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Music   1º  E.S.O.  

I.E.S.  UNIVERSIDAD  LABORAL   ALBACETE  

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

READING  AND  WRITING  MUSIC,  p.  3   INSTRUMENTS,  p.  9   THE  ELEMENTS  OF  MUSIC,  p.  16   HOW  MUSIC  IS  ORGANISED,  p.  18   READING  NOTES,  p.  21   READING  RHYTHMS,  p.  28   THE  DRUMSET,  p.  32   THE  KEYBOARD,  p.  39  

 

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

READING  AND   WRITING  MUSIC   The five lines are called a stave. Notes can go on or between the lines. Lines are counted from bottom to top.

The symbol at the start tells us how high or low to play the notes. The treble clef is the most common.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Notes higher up the stave have a higher pitch. Notes lower down have a lower pitch. When notes are too low or too high they can go on separate short lines above or below: they are called ledger lines.

Here are some notes.

On a piano, natural notes are the white ones. Sharps are the black notes to the right of the white notes. Flats are the notes to the left of the white notes. So each black note is both sharp and flat. A sharp sign next to a note tells you to play it one semitone higher.

A flat symbol next to a note means you have to play it one semitone lower.

A natural sign cancels a sharp or flat.

Accidentals are written before the note they affect. Sharps and flats that you see by individual notes are called accidentals. Once an accidental has appeared in a bar, it applies to all notes of the same pitch for the rest of the bar, unless it’s cancelled out by a natural sign. Sharps or flats written at the start of a piece, straight after the clef, tell you the key signature.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Note symbols tell you how many beats to hold a sound for. Depending on how long they are, are called:

SEMIBREVE. 4 beats

MINIM. 2 beats

CROTCHET. 1 beat

*Whole note

*Half note

*Quarter note

QUAVER. 1/2 beat

SEMIQUAVER. 1/4 beat

*Eighth note

*Sixteenth note

* American English

Rests symbols tell you how many beats to hold a silence for. Notes and rests have names, depending on how long they are.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. SEMIBREVE REST. 4 beats

MINIM REST. 2 beats

CROTCHET REST. 1 beat

*Whole note rest

*Half note rest

*Quarter note rest

QUAVER REST. 1/2 beat

SEMIQUAVER REST. 1/4 beat

*Eighth note rest

*Sixteenth note rest

*American English

There’s always a time signature at the beginning of a piece of music. It goes to the right of the clef and the key signature.

It’s written using two numbers. The top number tells you how many beats there are in each bar (e.g. a 2 means two beats in a bar, a 3 means three beats in a bar and so on). The bottom number tells you how long each beat is: a 4 at the bottom means each beat is 1 crotchet long, an 8 at the bottom means each beat is 1 quaver long… and so on.

The time signature usually stays the same all the way through a piece of music. If it does, it’s written just once, at the beginning. Sometimes the beat changes during a piece. If it does, the new time signature’s written in the bar where it changes.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

A dot after a note or rest makes it longer.

2+1= 3

A tie is a curved line joining two notes of the same pitch together. It turns them into one note. Ties are often used to make a long note that goes over the end of a bar.

It sounds like a minim note.

Ties are not the same as slurs:

It sounds two different notes, D and A.

Tempo is Italian for “time”. The tempo is the speed of the main beats. In a lot of music the instructions for how fast to play are written in Italian too. Here are the words you’re most likely to come across:

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. Italian word

What it means

Largo Andante Moderato Allegro Presto

broad and slow walking pace moderate speed quick and lively really fast

The metronome allows us more accuracy: 60 beats a minute means each crotchet lasts one second, 120 beats a minute means each crotchet lasts half a second, and so on.

The tempo and the beats per minute are written over the stave.

Music that was all played at the same volume would be pretty dull. To get a variety of different volumes you can use these symbols: Symbol

cresc. dim.

…stands for…

…what it means…

pianissimo

very quiet

piano

quiet

mezzopiano

fairly quiet

mezzoforte

fairly loud

forte

loud

fortissimo

very loud

crescendo diminuendo

getting louder getting quieter

crescendo

getting louder

diminuendo

getting quieter

The markings go underneath the stave.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

INSTRUMENTS  and   HUMAN  VOICE  

In our music classroom you can find this instruments: Glockenspiels  

Bar  instruments  

Percussion  

Drum  set  

Metalophones  

Xilophones  

Untuned   percussion  

Acoustic   Piano   Keyboards   Synthesizer  

Winds  

Electric   piano  

Recorder  

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. Classical   Strings  

Guitar  

or  Spanish   Acoustic  

Most of them are percussion instruments. They can be tuned or untuned. Tuned percussion can play different notes.

• Soprano   • Alto   • Bass  

xylophones  

• Soprano   • Alto  

metalophones  

glockenspiels  

The glockenspiel has bars made of metal. There are two sizes: the smallest are soprano glockenspiels, and the biggest are alto glockenspiels. Metalphones have metal bars too, but they are bigger than glockenspiels. Xylophones have wooden bars. Both metalophones and xylophones are three sized: soprano, alto or bass.

