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STUDIOAIR J

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JONATHAN LONG (582898) TUTOR: CHEN

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INTRODUCTION

PROFILE & BACKGROUND

JONATHAN LONG I AM CURRENTLY DOING MY FIRST SEMESTER OF MY THIRD YEAR (2014) OF BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTS DEGREE, MAJORING IN ARCHITECTURE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE. I WAS BORN IN MALAYSIA, AND I GRADUATED FROM VCE AT SCOTCH COLLEGE MELBOURNE. MY PARENTS ARE IN THE BUILDING INDUSTRY AS WELL, BACK HOME IN MALAYSIA. DURING MY SUMMER BREAK IN 2012, I WORKED AT MY PARENTS’ COMPANY WHICH WAS BUILDING A SHOPPING MALL AT THAT TIME. WITH THIS GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY IN HAND, I HAD THE CHANCE TO EXPERIENCE PRACTICAL WORK, APART FROM JUST THE THEORIES AND KNOWLEDGE THAT I ACQUIRED DURING MY COURSE AT UNIVERSITY. I WAS GIVEN THIS CHANCE TO LEARN THE PRACTICAL WAYS OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, WHICH DIFFERS (TO A CERTAIN EXTENT) FROM ARCHITECTURAL IDEAS. WHEN I ENTERED UNIVERSITY, I WAS SO SURE THAT ARCHITECTURE WAS WHAT I REALLY WANTED TO DO, AND LOVE DOING. I STARTED LEARNING AUTODESK REVIT AND AUTOCAD WHEN I WAS IN MY FIRST YEAR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE. I GAINED MORE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE IN THESE TWO SOFTWARE AS I PROGRESS THROUGH MY DEGREE. I HAVE NO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE NOR EXPERIENCE IN RHINOCEROS 3D AND ITS PLUG-IN, GRASSHOPPER. MY JOURNEY OF KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING WITH RHINO 3D AND GRASSHOPPER SHALL BEGIN THIS SEMESTER, 2014. I WISH TO LEARN DIFFERENT WAYS OF DESIGNING AND I BELIEVE THAT IT WILL CHANGE THE WAY I DESIGN. “COMPUTATIONAL VERSUS COMPUTERISING”.


VISION

WITH REGARDS TO THE PROJECT BRIEF, WE NEED TO DESIGN SOMETHING THAT IS SUSTAINABLE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY. I WANT TO DESIGN A BUILDING OR AN INSTALLATION THAT IS FLEXIBLE, REGENERATIVE, USES RECYCLABLE MATERIALS, AND HAS AN EDUCATIONAL APPROACH. MY PROJECT SHOULD BE INTERACTIVE WHEREBY USERS ARE ABLE TO INTERACT WITH IT AND HAVE A RELATIONSHIP WITH MY PROJECT. IT SHOULD BE ABLE TO CREATE AWARENESS AND BECOME AND ATTRACTION FOR USERS SURROUNDING THE SITE. FURTHERMORE, THE MATERIALS USED SHOULD BE EASILY AVAILABLE, CHEAP, DURABLE, RECYCLED AND RECYCLABLE. THESE MATERIALS SHOULD NOT BE DEFUTURING, BUT IT SHOULD BE DESIGN-FUTURING. IT HAS TO HAVE MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, AND ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT. FINALLY, MY PROJECT SHOULD BE VISUALLY-APPEALING AND PLEASING, AS WELL AS BEING DURABLE TO BE USED IN A LONG PERIOD OF TIME.


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A1 | DESIGN FUTURING PRECEDENTS


Photographs by Adam Mørk

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A1.1 | DESIGN FUTURING GREEN LIGHTHOUSE ARCHITECT: CHRISTSEN & CO ARKITEKTER

Photographs by Adam Mørk

GREEN LIGHTHOUSE WAS DESIGNED BY ARCHITECTS CHRISTENSEN & CO ARKITEKTER. THIS BUILDING WAS DESIGNED FOR DANISH UNIVERSITY. THE GREEN LIGHTHOUSE IS DENMARK’S FIRST PUBLIC CARBON-NEUTRAL BUILDING (ARCHDAILY, 2013). THE GREEN LIGHTHOUSE IS LOCATED AT THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE WITHIN THE CAMPUS OF UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN. THIS BUILDING PROVES THAT FOR A BUILDING TO BE SUSTAINABLE, IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO FIT IN ALL SORTS OF EXPENSIVE, HIGH-TECH GADGETS. HOWEVER, 75% OF THE REDUCTION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IS THE DIRECT CONSEQUENCE OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (ARCHDAILY, 2013). A NUMBER OF SUSTAINABLE AND GREEN DESIGN FEATURES HAVE BEEN EMBEDDED IN THE DESIGN OF THE GREEN LIGHTHOUSE - IN ORDER TO REDUCE ENERGY USE AND PROVIDE A CONDUSIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR BOTH THE STUDENTS AND ACADEMIC STAFF (ARCHDAILY, 2013). THE BUILDING WAS ORIENTED TO MAXIMISE SOLAR RESOURCES, ON THE OTHER HAND, WINDOWS AND DOORS ARE RECESSED AND SHADED WITH AUTOMATIC SOLAR SHADES TO MINIMISE DIRECT SOLAR HEAT GAIN WITHIN THE BUILDING. VELUX SKYLIGHTS VELFAC WINDOWS AND GENEROUS

ATRIUM PROVIDES MEANS OF DAYLIGHT AND NATURAL VENTILATION (ARCHDAILY, 2013). PHOTO VOLTAIC CELLS, SOLAR HEATING AND LED LIGHTING ARE ALSO INTEGRATED INTO THE BUILDING DESIGN. I THINK THIS BUILDING REFLECTS THE THOUGHTS OF TONY FRY IN DESIGN FUTURING AS HE STATES THAT DESIGN FUTURING HAS TO CONFRONT TWO TASKS: (1) SLOWING THE RATE OF FUTURING AND (2) REDIRECTING US TOWARDS A MORE SUSTAINABLE MODE OF PLANETARY HABITATION (FRY, 2008). THIS BUILDING IS THE FIRST CARBON NEUTRAL BUILDING CO2 NEUTRAL PUBLIC BUILDING. IT SETS THE FIRST FOOT INTO PUBLIC SUSTAINABLE BUILDING THAT DEMONSTRATES TO THE PUBLIC THAT THE ENVIRONMENT IS BEAUTIFUL. AND THAT SUSTAINABILITY IS BEAUTIFUL. THE GREEN LIGHTHOUSE WAS DESIGNED WITH ONLY ENVIRONMENT IN MIND. IT RESPONDS TO THE ENVIRONMENT. THE GREEN BUILDING HAS A RELATIVELY SMALL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT, THAT RHYMES WITH TONY FRY’S DESIGN FUTURING. THIS BUILDING WAS SHOWCASED AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING AT THE UN’S CLIMATE CONFERENCE IN COPENHAGEN IN DECEMBER 2010.

