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PROJECT PREPARATION DOCUMENT: URBAN HORTICULTURE CENTER RALEIGH, NC JORDAN D. EURE


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 4 Statement of Intent 6 IDEA 8 Project Quotation 10 Quotation Commentary 12 Idea Precedent Analysis 14 SITE 24 Introductory Statement 26 SITE DOCUMENTATION 28 Aerial Photographs 30 Vicinity Map 32 Current Zoning 34 Future Zoning 35 Site Boundaries and Restrictions 36 Weather and Climate Data 38 FEMA Floodplain Diagram 40 Wetlands Diagram 41 Water Diagram 42 Vegetation Diagram 43 Circulation Diagram - Bus Routes 44 Circulation Diagram - Bike Paths and Greenways 45 Site Photographs 46


ANALYTICAL DIAGRAMS 48 Grain - Figure/Ground 50 Surrounding Context 51 Site Analysis Summary Diagram 52 Site Analysis Summary Text 53 PROGRAM 54 General Statement 56 Architectural Aspirations and Project Goals 57 Program Elements 58 Spatial Relationships 60 Massing Diagrams 62 Program Precedent Analysis 68 Code Compliance Charts 86


INTRODUCTION


STATEMENT OF INTENT SPRING STUDIO 2012: HORTICULTURE CENTER

The Urban Horticulture Center presents unique opportunities for combining urban design needs with a program focused on food production and the integration of natural elements into the urban lifestyle. We were given the opportunity to choose between 6 different sites around the Centennial Campus area. I chose a site originally designed for a sporting field, with a steep slope from the road transitioning into a flat, open green space. With this location, I want to transform a forgotten space into a destination. The openness of the site allows for the design to go in many directions, making the program key in dictating the final building’s form and layout. I want to combine my past studio experiences - architecture, urban design, and landscape - into a final project sensitive to the considerations of all three approaches. The quote’s main ideas fit well within the creation of an Urban Horticulture Center and what I hope to accomplish by the project’s completion: - Create a building form well-suited to the specific site. There are many opportunities with the small change in topography on the main portion of the site, making a study of the site and surrounding area an important part in generating form. The Urban Horticulture Center includes multiple exterior program elements, totalling more than the interior program requirements. Thus, the building should respond both to the existing site and future site design for the needs of the Center. - Make a sustaining architecture, as discussed by William McDonough in the project’s quotation. The goal of the Urban Horticulture Center is ultimately to teach and demonstrate methods by which visitors can begin to lead a more sustaining lifestyle - growing their own food and integrating nature into their own homes. A sustaining building and master plan - generating more energy than the Urban Horticulture Center needs - will reinforce the program’s purpose and allow for more learning opportunities in general sustainable practices. - Design an Urban Horticulture Center to accommodate many interests and activities. Multi-functional spaces allow the site to become active both day and night, attracting more visitors for the various events. A successful design will benefit all visitors - whether children, garden clubs, local individuals or families, restaurant owners, etc. - and create an active natural beacon within the urban context.

INTRODUCTION


IDEA


PROJECT QUOTATION WILLIAM MCDONOUGH

Most architects who are sensitive to sustainability issues try to do more with less by designing buildings that make more efficient use of energy and resources. But is being less bad the same thing as being good? And if sustainable architecture falls short of fulfilling our needs, what would a sustaining architecture look like? We could begin to look for answers in the natural world: Nature is a source of both sustenance and exquisite design. The earth’s natural communities are extraordinarily effective at making food from the sun, producing oxygen, filtering water, and recycling nutrients and energy. They are fertile, regenerative, complex, responsive, profligate, and extravagant-what some might call wasteful. They thrive not by reproducing the same response worldwide but by fitting elegantly into a profusion of niches. Four billion years of natural design, forged in the cradle of evolution, has yielded such a profusion of forms we can barely grasp the vigor and diversity of life on Earth. Responding to unique local conditions, ants have evolved into nearly 10,000 species, several hundred of which can be found in the crown of a single Amazonian tree. Birds, too, seem to have a taste for the extravagant: Who could say the wood duck’s plumage is restrained? Even nature’s laws express themselves variously in different communities, with processes such as photosynthesis and nutrient-cycling yielding different forms from region to region. We could say form doesn’t just follow function, form follows evolution. This delightful confluence of the unique and the universal suggests the lineaments of a new theory of architecture for a fast-growing world. Perhaps, instead of only following the law of gravity, architects could follow other natural laws that govern evolving life: One organism’s waste equals food for another; living things thrive on the energy of the sun; and natural systems celebrate diversity. Well, consider the cherry tree. Each spring it produces thousands of blossoms, only a few of which germinate, take root and grow. Who would see cherry blossoms piling up on the ground and think, “How inefficient and wasteful”? The tree’s abundance is useful and safe. After falling to the ground, the blossoms return to the soil and become nutrients for the surrounding environment. Every last particle contributes in some way to the health of a thriving ecosystem. Waste that stays waste does not exist. Instead, waste nourishes; waste equals food.

IDEA

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“Foreword to Big & Green: Toward a Sustaining Architecture for the 21st Century.” www.mcdonough.com/writings. William A. McDonough, 2006. Web. 26 Aug. 2011.


As a cherry tree grows, it enriches far more than the soil. Through photosynthesis it makes food from the sun, providing nourishment for animals, birds and micro-organisms. It sequesters carbon, produces oxygen and filters water. The tree’s limbs and leaves harbor a great diversity of microbes and insects, all of which play a role within a local system of natural cycles. Even in death the tree provides nourishment as it decomposes and releases minerals that fuel new life. From blossom to sapling to magnificent old age, the cherry tree’s growth is regenerative. We could say its life cycle is cradle-to-cradle-after each useful life it provides nourishment for something new. In a cradle-to-cradle world-a world of natural cycles powered by the sun-growth is good, waste nutritious, and nature’s diverse responses to place are the source of intelligent design. Conventional practitioners of most modern design and construction find it easier to make buildings as if nature and place did not exist. In Rangoon or Racine their work is the same. Fossil fuels make buildings in both locales inhabitable, lighting them, cooling them, heating them. An ecologically aware architect would design those buildings differently. She would immerse herself in the life of each place, tapping into natural and cultural history, investigating local energy sources, the availability of sunlight, shade, and water, the vernacular architecture of the region, the lives of local birds, trees, and grasses. Her intention would be to design a building that created aesthetic, economic, social, and ecological values for the surrounding human and natural communities-more positive effects, not fewer negative ones. This would represent an entirely new approach: Following nature’s laws, one might discover that form follows celebration as well as function.1, 2

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“The Extravagant Gesture: Nature, Design, and the Transformation of Human Industry.” www.mcdonough.com/writings. William A. McDonough, 2006. Web. 26 Aug. 2011.


