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CAPSTONE JOURNAL JORDAN HALL ARC 436: RESEARCH & PROGRAMMING


TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 - Introduction 02 - Literature Review

Summary + Review Survey Results Works Cited

03 - Building Documentation

Site Analysis Building Description

04 - Precedent Studies 05 - Typology Studies 06 - Project Description

3-24 10-58 10-21 22-31 32

59-82 59-73 74-82

83-97 98-111 111-129

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INTRODUCTION | 01 Jordan Hall Gulen Cevik ARC 364 02 October 2018 Capstone Introduction: LGBTQ Community Center

Over the last decade, there has been enormous progress on LGBTQ rights, with 67%

of Americans supporting same-sex marriage, but do those people actually take the time to understand what the true meaning of gay pride is? If you were to ask ten people what gay pride is about, you’ll receive ten different answers. From the outside looking in, gay pride, along with pride month and its numerous parades, seems like a fun celebration of sexual freedom. Within the LGBTQ community, gay pride ranges from having pride about sexual orientation and for those who have stood up to make life more equitable for all people. The problem at hand is that this movement also triggers arguments and hand-wringing for those involved and not involved. For many, gay pride is a bitter reminder of everything that is wrong with the gay community, including the flashy outfits that do nothing to change the stereotypes straight America has of gays and lesbians. A “respectable” gay pride would be a slap in the face to those who were forced to live secret lives of who they really are. The modern LGBTQ Pride movement has not just benefited gays and lesbians but has also built a society that is accepting of all its citizens, which makes for a stronger nation. It moves society away from a viewpoint of “Either/Or” and closer to the inclusive “And.” (SITE). Gay pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance (SITE). The Human Rights Watch advocates for laws and policies that will protect everyone’s dignity and works for a world where all people can enjoy their rights fully. LGBTQ is an abbreviation that represents the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning community while also including transsexual, two-spirit, intersex, asexual, and ally. This community is united by a common culture and social movements, generally celebrating pride, diversity, individuality,

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INTRODUCTION | 01 and sexuality. Although there has been progress made with LGBTQ rights, there is still an enormous amount to be done in the effort to attain universal rights for this community worldwide. Today, many large cities have gay and lesbian community centers, along with universities and colleges across the world providing support centers for LGBTQ students. These spaces and amenities help to serve this community by giving them a safe place to go and host services for non-heterosexual individuals. There is a wide variety of resources to help serve LGBTQ people such as The Human Rights Campaign, the Empowering Spirits Foundation, and the International Lesbian and Gay Association, which all advocate for LGBTQ people on a wide range of issues in the United States. Individual cities also have their own resources for the local gay and lesbian community. Although organizations like these serve a great purpose, there needs to be more hands-on participation within this community and the outside world. By developing more LGBTQ community centers, it will not only bring this specific community together, but will also widen the rest of the world’s exposure and understanding of gay pride in hopes to gain more acceptance locally and worldwide.

Ohio may be a Republican state but Cincinnati might be one of the most LGBTQ-friendly

cities in the United States, according to The Advocates annual “Queerest Cities in America” feature. The online publication, which focuses on political and social issues with gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender readers in mind, ranked Cincinnati at No. 7 on its list of 25 gayfriendly cities. Cincinnati ranked highly due to its anti-discrimination ordinance, pride events, and the Cincinnati Opera’s adaptation of the historical novel “Fellow Travelers,” which focuses on a romance between two men. Another important feature of Cincinnati being LGBTQfriendly is that Ohio swung red during the 2016 presidential election, but Hamilton County did not. The Greater Cincinnati Gay Chamber of Commerce forges strategic alliances with other professional and business organizations and creates networking opportunities for LGBTQ and allied businesses. The Tri-State offers a wide variety of community resources serving the local LGBTQ community, including Cincinnati Pride, Crossport, Equality Cincinnati, and Gay & Lesbian Community Center. These are all great resources for this minority but Cincinnati is still lacking the hands-on and physical exposure of the LGBTQ community year-round,

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INTRODUCTION | 01 which is a physical community center.

In the efforts to widen the city of Cincinnati’s exposure and participation in the LGBTQ

culture, I am designing a space that serves as a comprehensive Community Center for the local LGBTQ community as well as the rest of greater Cincinnati. The community center will appeal to a variety of people and integrate the culture of LGBTQ identities by offering unique opportunities to the outside community who may not identify within this group. It will secure the health and well-being of the LGBTQ community while also engaging and advancing the rest of the community into this diverse culture. My goal is to create a welcoming environment where everyone is celebrated for who they are and to showcase this culture to the outside community. This will help to eliminate the barrier between this minority and the rest of the city. Cincinnati is a great place for this project due to its already strong LGBTQ presence that is, unfortunately, lacking a physical space that all locals can participate in.

This community center will house a host of social, performance and education spaces

throughout its program. The LGBTQ Community Center in Cincinnati will be a venue offering multi-use spaces, galleries, workshops, education and health resources, performances and entertainment, dining, and recreational opportunities. These amenities will allow the LGBTQ community to have a safe place to come to express themselves, meet new people, receive help, and gain knowledge. The gallery will serve as a space for members to showcase their artwork to the outside community as a form of self-expression. With the concept of spreading the LGBTQ culture to the outside community, the design of this building will incorporate wide amounts of transparency so that passer-byers are exposed to what is happening inside. There will be art workshops held on a regular basis that give members the opportunity to express themselves through art. Other amenities that will bring in the community will be a multiuse stage that serves a variety of purposes. This stage will host speakers, open-mic night, concerts and bands, events, movie night, yoga, and more. By hosting a variety of events, it will not only entertain LGBTQ members, but also attract outside visitors into the space. The center will also be equipped with a food court, which serves as a dining hall for members of the community who come in. Free food will be offered occasionally to make members feel at home

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INTRODUCTION | 01 and welcomed. This is a great space for collaboration and connecting with one another while also encouraging people to stick around. While having numerous amounts of public spaces and exposure to the outside streets, there will also be more private spaces inside this center that provide tutoring, therapy and counseling for members who seek help or just someone to talk to. This is a very crucial aspect to a LGBTQ community center because many teens and young adults are struggling with finding their identity, coming out, or acceptance within their family and/or community. Overall, this space welcomes anyone who wants to participate within this culture and to create a more inclusive community. In order to satisfy the needs of each of these activities, the program section will consist of the following items: •

Reception/Lobby

Auditorium with a stadium-style staircase (for multi-use seating)

Gallery Space (to display member’s artwork and host professional showcases)

Art Studio

Multi-Use Stage

Food Court (equipped with a kitchen)

Tutoring Center (equipped with classrooms)

Therapy Center

Quiet Work Spaces and Study Rooms

Lounge Space (equipped with electronics: TV., computers, printers, etc.)

Small Library

Private Offices (for staff)

This community center will give Cincinnati a wide range of opportunities to explore and

participate in while immersing themselves into the LGBTQ culture. People who do not identify as LGBTQ can still find something that interests them inside of this space, whether that be a concert or speaker held at the multi-use stage, vendor pop-up in the food court, a quiet place to study, attending gallery nights, or taking an art class. With having a wide range of amenities throughout this multi-use space, it brings in different people of Cincinnati while exposing the welcoming culture of the LGBTQ community in hopes to integrate Cincinnati as a whole.