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Photographs by Adam Mørk


A1.2 | DESIGN FUTURING ANN ARBOUR DISTRICT LIBRARY ARCHITECT: inFORM STUDIO

Photographs by James Haefner Photography

ANN ARBOUR DISTRICT LIBRARY WAS DESIGNED BY INFORM STUDIO IN 2008. THE DISTRICT LIBRARY IS LOCATED IN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. THE SITE IS APPROXIMATELY 4 ACRES OF PROPERTY, WHICH WAS PURCHASED BY THE ANN ARBOR DISTRICT LIBRARY (AADL) IN 2005. THE SITE IS HEAVILY WOODED AND DENSELY VEGETATED (ARCHDAILY, 2011). DURING A THOROUGH SITE ANALYSIS, THE ARCHITECTS IDENTIFY THE SOUTHWEST OF THE SITE - WHICH WERE SCARRED AND SPARSELY VEGETATED - AS IDEAL FOR THE PLACEMENT OF THE BUILDING FOOTPRINT, AS IT HAS MINIMAL SITE IMPACT (ARCHDAILY, 2011). THEREFORE, MAINTAINING THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF SITE PLANNING PROCESS, INFORM STUDIO CONSIDERED HARVESTING WOOD FROM THE SITE FOR RE-USE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDING (ARCHDAILY, 2011). DESPITE DENSELY POPULATED BY ASH (TREES) IN THE AREA, MANY OF THE TREES WERE SUFFERING FROM THE EFFECTS OF THE EMERALD ASH BORER (EAB). EAB IS A DESTRUCTIVE BEETLE THAT ATTACKS AGGRESSIVELY ON NORTH AMERICAN ASH TREES THROUGH FEEDING ON THE WATER AND NUTRIENT COLLECTED IN THE BARK, KILLING THE TREE OVER A PERIOD OF 2-5 YEARS. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THIS PARTICULAR TREE (ASH) IS WELL-SUITED TO MILLING, AS THE INSECT DOES NOT DAMAGE THE INTERIOR PORTION OF THE WOOD (ARCHDAILY, 2011). HENCE, WITH SO MUCH ABUNDANCE OF UNIQUE, NATURAL RESOURCES, INFORM STUDIO STRONGLY CONSIDERED TO USE ASH (TREES) IN THE FLOORS, WALLS, CEILING AND STRUCTURE OF THE NEW BRANCH LIBRARY.

Photographs by Adam Mørk

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THE UTILIZATION OF ASH BECOMES A MAJOR COMPONENT TO THE DESIGN OF THE LIBRARY INTERIOR. ASH IS USED FROM THE MAIN ENTRY FLOOR AND WALLS INTO A CEILING MATERIAL, THEN STRETCHING ALONG THE ENTIRE EASTERN INTERIOR EDGE OF THE BUILDING (ARCHDAILY, 2011). ASH IS BEING USED AS A INTERIOR WRAPPER, THAT WRAPS THE READING ROOMS WHICH ARE FACING THE FOREST (REFER TO IMAGES ABOVE). BESIDES, LARGE PIECES OF LOGS WERE USED AS STRUCTURAL COLUMNS, THAT RESISTS VERTICAL AND LATERAL LOADING. THE IDEA OF USING SITE MATERIALS COMPLEMENTS THE IDEA OF DESIGN FUTURING ON A DIFFERENT SCALE. TONY FRY (2008) STATES THAT DESIGN FUTURING SHOULD BE SLOWING THE RATE OF DEFUTURING - ACTIONS THAT REDUCES OUR TIME OF EXISTENCE AS NATURAL RESOURCES ARE BEING DEPLETED. BY USING ASH (TREES) THAT IS AVAILABLE ON SITE, INFORM STUDIO IS ACTUALLY “RECYCLING” THE WOOD. IN OTHER SITUATIONS OR SITES WHEREBY DEFORESTATION OCCURS, AND THE UNWANTED TREES ARE USUALLY TAKEN TO A DUMPING GROUND. IN WHICH THE SCENARIO OF AADL, ASH TREES ARE BEING USED AS A MAJOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND COMPONENT THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION. BY REUSING THE ASH (TREES), INFORM STUDIO HELPS TO REDUCE THE NEED TO PURCHASE NEW MATERIALS THAT MAY DEPLETE THE NATURAL RESOURCES IN ANOTHER WAY. HENCE, USING ASH (TREES) COMPLEMENTS THE IDEA OF TONY FRY’S DESIGN FUTURING AS THEY ARE (LITERALLY) SLOWING THE RATE OF DEFUTURING.

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A1.1 | DESIGN COMPUTATION COMPUTATION VS. COMPUTERISATION 2002 SERPENTINE GALLERY GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO


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A2.1 | DESIGN COMPUTATION VS. COMPUTERISATION INTRODUCTION TOWARDS THE END OF THE POSTFOLDING PERIOD, PARAMETRIC DESIGN BEGAN TO POPULARIZE AND BECAME THE PIONEER OF DIGITAL DESIGN (OXMAN & OXMAN, 2014). IT IS A NEW WAY OF DIGITAL DESIGN THINKING THAT FOCUSES ON INTERRELATED RELATIONSHIPS AND CONNECTIONS BETWEEN OBJECTS AS PART OF WHOLE RELATIONSHIPS. PARAMETRIC MODELLING ENFORCES A SET OF VIRTUAL RULES, ALSO KNOWN AS PARAMETERS THAT SETS A “BOUNDARY” FOR THE PROGRAM TO GENERATE A DESIGN (OXMAN & OXMAN, 2014). THE VALUES OF PARAMETERS WITHIN A SCHEME OF RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE ALTERED ACCORDINGLY, WHICH WILL THEN CHANGE THE DESIGN OF THE OBJECT OR BUILDING. THEREFORE, PARAMETRIC DESIGN RETHINKS THE IDEA OF DESIGN, BY DEVELOPING DESIGN LOGIC. THE WAY THESE ARE BEING SET OUT HELPS TO GIVE ARCHITECTS A REASON FOR THEIR DESIGN, INSTEAD OF THE CONVENTIONAL “TOP-DOWN” DATA DESIGN METHODOLOGY. PARAMETRIC DESIGN IS USED AS A FACILITY THAT CONTROLS A SET OF PARAMETERS (RULES), THAT ALLOWS THE CREATION OF DIFFERENT SHAPES AND ELEMENTS AT DIFFERENT SCALE WHICH INCLUDES BUILDING FACADES OR EVEN URBAN SCHEMES. PARAMETRICISM, AS DEFINED BY

PATRIK SCHUMACHER IS A DISTINGUISHING QUALITY OF CONTEMPORARY DIGITAL ARCHITECTURAL FORM (SCHUMACHER, 2009). WITH THE SURFACING OF NEW AND AVAILABLE SOFTWARE, PARAMETRIC DESIGNING BECAME THE PREFERRED DESIGN ENVIRONMENT FOR A NEW GENERATION OF PROGRAMMING (SCRIPTING), INDIRECTLY DESIGNING. 3-D MODELLING SOFTWARE SUCH AS RHINOCEROS (BASED ON NONUNIFORM RATIONAL BSPLINES) AND LATER PARAMETRIC MODELERS SUCH AS GRASSHOPPER ALLOWS ARCHITECTS (OR DESIGNERS) TO CREATE FORMS BASED ON A SET OF RULES OR PARAMETERS THAT ARE INPUTTED BY HUMAN BEINGS. LATER ON, SOFTWARE ENGINEERS BEGAN TO DEVELOP SIMULATION SOFTWARE FOR ENERGY AND STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS THAT CAN BE INTEGRATED INTO THESE PARAMETRIC 3-D MODELERS. ADVANCED GEOMETRIES UNIT (AGU) ENCOURAGED YOUNGER GENERATION OF ARCHITECTS TO MAKE USE OF (AND RELY UPON) THE SCRIPTING OF ALGORITHMS AS A BASIS AND PLATFORM FOR RESEARCH WHICH ALLOWS THEM TO EXPLORE DIFFERENT VIEWS OF ARCHITECTURE. ONE OF THE ICONIC ALGORITHMIC DESIGNS WAS THE 2002 SERPENTINE PAVILION BY

