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WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

Weather Full Year Climatology


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December-March (Winter) • VISIBILITY • Generally ranges from 5-7 miles due to fog, smoke and haze. VIS below 3 miles occurs 10 percent of the time due to fog from 7-12L. VIS below 1 mile occurs 5% of the time and is rare in March. • Extremely low VIS generally only occurs during heavy snowfall events.

• WIND • Predominately N-NW at 4-5 knots all winter. Calm conditions occur overnight thru early morning. Passing westerly disturbances alter winds ahead and behind them. • Peak gusts can reach 45-50 knots during January.


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December-March (Winter) • •

• • •

CEILINGS Mean cloud cover is broken to overcast overnight and broken at all other times. Ceilings below 10,000 MSL occur 10-15% of the time Ceilings below 3,000 MSL occur 5-10% of the time Ceilings below 1,000 MSL occur 5% of the time or less at all hours of the season Ceilings below 200 MSL are very rare and occur only in brief periods of heavy snow

• • • •

PRECIP Dec/Jan: 1” February: 2.4” March: 2.9”

• •

SVR WEATHER Blizzard Conditions can occur during heavy snow fall events associated with passing systems and are generally isolated to elevations above 7,000 MSL


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December-March (Winter)

Temperature • Extreme Highs: 60• Average Relative 64F Humidity • Extreme Lows: M04- • Morning (0500):70% 16F • Afternoon (1700): • Mean Highs: 37-52F 46% • Mean Lows: 23-36F • January is the coldest month of the year


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December-March (Winter) Shared Weather Effects 06L

08L 10L 12L

14L

16L

18L

20L

LIGHT INFANTRY

Temperature < 32 F

MECHANIZED INF SMOKE/CHEM

Temperature < 32 F

22L

24L 02L

04L

Light Rain Ceilings < 3000’ / Light Precipitation

PSYOP

Temperature < 32 F

SOF ROTARY LIFT

VIS

ROTARY ATTACK

VIS

CAS

CIG/VIS

AI

CIG/VIS

AIR DEFENSE

VIS

Ceilings > 500’ BUT < 5000’

Ceilings > 500’ BUT < 3000’ / LIGHT PRECIP

UAV MANEUVER OPTIMAL

VIS

IMPAIRED

UNFAVORABLE

06L


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April thru May (Spring / Begin of SW Monsoon) • WIND • VISIBILITY • Predominately N at 7• Fog, smoke and 10 knots. Calm haze restrict VIS conditions occur in early morning hours. below 7 SM an Passing westerly average of 1 day per disturbances and month. thunderstorms alter winds. • VIS below 3 miles is • Peak gusts can reach rare and generally 41-53 knots. does not occur.


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April thru May (Spring / Begin of SW Monsoon) • •

CEILINGS Mean cloud cover is broken in the afternoons and scattered at all other times Ceilings below 10,000 MSL occur 10-15% of the time between 16-21L Ceilings below 3,000 MSL occur 5% of the time between 16-18L Ceilings below 1,000 MSL are very rare and usually do not occur

• • • • •

PRECIP April: 4.4” May: 1.1” Extreme April: 7” Extreme May: 4.1”

• SVR WEATHER • Heavy precip can occur with thunderstorms. April is when when flash flooding is most likely to occur.


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April thru May (Spring / Begin of SW Monsoon)

Temperature • Extreme Highs: 8895F • Extreme Lows: 3123F • Mean Highs: 65-74F • Mean Lows: 47-53F

• Average Relative Humidity • Morning (0500):75% • Afternoon (1700): 35%


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April thru May (Spring / Begin of SW Monsoon) SHARED WEATHER EFFECTS 06L

08L 10L 12L

14L

16L

18L

20L

LIGHT INFANTRY

MOD PRECIP

MECHANIZED INF SMOKE/CHEM

MOD PRECIP

PSYOP

MOD PRECIP

SOF

MOD PRECIP

22L

24L 02L

04L

MOD PRECIP

ROTARY LIFT ROTARY ATTACK CAS

CIG / THUNDER

AI

CIG / THUNDER

AIR DEFENSE

Ceilings > 500’ BUT < 5000’ CIG / THUNDER

UAV MANEUVER OPTIMAL

IMPAIRED

UNFAVORABLE

06L


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June thru September (Summer / SW Monsoon) • • • •

VISIBILITY Dust and haze is the main cause restricted VIS Dust restricts VIS below 7 miles 2-3 days per month VIS below 3 miles is rare but occurs between 07-09L and 16-21L VIS below ½ mile occurs only in brief periods of dust storms induced by thunderstorm downbursts

• WIND • Predominately N at 1012 knots all summer • Calm conditions are most common at night during the late summer • Peak gusts can reach beyond 60 knots and are usually associated with thunderstorm downbursts