• Soprano   • Alto   • Bass  

Bar instruments are played with drumsticks. They are made of different materials.

The drum set is a group of many percussion instruments: bass drum, cymbals, snare drums…

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. There are electronic drum sets and acoustic drum sets. Here is a drawing: 1. Bass drum, 2. Tom, 3. Snare drum, 4. Toms, 5. Hi-hat, 6. Cymbals.

The untuned percussion instruments are used for pure rhythm. It’s pretty much impossible to learn every untuned percussion instrument, but try and remember the names of these:

Chinese wood block

Bongos Tambourine

Guiro

Triangle

Maracas

Cowbell

Claves

Castanets

Sleigh bells

Crotales

Frame rattle

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Keyboard instruments can be acoustic and electric. Acoustic pianos have strings and hammers to hit them, and electronic pianos have electronic sound chips and speakers. Both of them have keyboards to play with.

Acoustic piano

Electronic piano

A synthesizer is an electronic instrument capable of producing a variety of sounds by generating and combining signals of different frequencies. Synthesizers can produce a wide range of sounds, which can either imitate other instruments or generate unusual new timbres.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Symphony orchestras are the biggest type of orchestra. They have four sections of instruments: strings, woodwind, brass and percussion. They always sit in the same place.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Woodwind  

Strings  

Bowed  

Flute  

• Violin  I  &  II   • Viola   • Cello   • Double  bass  

Oboe  

Plucked  

Clarinet  

• Harp  

Basson   Brass  

French   horn   Trumpet  

Trombon  

Tube  

Percussion  

Skin   • Timpani   • Bass  drum   • Snare  drum  

Bar   • Glockenspiel   • Marimba   • Vibraphone  

Other   instruments  

Female singers are soprano, mezzo-soprano or alto. A high female voice is called a soprano. Mezzo-sopranos sing in the top part of the alto range and the bottom part of the soprano range. A lower female voice is called an alto (short of contralto).

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. Male voices are tenor, baritone or bass. Higher male voices are called tenors. Baritones sing the top part of the bass range and the bottom part of the tenor range. Low male voices are called basses.

Female   voices  

Soprano  

Male   voices  

Tenor  

Mezzo-­‐ soprano  

Baritone  

Alto  

Bass  

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

The  elements   of  music   The elements of music are: melody, rhythm and harmony.

Melody, also called tune, is a series of single tones which add up to a recognizable whole. After hearing a piece of music, we usually remember its melody best. Melody usually goes on top voices and instruments, and in pop music, the singer usually sings it.

Rhythm is the flow of music through time. Rhythm has several interrelated aspects: beat, meter, accent and syncopation, and tempo. Beat is a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time. When you clap your hands or tap your foot to music, you are responding to its beat. The organization of beats into regular groups is called meter. Although rhythm is present in each instrument, the most suitable for rhythm accompaniment are percussion. In pop music, the drum set usually plays the rhythm.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Harmony refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other. A chord is a combination of three or more tones played at once. Essentially, a chord is a group of simultaneous tones, and a melody is a series of individual tones heard one after another. Many instruments can’t play chords by themselves. They are called melodic instruments. Harmonic accompaniments are usually played by guitars and keyboards on pop music.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

HOW  MUSIC   IS  ORGANISED   Music needs form and structure. Music’s got to be organised, the most basic bit of organisation is the beats of a bar. The structure could be the verses and chorus in a pop song. Composers usually plan the structure of a piece of music before they get into the detail. Most musical plans use repetition (using a musical idea more than once) and contrast (because the constant repetition is boring).

Binary form has two sections. To make it easier to talk about the two bits you usually call the first one A and the second one B. Each section is repeated. You play A twice, and then B twice, so you end up with AABB. Section B constrasts with section A: the two parts sound different.

A  

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B  


MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

Ternary means in three parts. There are three sections in music with ternary form. Sections can be equals or different. When music goes back to A for the last section it can be exactly the same or varied a bit. If it is varied you call it A1 instead of A.

A  

B  

A  

• First  idea  

• Contrasting   idea  

• First  idea  

Rondo means going round. A rondo starts with a main idea in section A, moves into a new section, goes round again to A, moves into another new section, goes round again to A… as many times as you like. The new section after each Section A always contrasts with A. Section A is known as the main theme. The contrasting sections are called episodes. The most important thing to remember is that after every new section, section A always comes back. It literally does keep going round.

A  

Main   theme  

B  

Contrasting   episode  

A  

Main   theme  

C  

Another   contrasting   episode  

A  

Main   theme  

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

The main sections are the verse and chorus. The verse always has the same tune, but the lyrics change in each verse. The chorus has a different tune from the verse, usually quite a catchy one. The lyrics and tune of the chorus don’t change. Most songs go verse, chorus, verse, chorus, etc. But there’s no rules about this.