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TOYO ITO AND BALMOND, WHICH WILL BE DISCUSSED FURTHER IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES (OXMAN & OXMAN, 2014). SCRIPTING IS THE AGE OF “EMERGENCE OF RESEARCH BY DESIGN” (OXMAN & OXMAN, 2014). IN CONCLUSION, COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OVER ARCHES THREE LARGE TOPICS NAMELY: (1) FORM AND GENERATION, (2) PERFORMATIVE DESIGN AND (3) PARAMETRICS. COMPUTERISATION - ON THE OTHER HAND - IS A METHOD OF DESIGNING THAT USES COMPUTERS (OR TECHNOLOGY) AS A TOOL TO MATERIALIZE AND VISUALIZE AN ARCHITECT’S IMAGINATION. ARCHITECTS USE DRAFTING SOFTWARE - LIKE AUTOCAD AND ARCHICAD TO DIGITIZE THEIR IDEAS AND DESIGN FROM HAND DRAWN SKETCHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS. THE USE OF COMPUTERS IN THIS CONTEXT DOES NOT REFLECT THE TRUE POWER OF COMPUTERS AND TECHNOLOGY. ARCHITECTS WHO TAKES ON THE COMPUTERISATION APPROACH TO DESIGN ALREADY HAS AN IDEA OF HOW HE OR SHE INTENDS THE BUILDING TO LOOK LIKE. THE FORM AND SHAPE HAS BEEN SET. HOWEVER, COMPUTERS ARE USED AS A MEDIUM OF TRANSLATION TO CONVERT THEIR IDEAS INTO REALITY.


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A2.2 | DESIGN COMPUTATION 2002 SERPENTINE GALLERY ARCHITECT: TOYO ITO

Photographs by Sylvain Deleu

Figure from Balmond, C. A+U Special Issue: Cecil Balmond. Tokyo: A and U. 2006

TOYO ITO ALONG WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF BALMOND AND ARUP TOOK CHARGE OF THE DESIGN OF THE SERPENTINE GALLERY PAVILION, AT KENSINGTON PARKS, LONDON. THE COMPETITION TOOK PLACE IN 2002. THE FORM OF THE PAVILION WAS A COMPLEX RANDOM PATTERN DERIVED FROM AN ALGORITHM OF CUBE THAT “EXPANDED” (PHYSICALLY) AS IT ROTATED (JORDANA, 2013). THE LINES THAT INTERSECTED EACH OTHER CREATED TRIANGLES AND TRAPEZOIDS, WHEREBY THE TRANSPARENCY AND TRANSLUCENCY GAVE A SENSE OF INFINITE REPEATED MOTION (JORDANA, 2013).

OVER THE FACES (PLANES) OF THE BOX AND COME BACK ON THE OTHER SIDE. THESE LINES ARE HEADING NOWHERE WHILST GOING EVERYWHERE. CECIL BALMOND DISCOVERED A SIMPLE ALGORITHM TO DERIVE A SEEMINGLY “BUSY” AND CHAOTIC PATTERN OF LINES. THE IDEA WAS AS FOLLOWS: “PROPOSE AN ALGORITHM: HALF TO A THIRD OF ADJACENT SIDES OF THE SQUARE. THE 1/2 TO 1/3 RULE TRACES FOUR LINES IN THE ORIGINAL SQUARE THAT DO NOT MEET (DEULING, 2011). THE HALF TO A THIRD RULE FORCES ONE TO GO OUT OF THE ORIGINAL SQUARE TO CREATE A NEW SQUARE SO THAT THE RULE, THE ALGORITHM, MAY CONTINUE. THIS IS REPEATED UNTIL A PRIMARY STRUCTURE IS OBTAINED. THEN IF THESE LINES ARE ALL EXTENDED, AN OVERLAPPING PATTERN WILL EMERGE.

THE PATTERN THAT ITO USES FOR HIS PAVILION WAS ASSISTED BY ARUP. THE ARUP TEAM CONFIGURES A GEOMETRIC ALGORITHM, WHEREBY THE BASE OF THE ALGORITHM IS FORMED BY A RECTANGULAR OR SQUARED PLANE; BY DRAWING LINES. THE ANGLE IS DEFINED BY DRAWING A LINE A SPECIFIC RATIO FROM DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE PLANE (DEULING, 2011). FOR EXAMPLE, FROM THE MIDDLE OF ONE SIDE TO THE MIDDLE OF THE OTHER SIDE. BY DOING THIS REPEATEDLY, EACH SQUARE WILL BE EMBEDDED IN THE PREVIOUS ONE. AFTER DOING THIS A CERTAIN NUMBER OF TIMES, A PATTERN WILL APPEAR. BY CHANGING THE RATIO BETWEEN THE SIDES, THIS WILL PRODUCE DIFFERENT PATTERN OUTCOMES.

THIS APPROACH THAT WAS ENTIRELY BASED ON ALGORITHMS OFFERS MORE EXPLORATION AND FREEDOM. HOWEVER, IT IS A TOOL FOR THOUGHTS THAT HELPS YOU TO REALIZE THE RANDOMNESS AND UNIMAGINABLE. FURTHERMORE, IT CREATES UNPREDICTABLE COMPLEXITY, AND HYBRID SITUATIONS WHEREBY IT IS REALISTIC, CALCULABLE AND MANAGEABLE WHILST HAVING A REASON FOR DOING SO. THE USE OF ALGORITHM AND THE SUBDIVISION TOOL IS ABLE TO CREATE THOUSANDS OF ITERATIONS OR VERSION OVER A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. IF THIS TASK WAS TO BE DONE TRADITIONALLY (OR CONVENTIONALLY, IT IS POSSIBLE HOWEVER, IT WILL BE EXTREMELY TIME CONSUMING TO GENERATE SUCH A PATTERN WITHOUT THE USE OF ALGORITHMS.

