the ri se and fall of
an archi comi c ti meli ne by jordan mathers a1 605860
hti i /subi i
thefollowi ng contenti s developed to show thehi stori cal i nfluence of the era wi thi n archi tecture called moderni sm.i ti s organi zed chronologi cally, however, i f somethi ng menti oned pertai ns to, or holds i nfluence and precedence over,a later event, then thelater eventwi ll bei nvolved wi thi n theprevi ous post,i f necessary.the style of the ti meli ne has been done i n a graphi cally entertai ni ng manner so as to di splay the hedoni sti ci deals of all archi tecture. the i mages depi cted are i n reference to i nformati on taken from the hi story theory i icourse reader. enjoy.
LATE IN THE 1 9TH CENTURY. . .
WILLIAM MORRIS CREATES THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT, LAYING DOWN THE FOUNDATION FOR MODERNISM
MORRIS AND HIS CIRCLE OF DESIGNERS,WITH HERMAN MUTHESIUS BEING A CONNECTION TO GERMANY, ESTABLISH A NEW SET OF IDEALS
MUTHESIUS,ALONG WITH SEVERAL MANUFACTURERS AND DESIGNERS,FORMS THE DEUTSCHER WERKBUND IN 1 907
IT ENCOURAGED FINE DESIGN OF INDUSTRIALLY MANUFACTURED GOODS
A MEMBER OF THE WERKBUND, PETER BEHRENS,IS HIRED BY ALLEGEMEINE ELEKTRICITATSGESELLSCHAFT ( AEG) ,AKA THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY IN THE SAME YEAR
BEHRENS BECOMES RESPONSIBLE FOR EVERY ASPECT OF DESIGN WITHIN THE COMPANY, LEADING TO HIS FIRM BECOMING THE MOST PROGRESSIVE IN EUROPE
THE FIRM HIRED MANY YOUNG DESIGNERS THAT WOULD LATER BECOME POST-WAR LEADERS IN MODERNISM. . . . . . LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE,WALTER GROPIUS AND LE CORBUSIER
SEVERAL MOVEMENTS ALSO HAD AN INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERNISM. . .
expressi oni sm
de sti jl
constructi vi sm
another development i n moderni sm was the creati on of the bauhaus. . .
. . . Its founder,walter gropi us, created one of the most presti gi ous cultural centers of germany.the bauhaus ai med to reach out to i ndustry
our gui di ng pri nci ple was that desi gn i s nei ther an i ntellectual nor a materi al affai r, but si mply an i ntegral part of the stuff of li fe,necessary for everyone i n a ci vi li zed soci ety
a school to teach modern desi gn aestheti cs,a gui ld of craftsmen forced to close by the nazi s,lasti ng only 1 4 years, i t enabled the furtheri ng of modern archi tecture.
another major contri butor to moderni sm was le corbusi er.known for hi s mastery of form and li ght,he pi oneered new i deals of how structures should be bui lt
archi tecture i s the masterly,correct,and magni fi cent play of masses brought together i n li ght
the dom-i no house,1 91 4,proposed as a mass-produced set of components to be constructed on si te floor slabs,pi ers and stai rs combi ned,allow a freedom of plan and confi gurati on
the ci trohan house,1 922,was descri bed as a â€œ machi ne for li vi ngâ€?
le corbusi er publi shed vers une archi tecture i n1 923,a collecti ve of hi s journals,l’ espri t nouveau. translated,i t means toward a new archi tecture i ni t he outli ned “ fi ve poi nts”for a new archi tecture. . .
. . . the pi loti( sti lts) ,the free plan,the free facade,the stri p wi ndow,and the roof terrace
one of several desi gns to demonstarte thi s was the vi lla savoye of 1 931
the ground floor was desi gned around the turni ng radi us of the cli ent’ s automobi le,and a ramp leadi ng up the structure eventually ends on the roof terrace
alongsi de le corbusi er,ludwi g mi es van der rohe rose to the hei ght of moderni sm
hi s submi ttal for a skyscraper competi ti on,despi te not wi nni ng, propelled hi m wi thi n the emergi ng movement. the fri edri schstrasse offi ce tower was radi cal
thi s project along wi th hi s desi gn for a country house i n bri ck showed a way beyond the current post-war desi gn aestheti c
we refuse to recogni se the problem of form,but only the problems of the bui ldi ng
hi s desi gn for the german nati onal pavi li on,bui lt for the 1 929 barcelona i nternati onal exhi bi ti on became the i deal example of moderni st aestheti c
he used the detai ls of di fferent materi als to create a uni fi ed language of moderni st desi gn
the desi gn was adopted i n a later project by mi es,the tugendhat house,1 930,i n brno
mi es was also placed i n charge of another exhi bi ti on i n stuttgart. . .