QUOTATION COMMENTARY

Forms in nature are often a source of design inspiration. However, as William McDonough describes, a true sustaining architecture grows from how the natural world actually operates: through the use of nature’s laws. In regards to physical context, it is important to study the surroundings of a site to discover the local climate and nature’s adaptations. Evolution has allowed the natural world to thrive in numerous communities throughout the world. Similarly, architecture can begin to respond with a ‘profusion of forms’, each suited to grow and evolve within a specific context. As nature demonstrates, forms are diverse and not always pared down to meet the bare minimum. Rather, they can be both complex and extravagant, with the two evolving together in creating a sustaining world. The formal ordering system arises from the site’s natural surroundings. Like a living organism, architecture derives energy from renewable sources - such as the sun - and evolves to sustain through time. As prescribed by William McDonough, before designing, “…immerse yourself into the life of each place, tapping into natural and cultural history, investigating local energy sources, the availability of sunlight, shade, and water…” This would involve an indepth analysis of existing sites – how architecture fits into the natural cycles (both long and short term), rather than just existing built form. Completing this process will catalyze the generation of ideas for a means of execution. The tectonic language will be based on the surrounding forms and materials, drawing from local communities as a source of both inspiration and sustainable resources. When beginning the design process, one must choose materials and building systems using the cradle-to-cradle approach. Designing a building that can be easily disassembled to re-use all of the parts for another structure prevents waste and creates a regenerative architecture. In nature, McDonough points out that nothing ever really goes to waste; it always is somehow recycled through the system. His description of the cherry tree’s cycle illustrates the cradle-to-cradle idea best. A building must be able to sustain its own daily functions, while fitting into its special place and eventually becoming nourishment for an even more sustaining architecture of the future.

IDEA


IDEA PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

901 Cherry Offices - William McDonough + Partners NASA Sustainability Base - William McDonough + Partners Manulife Financial - Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Mesa Verde & Pueblo Bonito - Anasazi & Ancestral Puebloans

IDEA


901 CHERRY OFFICES WILLIAM MCDONOUGH + PARTNERS SAN BRUNO, CALIFORNIA COMPLETED 1997

Recognized as the second most energy efficient office building in California, this design was originally intended for GAP Inc. The building was designed as a flexible organism, able to adapt to future uses, and is currently used as YouTube’s headquarters. The design is true to the notion of an architecture for a specific ‘niche’, taking into account local surroundings and climate. The sun is used to provide extensive daylighting for the interior, with operable windows allowing for natural stack ventilation.

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The roof form compliments the surrounding hilly terrain, incorporating native grasses and wildflowers from within the surrounding ecosystem. The green roof acts as a thermal mass for the building, reduces stormwater flowing through the site, protects the roof membrane, and dampens noise from a nearby airport. True to the quote, the building operates in a complex manner, with different parts performing on a variety of levels while drawing sustenance from local energy sources (sun, wind, vegetation).1

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“901 Cherry Offices.� www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.


NASA SUSTAINABILITY BASE WILLIAM MCDONOUGH + PARTNERS MOFFETT FIELD, CALIFORNIA UNDER CONSTRUCTION

At the request of the client, the design focused on integrating cradle-to-cradle solutions into the overall scheme. To achieve this goal, a rigorous materials study was conducted, taking into account the production processes and embodied energy, lifecycle/durability, and how to reduce material usage. They incorporated Design for Disassembly, which focuses on using high quality building materials joined together in a way to allow for easy future disassembly.

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IDEA

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The exterior consists of an exoskelton acting on multiple levels (like a complex natural system): providing shading devices for daylighting needs, stability needed for earthquakes, and the support needed to allow an open interior free of columns. PV panels on the roof capture the sun’s energy to create a ‘sustaining’ structure. Views to the exerior are optimized to allow for connection to the surroundings and site. As seen below, study of wind/solar patterns can be an important starting point for any site analysis. With new technologies, the building will eventually generate 20% more energy than required.1,2

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“NASA Sustainability Base.” www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. “In Progress: NASA Sustainability Base / William McDonough + Partners and AECOM.” www.archdaily.com. ArchDaily, 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.

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MANULIFE FINANCIAL SKIDMORE, OWINGS & MERRILL LLP BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 2004

With a ranking in the top 5% of energy savings performance based on the EPA Energy Star target finder, this is considered one of the most sustainable buildings of its kind. Even with an urban site in Boston, nature was incorporated into the design with a 10,000 square foot green roof. Drought tolerant plants were used, with a water filtration/retention system in place. In the buildings base, recycled materials connect the structure to the site. The 9 inch ventilated cavity curtain wall, as detailed by the pictures, is one of the largest examples in the US. The cavity wall is an active facade, wrapping all four elevations.

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Daylight, natural ventilation, modular construction systems, and the green roof are the major factors for reduced energy consumption. A drip irrigation system for the site and faucet sensors help to reduce water usage. The six-story atrium brings nature into the building while improving indoor air quality. The building is LEED certified and replaces a brownfield site in south Boston. The incorporation of multiple natural strategies creates a living building - a complex ecosystem.1, 2

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“601 Congress Street.” www.som.com. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. “Category: Intensive Industrial/Commercial - Project: 601 Congress Street, Seaport District, Boston, Massachusetts.” www.greenroofs.org. Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, 2005. Web. 20 Sept. 2011.