BY EXTENDING THE LINES IN AN OVERLAPPING FASHION, THE NETWORK OF CROSSING LINES WILL BE FORMED. HENCE, BY STRETCHING THESE LINES OVER THE BOX, A NETWORK OF LINES WILL WRAP AROUND THE BOX. THESE LINES WILL CONTINUE RUNNING 15


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Photographs by Gehry Partners

A2.3 | DESIGN COMPUTATION GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO ARCHITECT: FRANK GEHRY THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM IS A TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF A BUILDING DESIGNED AND CONSTRUCTED WITH THE COMPUTERISED DESIGN APPROACH. FRANK GEHRY’S IDEAS ARE USUALLY STIMULATED BY PAPERS, IN WHICH HE MODELS AND THEN ITERATE OVER AND OVER AGAIN (PAGNOTTA, 2013). THESE PAPER MODELS ARE THE SOURCE OF INSPIRATION FOR FRANK GEHRY (JONES, 2013). GEHRY’S WORKS ARE MOST COMMONLY KNOWN TO BE NOTORIOUS AND INFAMOUS, BREAKING THE TRADITIONAL NORMS OF ARCHITECTURE. HIS WORKS ARE REGARDED AS DECONSTRUCTIVE. DESPITE NOT BEING LIKED BY SOME, I MUST ADMIT THAT GEHRY’S WORK IS INDEED SPECTACULAR AND UNIQUE. IT STANDS OUT FROM THE URBAN FABRIC IN BILBAO, SPAIN. BASED ON MY VISUAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THE AERIAL VIEW OF THE MUSEUM, THIS BUILDING IS COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE AROUND IT. IT IS MADE OF TITANIUM, LIMESTONE AND GLASS WHICH MAKES IT UNIQUE DURING THE ERA IT WAS CONSTRUCTED (PAGNOTTA, 2013). THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM IS A GOOD EXAMPLE TO DEMONSTRATE THE COMPUTERISATION DESIGN APPROACH BECAUSE IT EMPLOYS A TOP-DOWN APPROACH WHEREBY THE ARCHITECT HAS A DESIGN INTENT GENERATED FROM HIS OWN CREATIVITY. HERE, GEHRY ALREADY HAS HIS OWN SET OF INTERESTS IN PAPER-BASED ARCHITECTURE. HENCE, HIS BUILDINGS ARE BASED ON CRUMPLED PAPERS AND SO ON. WITH THIS IN MIND, THE FORM OF THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM WAS THEN TRANSLATED INTO DIGITAL DRAWINGS BY ASSOCIATE ARCHITECTS. THESE DIGITAL DRAWINGS ARE THEN ITERATED AND ANALYZED CAREFULLY PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION. THE REASON BEING A TOP-DOWN APPROACH IS BECAUSE THE IDEA COMES FROM THE ARCHITECT AND THE FORM IS CREATED BY THE ARCHITECT. THIS METHOD OF DESIGNING IS JUXTAPOSED BY THE COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN METHOD THAT HAS BEEN DISCUSSED IN THE PREVIOUS PAGE AND AN EXAMPLE IS BEING COMPARED IN THE FOLLOWING PAGE. 17


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A3 | GENERATIVE DESIGN OVERVIEW OF GENERATIVE DESIGN ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION BLOOM!


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A3.1 | COMPOSITION TO GENERATION INTRODUCTION COMPUTATION IS REDEFINING THE PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE (PETERS, 2013). MOST ARCHITECTS HAVE BEEN USING COMPUTERS TO CARRY OUT THEIR ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES. HOWEVER, THE TASKS THAT THEY HAVE BEEN DOING IS SIMPLY TO DIGITIZE THEIR WORK (INTO A DIGITAL FORMAT). FOR EXAMPLE, ARCHITECTS USE DRAFTING SOFTWARE LIKE AUTOCAD THAT HELPS TO CREATE DIGITAL DRAWINGS FROM THEIR HAND SKETCHES. THE USE OF COMPUTERS HELP TO INCREASE ACCURACY AND ACTS AS A VIRTUAL DRAFTING BOARD. HOWEVER, THIS MODE OF WORKING IS KNOWN AS “COMPUTERISATION”. PETERS (2013) STATES THAT COMPUTATION ALLOWS DESIGNERS TO “EXTEND THEIR ABILITIES TO DEAL WITH HIGHLY COMPLEX SITUATIONS”. ON THE OTHER HAND, SEAN AHLQUIST AND ACHIM MENGES DEFINES COMPUTATION AS “THE PROCESSING OF INFORMATION AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ELEMENTS WHICH CONSTITUTE A SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT; IT PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK FOR NEGOTIATING AND INFLUENCING THE INTERRELATION OF DATA SETS OF INFORMATION, WITH THE CAPACITY TO GENERATE COMPLEX ORDER, FORM AND STRUCTURE” (AHLQUIST & MENGES, 2011). PETERS (2013)

DEFINES COMPUTATION AS THE USE OF COMPUTER TO PROCESS INFORMATION THROUGH AND UNDERSTOOD FORMAT – BY THE COMPUTER – WHICH IS EXPRESSED BY AN ALGORITHM, WHICH AUGMENTS THE INTELLECT OF THE DESIGNER AND INCREASES CAPABILITY TO SOLVE COMPLEX PROBLEMS (PETERS, 2013). COMPUTATION HAS THE POTENTIAL TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND OUTDOES THE INTELLIGENCE OF A DESIGNER, BY GENERATING THE UNTHINKABLE AND UNIMAGINABLE. COMPUTATION CREATES UNEXPECTED RESULTS. AN ARCHITECT WRITES A PROGRAM THAT CAN BE FURTHER EXPLORED VIA MODIFICATIONS TO THE ALGORITHM. AN ALGORITHM, AS DEFINED BY PETERS (2013) IS A SET OF INSTRUCTIONS THAT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY THE COMPUTER, AND MUST BE WRITTEN IN A LANGUAGE THE COMPUTER CAN UNDERSTAND – KNOWN AS A “CODE”. ALGORITHMIC THINKING MEANS TAKING ON AN INTERPRETATIVE ROLE TO UNDERSTAND THE OUTCOMES OF THE GENERATING CODE, KNOWING HOW TO TWEAK AND MODIFY THE EXISTING CODE TO EXPLORE NEW OPTIONS AND REITERATE THE MODEL TO FURTHER EXPLORE

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OTHER DESIGN POTENTIALS (PETERS, 2013). BESIDES, SCRIPTING LANGUAGES SUCH AS RHINOSCRIPT OR VISUAL BASIC HELP ARCHITECTS TO CUSTOMISE THEIR DESIGN ENVIRONMENTS IN THEIR EXISTING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SOFTWARE. ARCHITECTS ARE USING COMPUTATION TO SIMULATE BUILDING PERFORMANCE, TO UNDERSTAND MATERIALS, TECTONICS AND PARAMETERS OF PRODUCTION MACHINERY IN THEIR DESIGN. THIS NEW TOOL – COMPUTATION – PROVIDES PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK AT VARIOUS STAGES OF AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT. WITH THIS INFORMATION, ARCHITECTS CAN IMPROVISE ON THEIR DESIGN AND EXPLORE NEW DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES (PETERS, 2013). WITH THE USE OF COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION, DESIGNERS CAN NOW EXPLORE MORE RESPONSIVE DESIGNS. FURTHERMORE, WITH THE INCREASING USE OF COMPUTATION AND SIMULATION, THE COMPUTER ALLOWS ARCHITECTS TO PREDICT, MODEL AND SIMULATE DESIGNS USING MORE SOPHISTICATED AND ACCURATE METHODS.