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INTRODUCTION | 01 The location of this space will be positioned in the neighborhood of Over-The-Rhine, which lies directly north of Cincinnati’s downtown. This neighborhood has seen a half-billion dollars’ worth of investment over the past decade, resulting in one of the most remarkable urban transformations of recent times. Before, there was such a vast population loss that this rehabilitation project avoided gentrification since there was barely anyone to move out. The city of Cincinnati has embraced Over-the-Rhine’s success and continues to expand this up-and-coming neighborhood. Over-the-Rhine is equipped with Washington Park, Cincinnati Music Hall, a large brewery district, restaurants and retail, beautiful murals and street art, and vast apartment living. With a large young-adult crowd residing here, there is constant activity happening day and night. This location is a great spot to incorporate the LGBTQ Community Center due to the thriving outside atmosphere and diverse community. People are constantly walking from place to place in OTR so this will cause great exposure of the community center to passer-byers and allows for easy access. The playful and open design of the community center will reflect OTR’s “quirky” atmosphere and will fit well in this urban community.

The reason that I chose the topic of an LGBTQ Community Center is because of my love

to bring different people together through design. I personally do not identity as LGBTQ but have been immersed into the culture through college, traveling, classes, and my everyday life. I am currently taking a creative writing class that is focused on LGBTQ+ identities and plan to further my knowledge and participation within this topic. In today’s world, it is important to not only accept lesbian and gay people, but to also understand and grow our knowledge about this growing minority. The base of this project is to make a difference in the community I am designing in. The power that design has to bring people together, alike and not alike, is endless. I want to bring something exciting but also purposeful to Cincinnati in order to make an impact on the community. The LGBTQ community inspires me every day to be myself, no matter what other people may think. More people should recognize how strong and motivated this social group is so that we can build a stronger sense of community and create a space, or world, where everyone is celebrated for who they are.

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INTRODUCTION | 01 On another note, I am also excited for the exploration with color throughout this project. The LGBTQ community is represented with a rainbow and vibrant colors, which I plan to incorporate into my design through impactful and purposeful ways. There are many studies about how color can control the way someone feels, acts, and uses a space. With my goal of creating a welcoming and energetic environment, bringing color into this space will be a vital part of the design and success of the community center.

This community centers main focus in on the LGBTQ community and culture but it

also incorporates many other focuses, such as human interaction, art galleries, food courts, stage design, health and education facilities, color theory, and the culture and history of OverThe-Rhine. Since this community center hosts such a vast program, the research portion of this project will be conducted of various studies including different cultures, spaces, and amenities. For my research, I must dive deeper into the understanding of LGBTQ culture, including current problems, programs, trends, and needs of the community. By being better equipped with this information, it will allow my design to be more cohesive and meet the needs of this community while also successfully expressing it to the outside community. I will also research various types of community centers and the programmatic elements used. This will inform me on current trends, areas of interest, and an overall understanding of how community centers bring people together.

I will conduct research of LGBTQ culture through articles, books and current news

while also participating in surveying people who identity as LGBTQ about their experience, problems/needs and opinions of this design proposal. I plan to visit the LGBTQ Center in the Armstrong Student Center on Miami University’s campus. I will also gather research from people who do not identify as LGBTQ and ask what amenities and programs they would be interested in attending inside the community center. As for conducting research on community centers, there are numerous amounts of books and articles published on successful community centers that are focused for specific social groups and bringing people together. Attending site visits to local community centers will help to get a sense of space planning, scope, and overall design experience.

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INTRODUCTION | 01

My research will help me to further the program of my community center. With gaining

real-life knowledge of what people want in an LGBTQ Community Center, it will better shape the way that I execute my design and decision making. After all, my goal is to bring people together and there is no better way to execute that goal than to know exactly what the people’s needs and wants are.

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02

In order to design an LGBTQ Community Center, I first have to understand what

a community center’s purpose is, what makes it “successful,” what programs should be included based on the use and location, and to study the different types of community centers. After reading and taking careful notes on the book “Community Centers and Student Unions” written by Eugene and Barbara Sternberg, I gained vital insight on the crucial elements and characteristics that make a community center/student union reach the goal of connecting the community and tackling local needs, problems, and interests. The community center’s historic role is to build a sense of identity, then a spirit of self-help to tackle community problems, combined with an immediate program of educational and cultural activities based on local needs and interests to enrich the daily life of residents (Sternberg, 9). Community Centers possess a need to provide opportunities and activities that cannot be provided by the individual family. Examples of community centers that provide different opportunities to the public include YMCAs, Jewish Community Centers, Country Clubs, Teen Clubs, Young Adult Centers, Student Unions, and church-related Social Centers. While looking into the history of community centers, there is not a specific time frame or description of how they evolved because the spectrum of physical facilities set aside to contain and encourage the expression of communal activities is as broad and various as social groups and communities themselves (Sternberg, 9). This book constantly hits on the fact that the word “standard” cannot be combined with the idea of a community center. There is no standard to the design of a community center because each center is unique to its location, community, and goal. For example, a Jewish Community Center has different goals at hand than a LGBTQ Community Center because of the audiences they are serving. The concept of a community center should be loose, open, and experimental. This allows many different opportunities to happen, based on the problem at hand. Community centers have to do with stimulating, maintaining, and deepening a “sense of community” and is also characterized by its unique role in the creative use of leisure time and for a variety of different activities (Sternberg, 10). A large portion of community centers tend to be understaffed, under financed, and overall of poor design. A setback in some community centers is that they are only focused on one social class

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 while they should be involving all levels of a multi-class community. A successful community center should be able to bridge the gaps between the different races, classes, and religious groups so that it’s form, function, and membership can resolve our harshly divided society.

There are cities that have been known to lack a sense of purpose and this is due to

an abundance of elegantly design high-rise commercial office buildings that lack a sense of “the good life,” which is an important function of a community center (Sternberg, 10). This book offers a hypothesis that if a community center involves the factors of (1) stimulating architectural form, (2) a gathering together of as many institutions as possible that draw people out of their homes, (3) an easy transition from passive to many kinds of active involvement, with abundant chances for people to meet and greet informally, and (4) a mixing of different types of people, then it will be a great creation of the future and communities will be saved (Sternberg, 11). When designing an LGBTQ Community Center, my goal at hand is to use architecture and interior design as a vital element in how people interact and use the space. It will also possess many different programs, amenities, and opportunities so that it can bring in different social groups and allow them to interact, observe and learn from each other, and become one collective community. A design of a building should be better when people inhabit the space, rather than only being beautiful when it is not touched or tampered with. People make up the spaces that we design and they are meant for people to use it. In the book Community Centers and Student Unions, it states “We have delighted in the exceptional comments of the architect who said that his building was visually quiet when there were few people in it, but when lots of people came in, their bright clothes and contrasting skin tones filled the place with color.” That is my goal when designing my community center. Although the design will represent the culture of the LGBTQ/Queer community through beautiful displays of art, exciting colors, and an energetic space plan, it will not be complete until people inhabit the space and use it to express themselves and collaborate with the people around them. When developing my program, I conducted research through books, articles, precedents, and surveys to determine what is best suited for a successful LGBTQ Community Center. I did not develop my program based on a structured agenda but instead I am trying to create an

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 informal atmosphere in which interests can develop. To do this, there are many multi-use spaces and opportunities throughout the center for which people can chose what they want and/or need.