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MESA VERDE & PUEBLO BONITO

ANASAZI & ANCESTRAL PUEBLOANS SOUTHWESTERN U.S. A.D. 550 - 1300

Ancient architecture could be considered some of the most ‘sustaining’ structures by William McDonough’s standards. The cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde were constructed of local materials: sandstone, mortar mixed from local soil, and wooden beams. The construction uses the natural surroundings to shelter the dwellings from sun during the summer, using the shade of the overhangning cliff. The layering of materials creates a thermal mass to condition the spaces. Decoration was added to the dwellings to make them more than just functional units, but rather an extension of the local people.1,2

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IDEA


Similarly, Pueblo Bonito is part of a complex city system laid out by the Anasazi Indians, sustained over generations of people. The dwellings are laid out in a orderly system, with some of the structures aligned to respond to regular astronomical events (solstice, lunar events, etc.). The core and veneer system provided the thermal mass needed for heating and cooling, with the additional help of a sub-floor ventilation system.3

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“Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.” www.sacredsites.com. Magic Planet Productions, LLC, 2010. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. “Cliff Palace.” www.nps.gov. National Park Service, 2009. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. 3 “Pueblo Bonito 1995 Site Guide.” www.ratical.org. Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, n.d. Web 20 Sept. 2011. 1 2

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SITE


INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

The site for the Urban Horticulture Center is located within Centennial Campus, near Lake Raleigh. Currently, the immediate site surroundings are not heavily developed, but future plans for the NC State University Campus will increase the volume of nearby built form. The site is not currently in use, but was intended to act as a ballpark. The land slopes steeply from the road down to a large and open grassy field surrounded by trees. While the site may not be in the heart of Raleigh’s urban areas, the proximity to NC State University, downtown Raleigh, and the Western Boulevard thoroughfare allow for easy access to the intended Urban Horticulture Center. The nearby location of the State Farmer’s Market and future Jim Hunt Library will help to further attract visitors to the site. The open space is well suited to the program requirements, allowing for the extensive design of exterior spaces to complement the interior program elements of the Center. The topography only varies slightly for a large portion of the space, allowing for a wide variety of new forms to transform and enliven the level site. With an ideal balance between local urban development and immediately surrounding natural elements, this site is well situated for an Urban Horticulture Center.

SITE


SITE DOCUMENTATION


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS

Seen below, the site is situated within the open, less developed center of centennial campus. Plenty of natural surroundings, including wooded trails and nearby Lake Raleigh, provide a good transition from the surrounding urban area into the intended Urban Horticulture Center.

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SITE DOCUMENTATION


Centennial Parkway, one of the main roads on Centennial Campus, runs to the east of the site. A central greenway extends into the side road, Achievement Drive, running directly north of the site. As seen below, the site itself is a large, open field surrounded by 10’ - 20’ tall trees. A minor existing sidewalk winds down into the open space, but few other provisions have been made for public access.

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2011.


VICINITY MAP

As seen below, the site is part of land owned by North Carolina State University. The Lonnie Pool Golf Course is located just to the south, providing an open, green buffer to any future Centennial Campus development. The major nearby roads are highlighted, including nearby Western Boulevard running through the center of the map. With direct access to downtown, Western makes the site easily accessible to the urban neighborhoods in the surrounding Raleigh vicinity.

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. Fall 2011. (Diagram made available by Echo Dowling and Devanne Pena.)


CURRENT ZONING

The current zoning for the intended site is ‘Thoroughfare District’ (Resource Management District). This is an all-inclusive business with office, retail, and hotel/motels. Indoor/outdoor PLACE HOLDER. ZoningWEATHER Key & CLIMATE district, DATA recreation and some industrial uses are also allowed, with a PLACE HOLDER. ZoningWEATHER Key & CLIMATE maximum DATA of 40 dwelling units per acre. With so much of the land still open, this zoning allows for a wide variety of uses and future development in the Centennial Campus area. The surrounding zones mostly include ‘Office & Institution’ and ‘Residential,’ creating a good community in which the Urban Horticulture Center can grow.1

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Rural Residential Residential-2 Residential-2 Residential-4 Residential-4 Special Residential-6 Special Residential-6 Residential-6 Office &Institution-1 Residential-6 Office &Institution-1 & Institution-2 Institution-2 Office & Institution-3 Office & Institution-3 Buffer Commercial Buffer Commercial Shopping Center Shopping Center Neighborhood Business Neighborhood Business Business Business Thoroughfare District Thoroughfare Industrial-1 District

SITE DOCUMENTATION

SOURCES: http://www.ratical.org/southwest/PBsiteGuide95.html ed_states/chaco_canyon.html &

Industrial-1 Industrial-2

SITE DOCUMENTATION

SOURCES: http://www.ratical.org/southwest/PBsiteGuide95.html ed_states/chaco_canyon.html &

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Current Zoning

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“Maps.” The Official City of Raleigh Portal. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.

SITE DOCUMENTATION


FUTURE ZONING

The map below shows the areas with different future zoning predictions. While the uses for the site will remain largely unchanged, the area to the east will change from ‘Office and Institution’ to ‘Conservation Management’. This land would primarily act as public parks and green space, complementing the future Urban Horticulture Center. The downtown also moves to focus on ‘Neighborhood Business,’ creating more of an urban hub near the site.1

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Conservation Residential-2 Management Residential-2 Residential-4 Residential-4 Residential-20 Residential-20 Special Residential-30 Special Residential-30 Residential-30 Residential-30 Residential Business Residential Business Office &Institution-1 Office Office &Institution-1 & Institution-2 Office & & Institution-2 Office Institution-3 Office & Institution-3 Buffer Commercial Buffer Commercial Shopping Center Shopping Center Neighborhood Business Neighborhood Business Business Business

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“Permitted Land Uses in Zoning Districts.” www.raleighnc.gov. The Official City of Raleigh Portal, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. 2 “Maps.” www.raleighnc.gov. The Official City of Raleigh Portal, 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. (Diagram made available by Stephanie Bauman and Douglas Crawford.) 1


SITE BOUNDARIES AND RESTRICTIONS

As with all sites, there are some boundaries and restrictions to consider in the design process. There are two major powerline easements to both the east and west of the site, with the eastern restriction a major factor in design considerations for the Urban Horticulture Center. Small streams run directly to the east and west of the open site area, with a 50’ easement from the center of the stream. The setback from the road (Achievement Drive) is also 50’, with a height restriction of 50’ at that limit, increasing 1’ for every 2’ away from the 50’ setback.1

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“GIS County Maps.” www.wakegov.com. Wake Government, 2011. Web. 01 Oct. 2011.