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

June thru September (Summer / SW Monsoon) • CEILINGS • Mean cloud cover generally scattered all summer • Ceilings below 10,000 MSL are rare and occur 5% of the time between 1621L

• • • • •

PRECIP June thru September: 0.2” Extreme Total: 1.4” SVR WEATHER Although summer weather is relatively mild, Southwest Monsoon flow can bring multi-layered cloud cover and heavy rainfall in thunderstorms that can persist up to 2 weeks at a time. Thunderstorm drylines can also cause dust storms that can severely reduce visibility


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June thru September (Summer / SW Monsoon)

Temperature • Extreme Highs: 99103F • Extreme Lows: 3649F • Mean Highs: 80-92F • Mean Lows: 56-67F • August is the warmest month of the year

• Average Relative Humidity • Morning (0500):53% • Afternoon (1700): 26%


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June thru September (Summer / SW Monsoon) SHARED WEATHER EFFECTS

06L

LIGHT INFANTRY

08L 10L 12L

14L

16L

18L

20L

22L

24L 02L

04L

TEMP / HEAT STRESS / VIS (DUST) TEMP / VIS (DUST)

MECHANIZED INF SMOKE/CHEM

WIND > 10 KTS WIND > 7 KTS

PSYOP

TEMP / HEAT STRESS / VIS (DUST)

SOF ROTARY LIFT

VIS (DUST)

ROTARY ATTACK

VIS (DUST)

CAS

VIS (DUST

AI

VIS (DUST)

AIR DEFENSE

VIS (DUST)

UAV

VIS (DUST)

MANEUVER

VIS (DUST)

OPTIMAL

IMPAIRED

UNFAVORABLE

06L


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

October / November (Fall) • VISIBILITY • VIS below 7 miles averages only 1 day per month. VIS below 3 miles is very rare in October and occurs only 2-3 % of the time at all hours during November • VIS below 1 mile occurs in brief periods of localized dust storms and not at all otherwise

• WIND • Predominately N-NW at 5-7 knots. Calm and variable conditions occur often. • Peak gusts associated with thunderstorms and passing disturbances can reach 39-41knots


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

October / November (Fall) • CEILINGS • Mean cloud cover is scattered broken with skies occasionally becoming overcast 5% of the time. • Ceilings below 10,000 MSL occur 10-15% of the time between 1618L • Ceilings below 3,000 MSL are very rare and hardly occur

• • • • •

PRECIP October: 0.1” November: 1” Extreme October: 0.2” Extreme November: 1.3” • SVR WEATHER • Thunderstorm dry-lines can still cause dust storms that can rapidly reduce visibility


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October / November (Fall)

Temperature • Extreme Highs: 7586F • Extreme Lows: 529F • Mean Highs: 58-70F • Mean Lows: 35-45F

• Average Relative Humidity • Morning (0500):55% • Afternoon (1700): 27%


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

October / November (Fall) SHARED WEATHER EFFECTS 06L

08L 10L 12L

14L

16L

18L

20L

22L

24L 02L

04L

LIGHT INFANTRY MECHANIZED INF SMOKE/CHEM

WIND > 5 KTS BUT < 10 KTS / LIGHT RAIN WIND > 7 KTS / LIGHT RAIN

PSYOP

LIGHT RAIN

SOF ROTARY LIFT ROTARY ATTACK CAS

CIG

AI

CIG

AIR DEFENSE

CIG

UAV MANEUVER OPTIMAL

IMPAIRED

UNFAVORABLE

06L


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

Bagram Temperatures MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

AVG HI

AVG LO

PRECIP

SNOW

( F a hre nhe it )

( F a hre nhe i t )

( Inc he s )

( Inc he s )

45 49 60 72 84 97 99 97 89 76 60 49

27 31 41 50 57 64 65 61 53 44 36 29

1.4 1.9 2.7 2.8 1.4 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.4 0.8 0.9

4.2 4.5 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 3.2

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


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Kandahar Temperatures MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

AVG HI

AVG LO

PRECIP

SNOW

( F a hre nhe it )

( F a hre nhe i t )

( Inc he s )

( Inc he s )

56 61 73 82 93 102 105 101 93 83 71 60

32 38 46 54 60 67 73 68 56 48 38 33

2 1.5 1.6 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.8

0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

Wind of 120 Days DUSTSTORM SOURCE REGIONS Kara Kum Desert Eastern Persian Highlands Zagros Lut Desert Mountains

Amu Darya Valley Hindu Kush Mountains

• • •

Mid-May to October 15 knots - fine dust lifted Average height of dust/sand storms – 3,000 to 6,000 ft – Events over 8,000 ft observed

Margow Desert Thar Desert

Visibility: – 0 - 1 KM at storm – 1.5 - 5.5 KM on edge – 3.5 - 9 KM as dust settles

Areas of Observed Dust/Sand Storms


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Weather Effects • Temps vary greatly with elevation (40 degree temp changes) • Annual precip is < 3” in SW and > 50” in Hindu-Kush mountains • Severe cloud cover (DEC-APR) • Moderate blowing sand (MAY-OCT) • Visibility is generally good all year