Before building a community center, it is a common practice for the designer to do

a length survey of the needs of a particular community. I have done this through a survey asking people of different social groups their gender, identity, stance of same-sex marriage, and interest in a multitude of different programs in an LGBTQ Community Center. There is no limit to what can and cannot be done in a community center. New ideas and experiments are always out there and the best people to help recognize them are the people in the particular community that you are trying to reach because they have their own unique ideas, interests, problems, and concerns. Three of the most vital factors in designing a good community center are (1) the use of creative imagination, which may see new possibilities in relationships of spaces to one another, (2) the use of new materials, fixtures, and furnishings, which are brought on to the market constantly, and (3) the possibility of radically altering the entire program of the community center by imaginatively aligning it with other magnets of neighborhood and community life, and thus altering the scale of both funding and planning (Sternberg, 153).

The information that I acquired from the book Community Centers and Student

Unions has furthered my knowledge and insight on how to construct a community center. There should be no standards that I follow because every center is different based on the surrounding community and goal at hand. I should always be looking for new opportunities and ideas, especially those ideas from the community that I am serving. By gathering opinions from the community, it will give me new insight on what problems are at hand and different ideas on how to solve those. With the ultimate goal of bringing the diverse and segregated community together, I am now more advanced in the topic of community center design and purpose. A community center should be at its full potential when people inhabit the space and create their own design through interaction, play, and expression.

Now that I have a greater understanding of Community Center design and purpose,

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 I then researched the history, rights, and problems of the LGBTQ community. The book “Listen, We Need to Talk: How to Change Attitudes About LGBT Rights” written by Brian Harrison and Melissa Michelson, discusses The Theory of Dissonant Identity Priming and marriage equality and other LGBT issues in the United States. Chapter one outlines a new theory of how seemingly unrelated in-group identity priming can effectively develop feelings of interpersonal closeness and open minds to attitudinal change, which is known as the Theory of Dissonant Identity Priming. In order to develop an understanding of how to successfully open the publics eye to LGBTQ rights and culture, I must first study the history of LGBTQ rights and how it has progressed throughout the decades. In 1988, only 11% of the United States public supported legalizing same-sex marriage. Support increased to 27% in 1996 and then to 35% in 2006. In recent years, the shift has been even more rapid with 2013 having a variety of polls showing that a majority of Americans supported same-sex marriage, also known as marriage equality. The latest poll in May of 2016 found national support at more than 60% (Harrison and Michelson, 1). Support for marriage equality has grown enormously over the last two decades and a large number of respondents admit to having changed their minds. With such a large rate of attitudinal change in this issue compared to the patterns of attitudes in other political issues that stay the same over the years, this brings about the Theory of Dissonant Identity. “Usually, public opinion is stable; once formed, attitudes at both the individual and aggregate levels are relatively persistent over time” (Harrison and Michelson, 1). This theory possesses the hypothesis that the rapid change in opinion on marriage equality occurred because over time, individuals were nudged by members and leaders of their social groups to reconsider their existing opinions. This book looks at how individual-level identity and identity cues from in-group members affect attitudes toward the prominent and contentious issue of marriage equality. These drastic changes in public opinion were not just due to opponents of marriage equality dying off and being replaced by a new generation with different opinions but are due to people actually changing her minds about their view on this topic. Although increased contact and exposure to this issue helps to make the public more aware and excepting of marriage equality, it still cannot simply be the only reason for this rapid attitude change.

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 This book hypothesized that shifting attitudes were the result of individuals updating their opinions to better align with emerging preferences by people they respected and with whom they identified in some way. For example, when President Barack Obama was elected as the first Black President of the United States, who was originally an opponent of marriage equality but then in 2012, he changed his stance and endorsed marriage equality. This lead to Black Americans, who had previously opposed marriage equality, to reconsider and change their own opinions on this issue due to their strong support of Obama as they identify him as an important member of a shared social group. This shows that Obama held a strong leadership role with many followers that re-thought their opinion solely due to the surprise that he changed his opinion. An LGBTQ Community Center can cause this same effect with the community around it by opening its doors to not only the LGBTQ community, but to the rest of Greater Cincinnati. This way, people who do not necessarily identity or agree with this particular culture can be exposed to the history, rights, and culture that they possess. This center is meant to help the LGBTQ people to express themselves and be heard by the community. Once the outside community hears and is exposed to what the LGBTQ community has to say, they will be more inclined to alter their own opinions by a ripple effect.

Sinclair wrote that individuals are “social citizens” embedded in interactive networks

and it is well established that references to some social identities can move public opinion. In the process of creating our self-identity, we create and form opinions about groups that we perceive to be “ours” compared to “theirs,” privileging our own groups and their perceived attributes. Existing research (from Dooise, Ellemers, and Spears 1995) shows that people who identity with a social group tend to feel close and similar to in-group members. This selfcategorization is extended when group membership is made more salient in social situations (Harrison and Michelson, 3). By “salient,” this means most noticeable or important. For example, a homosexual man tends to identity with the LGBTQ social group and feels close and connected to other members who may identity with this same social group. This is why building an LGBTQ Community Center is an important asset to the Cincinnati area because it gives this minority of a social group a place where all members can go to interact,

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 be themselves, and feel safe. When social identity is salient, individuals tend to think and act like group members and to rely on the in-group as a guide for their own thoughts and behaviors (Harrison and Michelson, 7). The LGBTQ community is a strong social group that sticks together to express themselves freely, to be heard by others, and to fight for equal rights. Social identity and attitudes are inextricably linked. This means that they are linked in a way that is impossible to disentangle or separate. This book defines attitudes as “general and enduring positive or negative feelings about some person, object, or issue” and that people’s attitudes create stimulus categories that rouses activity, organize their perceptions of the world, and ultimately affect their behavior. Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet concluded that “a person thinks, politically, as he is socially. Social characteristics determine political preferences” (Harrison and Michelson, 7). This is why most of the LGBTQ population tends to be part of the Democratic political party. This political party supports issues such as samesex marriage, pro-choice on abortion, and are pro-immigration. While Democrats are liberal and based on community and social responsibility, Republicans are conservative and based on individual rights and justice. With former President Barack Obama being of the Democratic party and siding with issues such as same-sex marriage and pro-immigration, this lead to a strong support system of democrats who followed Obama’s opinions and decisions. As mentioned before, there was a rapid attitude change in democrat’s opinions towards samesex marriage when Obama decided to support marriage equality during his presidency. This is because he had already created a strong social group among Americans that identified with him.