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WEATHER AND CLIMATE DATA

The graph below charts the yearly highs/lows and the average temperature for the Raleigh area. This data is valuable in determining when and how often exterior spaces (such as event or meeting spaces and surrounding trails) will be in use. Based on the values, exterior spaces could be in use for approximately 5 months of the year. The mean temperature for May through September falls in the comfort zone, with other months also recording high temperatures in and above the zone.

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SITE DOCUMENTATION


The diagram below charts the need for shade or sun from December 21 to June 21 (top to bottom), based on the temperature at different times of the day in Raleigh (left to right). The data confirms current daylighting practices, citing the need for sunlight in buildings during the winter months and recommended shade as the months and time of day progress into the summer season. This information can inform the design of exterior shading devices, including trellises with deciduous vines.

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�Energy Design Tools - Climate Consultant.� www.energy-design-tools.aud.ucla.edu. Department of Architecture and Urban Design, UCLA, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. (Diagram made available by Laura Read.)

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therwise,

FEMA FLOODPLAIN DIAGRAM

Flooding is not an issue for the main open area on the site. As seen below, some of the area around the streams is included in the 100 and 400 year floodplains. However, with the Urban Horticulture Center concentratred in the open green space, flooding is only a concern for possible periphery buidings in proposed trails through the wooded surroundings.

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“GIS County Maps.” www.wakegov.com. Wake Government, 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.

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WETLANDS DIAGRAM

The only wetlands located near the site are classified as ‘Freshwater Forested/Shrub’. This label indicates sites with woody vegetation 19’ or taller, with a canopy of trees above and underbrush surrounding the area below. A few wetlands areas are located near the site, but should not pose any problems when designing - just opportunities to integrate the space within proposed trails.

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User Remarks:

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This map is for general reference only. The US Fish and responsible for the accuracy or currentness of the base data wetlands related data should be used in accordance with the the Wetlands Mapper web site.

“Wetlands Mapper.” www.fws.gov. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


WATER DIAGRAM

As mentioned before, a few small streams run to the east and west of the site, delivering water to a slightly larger stream towards the south. These are all located within the wooded area, not affecting the open site space. However, they do provide opportunities for informing the design of possible proposed walking trails through the existing surroundings.

with or connect out into the water. Site 3 has few water features, with only streams

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VEGETATION DIAGRAM

Vegetation surrounds the existing field, creating a roughly 20’ tall enclosure around the open, flat site. This vegetation can both provide a space for locating surrounding trails from the Urban Horticulture Center and act as a shading device for south facing structures. Much of the vegetation should not have to be disturbed when designing, but rather integrated into proposed plans.

ith or connect out into the water. Site 3 has few water features, with only streams

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


CIRCULATION DIAGRAM BUS ROUTES

Two Wolfline bus stops are located above the site on Achievement Drive. This will allow NC State University student traffic to easily access the intended Urban Horticulture Center. The city busline - CATline - stops near the site at the local Farmer’s Market. Major roads and the existing bus system will allow for appropriate urban access to the site, with the possibility of the city busline adding future stops directly at the Center.

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SITE DOCUMENTATION Scale 1:1000 Source: NC GIS , www.raleighnc.gov/transit


CIRCULATION DIAGRAM BIKE PATHS AND GREENWAYS

While there are no bike paths directly to the site, future proposals and zoning regulations for public park space will likely add bike lanes to the existing roads on Centennial Campus. A greenway runs along Centennial Parkway, to the east of the site, helping to define a potential major thoroughfare for increased future traffic to the surrounding development and Urban Horticulture Center.

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“GIS County Maps.” www.wakegov.com. Wake Government, 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. Official City of Raleigh Website. City of Raleigh, 2011. Web. Fall 2011. (Diagram made available by Eileen McDonough and Wendy Morrison.) 1 2


SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Photos below illustrate the approach to the site: 1) One of the existing bus stops stands alone in the surrounding open area (upper left), 2) Achievement Drive sits 8’-10’ above the site, providing a good overall view of the open area (upper right), and 3) A small existing sidewalk branches off into the site, moving down from the level of the road to the flat, open field (below).

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SITE DOCUMENTATION


The panoramas below show the woody vegetation providing a sense of enclosure to the open field and the change in topography while moving down the sidewalk into the existing, grassy site.

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Rand, Patrick. Site 3 Images. Fall 2011. Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC. Classtore. 14 Nov. 2011.

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ANALYTICAL DIAGRAMS


GRAIN - FIGURE/GROUND

The figure ground of the site and surrounding context illustrates the contrast between the dense downtown Raleigh area and the more natural, open spaces around Centennial Campus. While few buildings currently exist around the site, future projections will likely increase built form, while still allowing for a large expanse of public park space to the east. The openness creates a great environment for an Urban Horticulture Center to serve the nearby denser neighborhoods.

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1 “GIS County Maps.” www.wakegov.com. Wake Government, 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. (Drawn and made available by James Geiger and Anna Milliones.)


SURROUNDING CONTEXT

As seen below, a variety of uses surrounds the site, including residences, commerce, educational facilities, and green space. Having this mix of nearby communities is an ideal situation, allowing for the opportunity to design an Urban Horticulture Center that can accommodate multiple needs and functions: educational programs and demonstrations can attract students, rental plots can provide local produce to surrounding restaurants and businesses, and exhibits can bring general horticulture knowledge to nearby residents.