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A3.2 | GENERATIVE DESIGN ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION ARCHITECT: ICD/ITKE/STUTTGART UNIVERSITY

Photographs by ICD-ITKE

THIS PAVILION WAS A JOINTCOLLABORATION RESEARCH BETWEEN THE INSTITUTE OF COMPUTATION DESIGN (ICD) AND THE INSTITUTE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN (ITKE) THAT WAS CONDUCTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART. THIS PAVILION WAS ENTIRELY ROBOTICALLY FABRICATED FROM CARBON AND GLASS FIBRE COMPOSITES. THIS RESEARCH AIMS TO INVESTIGATION THE POSSIBLE INTERRELATION BETWEEN BIOMIMETIC DESIGN STRATEGIES AND NOVEL PROCESSES OF ROBOTIC PRODUCTION. MATERIAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF ARTHROPODS’ EXOSKELETONS WERE THE MAIN FOCUS OF THIS RESEARCH AND AIMS TO GENERATE A NEW COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION PARADIGM IN ARCHITECTURE. THE FOCUS IS ON BIOMIMETIC DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR PER FORMATIVE MORPHOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE. WITH THE USE OF FORM GENERATION METHODS, COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS AND ROBOTIC MANUFACTURING, THE PAVILION ONLY REQUIRES A SHELL THICKNESS OF 4MM OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE, SPANNING EIGHT METRES. THIS RESEARCH PROJECT EMPLOYED A

BOTTOM-UP APPROACH, WHEREBY A WIDE RANGE OF INVERTEBRATES WERE INVESTIGATED WITH REGARDS TO THE MATERIAL ANISOTROPY AND FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF ANTORPODS. THE BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THESE INVERTEBRATES WERE TRANSFERRED INTO VIABLE DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATIONS. A LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) WAS USED AS THE BIOLOGICAL ROLE MODEL OF THE PROJECT (ARCHDAILY, 2013). WITH THE INTEGRATION OF BIOMIMETIC PRINCIPLES OF A LOBSTER’S CUTICLE AND COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PROCESS, ENABLES A HIGH LEVEL OF STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE FOR ARCHITECTURE. DESPITE BEING WIDE AND BIG, THE TRANSPARENT SKIN OF THE PAVILION WEIGHS LESS THAN 320KG. COMPUTATIONAL AND MATERIAL DESIGN, DIGITAL SIMULATION AND ROBOTIC FABRICATION ALLOWS ARCHITECTS TO EXPLORE THE ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBILITIES THAT HAVE NOT YET BEEN EXPLORED AND PROVEN. THE USE OF COMPUTATION DESIGN HELPS TO PROVE THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXTREMELY LIGHTWEIGHT AND MATERIALLY EFFICIENT STRUCTURES.

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THE RESEARCH PAVILION WAS FABRICATED BY A ROBOT THAT WAS PERFORMED ON SITE. IT WAS CONSTRUCTED IN A WEATHERPROOF ENVIRONMENT BY A 6-AXIS ROBOT THAT WAS PLACED ON A 2M HIGH PEDESTAL REACHING A HEIGHT OF 4M (ARCHDAILY, 2013). DURING THE FABRICATION PROCESS, FIBRES WERE SATURATED WITH RESIN WHILE RUNNING THROUGH A RESIN BATH DIRECTLY PRIOR TO THE ROBOTIC PLACEMENT. THIS CUSTOMIZED SET UP ALLOWED THEM TO CREATE A STRUCTURE OF APPROXIMATELY 8M IN DIAMETER AND 3.5M HEIGHT. THIS IS DONE BY CONTINUOUSLY WINDING MORE THAN 60KM OF FIBRE ROVING. THIS PRECEDENT IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN MADE POSSIBLE BY ROBOTIC FABRICATION. IT IS COMPLETELY IMPOSSIBLE FOR HUMAN BEINGS TO FABRICATE SUCH A DELICATE STRUCTURE OF ONLY 4MM THICKNESS. THE USE OF COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN APPROACH AND ROBOTIC FABRICATION MADE THIS POSSIBLE.


Photographs by Brandon Shigeta

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A3.3 | GENERATIVE DESIGN BLOOM ARCHITECT: DO/SU STUDIO ARCHITECTURE THIS PROJECT WAS DESIGNED AS A SUN TRACKING INSTRUMENT THAT INDEXES TIME AND TEMPERATURE (FURUTO, 2012). BLOOM OVER ARCHES MATERIAL EXPERIMENTATION, STRUCTURAL INNOVATION AND COMPUTATIONAL FORM AND PATTERN MAKING IT INTO AN ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIVE FORM (FURUTO, 2012). THIS PROJECT WAS SPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR PEAK PERFORMANCE DURING THE SPRING EQUINOX. THE STRUCTURE OF BLOOM WAS BASICALLY MADE OF A SMART THERMO BIMETAL, A SHEET METAL THAT CURLS WHEN HEATED. THE RESPONSIVE SURFACE OF THIS PROJECT SHADES AND VENTILATES SPECIFIC AREAS OF THE SHELL AS THE SUN HEATS UP ITS SURFACE WHICH EVENTUALLY CURVES. THE CONSTRUCTION AND FABRICATION OF BLOOM WAS ASSISTED BY COMPLEX DIGITAL SOFTWARE, AND IS MADE UP OF APPROXIMATELY 14,000 LASER CUT PIECES (FURUTO, 2012). AMONG THESE 14,000 LASER CUT PIECES, NO TWO PIECES ARE ALIKE (DO|SU STUDIO ARCHITECTURE, 2012). EACH OF THESE PIECES WILL AUTOMATICALLY CURL (TO A SPECIFIED AMOUNT) WHEN THE OUTDOOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RISES ABOVE 70째F OR WHEN THE SUN PENETRATES

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THE SURFACE (DO SU STUDIO ARCHITECTURE, 2012). BLOOM WAS DESIGNED TO BE A SHED THAT IS RESPONSIVE TO THE ENVIRONMENT. THE FINAL FORM OF THE PROJECT IS LIGHTWEIGHT AND FLEXIBLE. IT IS DEPENDENT ON THE OVERALL GEOMETRY AND COMBINATION OF MATERIALS TO PROVIDE STABILITY. AT CERTAIN AREAS OF BLOOM, THE HYPER PANELS ARE MADE STRONGER AND STIFFER BY INCREASING THE NUMBER OF CONNECTIONS (RIVETS), WHILE OTHERS ARE MADE DEEPER. THIS PROJECT IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A DESIGN THAT WAS RESPONSIVE TO THE ENVIRONMENT. AS MENTIONED PREVIOUSLY, THE PROJECT WAS DESIGNED AS A SUN TRACKING INSTRUMENT THAT DETECTS TIME AND TEMPERATURE. THE SMART THERMO BIMETAL MATERIAL CURLS WHEN HEATED. WHEN THESE METAL CURLS, IT CURLS INTO A SHED WHICH ULTIMATELY BECOMES A MANMADE SHED. THIS PROJECT IS ALSO FABRICATED BY 14,000 LASER CUT PIECES WHERE NO TWO PIECES ARE THE SAME.


