Digital community systems, the new emerging science, and people’s implicit wisdom Digital community systems are a new way to participate, belong and share: the web today reflects the economy and society in general, it is scientifically young and intellectually diverse. People’s implicit wisdom can be seen at work in folksonomy (collective classification through tagging) and knowledge networks, resulting in implicit social networks, such as the Open Directory Project www.dmoz.org or Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org. On the governmental level digital communities have also been set up in a number of countries. In Catalonia the Compartim programme is of particular interest. Knowledge is managed and the programme’s annual conference prepared through the social blog http://compartim.socializame.com. Conclusion On web 2.0 the content is produced and shared by the users themselves, which has a great impact on internet and also on society, the economy, the world of publicity, education, etc. Consumption becomes an implicit act of production, with no added effort required. It is a matter of capturing people’s experience, allowing people to be tagged as trustworthy sources on an ongoing basis. Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2008
15th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training Do people need to have a digital identity? How to construct it. Juan Freire http://juanfreire.net, expert in innovation and strategy in networks and organisations. The speaker was introduced by Jordi Graells, Coordinator of Content and Innovation for the Directorate General for Citizen Attention (Presidential Department). Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 18 February 2009. 194 people attended. Digital identity Nowadays the intensive use of web 2.0 tools, especially social network services, calls for the availability of a digital identity through which we make ourselves visible to other people: our identity which appears on the internet needs to be controlled and it is preferable to manage it ourselves, rather than not be involved and have others manage it for us. Learning about and constructing digital identity Constructing oneâ€™s digital identity is part of the learning process in the digital culture. We are heading towards a situation in which we will have a hybrid identity (physical and digital); this does not mean we will have two identities, as our identity is unique, although it is sometimes difficult to separate the personal from the professional. Adolescents nowadays only perceive one identity. A study carried out in the USA in 2008 on the use made by adolescents of digital media concluded that adolescents relate to each other in two types of community: a) local networks of friends, as an extension of physical contact, through phone calls, sms, instant messaging and b) interest networks, global in scope, where they relate to other people with similar interests, and it is through these networks that they develop their creative skills (writing blogs, publishing videos, etc.), become visible and gain a reputation. Adolescents use the network in three different ways: 1) just spending time (hanging out); 2) looking for information without any clear purpose (messing around); and 3) specialised independent use of the technology (geeking out). There are two ways to view the internet: as a big space full of rubbish (games, inaccurate information, publicity, etc.) or as a space for learning and socialising. According to our own learning process we will adopt one position or the other. To construct our digital identity the tools we use are not as important as the purpose for which we are going to use them. The concept of digital competences has evolved: it has moved from a technological focus (1990s to early 2000s) to a social and participatory communicative focus (since 2003). Conclusion - There are no rules for constructing and controlling digital identity; it is an individual learning process. The rules still have to be defined. - We should be careful about the information we publish; it may not be significant in itself but it may be mined for data and a pattern established. - If we do not have a digital identity, identity theft is easier. - Digital identity affects organisations; the Government also needs to construct its own digital identity and must know what it wants to transmit to the public. The Administration should also train staff so that they know how to construct their digital identity for the benefit of the organisation. This is particularly necessary for organisations involved in projects with social networks and work done jointly.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2009
16th web session at the CEJFE Darwin in the information society: adaptation (and benefits) or extinction Ismael Pe帽a-L贸pez http://ictlogy.net, lecturer at the Open University of Catalonia and expert in information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) and digital learning. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of Presidency. CEJFE hall, 10 June 2009. 163 participants Towards a knowledge society The economic paradigm of the industrial society is based on the management of scarce resources and transaction costs, and the world revolves around and is defined by these two parameters. Internet access and the extensive use of ICT is configuring an economy based increasingly more on knowledge, with horizontal organic structures and in which information is abundant, is distributed at practically nil cost, is multi-directional and is accessible to everyone. How should citizens and institutions face these changes? Adapt or become extinct Technological literacy and digital skill will not take us away from the risk of social exclusion if we are not capable of being structurally relevant to the system and creating value for society. And this is valid both for companies and citizens and for institutions. If we want to survive, we should not limit ourselves to being mere executors or users of ICT. We have to know how to auto-program ourselves and evolve to adapt to the continuous changes. Following the evolutionary theory of Darwin, we can say that those who do not adapt to the new environment are condemned to become extinct. Some companies or institutions will disappear overnight, others will slowly fade away, and others will take quite a few years to adapt to the skills and demands of the information society. In this process of adaptation, we will have to rethink once again how we teach, work and relate, and it is here where institutions play a