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Governor’s Mansion

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State Prison

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State Prison State Prison Centennial Campus Centennial Campus

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h Farmer’s Market Dorothea Dix Dorothea Dix Lake Raleigh Lake Raleigh Farmer’s MarketMarket Farmer’s

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Commercial Historical Landscape Residential Education

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2 “GIS County Maps.” www.wakegov.com. Wake Government, 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. (Drawn and made available by Maggie Kirsch and Jenny Williams.)

Commer C Historica H Landsca L Resident R Educatio E


SITE ANALYSIS SUMMARY DIAGRAM

with or connect out into the water. Site 3 has few water features, with only streams Site 3

As seen below, site 2 has vegetation throughout the land, with several trees spread across the western portion of the site. With the buffer zone in front of the water feature, some vegetation will have to be removed for the addition of a building. Site 3 has an open space surrounded by trees, creating a vegetated enclosure. Trees do not have to necessarily be removed for building on this site.

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1 Google Earth. 5 July 2010. Google. 18 October 2011. earth.google.com

ANALYTICAL DIAGRAMS

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


SITE ANALYSIS SUMMARY TEXT

The intended Urban Horticulture Center site has a good balance between existing limitations and available freedom in the overall design. Setbacks from the road, streams, and powerlines will need to be taken into consideration, but should not pose any major issues, considering the large, grassy field. The surrounding wooded area could be used for shading and even have trails integrated within, guiding visitors through the natural vegetation and the existing streams. The trees on the site already act somewhat as a visual buffer from the large powerlines, but controlled views and additional vegetation could be needed to visually separate the Urban Horticulture Center from the powerlines, while still creating come visual cue of the destination for visitors driving or walking by. The connection to both the main road - Centennial Parkway - and the secondary, more adjacent road - Achievement Drive - should inform the design process. Access and parking are two major issues with the site, especially considering the 8’ - 10’ change in topography from the level of the road to the lower field. Parking could be located to the west of the vegetation, creating an opporutnity for a well-designed entry sequence from the clustered forest into the open green space. However, both handicap access and parking for regular employees will be a primary issue when locating the different program elements. Creating connections from the site and Urban Horticulture Center to the rest of the Centennial Campus and beyond is also an important factor. The site is in a more natural, open area and needs to stay connected through bike paths, signs, or other means to the surrounding urban fabric of Raleigh. Rather than designing solely within the boundaries of the site, the Center should be integrated into the denser and more populated urban environment.


PROGRAM


GENERAL STATEMENT

The goal of the project is to create an Urban Horticulture Center for Raleigh, NC. This will serve as a knowledge center for relating horticulture to the surrounding urban environment, including best practices through demonstrations, partnerships with nearby restaurants to supply local produce, and information about local food production and gardening in urban dwellings. The center will also demonstrate sustainable practices, illustrating the importance of natural processes in relation to horticulture and how sustainability can be applied to both food production and lifestyle. Meeting rooms, a library, exhibit hall, and auditorium will all encourage visitors to come learn more about horticulture through readings, lectures, and discussions. People can actively partcipate in cultivating plants in the demonstration gardens, learning the best methods through practice and repetition. The center will work to address a variety of needs, attracting visitors from different backgrounds: local families looking to incorporate gardening and different cultivation techniques into their daily life, students and professors from nearby schools interested in horticulture, restaurant owners requiring local food sources, gardening clubs, and more. The Urban Horticulture Center will also function as an event space, staying active both day and night. Both interior and exterior event space, in addition to the auditorium, will be available for rental to accommodate a multitude of functions. This extends the utility of the center, creating a destination enjoyable and inviting to everyone.

PROGRAM


ARCHITECTURAL ASPIRATIONS & PROJECT GOALS

The design will grow from the preliminary studies of the site’s natural processes, in order to create a dialogue between the Urban Horticulture Center and the site. As mentioned in the Quote Commentary, the formal ordering system will arise from the surrounding area - local vegetation, natural hydrology of the site, existing topography, sun and weather patterns, etc. Using these as a catalyst for the design will help to create a space connected to the site and existing natural elements, with a thoughtful connection between the experential qualities of interior versus exterior space. The technical, or tectonic, language of the structure will also be informed by the surroundings. Both materials and forms will respond to the needs of the existing site and qualities of nearby structures, such as the Farmer’s Market. The completed design will be a sustaining Urban Horticulture Center, paying homage to the natural processes the Center is aiming to promote to the Raleigh community.


PROGRAM ELEMENTS

The various program elements have been grouped according to general fuction and intended proximity of individual spaces. Rather than planning for a singular built volume, the project is about integrating interior and exterior spaces in a way that best informs the public about incorporating horticulture into the urban environment. Based on this goal, there is actually more square footage required for exterior program elements than interior spaces, but this can be easily accommodated on the more than 100,000 square foot site.

1. Lobby / permanent exhibition space and interior event space 2000 sq. ft. Interior 2. Classrooms for school groups / meeting rooms / seminars 5 @ 450 each = 2250 sq. ft. Interior 3. Auditorium / lecture hall 5000 sq. ft. Interior 4. Indoor rotating exhibition space 1500 sq. ft. Interior 5. Outdoor rotating exhibition space 1000 sq. ft. Exterior 6. Library 1500 / 500 sq. ft. Interior/Exterior - Gardens integrated into reading areas for library 7. Reading Rooms 750 sq. ft. Interior 8. Retail - indoor 1500 sq. ft. Interior outdoor (greenhouse) 1500 sq. ft. Exterior 9. Café 750 / 750 sq. ft. Interior/Exterior 10. Horticulture center administration 1000 sq. ft. Interior 11. Nature conservancy administration 1000 sq. ft. Interior 12. Service space (25% of area): washrooms, lockers, 8000 sq. ft. Interior storage both indoors and outdoors, mechanical, electrical and communications, custodial circulation 13. Exterior storage space: includes grounds maintenance, greenhouse and exterior event space storage 4150 sq. ft. Exterior 14. Intensive green roof with PV panels and solar hot water collector system (sustainable demonstration) - enter building on the green roof 15. Green screen and wall – want the greenery to wrap around the building in plan and section, maybe even on interior (similar to picture below)1

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PROGRAM

“Park 20l20 Master Plan.” www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.