. . . the wi essenhof si edlung
mi es developed the master plan,and contri buted the desi gn of a block of flats, for the exhi bi ti on
1 6 promi nent archi tects contri buted to the exhi bi ti on
the i dea of the exhi bi ti on was to demonstrate the latest thi nki ng about housi ng desi gn,i nteri or and constructi on technologi es.
the elements of each desi gn had a commonali ty that led to the development of moderni sm as a defi ned movement
the common i deals of the desi gns from the wi essenhof si edlung along wi th the book,i nternati onale archi tektur,1 925,by walter gropi us,led alfred h.barr of the museum of modern art i n new york to defi ne such archi tecture as the i nternati onal style i n1 932
Emphasi s upon volume -space enclosed by thi n planes or surfaces as opposed to symmetry or other ki nds of obvi ous balance;and lastly,dependence upon the i ntri nsi c elegance of materi als,perfecti on,and fi ne proporti ons,as opposed to appli ed ornament
barr,wi th henry-russell hi tchcock and phi li p johnson,organi zed an exhi bi ti on at moma showi ng ameri ca the developments of archi tecture i n europe.the exhi bi ti on gave way to the i nfluence of the new modern movement,known as moderni sm,along wi th the book based on the exhi bi ti on by hi tchcock and johnson,the i nternati onal style.
As the emergi ng style of moderni sm was gai ni ng momentum,a congress known as the Congres Internati onaux dâ€™ Archi tecture Moderne,founded i n Swi tzerland i n1 928,was helpi ng spread the i deals of the i nternati onal style.It was at the fi rst meeti ng that they establi shed that modern archi tecture should be li nked to the general economi c system.Worki ng around a si mi lar concept to that of the Le Corbusi er Dom-i no house,i n that they sai d that desi gn should mi ni mi ze worki ng effort through standardi zed bui ldi ng components
1 939-1 945 A major turni ng poi nt i n the twenti eth century and the resultant effect on archi tecture and desi gn,WWII defi ned a new era of progressi on for Moderni sm.The need for expansi on of i ndustri al and mi li tary establi shments,and technologi es to be used i n the war, allowed for archi tects and engi neers to be i nvolved i n every aspect of desi gn throug ghout and after the war.The abi li ty to construct and use new materi als was now becomi ng reali ty and the defeat of Hi tler,usi ng warti me technologi es,was a vi ctory for moderni sm over the advocacy of tradi ti on
One Moderni st to radi cally rethi nk the use of technology i n desi gn was Buckmi nster Fuller
He created the geodesi c dome,desi gned to have the best possi ble rati o of volume to wei ght,i t was i mmedi ately pi cked up by the U. S.mi li tary i n1 954 and thousands were made
When I' m worki ng on a problem,I never thi nk about beauty.I thi nk only how to solve the problem.But when I have fi ni shed, i f the soluti on i s not beauti ful,I know i ti s wrong.
He was also one of the earli est advocates of renewable energy,coi ni ng the term â€œ Spaceshi p Earth, â€?to emphasi ze the fact that we li ve on an ecologi cally i nterconnected planet
Another creati on was the Dymaxi on Map,desi gned to represent the world accurately,i t can be folded to create a cuboctahedron globe
A project to create cheap but well-desi gned houses rapi dly usi ng warti me technologi es and materi als saw the producti on of 24 houses by 1 966.One house bui lt i n1 947,the Eames house,desi gned by husband and wi fe team,Charles and Ray Eames,for themselves,was the most i nnovati ve. Rather than desi gn i t as a di splay, i t was bui lt as an organi c organi sm that reflects the character of the i nhabi tants through i ts use as a backdrop for the i tems the couple had collected from around the world
Followi ng the pri nci ples of CIAM,a new capi tal of the recently i ndependent Indi a was to be constructed,Chandi garh Jawaharlal Nehru,the fi rst Pri me Mi ni ster of i ndependent Indi a started the project
Le Corbusi er joi ned the project i n1 952 and desi gned several bui ldi ngs i ncludi ng the assembly bui ldi ng
It was one of the fi rst new capi tal ci ty projects as a result of post-war advances
others i nclude. . .