crucial role. Besides technological and multimedia literacy and a digital presence, governments need to foster appropriate policies that help citizens and companies see the usefulness of entering the information society (pull strategies) so that they share the need to become integrated in this new social and structural model in order not to get left behind. If they see the usefulness, they readily accept changes. Conclusions - Today's society is based on knowledge, abundant and at low cost, as compared with the industrial society, based on the scarcity of resources and on transaction costs. - Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new knowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to create value in society. - Our survival depends on adapting to the changes and being structurally relevant to the system. - Citizens and institutions have to interact closely to rethink and remodel all spheres of everyday life according to the new needs. - Institutional polices based on pull strategies are key to bringing about a change of attitude.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, June 2009
17th web session at the CEJFE Networking in the Government: where do we start? Genís Roca www.genisroca.cat, specialist in strategy and the Internet. The event was presented by Roser Bach, director of the CEJFE, and Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention. CEJFE hall, 14 October 2009. 213 participants In a different format from the previous ones, the session was highly participative. Genís Roca acted as the conductor of the session after the intense debate that occurred, before the web session, on the Internet: in the space enabled on Facebook, in various blogs and also on Twitter. There were over 100 participants and more than 200 contributions. Genís Roca wrote the script for the session based on these contributions and, after analysing and classing them, proposed a reflection on what we understand by Government 2.0 and began a debate focused on five topics. The environment Citizens do not ask for 2.0 projects, what they want is an efficient and streamlined Government, even though there is also a part of society immersed in 2.0 that seeks to relate directly. Also, the Government should not wait for society to ask for 2.0 projects, it has to anticipate them. The invironment (internal organisation of the Government, according to Genís Roca) The use and implementation of 2.0 tools is not such a great priority as, for example, the digitalisation of processes, which has to be completed by 2010 in accordance with Law 11/2007. The 2.0 projects also generate a certain fear of criticism and of not being able to answer citizens' requests properly. The projects Before setting up a 2.0 project, we need to have clear objectives, observe the environment and determine whether there are similar projects as perhaps they simply have to be adapted or a different focus given to them. Also, projects are in constant evolution and in a permanent beta version. The leaderships The 2.0 projects have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy, i.e. they have to have a dual leadership: a hierarchical leader who understands the project and provides the necessary resources and a project leader who animates the network. Directors need to be made to see that networking offers an added value, which is why adequate metrics need to be established. The legality The Government already uses profitable 2.0 tools; it simply has to take care with the information it posts on external platforms as there is content that should not be made public (such as personal data). Conclusions To conclude, Genís Roca chose three sentences that exemplified the ingredients needed to push through 2.0 projects in the Government: - If you want to do a 2.0 project, detect, ally and add. - Leadership, values and methodology are needed. - If you want to foster a 2.0 project in the Government... you need patience. Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2009
18th web session at the CEJFE New forms of institutional communication Jordi Segarra www.stpolitics.com, consultant in political and institutional communication. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of Presidency. CEJFE hall, 19 January 2010. 200 participants Technology is simply a tool Technology is an instrument at the service of a strategy. Nowadays we have many tools with which to communicate, but before anything else, we need to research: we need to know what we want, how we want it or how it can be done and, based on this, to do it. This is why it is essential to know the target public and the environment. We need to know what the target is because politics is local, yet also personal. This is done on the basis of what is known as microtargeting: identifying the public we are aiming at through various tools, such as buzz monitoring (tracks the conversations and social trends on forums, social networks, etc); specialist social networks; data mining; offline regional implementation (through local leaders, people capable of influencing and who are naturally trusted). Cut and paste doesn't work We do not have to copy successful communication strategies as it is more profitable to adapt what we have learned from others to our context. Dialogue/conversation instead of monologue The external and internal communication of organisations must be based on the generation of information, debate and participation. All politics is personal Messages are no longer aimed at a group but at a person. Technology affords us the direct audiovisual creation and dissemination of citizens. The multiplication of the media market allows greater personalisation. Through technology, we can segment our public individually. Politics, however, is still not 100% viral, as socially the traditional media still dominate. The future trends are geolocalisation, specialisation of social media and the transformation of the traditional media. Without emotion there is no reaction In politics, emotion always wins out over reason. What makes voters believe something or want change is not new information but new emotions. From the public sphere to the public spore Politics has to use the media to communicate with people. There should not just be a programme but emotions, social networks and connection with people. Conclusions - What is needed is a reason, a message with a story (storytelling), an emotion, a spark (momentum). - The right language and channel need to be used. - People need to be mobilised: we should not try to convince them, they have to be involved and motivated.