four CONCLUSION

SINCE MY FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH STUDIO AIR AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SEMESTER, I HAVE LEARNT AND EXPLORED AN EXTREMELY DIFFERENT WAY OF DESIGNING. THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF PART A, I HAVE EXPLORED DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN. BY EXPLORING THE THREE MAIN TOPICS OF PART A JOURNAL: (1) DESIGN FUTURING, (2) COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN AND (3) COMPOSITION TO GENERATION, I REALIZED THE ADVANTAGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN HELPS TO CREATE DESIGNS THAT HAVE REASONS; IT GIVES A BUILDING (OR A DESIGN) A REASON FOR EXISTENCE. IT EXPLAINS WHY A BUILDING SHOULD EXIST. APART FROM ITS FUNCTIONAL APPROACH, COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PROVIDES A BUILDING MORE THAN ENOUGH REASONS WHY IT SHOULD EXIST. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN HAS CHANGED THE WAY I THINK ABOUT ARCHITECTURE. A BUILDING SHOULD NOT ONLY BE AESTHETICALLY PLEASING, BUT IT HAS TO HAVE FUNCTIONAL VALUES AS WELL. IT NEEDS TO BE RESPONSIVE, EFFICIENT AND SUSTAINABLE IN ITS SURROUNDING CONTEXT. DESPITE BEING EXPOSED TO COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN FOR LESS THAN 3 WEEKS, I BEGIN TO UNDERSTAND WHY MODERN ARCHITECTS ARE MAKING A BIG HOO-HA OUT OF THIS.

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five LEARNING OUTCOME

AFTER ACQUIRING INTRODUCTORY KNOWLEDGE TO COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN, I BEGAN TO APPRECIATE DESIGNS PRODUCED BY PARAMETRIC TOOLS. IN ALL MY STUDIOS PRIOR TO STUDIO AIR, I HAVE BEEN MODELLING MY PROJECTS IN AUTODESK REVIT ALONE. BEING NOTORIOUSLY KNOWN FOR BEING RIGID, I AM UNABLE TO DESIGN BUILDINGS THAT SPEAK MY MIND. I AM UNABLE TO TRANSLATE MY IDEAS INTO REALITY, COMPLETELY WITH THE USE OF REVIT. THIS IS DUE TO THE SOFTWARE LIMITATIONS - BEING A BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF RHINO AND GRASSHOPPER, I AM NOW ABLE TO DESIGN BUILDINGS THAT SPEAK MY MIND. PREVIOUSLY, I ALWAYS THOUGHT OF SIMPLICITY AS BEING SIMPLE, CLEAN AND MINIMALIST. HOWEVER, WITH THE EXPLORATION INTO TOYO ITO’S WORK AND VARIOUS ARCHITECTS, IT PROVES ME WRONG THAT SIMPLICITY DOES NOT MEAN CLEAN AND MADE OF STRAIGHT LINES. TOYO ITO WHO IS ONE OF MY MANY FAVORITES, SHOWS THAT HIS DESIGNS EVOLVED FROM VERY SIMPLE GEOMETRY THAT IS BEING TRANSLATED BY COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS, THAT ULTIMATELY CREATES COMPLEX GENERATED FORMS. HENCE, I AM VERY EXCITED TO EXPOSE MYSELF TO DIFFERENT WAYS OF DESIGNING AND ALLOW COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN APPROACH TO HELP ME RETHINK THE IDEA OF ARCHITECTURE.

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REFERENCES Ahlquist, S., & Menges, A. (2011). Introduction. In Computation Design Thinking. Chicester: John Wiley & Sons. ArchDaily. (2011, May 2011). Ann Arbor District Library / InFORM Studio. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.archdaily.com/?p=137331 ArchDaily. (2013, September 3). Green Lighthouse / Christensen & Co Architects. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.archdaily.com/?p=422431 ArchDaily. (2013, March 6). ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion / University of Stuttgart, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2014, from http://www.archdaily.com/340374/ icditke-research-pavilion-univer sity-of-stuttgar t-faculty-of-architecture-and-urban-planning/ Deuling, T. (2011). Serpentine Pavilion Case Study. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www. collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/serpentine-pavilion-case-study DO SU Studio Architecture. (2012). Bloom. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.dosu-arch.com/bloom. html Fry, T. (2008). Design Futuring. In Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1-16 Furuto, A. (2012, March 11). Bloom / DO|SU Studio Architecture. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from ArchDaily: http://www.archdaily.com/215280/bloom-dosu-studio-architecture/ Jones, R. (2013). AD Classics: Walt Disney Concert Hall. Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www.archdaily. com/441358/ad-classics-walt-disney-concert-hall-frank-gehry/ Jordana, S. (2013). Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2002. Retrieved March 18, 2014, from http://www.archdaily. com/344319/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-toyo-ito-cecil-balmond-arup/ Oxman, R., & Oxman, R. (2014). Theories of the Digital In Architecture. (London: Routledge) Pagnotta, B. (2013, September 1). AD Classics: The Guggenheim Museum. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.archdaily.com/422470/ad-classics-the-guggenheim-museum-bilbao-frank-gehry/ Peters, B. (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought AD. In Architectural Design, pp. 08-15. Schumacher, P. (2009). Parametric Patterns. In M. Gracia (Ed.), Patterns of Architecture, AD (Architectural Design), pp. 28-41.

PHOTOGRAPHS ADAM MORK | PHOTOGRAPHER | WWW.ADAMMORK.COM JAMES HAEFNER | PHOTOGRAPHY | WWW.HAEFNERPHOTO.COM SYLVAIN DELEU | PHOTOGRAPHER | WWW.SYLVAINDELEU.COM GEHRY PARTNERS | ARCHITECT | WWW.FOGA.COM BRANDON SHIGETA | DESIGNER | WWW.BRANDONSHIGETA.COM 30


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PART B

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one

B1 | RESEARCH FIELD MATERIAL PERFORMANCE: VOUSSOIR CLOUD

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MATERIAL SYSTEM: MATERIAL PERFORMANCE

MATERIAL PERFORMANCE WAS CHOSEN AS A MATERIAL SYSTEM FOR OUR INVESTIGATION AS WE WERE INTERESTED TO KNOW HOW TO USE MATERIALS EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY. WE WANTED TO INVESTIGATE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATERIALS THAT WERE TYPICALLY (OR NOT SO TYPICALLY) USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. WE WERE INTERESTED TO FIND OUT THE “BEST” MATERIAL THAT IS MOST SUITABLE AND MOST SUSTAINABLE, THAT IS ABLE TO SERVE BOTH AESTHETICS AND FUNCTIONAL VALUES. A GOOD MATERIAL IS NOT ONE THAT IS JUST AESTHETICALLY PLEASING. HOWEVER, IN ORDER FOR A MATERIAL TO BE KNOWN AS “HIGH PERFORMANCE”, IT SHOULD BE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY, SUSTAINABLE, RECYCLABLE, REUSABLE, DOES NOT POLLUTE THE

ENVIRONMENT, EASILY AVAILABLE, VISUALLY APPEALING AND LASTLY, HAS GOOD FUNCTIONAL VALUES. FOR EXAMPLE, GOOD MATERIALS FOR MASONRY BUILDINGS ARE CONCRETE AND REINFORCING STEEL BARS. THEY BOTH HAVE THEIR OWN PRINCIPLES AND PROPERTIES THAT ARE SUITABLE FOR ITS FUNCTIONS. FOR INSTANCE, CONCRETE PERFORMS WELL IN COMPRESSION WHEREAS REINFORCING STEEL BARS PERFORMS WELL IN TENSION. THEREFORE, THEY HAVE ITS FUNCTIONAL VALUES, RESPECTIVELY. EXAMPLES OF BUILT PROJECTS THAT REVOLVE AROUND THE STUDY OF MATERIAL PERFORMANCE ARE SUCH AS: (1) ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010, (2) VOUSSOIR CLOUD AND (3) TEXTILE HYBRID M1.