brasi li a
Duri ng the post-war years,i t was the commi ssi on of the Uni ted Nati ons headquarters that saw the creati on of one of the most i mportant vi si ons of the new world order.When the Uni ted Nati ons Charter was si gned i n1 945,a bui ldi ng broke ground i n1 947.Archi tects from eleven di fferent countri es came up wi th a desi gn for the headquarters.The new structure was a testament to the effects of war,on not just a soci al,poli ti cal,and economi c system,but also on the technologi cal advancements wi thi n archi tecture
Eero Saari nen,i n1 1years,worked on nearly 30 projects,some of whi ch would become i nternati onal archi tectural i cons and symbols of the Uni ted Statesâ€™postwar i denti ty as a technologi cal superpower
among these are. . .
The St.Loui s Gateway Arch,1 948-64
General Motors Techni cal Center,1 948-56
TWA Termi nal at JFK Ai rport,1 956-62
Alumi num producti on i ncreased by 600 percent, duri ng the war,as the mi li tary needed the use of i ts strong,li ghtwei ght abi li ti es In 1 950,Alcoa,one of the largest producers of Alumi num, created a new headquarters bui ldi ng.It was to be treated as a gi ant catalog of archi tectural uses for alumi num. Thi si ncluded curtai n wall systems,somethi ng that was greatly explored i n Moderni st archi tecture
They also bui lt the Alcoa Garden i n1 959,usi ng alumi num to demonstrate i ts uses wi thi n landscape desi gn
Mi es Van Der Rohe was also one of the many archi tects explori ng new archi tecture
Hi s desi gn for the Farnsworth house,1 951 ,was a radi cal explorati on of materi als and constructi on techni ques.MAde enti rely of pre-fabri cated parts,i ncludi ng the floor slabs,and bui lt on si te i t was one of the fi rst of i ts ki nd,a source of i nspi rati on i n many followi ng projects
It was however Mi es desi gn of the Seagram Bui ldi ng i n New York,1 958, that became the monument that fully defi ned the aestheti c of Moderni sm
Le Corbusi er provi ded an i mportant poi nt of di scussi on for the postwar housi ng scheme
Uni te dâ€™ habi tati on,an 1 8 story block housi ng 337 uni ts, can be seen as followi ng from hi s previ ous work.The completi on of Uni te dâ€™ habi tati on i n1 952,saw di scussi on upon usi ng i t as a model for new nei ghborhoods. . .
. . . One such nei ghborhood was the Golden Lane Housi ng Project by Peter and Ali son Smi thson,conformi ng to the Uni te model of a narrow,multi stori ed housi ng block
Peter Smi thson also played a promi nent part i n the closi ng years of the Moderni st aestheti c.Smi thson,along wi th several younger members of CIAM formed Team X i n1 953,the basi s of whi ch was to stray from the CIAM approach that categori zed desi gn as:dwelli ng,work,recreati on,and transportati on. Instead they ai med to i ncorporate the complexi ty of soci al relati onshi ps and group i denti ty.The di fferences between Team X and CIAM subsequently saw the end to CIAM as the di fferences between the generati ons was too retractable to resolve.Thi s transi ti on started di scussi ons that led to a new culture of Archi tecture to be explored and the end of Moderni sm as the mai n desi gn aestheti c
Several publi cati ons and studi os arose i n the realm of the Team X phi losophy
Most notably was the publi cati on,Archi gram,started i n1 961 ,i t di splayed vastly alternati ve vi ews to that of Moderni sm, usi ng complex organi c forms and i ncomprehensi ble structures, that could not be bui lt,to defi ne what the future could be li ke
Another was Superstudi o,an i tali an studi o founded i n1 966, produci ng conceptual works i n response to thei r research on “ archi tecture of the monument” ;the “ archi tecture of the i mage” ;and “ tecnomorphi c archi tecture” .They provi ded i nspi rati on to many archi tects such as zaha hadi d,rem koolhaas,and bernard tschumi
Whereas Moderni sm was sti ll a strong aspect of archi tecture, as seen i n structures li ke le corbusi er’ s notre dame de haut, 1 955,and Eladi o Di este’ s Church of the chri st worker,1 960,both explori ng structure and li ght.They were also begi nni ng to look at form as a pri mary component