Chapter two of the book “Listen, We Need to Talk: How to Change Attitudes About LGBT

Rights” focuses on marriage equality and other LGBT issues in the United States. One of the most prominent, contentious issues in American politics of the past few decades concerns the right of LGBT individuals, particularly around the right to marry someone of the same sex (Harrison and Michelson, 28). The history of LGBTQ rights has been a long and progressive one. Due to the unofficial launch of the modern Gay Rights Movement in 1969 at the Stonewall Inn in New York City’s Greenwich Village, many gay and lesbian individuals have seen recent

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 advances in some of their rights. On June 28, 1969, the patrons of the Stonewall Inn fought back against police raiding on gay bars and arresting patrons by chanting “gay power� and launching what would become six nights of riots. Stonewall marks the symbolic moment that the LGBT community decided to not accept treatment as second-class citizens but rather to demand that they be treated equally (Harrison and Michelson, 28). Obama made history when he declared the Stonewall Inn a national monument, the 1st national monument in the U.S. recognizing the struggle for LGBT rights. Learning about events that helped to pave the path for LGBT rights is an important factor when designing an LGBTQ Community Center. This is why I plan to add a museum of LGBTQ history into my center, so that members of the queer community can not only relate and be motivated from their founders and advancement in society, but for the rest of the community that comes inside, so that they can start to understand and appreciate the hard work that this social group has put into their fight for equality in hopes to broaden the understanding and acceptance of this minority group.

Since 1969, the LGBT community has made significant progress in its fight for liberty

and equality. Initial efforts focused on freedom from retaliation for being openly gay and the decriminalization of homosexual behavior. A few important dates, people and states involved in this history are the following. In 1977, Harvey Milk became the first openly gay man elected to public office. In 1982, Wisconsin became the first state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and in 2000, Vermont became the first state to legalize same-sex civil unions and domestic partnerships. In 2003, Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage and in 2011, gay men and lesbians gained the right to serve openly in U.S. military. In June 2015, gay men and lesbians gained the nationwide right to same-sex marriage (Harrison and Michelson, 28). The rights for transgender people have also escalated significantly since the 60’s. For example, in 1976, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that transsexual persons may marry on the basis of their gender identity, regardless of their assigned gender. In 1977, transgender woman Renee Richards won the right to compete in tennis as a woman when the New York Supreme Court ruled in her favor in a case filed against the U.S. Tennis Association. In 2010, the federal government extended non-discrimination

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 laws to include transgender civilians who are federal employees. In 2016, the U.S. military changed its policy on transgender service members, allowing those individuals to serve openly without threat or discharge for their gender identity (Harrison and Michelson, 29). All of these events mark major milestones in the fight for equality among LGBT people. These provisions did not come easy to those who fought for it, thus making the LGBT community have such a strong sense of family and support system for one another.

Marriage laws have been the predominant conversation around LGBT rights over the

past decade, beginning with marriage equality launching into the national consciousness in 1993. Following a 1993 decision by the Hawaii State Supreme Court that found the state’s refusal to grant same-sex couples marriage licenses discriminatory, voters in 1998 approved a constitutional amendment granting the Hawaii State Legislature the power to reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples, which made it impossible to challenge the state’s an on same-sex marriage. The final word from the Court came on June 26, 2015, when the Obergefell decision extended marriage rights to same-sex couples throughout the United States, beating the second party, Hodges (Skelton 2015).

While there has been progress on extending equal rights to women, people of color, and

the LGBT community, there is still a long way to go in obtaining complete equality and having laws live up to the Declaration of Independence. According to Harrison and Michelson, “All men may be created equal but they are not yet treated equally under the law.” The fight for LGBT rights also continues to include important and unfinished battles against homophobia and hate crimes. In June 2016, 49 LGBT individuals were murdered at Pulse, a gay nightclub located in Orlando, Florida. Hate crimes are common against the queer community and range from small-scale to large-scale tragedies, like this one. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, LGBT individuals are more likely than members of any other group to be victimized by violent hate crime. An LGBT rights advocate named Gabe Ortiz wrote in a 2016 Washington Post “To be gay in 2016 is still in many ways a dangerous and radical act.” The progress is slow, with battles won one day at a time, on one issue at a time. This is why the LGBT community needs to be heard by the rest of the world through a physical community

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 center where they can express themselves and involve the outside community. LGBT outreach and the design of an LGBT community center should encourage people to think about LGBT individuals and their advocates as members of a mutual in-group, rather than as members of an out-group, to make them more likely to support LGBT rights. “The most powerful messages will be surprising, generating a cognitive speed bump that motivates processing of the message by the recipient, and openness to attitudinal change” (Harrison and Michelson, 47).

In conclusion of this book, more and more elites are openly shifting their attitudes

about LGBT rights, cueing members of the public who consider those elite’s members of their own in-group. Unfortunately, there are still many segments of the public that remain strongly opposed. “These findings provide guidance to those hoping to increase support among these communities and for those hoping to shift attitudes on other contentious issues” (Harrison and Michelson, 47).

Pride is a powerful thing and a strong emotion. You can be proud about anything – from

your nationality to your ethnicity, your gender to your sexuality. You can even be proud of things that you have accomplished, goals met, or traits earned. Pride can be dangerous by blinding and narrowing one’s view but for those people that are open to understanding and appreciating other cultures, pride can be powerful and useful. In the book “Pride Parades: How a Parade Changed the World,” written by Bruce and Katherine McFarland, the idea of Pride is an (unconventional) image of protest. Despite its festive and celebratory aspects, Pride is an effective tactic to illicit social change by targeting cultural ideas and norms rather than the state, which is typically the target of traditional political protest. The author writes, “I was preparing to march with the LA Gay and Lesbian Center in the Los Angeles Pride parade. ‘There will be people saying vile things about us,’ our group’s organizer said. ‘They’re allowed to protest just the same as we are, but don’t let them draw you into their answer. Answer them by being your fabulous selves.’ At Pride, being fabulous is protest. As counter-protesters loudly condemn the open expression of queer sexuality, participants defy them by turning up the volume” (McFarland, 2). This is a great example to show how Pride parades tackle the obstacles that get in the way of their self-expression.

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02

LGBT people across the country encounter a tolerance today that the first Pride

marchers could barely imagine possible in the future for their community. At the same time, there is still a great deal of discrimination, denigration, and exclusion of queer people that continues to occur, which shows that queer sexuality and gender are still widely understood as inferior to heterosexuality. Family and community rejection leads to alarming rates of homelessness and suicide among LGBT youth across the country (McFarland, 2). A physical LGBTQ community center gives this youth a safe place to go when they are rejected from their society, family, or friends. It also has the potential to break the barriers between the queer community and the rest of the world by involving the community into the LGBT culture so that they could start to understand this progressive social group and give them the acceptance they fight for every day. “Debates in the public sphere include prominent mainstream voices condemning queerness as immoral and even dangerous, while polls continue to reveal that a significant minority (nearly 40%) of Americans believe that homosexuality is morally wrong. Even as a majority of Americans support legal rights such as same-sex marriage, they are less accepting of informal public displays of affection between same-sex couples” (McFarland, 2-3). While LGBT people have made progress towards inclusion in American society, they are not yet fully equal to their heterosexual neighbor in legal or cultural terms.