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2010
19th web session at the CEJFE Institutional leadership on the Net Antoni GutiĂŠrrez-RubĂ www.gutierrez-rubi.es, political communication advisor and political consultant. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge of Presidency. CEJFE hall, 9 March 2010. 148 participants Context Today's society is in a process of transformation: the changes are social and economic, but also cultural, relational and geopolitical. In this context, the Government is seen with prejudices and stereotypes in an increasingly more demanding society: the concepts (value-price, employment-work, skills-profession) change and new actors emerge: online citizens, digital activists, e-consumers... who expect quality of service, speedy answers, transparency and the possibility of participation. The Government should not do marketing but should converse with these new actors. Institutional leadership on the Net: ideas are power In this new context of the digital society, traditional communication is not enough to keep up a dialogue with the citizen and satisfy their demands. The sole discourse is no longer possible, as the social networks show. The power relationship has changed, it is no longer hierarchical: digital identity depends on reputation; this is why we need to be on the Net contributing ideas and information of value and committing to co-creation with the service providers and with the citizens. Power now is agility, speed, creativity and ideas with value. Power is no longer a position but presence, and presence configures the position. Resources -
Virtual press offices. New open web spaces, optimised for search engines and with personalisation of content. Extensive digital repositories and open databases. Use of 2.0 tools. Monitoring of the presence of the institution on the Internet and of responses to citizens.
Key ideas: 1.0 communication with 2.0 tools is condemned to fail Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of communication and a different organisational model that fosters creative talent: collaborative creation and collective intelligence. Conclusions: it is not a case of cosmetics, it is a case of change The Government has to respond transparently to the demands of an increasingly more critical and demanding society. - The aim of information is not to detect power but to share it to improve and change things. - Innovating is not doing something that you did not do before, but doing a new thing that you need to learn. - Innovation entails the pleasure of learning, but also of knowing and sharing. This will make us better professionals and better people and we will be happier. -
Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2010
20th web session at the CEJFE Digital skills and learning Boris Mir www.xtec.cat/~bmir, secondary school teacher and currently a member of the team behind the EDUCAT1x1 Project. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention. CEJFE hall, 11 May 2010. 124 participants 1. School and learning In Catalonia there are 1,180,460 students; 62,805 teachers in state schools, and 4,373 schools, between state, direct-grant and private. School has the non-exclusive function of learning, but also of safekeeping and socialisation, and it appears that these functions will not diminish, but quite the contrary. School is not just a service, it is an institution, which is why user satisfaction is always subordinate to the degree of respect for educational and ethical principles that are the basis of the school institution. 2. Cross-disciplinary skills in the new education system Both the State Education Act (2006) and Catalan Decrees 142 and 143/2007 include cross-disciplinary and specific skills to the new curricula, one of which is information treatment and digital skill. This skillsbased learning represents the integrated and strategic use of different skills in real, contextualised, nonschool situations and entails changes in teaching practices that cannot be decreed. In all, it leads us to believe that we are undergoing a transition between different models that will call for more far-reaching changes. 3. Digital skill: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology There are diverse visions and trends that speak of digital skill, but many have a common basis, a background music that converges in key dimensions that would comprise learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology. Digital skill has to combine knowledge, abilities and skills, in conjunction with values and attitudes, in order to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently in digital contexts and with digital tools. Digital skill takes on meaning if it is tackled from the framework of knowledge, and as it forms part of it, it can be learnt and taught. A digitally skilled person has to be able to generate knowledge, with digital tools and environments, but they also have to know how to treat and assess information, how to communicate, relate and collaborate, they have to act responsibly, civic-mindedly and securely and, naturally, they also have to know how to use the tools, not so much any specific software but the common baseboard that is behind the tools. 4. Innovation and management of educational change The 2009 Catalan Education Act proposed changes to the organisation and management of the human and economic resources of schools and envisaged a progressive increase in education expenditure. Innovations in education have to be scalable in order for them to have an overall impact. Simply improving education infrastructures is not enough, what is needed is decisive change management that involves teachers and helps them move closer to the new digital context. Conclusions - Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology. - The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill is learned but creates the conditions to make it possible. - Schools cannot change themselves, they need the help of the whole of society. - Changes come about by doing them. We cannot wait until we have the perfect conditions to start, we will create the conditions as we steadily change and improve. Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2010
Published on Dec 7, 2010
Published on Dec 7, 2010
Summary of the web 20 sessions of the Generalitat de Catalunya held between April 2005 and maig 2010 in the auditorium of the CEJFE, Barcelo...