Loui s Kahn started to di sti ngui sh the spati al attri butes of bui ldi ngs i na more complex and contradi ctory way than that of Moderni sm.Creati ng spaces that are controlled and i ncorporate li ght and mass was the basi s of archi tecture i n kahn’ s eyes
Hi s desi gn for Sher-e-Banglanagar i n bangladesh was a testament to thi s,and by far hi s greatest creati on.Fi ni shed i n the late 1 980’ s, long after hi s death i n1 974,i ts i s a monument of hi s beli efs. The i nteri or bei ng a transformati on of spli t cubi st forms usi ng natural li ght to i llumi nate monumental spaces
Desi gn i s not maki ng beauty,beauty emerges from selecti on, affi ni ti es,i ntegrati on, love
Comi ng to the end of the 1 960â€™ s,i t was i ncreasi ngly apparent that the moderni st housi ng scheme was creati ng banal bui ldi ngs,ali enati ng envi ronments,and broken communi ti es Ralph Erski ne,a member of Team X,created Byker Wall i n Newcastle-upon-tyne,1 974.Byker wall was the new answer to that of the moderni st housi ng strategy.It blocked the adjacent hi ghway from di mi ni shi ng the envi ronment of the commmuni ty, whi le the i nner face projected balconi es provi di ng depth and rhythm to the uni ts
It was a project that i ncorporated user i nput and i nti mate on-si te development by the archi tect
Another structure,by Aldo Van Eyck, Hubertushui si n AMsterdam,demonstarted new i deals of housi ng desi gn aswell.Fi ni shed i n1 981 ,i t was a great voi ce i n the future of housi ng desi gn
In the 1 970â€™ s and 80â€™ s,the vi si ons that the contri butors of Archi gram had i n the 1 960â€™ s were becomi ng a reali ty.The advent of new technologi es allowed for the constructi on of a new style of archi tecture. Called Hi gh Tech Archi tecture,or structural rati onali sm,i t uses these new technologi es of bui ldi ng constructi on.However,i nstead of the hi gh i nterest i n these technologi es i n desi gn,i t focused strongly on the complex relati onshi ps between people and places
In the post-moderni st stage,archi tects were starti ng to conform to tradi ti on once agai n
Phi li p Johnson started to see the prospects of returni ng to tradi ti on as the new style.The most i nfluenti al structure he desi gned was the Ameri can telephone and telegraph headquarters i n New York ci ty. THe completi on,i n1 984,pushed Johnson i nto the center of post-moderni sm, breaki ng the â€˜ Mi esi anâ€™style and usi ng past styles as reference
Also,duri ng the 1 980â€™ s,i n Flori da,Vernacular archi tecture was comi ng back to promi nence wi th the development of Seasi de,allowi ng archi tects to learn from the experi ence of previ ous generati ons
Berli n,tryi ng to regai n control of i ts own desti ny after the Nazidefeat i n wwII and i n the aftermath of the cold war,i t began to rejuvenate the urban scene.Creati ng the Internati onale Bauausstellung,IBA,i n1 979,i t ai med to bri ng a showcase of contemporary desi gn back to germany.It was a major acti on i n terms of desi gners,creati ng thei r vi si on for the future of archi tecture and post-moderni st desi gn. Green desi gn and ecologi cal desi gn both arose wi thi n the IBA scheme.The new i deals of contemplati ng the future growth of populati on and thei r effect on the world as a whole has led to the domi nance of envi ronmentally consci ence desi gn today
Duri ng the post-war years of wwI and then those of wwII,the i nfluences on desi gn led to that of the Moderni st regi me of archi tectural process.Where thi s process led to the current understandi ng of the use of space as an i ntegral part of human development,the new technologi es of archi tecture are now A BIG i nfluence on LIFE
Havi ng to consi der envi ronmental desi gn i n new archi tecture, computers have become a promi nent and i nclusi ve part of structural desi gn and allow the archi tect to i ncorporate much more i nto thei r desi gns
Not only that,i t also allows form and analysi s to enter a new era of desi gn
The new desi gn aestheti c. . .