Queer theorists and feminists use the concept of heteronormativity to describe the

cultural basis for LGBT inequality. A heteronormative culture makes heterosexuality (two of the opposite gender) the standard for romantic coupling in public spaces and imposes a strict gender binary on individuals. LGBT people deviate from the heteronormative standard in two ways. One being through their sexual orientation, where they have a desire for the same sex, and two being through gender transgression, which is identification with and/or display of qualities incongruous with one’s corresponding male/female body (McFarland, 3). In order to break down the barriers and reach completely equality and acceptance, the LGBT community hosts annual Pride parades.

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02

Pride parades are loud, colorful, and joyful celebrations of LGBT identity. When

people participate in a Pride parade, they confront a negative and silencing culture by facing condemnations head on, turning up the volume, and refusing to stop the celebration. This is their way of challenging the heteronormativity in American culture. LGBT Pride parades are staged annually in cities all over the world with every year having over six million people either march or watch a Pride parade in cities all over the U.S. (McFarland, 5). The first Pride parades were held on June 28, 1970, to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall riots. The past and current Pride events focus more on achieving broad cultural change rather than enacting specific government laws. The sole purpose of Pride is to constantly promote the visibility and validate the existence of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people. Pride parades seek to change culture and less to change politics.

This book explains how to change culture and what exactly culture is. “Culture is

the shared set of meanings we use to make sense of and act on the world. Culture includes the morals and norms that guide what we should and should not do, symbols and language through which we communicate ideas, and the complex meanings with which we describe the relationships between ideas” (McFarland, 15). By refusing to stop and “turning up the volume” on their celebration of LGBT identity, these Pride participants challenged the meaning of queer sexuality and gender promoted by counter-protesters and attempted to replace it with their own so that they could be heard and expressed. This can be successful when members of the public then associate “queerness” with celebration rather than condemnation. I plan to achieve this association in my LGBTQ community center by offering many opportunities for the public to be exposed to queer culture through speakers, galleries, activities, and an overall prominent design in the community. Showing members of the public that “queerness” is a celebration will then work its way into the mind, transforming individual attitudes about LGBT people.

McFarland attended several pride parades and later took surveys from participants,

asking why they attended the parade. Some attended just to have a fun but meaningful day out with friends while others went for a rare chance to be among supportive and accepting

20


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 LGBT people and allies. Mostly, people go to proudly celebrate who they are. “Pride parades are not just about challenging cultural stigmatization; they are also about building the larger LGBT community� (McFarland, 28). With designing a LGBT community center in Over-TheRhine, this will not only bring the local queer community together, but will also create a large platform for the public to be exposed to this community.

21


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 Survey Results

For the survey/interview portion of my research, I decided that the more efficient way to

receive a multitude of different types of people’s responses was to create a survey online. This survey was meant to appeal to any gender identity and interest. I first had the survey taker fill out general information about themselves, such as their gender and attraction (heterosexual, homosexual, etc.). I then asked their stance on same-sex marriage and knowledge of the word “Pride.” The last half of the survey included them putting check marks in boxes of programs that they think an ideal community center should have. After that, I had them rate (1-5) how likely it is that they would attend a specific program hosted in an LGBTQ Center. I added at the end of the survey a text box for any recommendations, concerns, or ideas that they would have in their ideal queer community center.

My goal was to learn and receive feedback from everyone, especially those in the

LGBTQ+ / Queer community, and see how I can change the way people are educated on the queer community for a more positive future. To find people to take my survey, I reached out to social groups and clubs at Miami University (like the LGBTQ+ Center in Armstrong), friends of mine who are students at Miami University, and people outside of Miami like family, friends, and mutual connections. Through this, I collected a variety of identities ranging from male and female and heterosexual to homosexual and bisexual.

On the following pages, you will see the survey questions and set-up that I created. I

will then go over the average responses and individual responses based on differing opinions and interests.

A question that gives me a lot of information is #6 (What does Pride mean to you?). This

question can evoke a lot of emotion, happiness, anger, or disinterestedness depending on the type of person answering it. Overall, I got all positive responses but they ranged in emotion and size. On page 28, I went through and highlighted each answer depending on if the survey taker stated that they were (1) Heterosexual/Straight, (2) Homosexual, (3) Bisexual, or (4) Other. Doing this helped put it into perspective on how much or little people who are not part of the LGBTQ community know or understand “Pride.”

22


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02

The results that I found from examining question #6 responses were what I expected

for the most part. People who identified at “Heterosexual” or “Bisexual” had more emotional, specific, and longer answers while people who identified as “Heterosexual / Straight” had broader and shorter answers. Although they were broad and short, the people who identified as Heterosexual still described “Pride” in a positive way.

The people who identified as Heterosexual or Bisexual had more emotional answers for

obvious reasons: they live and practice their own Pride everyday of their lives. That is how they express themselves and the LGBTQ community that they are apart of. Those who identified as Heterosexual are aware of the phrase “Pride” through society, news, politics, and the world around them. Some answers were more in depth than others but the reason that they differ so much from the other answers is because they are not necessarily part of the LGBTQ community and/or have not exposed themselves to a Pride parade or LGBTQ people and their culture. Another possibility is that they know what Pride is about but do not have a strong enough connection with it to take the time to write a more vivid and emotional response.

This result shows why I think it is important for my LGBTQ Community Center to serve

as not only a safe place for the LGBTQ community to express themselves but to also serve as an education facility and outreach program that brings in the public that does not identity as queer. People need to be educated and exposed to the LGBTQ culture and community in order to eliminate barriers. This center should encourage people to think about LGBTQ individuals and their advocates as members of a mutual in-group, not as members of an out-group, to make them more likely to support LGBTQ rights.

I also gathered the results from questions #9 and #10 in order to determine what

programs/amenities spark the most interest/need of the community. The programs/amenities that scored the highest were spaces that allow for multi-use, human interaction, and selfexpression. Among these were a gallery space, art workshop, Therapy/Counseling Center, living room/lounge space, and a museum of LGBTQ history and culture. Knowing that these programs sparked the highest interest from the public, I now am aware of what areas I am going to pay very close attention to while designing and programming.

