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ARC134 MODERN ARCHITECTURES We can use the term “modern” to describe any of the architectures that emerge from modernization processes playing out in different ways at various times and places. There are thus many modern architectures. “Modernist” architecture is a subset of these modern architectures, and it too is multiple and polymorphous.


Modernization The process of social reorganization to rationalize production, governance, and habits of everyday life.

Modernity The social, political, and cultural condition brought into being by modernization.

Modernism Art and culture that embraces the distinctively new features of modernity—but often ambivalently.


“Haussmannization� of Paris, 1853-1870 Restructuring of the city through construction of boulevards, civic institutions, and commercial enterprises urban renewal / apartment buildings / department stores / boulevard culture Baron Georges Haussmann, Prefect of the Department of the Seine


Arcades, 1820s-1860s Rise of modern consumer culture

Parisian arcades: L: Galerie d’OrlÊans (1828-1830) R: Galerie Colbert


Conspicuous consumption


Paul SĂŠdille, Magasin du Printemps, Paris, 1881-83


Paul SĂŠdille, Magasin du Printemps, Paris, 1881-83


Henri Labrouste, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, 1842-50


Charles Garnier, Opera, Paris, 1861-75


Charles Garnier, Opera, Paris, 1861-75


1852-71 1870-71 1875-1940

Second Empire Franco-Prussian War Third Republic

1875

Opera inauguration

Right: Third Republic President MacMahon at inauguration presenting Garnier with the cross of the Legion of Honor


Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814-79) French Conservator of Monuments, advocate of structural rationalism and iron construction


Georges Cuvier (biologist) reconstruction of animal skeletons from partial fossil remains

Viollet-le-Duc: structural rationalist and organicist interpretation of Gothic architecture


Viollet-le-Duc: designs combining iron and masonry construction


Viollet-le-Duc, design for a market


Viollet-le-Duc, design for an apartment building (L) with medieval French half-timbered house (R)


Crystal Palace, London, 1851 structure by Joseph Paxton, ornament by Owen Jones Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations


Sir Charles Barry and A. W. N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament (Westminster), London, 1836-60


Richard Morris Hunt, Tribune Building, New York, 1874

George B. Post, Western Union Building, New York, 1873-75

9 stories, 260’ tall, iron cage construction

10 stories, 230’ tall


National industrial capitalism 1885-1935

Corporate city (metropolis)


Tall office building technologies: Metal frame / terracotta fireproofing / foundations / safety elevator


Burnham & Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 1890-95 curtain-wall construction


Burnham & Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 1890-95

curtain-wall construction


Burnham & Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 1890-95

curtain-wall construction


Burnham & Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 1890-95

Chicago window


Lower Manhattan, 1910s


World Columbian Exposition (Chicago World’s Fair), Chicago, 1893 Daniel Burnham: Chief of Construction F.L. Olmsted: Consulting Landscape Architect

Charles B. Atwood: Designer-in-Chief Augustus St. Gaudens : sculpture advisor


Senate Parks Commission (McMillan Commission), Replanning of the Mall, Washington DC, 1902 Burnham, McKim, Olmsted, and Augustus St. Gaudens City Beautiful Movement


Rio de Janeiro, late 19th century


Rio de Janeiro, hill leveling and coastal infill


Demolition of Morro do Castello to permit business district expansion


Meiji Restoration, 1867 ended the Tokugawa Shogunate / Edo period and restored imperial rule Tokuma Katayama, Nara National Museum, Nara, Japan, 1894 originally Nara Imperial Museum


Tokuma Katayama, Kyoto National Museum, Kyoto, Japan, 1889-95 originally Kyoto Imperial Museum French Renaissance revival, Beaux-Arts planning


High Court Madras, India 1888 Indo-Saracenic Style


National Art Gallery (originally Empress Victoria Memorial Hall) Madras, India 1906 Indo-Saracenic Style


Municipal Theater, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1905

Herbert Baker, Union Buildings, Pretoria, South Africa, 1910-13


Sir Edwin Lutyens New Delhi new capital of colonial India 1911


Sir Edwin Lutyens, Viceroy’s Palace, New Delhi, India, 1911 with dome, colonnade, etc. plus chajjas and chattris