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16. Demonstration garden for public/retail space 30 plots at 10’x10’ each = 3000 sq. ft. Exterior (can be demonstration garden maintained by NC State students) - include native vegetation, vegetables, a children’s garden, nutraceutical garden Garden plots for horticulture restaurant 5 at 10’x10’ = 500 sq. ft. Exterior Garden plots for rent 10 at 10’x10’ = 1000 sq. ft. Exterior 17. Trails through the woods with different types of vegetation 1 - 2 miles - maybe even a scavenger hunt for class visits 18. Bio-retention basin/rain garden (beginning to think about drainage in 500 sq. ft. Exterior regards to exterior landscaping) 19. Exterior event space (sheltered and maybe also able to enclose seasonally) 2000 sq. ft. Exterior 20. Small exterior meeting spaces 4 at 400 each = 1600 sq. ft. Exterior 21. ‘Trip into the Treetops’ 500 sq. ft. Exterior - similar to the Treetop Adventure precedent, something engaging the trees above and moving people to an elevated plane to interact with the trees surrounding the site 22. ‘Insects: Inch by Inch ‘ 500 sq. ft. Exterior - the inverse of the ‘Trip into the Treetops’. Basically an exhibit depressed into the site to play with a visitor’s experience in sectional spaces. Could look at insects and how they affect our food - a history and exhibit, along with a beneficial and pest insect information. An Insectarium! 23. Transition (shaded) spaces (such as trellises) 5000 sq. ft. Exterior – exterior connections between program elements that are sheltered trellises to show how vegetation can be an integral part of daylighting 24. Parking 44 cars / 2 buses: 8000 sq. ft. Exterior 25. Loading and dropoff 1000 sq. ft. Exterior 26. Screened Dumpster 500 sq. ft. Exterior TOTAL:

57,250 sq. ft.

25,250 sq. ft. Interior 32,000 sq. ft. Exterior


SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS DIAGRAMS OF THE INTERACTION AND ADJACENCY OF PROGRAM ELEMENTS

Some of the spaces are solely intended as either interior or exterior rooms, but many of the program elements will have two components - existing both as interior and exterior volumes. This integration between out and in is one of the most exciting opportunities for the intended Urban Horticulture: how the elements will meet, transition, and form the different spaces. In some cases, the exterior and interior elements may be located directly next to one another (as in the cafe, with an interior seating space and an exterior patio), or they may be in two completely seperated volumes (as in two different event spaces).

INTERIOR

Lobby Auditorium/Lecture Hall Classrooms Library Horticulture Admin. Nature Conservancy Admin.

PROGRAM

EXTERIOR

Event Space Exhibition Space Reading Rooms/ Meeting Spaces Retail Cafe Transition Spaces (Trellises, etc.)

Demonstration Gardens ‘Trip into the Treetops’ ‘Insects: Inch by Inch’ Parking Loading/Dropoff Trails Rain Garden Accessible Green Roof


Gardens eetops’ by Inch’ Parking Dropoff Trails Garden en Roof

The diagram below illustrates an initial adjacency study between the major, secondary, and tertiary program elements. Adjacencies may change through the design process, depending on the best layout for movement between interior and exterior elements.

RAIN GARDEN ENTRANCE TO TRAILS

‘INSECTS: INCH BY INCH’

DEMONSTRATION GARDENS RETAIL LOADING/ DROPOFF EXTERIOR EVENT SPACE

AUDITORIUM/ LECTURE HALL LOBBY/ INTERIOR EVENT AND EXHIBITION SPACE

‘TRIP INTO THE TREETOPS’

CAFE

SERVICE SPACE

EXTERIOR EXHIBIT SPACE PARKING

CLASSROOMS

LIBRARY READING ROOMS

HORTICULTURE ADMINISTRATION AND NATURE CONSERVANCY ADMINISTRATION


MASSING DIAGRAM 1 LINEAR, COURTYARD ARRANGEMENT OF ELEMENTS

Green Roof Admin. / Service

Exterior Meeting Space Exterior Connections

Here the program pieces are laid out to frame a courtyard space within the open field. The bulk of the parking is located through the trees, to the west of the Urban Horticulture Center, to allow for a planned entry sequence through the wooded surroundings. Green roofs allow people walking on the street above to enter on the roof level of the lower volumes and get an overall view of the site elements. Shading devices protect the spaces from southern summer sun and create a more seamless transitions between interior and exterior elements.

Parking

Rain Garden

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

Lobby / Exhibits / Auditorium Cafe / Retail

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PROGRAM


Trails also run through the wooded area, with small exhibitions spaced throughout. The surrounding Centennial Campus area - with Lake Raleigh, the Farmer’s Market, and other green spaces - provides a great setting for connecting the design to surrounding elements. All three massings studies contain elongated volumes oriented south, for optimal daylighting benefits.

Green Roof Admin. / Service

Exterior Meeting Space Exterior Connections

Parking

Rain Garden

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

Cafe / Retail

0’0’

75’ 75’

150’ 150’

1” 1”==150’ 150’

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


MASSING DIAGRAM 2 SLIDING BAR ARRANGEMENT OF ELEMENTS

Green Roof Admin. / Service

Exterior Meeting Space Exterior Connections

This arrangement extends the program pieces into the open field, creating smaller pockets of exterior spaces framed by the sliding bars. The idea of transition spaces/shading devices is still used to connect the different elements and encourage visitors to move between indoors and outdoors when experiencing the Urban Horticulture Center. The exterior event space is located near the rain garden and incorporated into the wooded surroundings, using part of the nearby tree canopies for natural shading.

Parking

Rain Garden

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

Lobby / Exhibits / Auditorium Cafe / Retail

1

1

PROGRAM


Additional staff parking and service space is located to the east, sheltered from a visitor’s view as they enter from the west parking lot. Green roofs run throughout the elements, again acting as a possible entry point for anyone walking above along the road, due to the drastic change in topography. The idea of creating multiple exterior spaces and various levels - from depressing elements into the ground, keeping some spaces at ground level, and allowing people to occupy the roof above creates a lively design, able to accommodate multiple functions.