23


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY QUESTIONS

24


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY QUESTIONS

25


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY QUESTIONS

26


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY RESULTS

27


LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY RESULTS

Bisexual Homosexual

1. Proud to be myself Heterosexual 2. Being passionate and will stand by something 3. Loving who you are regardless 4. Being comfortable in your sexuality 5. Pride means being confident and true to yourself, no matter what others may say. 6. Loving yourself despite what society tells you 7. Happiness, acceptance, celebration, reverence for history. 8. Celebrating identity and being proud of who you are 9. Equality, inclusion 10. To me, gay pride means being happy, accepting, etc. (+ the definition of the word pride) of your sexuality and culture. 11. To express yourself, whether that be sexual orientation, the way you identify yourself, or even the way you carry yourself, how you want to be seen to outsiders, without judgment from yourself or others 12. Being comfortable with expressing who are and what you stand for 13. To be a visible member of a group and to want to openly demonstrate the values / culture of the group. 14. Equality 15. Being proud of who you and others are 16. Acceptance, being welcomed, carefree, love and happiness 17. Being confident and proud of who you are and your interests 18. Proud of something you are connected to or involved in 19. Pride means being able to accept yourself and not being afraid to hide who you are. Pride sometimes has a negative connotation to it, like you can have too much pride, but with the queer community, it’s about being confident in who you are. Over the past couple of years, pride has grown so much in terms of representation of the queer community. People are truly finding out who they are and they never stop exploring how they feel 20. Pride is how the LGBTQ community expresses themselves in a positive way while also fighting for equal rights.

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY RESULTS

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY RESULTS

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 SURVEY RESULTS

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LITERATURE REVIEW | 02 Works Cited Adam. “Why Gay Pride Still Matters.” Travels of Adam (Hipster Blog), 17 May 2018, travelsofadam.com/2018/05/gay-pride-still- matters/.

Bruce, Katherine McFarland. Pride parades. [electronic resource] : how a parade changed the world. n.p.: New York : New York University Press, [2016], 2016. MU Library Catalog, EBSCOhost (accessed September 6, 2018).

Harrison, Brian F., and Melissa R. Michelson. Listen, we need to talk : how to change attitudes about LGBT rights. n.p.: New York : Oxford University Press, [2017], 2017. MU Library Catalog, EBSCOhost (accessed September 6, 2018).

Skelton, Chris. “Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).” Justia Law, supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/576/14-556/#tab-opinion-3427254.

Sternberg, Gene, and Barbara Sternberg. Community Centers and Student Unions. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. [1971], 1971. https://proxy.lib.miamioh.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&AuthType=ip,url,uid&db=cat00344a&AN=mucat.b1346516&site=e ds-live&scope=site.    

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: CIRCULATION

59


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: ENTRY / ACCESS

60


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: VIEWS FROM BUILDING

61


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: VIEWS OF BUILDING

62


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: VIEWS OF STREET

63


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: VIEWS INSIDE BUILDING

64


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: MASSING

65


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: ZONING

66


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: TREES & VEGETATION

66


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: MATERIALITY

THE STRIETMANN BUILDING

Concrete Pavement

Exposed Concrete Beams

Old White Washed Brick

Steel Garage Door

Grand Arched Front Doors

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: MATERIALITY

SURROUNDING BUILDINGS: Across

Stone Facade

Rusted Brick Siding

Rusted Red/Brown Brick

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: MATERIALITY

SURROUNDING BUILDINGS: Adjacent

Multi-Colored Red Brick

Channel Glass Facade

Tan Stone Facade

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: LIGHT & SHADOW - WINTER

December 27

8:00 am

Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

07:26:06 07:55:48 17:22:42

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

9h26m54s 1.97 m

December 27

12:00 pm

Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

07:26:06 07:55:48 17:22:42

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

9h26m54s 1.97 m

December 27

5:00 pm

Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

07:26:06 07:55:48 17:22:42

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

9h26m54s 1.97 m

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: LIGHT & SHADOW - SUMMER

July 27

8:00 am

Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

06:03:57 06:33:52 20:54:49

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

14h20m57s .58 m

July 27

12:00 pm Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

06:03:57 06:33:52 20:54:49

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

14h20m57s .58 m

July 27

5:00 pm

Dawn: Sunrise: Sunset:

06:03:57 06:33:52 20:54:49

Daylight Duration: Shadow Length:

14h20m57s .58 m

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 SITE ANALYSIS: SOUND

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 BUILDING DESCRIPTION

The Strietmann Building 235 West 12th Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 NEIGHBORHOOD:

Over-The-Rhine

DATE OF CONSTRUCTION:

1899

ORIGINAL USE:

The Strietmann Buscuit Company

CURRENT USE:

Renovated Office Building

NUMBER OF FLOORS:

7 Floors + Lower Level

SIZE OF FLOORS:

1st Floor: 2nd Floor: 3rd Floor: 4th Floor: 5th Floor: 6th Floor: Penthaus: Lower Level:

TOTAL SQUARE FOOTAGE: SQ. FT. USING FOR PROJECT:

91,283 sq. ft. ~79,929 sq. ft.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM:

Concrete beams / columns

BUILDING MATERIALS:

Exposed brick, large structural beams and columns

2,998 13,968 15,202 15,202 15,202 7,993 3,032 7,357

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 BUILDING DESCRIPTION: HISTORY

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03 BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

STREET VIEW PLAN Note: Not To Scale

76


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LOWER LEVEL

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

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BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 01

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

78


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 02

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

79


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 03

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

80


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 04

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

81


BUILDING DOCUMENTATION | 03

SCALE: 1/16” = 1’0”

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 05

BUILDING DESCRIPTION: EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

82


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04 PRECEDENT 1: HUNT LIBRARY

NCU State - Hunt Library LOCATION:

1070 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27606

ARCHITECT:

Snohetta

SQUARE FOOTAGE:

221,122 sq. ft.

PROJECT YEAR:

2013

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PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

Generous open spaces connect all floors of the library and open stairs emphasize an interactive and social environment alongside more focused study areas. A wide variety of study and learning environments, and technology-focused experimental labs break the now ubiquitous model of the learning commons. “Disruptive� learning spaces with colorful, dynamic furnishings exist beside more traditional study rooms. The design recognizes the power of chance encounters and celebrates the role of physical space in the intellectual stimulation of its users.

84


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

85


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

86


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

87


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

88


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

89


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04 PRECEDENT 2: UT Student Activity Center

University of Austin - Student Activity Center LOCATION:

2201 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712

ARCHITECT:

Overland Partners, WTW Architects

SQUARE FOOTAGE:

156,000 sq. ft.

PROJECT YEAR:

2011

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PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

With an incredibly diverse program, the SAC is a student union that functions like a micro-campus and features a 5,000-SF ballroom, a 500seat auditorium, a black box theater, 12 student conference/meeting rooms, student organization offices, a student government chamber, dining areas, dance and theater rehearsal spaces, and flexible meeting spaces. Integrating low-tech, high-impact solutions, the SAC is a new interpretation of timeless building traditions and a contemporary reinterpretation of the traditional campus architecture.

91


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

1

2

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PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

3

4

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PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04 PRECEDENT 3: Kapor Center for Social Impact

Kapor Center for Social Impact LOCATION:

2148 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612

ARCHITECT:

Fougeron Architecture

SQUARE FOOTAGE:

45,000 sq. ft.

PROJECT YEAR:

2016

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PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

The design is modern and harmonious, blending high-tech and humanism. Open spaces encourage collaboration and camaraderie, as well as flexibility. The clean interiors cater to informal social spaces that invite the interaction of staff, partners and visitors. Efficiency is paramount in the design, creating operational spaces that use human and technological resources sensibly, economically but imaginatively.