UNCLASSIFIED

WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

Terrain

UNCLASSIFIED


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Afghanistan and Surrounding Countries (AI)


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING • Completely Landlocked • 3 Regions


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Northern Plain • 16% of country • Plateaus/ rolling hills • AVG 600 meters MSL

FOR OFFICIAL UNCLASSIFIED USE ONLY


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Central Highlands • 2/3 of the country • Mtns part of Himalayan Chain • Peaks reaching 7300 meters MSL in northeast FOR OFFICIAL UNCLASSIFIED USE ONLY


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Southwestern Plateau • SW sloping, arid plateau • 6000 meters dropping to 150 meters MSL

FOR OFFICIAL UNCLASSIFIED USE ONLY


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

China

Tajikistan

Uzbekistan Turkmenistan

Pamir Mts.

rridor o C n a Wakh

MazarMazar-e-Sharif K ab ul

Bagram Herat

Hindu Kush Mts. Kabul

Va lle y

Jalalabad Khybar Pass

Islamabad

Afghanistan Afghanistan Elevation

Kandahar

Legend Cities Country Border

ion s s e epr D tan s i S

Iran

Zahedan

Pakistan


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Elevation

Bagram (1490 meters)

Kabul (1815 meters)

Kandahar (1010 meters) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


Am u Da râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;y a

Turkmenistan

WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

China

Tajikistan

Uzbekistan Ri ve r MazarMazar-e-Sharif

r ive lR bu Ka

Bagram

River Hariroad

Iran Zahedan

r ve i dR n a lm i H

Islamabad

Kandahar

Pakistan

Afghanistan Hydrology Legend

Su tle jR ive r

rah er a v F i hR s a Kh

Afghanistan Ri ve r

er v i R

Kabul

In du s

Herat

Cities Rivers Country Border


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Hydrology AM U D

ARY A

BAGRAM

HERAT

KABUL

CH EN

IN D

KANDAHAR

AB

US

ISLAMABAD

LAHORE

EJ TL SU

Legend

SUKKUR

Major Rivers S DU IN

Streams/ Irrigation canals Open Water

KARACHI Build-up area

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

• Mainly streams • Water is scarce • Predominately running NE to SW


WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

MazarMazar-e-Sharif Bagram Jalalabad

Herat

Kabul Shindand

Kandahar

nn C-5 C-17

C-130


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Cross-Country Movement

FOR OFFICIAL UNCLASSIFIED USE ONLY


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Road Distances BADAKHSHAN

130 km

Shebergan

TKM TKM

110 km

BALKH

KONDUZ

JOWZJANMazar-e

Sharif

185 km

135 km

Meymaneh

225 km NGAN SAMA

SAR-E POL FARYAB BADGHIS

BAMIAN

280 km Chagcharan

255 km

Bamian

LAGHMAN KEPISA

Bagram

KABUL

110 km

105 km

Shindand

55 km

450 km

Miram Shah

Deh Rawod

FARAH

ZABOL

Farah

PAKTIKA 90 km

100 km

130 km

80 km

Lashkar Gah 250 km

Islamabad

Khowst

Gardez

GHAZNI

195 km

Peshawar

80 IAkm PAKT

ORUZGAN

Zaranj

Jalalabad

Kabul AR LOWG 90 km NANGARHAR

GHOWR

110 km

120 km

PARVAN

VARDAK T km HERA120

50 KONA km R

BAGHLAN

240 km

Herat

Taloqan Konduz TAKHAR

Wana

Qandahar 120 km

HELMAND

Zhob

100 km QANDAHAR

NIMRUZ

PAK PAK

Chaman 135 km

Quetta 0

120km

240km

360km

480km

600km

720km

840km

960km

UNCLASSIFIED


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Afghanistan • • • •

Capital City:Kabul Area:652,225 sq km / 251,825 sq mi Population:(2000 estimate) 26,668,251 Form of Government:Islamic state; transitional government • Official Language[s]:Pashto, Dari • Monetary unit:1 afghani (AF), consisting of 100 puls • Religion[s]:Islam 99% (Sunni Muslim 84%, Shiite Muslim 15%); Other 1%.


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Size Comparison of Afghanistan 647,500 Square KM (Slightly Smaller Than Texas)


UNCLASSIFIED

WINGS WINGS OF OF LIGHTNING LIGHTNING

Size Comparison • About the size of Texas • Divided into 3 Regions: – Northern Plains – Central Highlands – Southwestern Plateau

FOR OFFICIAL UNCLASSIFIED USE ONLY


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Afghanistan (AO)


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Population


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Ethnolinguistic Demography


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Poppy Cultivation


UNCLASSIFIED

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Questions?

UNCLASSIFIED


Afghanistan Terrain