Wright, Robie House, Chicago IL, 1908-09

Prairie House


Harvey Ellis, Arts and Crafts interior

(L, R) Robie House, interior


De Stijl movement Gerrit Rietveld, Schrรถder House, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1923-24


Gerrit Rietveld, Schrรถder House, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1923-24


Gerrit Rietveld, Schrรถder House, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1923-24


Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925-26


Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925-26

Clockwise from top of axon: Workshop wing Technical College wing Studio (apartment) wing Between workshop and T.C: administrative bridge Between studio and workshop: dining hall + auditorium

Functionalism


factory aesthetic


Giuseppe Terragni, Casa del Fascio, Como, Italy, 1932-36 Italian Rationalism


Guiseppe Terragni, Casa del Fascio, Como, Italy, 1932-36 Italian Rationalism


Guiseppe Terragni, Casa del Fascio, Como, Italy, 1932-36

with Palazzo Farnese for comparison


ancient Roman basilica


Rear façade, with garden façade of the Late“garden Renaissance Rear façade”Palazzo Farnese for comparison Use of local symmetries

Garden façade- Palazzo Farnese, Rome


Piazza dell’Impero in front of the Casa del Fascio


Ministry of Health and Education (MES), Rio de Janeiro: initial sketch by Le Corbusier (left) and revised design (right)


Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer, with Le Corbusier as a consultant, Ministry of Health and Education (MES), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1937-43 First large-scale use of the brise-soleil (on the north side, with exposed curtainwall on the south side)


Ministry of Health and Education (MES


MES roof gardens by Roberto Burle Marx


ARC134 MODERNIZATIONS Colonization & Agricultural Modernization: North America + West Africa + China European colonization sustained by transatlantic trade radically transformed life in the Americas and Africa. It also generated new architectural strategies, such as syncretic architectural hybrids, and types, including the hacienda, the plantation, and the slave fort.


Diagram of a prototypical atrio or convento: A open chapel B apse with altar C north portal D western entrance to church E choir loft F cloister G portería H friar’s cells K refectory L posas M walled patío or atrio N patío cross O entrance Arrows indicate counterclockwise processional route


Hacienda = an agricultural compound of one- or two-story buildings, typically including dwellings, farm buildings, and a chapel organized around one or more patios


Hacienda (CiĂŠnega de Mata)


The “Middle Passage� from Africa to the Americas 9-12 million people

Destinations of enslaved Africans, 1700-1810


Elmina Castle, Elmina, Ghana, built 1482 by the Portuguese rebuilt 1637- by the Dutch


male and female dungeons


Cape Coast Castle, Cape Coast, Ghana Established 1555 by Portugal, built up successively by Danes, Fetu, Dutch, and British (1664-1877)


Governor’s Quarters entrance to Governor’s storeroom

Auction hall


Kingsmill Plantation, Virginia, late 18th century: big house and big house grounds


Hayes Manor, Chowan County, North Carolina, early19th century: big house and grounds


Boone Hall, South Carolina: approach and brick quarters; Westend, Virginia: big house and quarters

Boone Hall, Berkeley Co, SC


Double quarter, double quarter early 19th century


Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, near Charlottesville VA, 1771-82 and 1796-1809


Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, near Charlottesville VA, 1771-82 and 1796-1809 http://www2.monticello.org/index.html


Mulberry Row, including the Nailery (at right)

Isaac Jefferson, nailmaker, 1845


Monticello slave quarter

Jefferson’s project for a double quarter


Jefferson’s cabinet orrery writing machine bookstand


weathervane, serving door, dumbwaiters


Reconstructed field quarter, Carter’s Grove Plantation, near Williamsburg VA


Shotgun house rural frame shotgun rural Louisiana shotgun plans


single and double shotguns, New Orleans LA


Haitian shotgun variant (maison basse) in Port-au-Prince


Taino (Arawak) bohio from a 1535 engraving


rural Haitian wattle-and-daub shotguns


Yoruba (West African) two-room house

Yoruba and Edo house compounds, Aroko, Nigeria


shotgun framing patterns, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Modern Architectures  
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