On the fourth floor, a modern dome and oculus establishes the Center’s presence and its role to grow outward and upward within the community. The dome signals the center’s mission to leverage tech-driven innovation with the highest goals of social transformation and equality. It also floods the building with daylight and incorporates channel glass and LED lighting—contributing to building’s overall energy. The space is not only environmentally efficient, it is also conducive to pioneering work.

95


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

96


PRECEDENT STUDIES | 04

1

3

4

97


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 TYPES OF COMMUNITY CENTERS

98


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTERS FLOOR PLANS LARGE:

SQ. FT. 61,500

-Offices -Lunch Room -Meeting Rooms -Breakout Space -Multi-Purpose -Copy/Fax -Hotline -Cyber Lab -Therapy -Kids Drop-Off -Recreation -Dressing Rooms -Back of House -Catering -Backstage -Performance Center -Tech Booth -Pantry -Storage -Janitor Closet -Electrical -Vestibules -Restrooms

14,000

-Offices -Open Office -Meeting Rooms -Incubator -Living Room -Kitchen -Terrace -Copy/Fax -Counseling -Testing -Laundry -Storage -Janitor Closet -Electrical -Vestibules -Restrooms

Center on Halsted

SMALL: Greater Cleveland LGBT Center

ENCLOSED ROOMS

99


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #1

Center on Halsted Chicago, Illinois

Mission: Advances community and secures the health and well-being of the LGBTQ people of Chicagoland. Programs: -LGBTQ Artists Gallery -Performance Center -Recreation courts -Youth space / lounges -Roof garden -Child Center -Therapy Center -Cyber Lab -Meeting rooms -Offices

100


FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 02

Vestibule Stage Recreation Court Garden

Kitchen / Catering Computer / Tech Resource Center / Library Restroom / Dressing Rooms Electrical / Storage Stair / Elevator

Offices Muti-Use Meeting Room Reception Therapy Daycare Drop-off

LEGEND

TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05

LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #1

101


FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 03

Vestibule Stage Recreation Court Garden

Kitchen / Catering Computer / Tech Resource Center / Library Restroom / Dressing Rooms Electrical / Storage Stair / Elevator

Offices Muti-Use Meeting Room Reception Therapy Daycare Drop-off

LEGEND

TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05

LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #1

102


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #2

Greater Cleveland LGBT Community Center Cleveland, Ohio

Mission: To enrich the lives of the diverse LGBTQ+ community through advocacy, support, education, and celebration. Programs: -Community Areas -Library -David Bohnett Cyber Center -Dedicated Youth Space -Recreation classes -Artistic workshops -Meeting rooms -Tutoring Center -Counseling Center

103


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #2 LEGEND Offices

Kitchen / Catering

Muti-Use

Computer / Tech

Meeting Room

Resource Center / Library

Reception

Restroom / Dressing Rooms

Therapy

Electrical / Storage

Vestibule

Stair / Elevator

FLOOR PLAN - BASEMENT

104


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #2 LEGEND Offices

Kitchen / Catering

Muti-Use

Computer / Tech

Meeting Room

Resource Center / Library

Reception

Restroom / Dressing Rooms

Therapy

Electrical / Storage

Vestibule

Stair / Elevator

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 01

105


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 LGBTQ COMMUNITY CENTER #2 LEGEND Offices

Kitchen / Catering

Muti-Use

Computer / Tech

Meeting Room

Resource Center / Library

Reception

Restroom / Dressing Rooms

Therapy

Electrical / Storage

Vestibule

Stair / Elevator

FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 02

106


TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 STUDENT COMMUNITY CENTERS / UNIONS FLOOR PLANS Miami University

SQ. FT. 267,000

-Offices -Study Rooms -Clubs -Dining / Kitchen -Market -Vestibules -Lecture Hall -Classrooms -Restrooms -Electrical -Storage -Stair -Elevator -Stage -Tech Booth

26,000

-Offices -Study Rooms -Meeting Rooms -Theater -Performance Hall -Dining/Kitchen -Market -Bank -Security -Clubs -Dance Room -Art Room -Ballroom -Alumni Room -Lounge Rooms -Electrical -Storage -Stair -Elevator

Armstrong Student Center

Ohio State University Student Union

ENCLOSED ROOMS

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TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 STUDENT COMMUNITY CENTERS / UNIONS FLOOR PLANS

SQ. FT.

ENCLOSED ROOMS

266,735

Kansas State Student Union

357,032

Sunset Deck

University of Wisconsin

Shannon Sunset Lounge (1133)

Mendota Lodge (B104) Outdoor UW and Wisconsin Hoofers

Hoofers (B105)

Brat Stand

S

M

Fan Taylor Lobby (1130)

Winkler Lounge (B152)

S

M

W

Memorial Union

S

W

Strada (1333)

Wheelhouse Studios (B184)

Festival Room (B196)

Lakeview Lounge (1341)

Shannon Hall (1130)

E

Stiftskeller (1205)

S

U

Box O Bus Tickets

Carte (1305) E

E

Paul Bunyan Room (1206)

Daily Scoop (1324)

W

E

E

Sunset Deck - Upper

M

Der Rathskeller (1211)

Gekas Commons (1214)

M Study Lounge

ATM

Peet’s Co e (1314)

Badger Market (1310)

W

Tripp Deck

Main Lounge Deck

Tripp Commons (2324)

-Offices -Meeting Rooms -Theater -Gallery -Clubs -Studios -Library -Lecture Halls -Lounge Rooms -Electrical -Storage -Stair -Elevator

W

1925 Gallery E

Play Circle Theater (2190)

Hamel Family Browsing Library (2206)

Main Gallery (2220)

Main Lounge (2218)

W

Profile (2318)

M

Theater ces (3193)

E

E

L

W E

E

M

Inn Wisconsin

Founders Room (2210)

Old Madison

CESO (2224)

Club Suites =

Accounting (4187)

Great Hall (4214)

Council Room (4195)

Class of ‘24 Reception Room (4235)

E

E

Human Resources (4186)

F

M

Langdon Room (4204)

W

Capitol View Room

M

E

W

E

E

Park View (4310)

State Room (4304) (4306)

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TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05 STUDENT COMMUNITY CENTER #1

Armstrong Student Center Miami University | Oxford, Ohio

Mission: Advances a sense of community, unifying the institution by embracing the diversity of students, faculty, staff, alumni, and guests. Programs: -Lounge spaces -Study and Meeting rooms -Lecture Hall -Dining/Markets -Digital Screen Advertisement -Red Zone (gaming, lounge, dining) -Retail -Student Services -Student Clubs/Centers -Auditorium -Theater

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FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 01

Restroom Electrical / Storage Stair / Elevator Stage

Muti-Use Cafe Seating Info Desk Dining / Market Vestibule

Lecture Hall / Classroom

Office / Study Room / Clubs

LEGEND

TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05

STUDENT COMMUNITY CENTER #1

110


FLOOR PLAN - LEVEL 02

Restroom Electrical / Storage Stair / Elevator Stage

Muti-Use Cafe Seating Info Desk Dining / Market Vestibule

Lecture Hall / Classroom

Office / Study Room / Clubs

LEGEND

TYPOLOGY STUDIES | 05

STUDENT COMMUNITY CENTER #1

111


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CONCEPT + CONTEXT

- EXPOSURE noun

1. the state of being exposed to contact with something. 2. the revelation of an identity or fact, especially one that is concealed or likely to arouse disapproval.