Green Roof Admin. / Service

Exterior Meeting Space Exterior Connections

Parking

Rain Garden

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

Lobby / Exhibits / Auditorium Cafe / Retail

0’0’

75’ 75’

150’ 150’

1” 1”==150’ 150’

1

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“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


MASSING DIAGRAM 3 PROGRAM ELEMENTS SPREAD ACROSS SITE IN DISCREET VOLUMES

This configuration spreads interior spaces across the open field, creating small, pocketed courtyards for the demontration gardens and exterior meeting spaces between each separate volume. Shading devices continue to create a transition between the interior and exterior elements, with the service spaces and additional parking again located to the northeast for use as needed. The idea of sprawling green roofs as another occupied level is taken to the extreme in this scheme, allowing a visitor to move across the entire site at the roof level.

Green Roof

Ext. Meeting Space

Parking

Rain Garden

Admin. / Service

Ext. Connections

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

Lobby / Exhibits / Auditorium Cafe / Retail

1

1

PROGRAM


From the western parking area, visitors enter directly into the lobby volume. The extended lobby and service arms to the north create an entry court, creating room for a ramp from the higher sidewalk above down into the lobby space. Cafe, retail, and the exterior meeting space are located in the second and third rectilinear volumes, spreading the program needs throughout the site to create more movement between inside and out.

Green Roof

Ext. Meeting Space

Parking

Rain Garden

Admin. / Service

Ext. Connections

Trail Adventures

Garden Plots

0’0’

75’ 75’

150’ 150’

1” 1”==150’ 150’

1

1

“Google Earth.” www.earth.google.com. Google, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2011.


PROGRAM PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Visitor Center: Bernheim Arboretum & Research Forest - William McDonough + Partners Bornholm Island Science Park & Green Solution House Conference Visitor Center - William McDonough + Partners Tree Adventure: Morris Arboretum of University of Pennsylvania - Metcalfe Architecture & Design Hilltop Arboretum: Louisiana State University - Lake l Flato Toronto Botanical Gardens Addition - MontgomerySisam

PROGRAM


VISITOR CENTER

BERNHEIM ARBORETUM & RESEARCH FOREST WILLIAM MCDONOUGH + PARTNERS CLERMONT, KENTUCKY COMPLETED 2005

As the centerpiece of the Bernheim Arboretum, the visitor center connects to the landscape both visually and physically. While a detailed plan was not found, the intent to integrate with the surroundings is clear in the plan. As a LEED Platinum certified building, the design also works with the idea of a sustaining architecture: “the design of a building like a tree,” according to McDonough’s website. The program includes exhibit galleries, administrative offices, and visitor amenities, but on a small scale of only 6,408 sq. ft. The center is located in a wooded ridgeline, near an open prairie, ponds, and a plant nursery.

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PROGRAM


The green roof is a prominent feature, helping with stormwater management and producing oxygen like the surrounding trees. Sustainably harvested woods are used in the post-and-beam construction, relating to the surrounding woods while setting up views and acting as a framework for further vegetated growth. Additionally, PV panels produce energy on site while successful daylighting strategies reduce energy demands.1

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“Visitor Center, Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest.� www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.

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The exhibit halls are multi-functional, acting as both exhibit space during the day and event space in the evening. In the overall plan of Bernheim Arboretum, the visitor center is one of the focal points for people new to the site and surrounding trails, but the design’s modest respect for nature and the existing site are the clearest indicators of the building’s program.

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PROGRAM

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One of the major successes of the design is the exterior connections for the discreet program elements located in different rectilinear volumes. The idea of creating a master plan to engage both interior and exterior spaces, rather than just a single built form, highlights the purpose of a horticulture center to engage the public with natural processes. Similarly, creating multi-functional spaces allows for greater public use and interaction with the current programs and activities of the horticulture center, attracting visitors both day and night.1

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“Visitor Center, Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest.� www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.

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BORNHOLM ISLAND SCIENCE PARK & GREEN SOLUTION HOUSE CONFERENCE CENTER WILLIAM MCDONOUGH + PARTNERS BORNHOLM ISLAND, DENMARK CURRENTLY IN FUNDRAISING PHASE

With a complex program of over 77,000 sq. ft., the master plan is key in creating a unified design for several different functions. The basic idea is to provide a destination for ideation/interaction with nature through agriculture, integrating sustainable strategies with renewable energy/reused materials throughout the design. The program includes a visitor area, banquet hall, exhibit area, offices, and hotels/apartments. These are spread apart in several buildings centered and oriented to a central community space. An ‘ecological path’ links these buildings, creating meeting spaces and areas for food production.

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PROGRAM


Farm space, wind turbines, and greenhouses fill the open exterior space, while still acting as instructional units on food production and sustainability. Combining sustainability instructional units with food production techniques can strengthen the Urban Horticulture Center’s community presence. Like the visitor center at Bernheim Arboretum, the idea of creating a master plan to spread across the site complements the horticulture center’s various program elements. With several different functions, both indoors and outside, this planning strategy seems most relevant for the intended Urban Horticulture Center.1

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“Bornholm Island Science Park and GreenSolution House Conference Center.” www.mcdonoughpartners.com. William McDonough + Partners, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.


TREE ADVENTURE MORRIS ARBORETUM OF UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

METCALFE ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN PHILADELPHIA, PA COMPLETED CIRCA 2010

Within the larger 92 acres of Morris Arboretum, the tree adventure introduces visitors to the importance of trees as part of our surroundings: “we need trees and urban trees need us”. The 450’ long walkway rises 50 feet above the ground to take visitors into the treetops themselves. A suspension bridge leads to a giant birds nest, with ropes and a series of changing spaces to make people feel as though living within the trees. Prefabrication and careful consideration of the existing root network prevent disturbance to the existing site.