Introduction   Chorus   Verse   Chorus   Verse   Bridge   Chorus   Bridge   Instrumental   Chorus   Coda  

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

1ST PART. C-F 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

2nd PART. G-B 11

12

13

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15

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17

18

19

20

21

22

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

3rd PART. C’-E’ 23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

4th PART: F’-A’ 32

33

34

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

35

36

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39

40

41

REVIEW PART 1st & 2nd. C-B 42

43

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. 46

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REVIEW PART 2nd & 3rd: G-E’ 51

52

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. 58

59

60

REVIEW PART 1st, 2nd & 3rd: C-E’ 61

62

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67

68

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

REVIEW PART 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th: C-A’ 69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

A drum set (also drum kit) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments arranged for convenient playing by a single person. It emerged at the end of the 19th Century in the south of the U.S.A. It is made up of membranophones (snare drum, bass drum and toms) and cymbals of different sizes. Each instrument is written on different places on the stave. Instead of treble or bass clef you will see a percussion clef.

HOW TO STUDY Practice is very important in order to learn how to play the drums and it must be done step by step. If you follow these steps, not skipping any of them you will obtain good results in a very short time. We propose several exercises to begin. 1. Sit down properly: a good body position (natural, balanced and relaxed) will help you to play the instrument in an easier way and it will improve the sound quality. The snare drum should be located between your legs and your right foot must be on the bass drum pedal and your left foot on the hi-hat pedal. 2. Practice this rhythm on the ride cymbal with your right hand. First the first measure with crotchets and when you've got a regular beat, try to play quavers.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. It is very important to get used counting the beats (one-two-three-four on the first measure or one-and-two-and-three-and-four-and on the second). This will help you to understand rhythm better and move to more complex rhythms. 3. Practice the same rhythm with the hi-hat with your right hand too. Don't forget to count.

4. Did you get it? Then you are ready for the next exercise. The snare drum usually hits on beats 2 and 4. Try to play this rhythm on the snare drum using your left hand. Do not forget to count aloud.

5. Did you finish the exercise? Try now with both hands, this is a little more difficult, but do not give up if you do not get it well the first time. You will get it with a little practice.

6. Leave the sticks and concentrate on your right foot. The easier way to play it is to have your foot on the pedal and you only have to move your foot up and down.

Do not forget counting: ONE-two-THREE-four 7. Now you can bring the bass drum and the hi-hat together.

8. Did you get it? Now try to bring the bass drum and the snare drum together too. 9. Are you ready? Now try everything again. Do not give up if you don't get it the first time. Relax, do something else, and try again later. It is not too complicated and this basic rhythm can be played with a lot of songs. Below you will find a selection of different rhythms, try to play them step by step; though it may seem a little slow you will see how you will improve faster every day.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

The sheets and schemes that go with every rhythm will help you to understand them better and to study them, but try to learn by heart.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

FILLS Toms can be used on strong beats as with the bass drum and the snare drum, but we usually use it for fills. A fill is a rhythmical filling instant or a way to go from a section to another in the same song. We can also use the other instruments for fills. Fills can last one or more beats in crotchet, quaver or semiquaver rhythm.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. Here you find a selection of fills to practise.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O.

A keyboard is an instrument that imitates all the other instruments in a very efficient way. It can also produce natural sounds, voices, special sound effects and completely new sounds never heard before. Keyboards can modify the timbre of sounds. Control commmands select a specific sound just by pressing a little button. This sound comes from a bank of sounds stored electronically in the memory of the synthesizer. Each brand has its own instruments and combinations. Some keyboards can create, store (record) and reproduce new sounds. The finger technique is equal to piano and you use a proper body technique adequate to each instrument. The keyboard is a polyphonic instrument par excellence. It also offers a great possibility to play any instrument no matter how high or low it is. We need with keyboard, as well as with piano, a minimun preparation that we call digitalitation so we can allocate a finger to one or several keys. They come with a number from 1 to 5 (from thumb to pinkie) and this number is located above or below the note and its lectura and you have to memorize it at the same time.

We need a proper body position to play: • • • • • •

Head must be a little leaned over the piano. Back must be comfortably straight with a natural position Elbows must be a little forward than the body. Hands do not have to be leaned on the piano, only fingers are in contact with the keyboard. The stoll must be located to allow forearm to be at level with keys from keyboard. Feet must rested on the floor.

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MUSIC 1º E.S.O. Right position for hands •

Fingers must form a little arch when touching the keys. This position allows a good mobility and influence on joints to have strengh enough to make the necessary preassure to play the key. This position allows the little finger to have a good position and prevents stress on the forearm.

The piano is one of the most difficult instruments and you need many years of studying, practice and patience to play it correctly. Nevertheless we can start playing it properly with patience and if we folllow these steps. • • •

• • •

Sit down correctly properly balanced. Lay your hands correctly. Relax: you do not press the keys strongly; keyboards are soft and with just a little touch of your finger and the weight of you forehand there is strength enough to produce the right sound on the keyboard. Learn the notes of the song time by time. Learn the notes of the song and the rhythm by heart. Locate the notes on the keyboard. If you pay attention you will see that black keys are grouped by two or three. This way you see that note C is the first white key that comes before a group of two black keys.

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Cuaderno Lenguaje Musical en Inglés