With the concept of Exposure, I am designing a comprehensive Community Center for the LGBTQ community of Cincinnati. While securing the health and well-being of the local queer community, the center will also engage and advance the rest of the community into the LGBTQ culture. This should encourage people to think about LGBTQ individuals and their advocates as members of a mutual in-group - not as members of an out-group - to make them more likely to support LGBTQ rights. In order to achieve this, exposure will be used in various ways throughout the architecture, design, program, events, amenities, and people that inhabit this center. The facade will be open and visible to the public, so that passer-byers will be exposed to the gallery filled with artwork celebrating and expressing gay pride. There will be a vast assortment of different events put on weekly at this center in order to host as many diverse social groups and interests as possible, including social, performance, and education spaces. This in turn leads to exposure; people who may not have ever crossed paths to meet; people to be exposed to a certain interest or activity that they would have never thought to try; people to be brought inside this LGBTQ center and leave with more understanding, acceptance and exposure to this strong community.

DESIGN: The concept of “Exposure� will create a unique spatial experience through an open and active floor plan. The facade of this building will be seen through the street so that the outside public is exposed to the gallery of artwork displayed. There will be many multi-use spaces for members, visitors, and staff to feel at home and do what they will with this space. These spaces will also be used for pop-up programs such as guest speakers, workshops, classes, performances, etc. This large-scaled project has many opportunities for amenities such as a food court, recreation center, auditorium, stage, and color.

My goal is to create a welcoming environment for the local queer community where everyone is celebrated for who they are and to showcase this culture to the rest of the public who would not normally think to attend a community center for the LGBTQ community.

112


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

- Reception / Lobby / Info Desk - Offices - Study Rooms - Meeting Rooms - Breakout Rooms - Museum of LGBTQ History & Culture - Gallery - Art Workshop / Studio - Food Court / Kitchenette / Market (TBD) - Library / Resource Center - Recreation Center (Court, Machines, Workout Rooms - TBD) - Living Rooms - Auditorium / Stage - Large Assembly Space / Room - Cyber Lab - Game Room / Youth Club - Tutoring & Counseling Center - Storage - Electrical - Restrooms (Gender Inclusive provided)

113


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CIRCULATION - LEVEL 01

PROPOSED STAIR (UP TO 2ND FLOOR)

STAIR LEADS DOWN TO LOWER LEVEL

DOWN

114


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CIRCULATION - LEVEL 02

PROPOSED STAIR (UP TO 3RD FLOOR)

115


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CIRCULATION - LEVEL 03

116


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CIRCULATION - LEVEL 04

117


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 CIRCULATION - LEVEL 05

118


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING - LOWER LEVEL

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Main Staircase (with seating) - Theater Lobby - Art Gallery SEMI-PRIVATE

- Theater / Auditorium PRIVATE

- Offices - Storage - Back Stage

119


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING - LEVEL 01

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Reception / Lobby / Info Desk - Art Gallery - Main Staircase (down to lower level) SEMI-PRIVATE

- Museum of LGBTQ History / Culture PRIVATE

- Offices - Storage

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING: LEVEL 02

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Staircase - Lounge Seating / Living Room - Cafe / Kitchenette SEMI-PRIVATE

- Art Workshop / Studio - Game Room / Youth Club PRIVATE

- Meeting Rooms - Breakout Rooms - Offices

121


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING: Level 03

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Staircase - Lounge Seating / Living Room - Library / Resource Center SEMI-PRIVATE

- Cyber Lab - Meeting Rooms PRIVATE

- Study Rooms - Tutoring & Counseling Center - Offices

122


PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING: Level 04

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Staircase - Lounge Seating / Living Room - Large Assembly Space - Market /Dining / Kitchenette (TBD) SEMI-PRIVATE

- Classrooms - Meeting Rooms PRIVATE

- Study Rooms - Offices - Tech Booth / Backstage

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 ZONING - LEVEL 05

ROOMS / AMENITIES: PUBLIC

- Recreation Center -Workout Rooms -Workout Machines / Equipment -Court or Small Studio (TBD) SEMI-PRIVATE

- Classrooms - Meeting Rooms PRIVATE

- Offices - Dressing Rooms / Lockers

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 FURNITURE, FIXTURES & EQUIPMENT

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 LIGHTING: DAY & ARTIFICIAL

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 COLOR, MATERIALITY & TEXTURE

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 BUILDING CODES + SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

Community Center   Room  Type

Room Area  (sq.   Use   ft.) Group

Occupant Load   Factor  (NFP)

Calculated Minimum   Minimum   Occupancy  "Maxium   Width  of   No.  of  Exits   Floor  Area   Exit  Doors   required  for   Allowance  Per   to  Serve   room Occupant" Room

Auditorium /  Theater

3,604 sq  ft

A-­‐1

# of  fixed  seats

Assembly Room

1,266 sq  ft

A-­‐3

15

Unconcentrated Per  1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   (tables  and  chairs)   min.  clear   1  exit 1,266  /  15  =  42.3   width  32"   (round  down  to  42)

Art Gallery

1,000 sq  ft

A-­‐3

30

1,000 /  30  =  33.3   Per  1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   (round  down  to  33) min.  clear   1  exit width  32"  

Museum

2, 167  sq  ft

A-­‐3

30

2,167 /  30  =  72.1   Per  1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   (round  down  to  72) min.  clear   2  exits width  32"  

Library Reading  Rooms

3,000 sq  ft

A-­‐3

50

Library Stack  Areas

2,000 sq  ft

A-­‐3

100

Gymnasium

6,000 sq  ft

A-­‐3

50

700 sq  ft

B

20

Exercise Room  01

1,000 sq  ft

A-­‐3

50

Excerside Room  02

900 sq  ft

A-­‐3

15

Classroom /  Art  Studio

Fixed seating

3,000 /  50  =  60

Per 1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   min.  clear   2  exits width  32"  

Per 1008.1,   min.  clear   width  32"   2,000  /  100  =  20 Per  1008.1,   min.  clear   width  32"   6,000  /  50    =  120 Per  1008.1,   min.  clear   width  32"   Unconcentrated   Per  1008.1,   (tables  and  chairs)   min.  clear   700  /  20  =  35 width  32"   (With  equipment)   1,00  /  50  =  20

Per 1015.1,   2  exits Per  1015.1,   1  exit Per  1015.1,   1  exit Per  1015.1,   1  exit

Per 1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   min.  clear   1  exit width  32"  

(Without Per  1008.1,   Per  1015.1,   equipment)  900  /  15   min.  clear   2  exits =  60 width  32"  

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION | 06 BUILDING CODES + SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

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Profile for Jordan Hall

Capstone Research Journal  

Capstone Research Journal  

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