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PROGRAM


Expanding visitor’s interactions beyond simple food production at the Urban Horticulture Center introduces the opportunity for more specific exhibits designed for children’s groups or even garden clubs. Additional design interventions, like this Treetop Adventure, could help the center engage the surrounding site in a more meaningful and exciting manner.1,2

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“Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania.” www.metarchdesign.com. Metcalfe Architecture and Design, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 2 “Morris Arboretum Tree Adventure / Metcalfe Architecture & Design.” www.archdaily.com. ArchDaily, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 1

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HILLTOP ARBORETUM LOUISIANA STATE UNIV. LAKE l FLATO BATON ROUGE, LA MAY 2002

The building acts as a gateway into the 14 acres of natural surroundings, separating the parking area from the nature beyond. The elongated roof covers a series of connecting walkways interspersed between individual program elements of offices, gift shop, library, exhibit space, storage, and meeting space. The vernacular architecture is evident in the design, drawing inspiration from both traditional ‘shotgun’ and ‘dogtrot’ forms.

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PROGRAM


As seen below, the building is raised from the site to avoid interfering with natural drainage patterns. A rentention pond helps collect the excess water from seasonal heavy rains. The open pavilion over the water is used for programs offered at the arboretum, but also frequently serves as an event space. A future enclosed pavilion is planned for the site, highlighting the importance of considering how a current design can be added to or changed in the future to meet new needs.1-3

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“Hilltop Arboretum.” www.lakeflato.com. Lake l Flato, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. “LSU Hilltop Arboretum Facilities.” http://hilltop.lsu.edu. Louisiana State University, 2006. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 3 “Hilltop Arboretum.” www.structuremag.org. Structure Magazine, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 1 2


Seen below, generous overhangs shelter one of the exterior decks, acting as transition from a completely enclosed space to the open surroundings. Three ecosystems converge at the site, but careful landscape planning, such as the retention pond mentioned previously, have helped revitalize the site and restore native vegetation once lost to the heavy rains. The retention pond slowly releases water into the local ravines that define where the ecosystems intersect, mitigating a potentially harsh flood. A main structure composed of glue lam beams and wooden roof trusses highlight the natural wooded surroundings.

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PROGRAM


Similar to the visitor center at the Bernheim Arboretum, exterior transition spaces highlight the importance of the connecting built form with natural surroudings, with the building itself separating urban (parking) from nature. This success could easily translate into the intended Urban Horticulture Center, allowing the building’s program elements to physically create a gateway into the surrounding landscape.1-3

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“Hilltop Arboretum.” www.lakeflato.com. Lake l Flato, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. “LSU Hilltop Arboretum Facilities.” http://hilltop.lsu.edu. Louisiana State University, 2006. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 3 “Hilltop Arboretum.” www.structuremag.org. Structure Magazine, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 1 2

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TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDENS - ADDITION MONTGOMERY SISAM TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA DECEMBER 2005

With a size similar to the intended Urban Horticulture Center, the new addition to two existing buildings at Toronto Botanical Gardens increased the overall square footage to 36,000, including a library expansion, offices, a gift shop, children’s center, and meeting spaces. The glass form wraps around exterior garden courts, relating them to the interior program while creating a main entry space. The angled shape also orients towards an existing green house across the open gardens.

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PROGRAM

“Toronto Botanical Garden.” www.montgomerysisam.com. Montgomery Sisam Architects Inc., 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 2 “The George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture.” www.torontobotanicalgarden.ca. Toronto Botanical Garden, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 1


A green roof covers the addition, blending the form with the natural surroundings, relating again to the courtyard garden spaces below. Trellises act as both a substrate for future vegetated growth while also shading the clear glass front from the summer sun. Fritted glass on the remainder of the building reduces heat gain by up to 70%. With the reuse of stone and steel from the existing buildings, construction waste was reduced and the project was awarded LEED Silver certification.1-3

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“George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture.� www.greensource.construction.com. The McGraw - Hill Companies, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.


Water features on the site re-circulate water each week before moving to irrigation storage tanks. Runoff from the green roof is also used in irrigation. The openness of the design allows for plenty of natural light for interior spaces, reducing the energy demand of the building. As with previous projects, the idea of a sustainable horticulture center or arboretum is in itself a respectful homage to the design’s natural surroundings.

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PROGRAM

“Toronto Botanical Garden.” www.montgomerysisam.com. Montgomery Sisam Architects Inc., 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 2 “The George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture.” www.torontobotanicalgarden.ca. Toronto Botanical Garden, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. 1


Greenery integrated into the building roof or wall can also act as instructional units for the Urban Horticulture Center, highlighting the methods for bringing the natural world into built surroundings. Open, sunny spaces are common throughout all the program precedents, making the need for natural daylight a priority in the design process.1-3

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“George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture.� www.greensource.construction.com. The McGraw - Hill Companies, 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.

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CODE COMPLIANCE CHARTS

Based on the type of construction, there will be certain height limit to the horticulture center. With both A-3 and B, it looks as though the building will range between 3-5 stories in height, depending on the floor area of each level.1

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PROGRAM


Table 601 and 602 list the required fire-resistance ratings for the various building elements, including separate exterior walls for a design that may include several discreet building elements on the site. In Section 1004, the highlighted sections contain relevant information for determining the occupant load in various program elements for egress requirements, such as the number of fire stairs.

1 “International Building Code - 2009 (Fifth Printing).� www. publicecodes.citation.com. International Code Council, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.

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CODE COMPLIANCE CHARTS

Section 1015 has the maximum travel distance - 200 feet without a sprinkler system - for both A-3 and B use groups. Section 1019 discusses the minimum number of exits within each level of the building, based on the occupancy total found in Section 1004.

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PROGRAM


Considering the uses of the intended Urban Horticulture Center, the building should fall under Use Groups A-3 and B. This should include the auditorium, lecture spaces, library, and administration. While other use groups are also applicable, such as A-2 for the cafe, the major program elements are covered best by A-3 and B.

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“International Building Code - 2009 (Fifth Printing).� www. publicecodes.citation.com. International Code Council, 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.

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Project Preparation Document  

In Fall 2011, I completed a project preparation course. Each student compiled a project document for our Spring 2012 studio project, detaili...