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PHOTOGRAPH FROM IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE

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VOUSSOIR CLOUD IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE THE VOUSSOIR CLOUD WAS AN INVITED, SITE SPECIFIC INSTALLATION THAT WAS DESIGNED BY IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE FOR THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE GALLERY IN LOS ANGELES (IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008). THE MAIN CONCEPT OF THIS INSTALLATION WAS TO TEST THE STRUCTURAL PARADIGM OF PURE COMPRESSION THAT WAS COUPLED WITH AN ULTRA-LIGHT MATERIAL SYSTEM (IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008). THIS INTERESTING DESIGN FILLS THE GALLERY WITH A SYSTEM OF “VAULTS” THAT COULD BE EXPERIENCED BOTH UNDER AND ABOVE THE INSTALLATION. THE BOUNDARY OF THE VAULTS WERE DEFINED BY TWO LONG GALLERY WALLS AND THE ENTRY SOFFIT. OVERALL, THESE VAULTS ARE GENERALLY LESS DENSE AT THE MIDDLE SECTIONS AND GETS TO A HIGHER DENSITY AT THE EDGES. STRUCTURALLY, THE VAULTS RELY ON EACH OTHER WITH COMPRESSIVE FORCES THAT ACTS ON EACH OTHER; WHICH ULTIMATELY PROVIDES SUPPORT (IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008). THE OVERALL DESIGN IDEA COMES FROM WORKS OF FREI OTTO AND ANOTONIO GAUDI WHO MADE USE OF HANGING CHAIN MODELS TO FIND EFFICIENT FORM. IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE MADE USE OF COMPUTATIONAL HANGING CHAIN MODELS TO REFINE AND ADJUST THE PROFILE LINES, AND UUSE FORM FINDING PROGRAMS TO DETERMINE THE PURELY COMPRESSIVE VAULT SHAPES. EACH VAULT IS COMPRISED OF A DELAUNAY TESSELLATION THAT BOTH CAPITALIZES ON STRUCTURAL LOGICS – GREATER CELL DENSITY OF SMALLER MORE CONNECTED MODULES JOINED AT THE COLUMN BASES AND AT THE VAULT EDGES TO FORM STRENGTHENED RIBS (IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008). WHEREAS – ON THE OTHER HAND – THE UPPER VAULT SHELL LOOSENS AND GAINS POROSITY AS MENTIONED ABOVE. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL PETALS THAT COVERS THE VAULTS ARE MADE OF THIN WOOD LAMINATE ALONG CURVED SEAMS. THE CURVE PRODUCES A DISHED FORM THAT RELIES ON THE INTERNAL TENSILE FORCES OF THE WOOD AND FOLDED GEOMETRY OF ITS FLANGES TO HOLD IT IN SHAPE (IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008). 39


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two

B2 | CASE STUDY 1.0 MATRIX OF ITERATIONS SELECTION CRITERIA SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS SPECULATION OF DESIGN POTENTIAL

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B2: CASE STUDY 2.0

THIS SPECIES OF ITERATIONS IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE DIFFERENCE WHEN MORE POINTS ARE CREATED ALONG THE {U} DIRECTION. THIS IS TO EXPERIMENT THE POTENTIAL OF THE SCRIPT THAT IS BASED ON THE VOUSSOIR CLOUD BY IWAMOTOSCOT ARCHITECTURE.

SPECIES 1

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 1

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 5

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 2

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 6

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 4

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 7

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

42

PERSPECTIVE VIEW


NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 9

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 18

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 10

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 30

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 14

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {U} DIRECTION: 22

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW


B2: CASE STUDY 2.0

THIS SPECIES OF ITERATIONS IS TO EXPERIMENT THE OUTCOMES THAT ARE AFFECTED BY A POINT CHARGER. WHEN A POINT CHARGER IS PLACED NEAR THE MODEL, IT CREATES A REPELLING FORCE THAT ACTS ON THE MODEL HENCE, PUSHING IT AWAY FROM THE POINT CHARGER.

SPECIES 2

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

FRONT VIEW

FRONT VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW


DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

FRONT VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

DIFFERENT LOCATION OF POINT CHARGE

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW


B2: CASE STUDY 2.0

THIS SPECIES IS TO INVESTIGATE THE DIFFERENCE THAT IS DERIVED FROM THE AMPLITUDE THAT ACTS ON THE MODEL. THE LARGER THE AMPLITUDE, THE LARGER THE OPENINGS ON THE MODEL. THE DIFFERENCE CAN BE SEEN CLEARLY ON PLAN AND PERSPECTIVES BELOW.

SPECIES 3

VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT OPENINGS 5 AMPLITUDE:

PLAN VIEW

VALUE DIFFERENT OF SIZE OF AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 7

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

VALUE DIFFERENT OF SIZE OF AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 2

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

VALUE DIFFERENT OF SIZE OF AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 8

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

VALUE DIFFERENT OF SIZE OF AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 4

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

VALUE DIFFERENT OF SIZE OF AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 9

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

46

PERSPECTIVE VIEW


VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT AMPLITUDE: 12 OPENINGS

PLAN VIEW

VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 3

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 15

PLAN VIEW

DIFFERENT VALUE OF SIZE OF OPENINGS AMPLITUDE: 14

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 1

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

VALUE OF SIZE OF DIFFERENT AMPLITUDE: OPENINGS 17

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW


B2: CASE STUDY 2.0

THIS SPECIES OF ITERATIONS IS TO DEMONSTRATE THE DIFFERENCE WHEN MORE POINTS ARE CREATED ALONG THE {V} DIRECTION. THIS IS TO EXPERIMENT THE POTENTIAL OF THE SCRIPT THAT IS BASED ON THE VOUSSOIR CLOUD BY IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE.

SPECIES 4

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 1

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 5

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 2

DIFFERENT NUMBER OF SIZEPOINTS OF OPENINGS IN {V} DIRECTION: 6

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 3

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 8

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

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NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 10

NUMBER OFSIZE POINTS DIFFERENT OF IN {V} DIRECTION: 18 OPENINGS

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OFSIZE DIFFERENT POINTS OF IN OPENINGS {V} DIRECTION: 12

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 25

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 14

NUMBER OF POINTS IN {V} DIRECTION: 28

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

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DESIGN GUIDELINES: • CONSIST OF A THREE DIMENSIONAL SCULPTURAL FORM THAT HAS THE ABILITY TO STIMULATE AND CHALLENGE THE MIND OF VISITORS TO THE SITE. THE WORK SHOULD AIM TO SOLICIT CONTEMPLATION FROM VIEWERS ON SUCH BROAD IDEAS AS ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, HUMAN HABITATION AND DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND RESOURCE GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION, AND/OR OTHER CONCEPTS AT THE DISCRETION OF THE DESIGN TEAM; • CAPTURE ENERGY FROM NATURE, CONVERT IT INTO ELECTRICITY, AND HAVE THE ABILITY TO STORE, AND/OR TRANSFORM AND TRANSMIT THE ELECTRICAL POWER TO A GRID CONNECTION POINT TO BE DESIGNED BY OTHERS. CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE MADE FOR ARTFULLY HOUSING THE REQUIRED TRANSFORMER AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE PROJECT BOUNDARY AND RESTRICTING ACCESS TO THOSE AREAS FOR THE SAFETY OF VISITORS TO THE SITE • NOT CREATE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND NOT POLLUTE ITS SURROUNDINGS. THE WORK MUST NOT IMPACT THE NATURAL SURROUNDINGS NEGATIVELY. SOURCE: LAGI COMPETITION BRIEF (LAGI COMPETITION 2014, 2014)

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PHOTOGRAPH FROM LAGI 2014

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SELECTION CRITERIA • • •

ITERATION 1

ITERATION 1

• •

THE STRUCTURE SHOULD HAVE COMPRESSIVE FORCES ACTING ON THE MATERIAL HAS A FORM THAT REPRESENTS A SHADE HAS FORMS THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INTEGRATE SYSTEMS THAT COULD GENERATE RENEWABLE ENERGY HAS SPACES THAT COULD ALLOW USERS OF THE SITE TO INTERACT INTERESTING SHAPE AND FORM

THIS ITERATION IS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES FROM THE SPECIES (IN PREVIOUS PAGES) AS IT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO ACT AS A SHADING DEVICE. THE ABOVE ITERATION COULD POSSIBLY FUNCTION AS A PAVILION, AS IT ALLOWS USERS OF THE SITE TO REST AND INTERACT HERE.

THIS ITERATION IS COULD POTENTIALLY BE A STARTING POINT OF OUR DESIGN AS IT HAS A GAP BETWEEN THE TWO FORMS WHICH WILL CREATE AN INVITING EXPERIENCE AS YOU APPROACH A PAVILION. THE OPENNESS SERVE A PASSAGE WAY OR AREA FOR PEOPLE TO INTERACT AROUND THE SITE. IT COULD BE SOME FORM OF SEATING AREA OR PLAY GROUND THAT ALLOWS FAMILIES AND CHILDREN TO SPEND THEIR FREE TIME THERE WHILE ADMIRING THE PAVILION.

THIS ITERATION HAS STRUCTURES THAT ARE LIFTED ABOVE GROUND LEVEL. THESE ROOFLESS AREAS CREATES AN INSIDE OUTSIDE FEELING THAT EVOKES THE FEELING OF BEING EXPOSED YET, SHADED. THE WALLS THAT ARE SLIGHTED ANGLED TOWARDS THE SKY COULD POTENTIALLY BE EQUIPPED WITH SOLAR PANEL OR PHOTO VOLTAIC CELLS THAT COULD HELP TO HARVEST ENERGY FROM THE SUN AND CONVERT IT INTO ELECTRICITY. OTHERWISE, LIKE MENTIONED BEFORE, THE WAY THIS ITERATION OPENS UP AT THE TOP COULD POTENTIALLY BE A RAINWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM.

THE WAY THIS ITERATION OPENS UP AT THE TOP, CREATES A BASINLIKE STRUCTURE WHICH COULD POTENTIALLY SERVE AS A RAIN WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM. THIS RAIN WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM CAN BE INTEGRATED WITH MICRO-TURBINES THAT ARE INSTALLED BENEATH THE BASIN-LIKE STRUCTURE THAT ALLOWS WATER TO FLOW THROUGH IT TO GENERATE RENEWABLE ENERGY.

ITERATION 4

ITERATION 3

WITH THE STRUCTURE OF THE ABOVE PAVILION CURVING OUTWARDS, GRADUALLY SPREADING OUT, IT COULD POSSIBLY BE A FORM OF LAND ART THAT SPANS OVER FOOT PATHS OR PAVEMENT WHERE PEOPLE CAN SIT AND HANG AROUND.

THIS ITERATION SYMBOLIZES ARCHES TO A GATEWAY. THE ARCH THAT JOINS IN THE MIDDLE ADDRESSES PEOPLE TO THE SITE, WHICH AGAIN CREATES AN INVITING EXPERIENCE. THE WAY THIS STRUCTURE BEHAVES IN COMPRESSION MAY BE A STARTING POINT FOR OUR DESIGN AS IT REPRESENTS THE WAY BIRCH PLYWOOD WAS USED IN THE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010. MINIMAL STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS WILL BE NEEDED AS THE COMPRESSIVE FORCES ACTING ON THE MATERIAL MIGHT BE ABLE TO HOLD THE STRUCTURE IN SHAPE AND CREATE A SHELL-LIKE PAVILION. 52


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three

B3 | CASE STUDY 2.0 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010

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PHOTOGRAPHYS BY ROLAND HALBE

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ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010

THE ICD/ITKE RESAEARCH PAVILION WAS A TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF A STRUCTURE THAT REVOLVES AROUND THE IDEA OF MATERIAL PERFORMANCE. CONSTRUCTION OF THIS PAVILION IS REGARDED AS HOMOGENOUS DUE TO THE FACT THAT THERE WAS ONLY ONE TYPE OF MATERIAL BEING USED IN THE ENTIRE CONSTRUCTION OF THIS PAVILION (IAAC BLOG, 2012).

WAS A RESULT OF THE RADIAL ARRANGEMENT AND INTERCONNECTION OF SELF-EQUILIBRATING ARCH SYSTEM (STUTTGART UNIVERSITY, 2010). BECAUSE OF THE WAY THE COUPLED ARCH SYSTEMS WERE CONNECTED, THE STRUCTURE CURVES AND FOLDS LIKE A SHELL AND CONTINUOUS TENSION AND COMPRESSION HELPS TO INCREASE STIFFNESS.

THE STRUCTURE IS ENTIRELY BASED ON THE ELASTIC BENDING BEHAVIOR OF 6.5MM BIRCH PLYWOOD STRIPS. THESE STRIPS ARE ROBOTICALLY FABRICATED ON SITE BY A ROBOT. THE PLYWOOD STRIPS ARE INITIALLY MANUFACTURED AS PLANAR SURFACES BUT WAS THEN CONNECTED TO COUPLE ARCH SYSTEMS (STUTTGART UNIVERSITY, 2010). THE DIGITAL INFORMATION MODEL OF THIS PAVILION WAS BASED ON THE BENDING BEHAVIOR OF PLYWOOD (6.5MM THICK), THAT WAS COMPUTED BY APPROXIMATELY 6,500 LINES OF CODE (IAAC BLOG, 2012). THE FINAL OVERALL SHAPE OF THE PAVILION

THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT OF THIS PAVILION IS LOCATED ON THE OUTER AND INNER LINE OF THE TORUS SHAPE. THE START AND THE END OF EACH PLYWOOD STRIPS ARE CONNECTED TO WOODEN PIECES ON THE OUTER PERIMETER OF THE STRUCTURE. THE COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN MODEL WAS BASED ON EMBEDDING MATERIAL BEHAVIORAL FEATURES WITHIN PARAMETRIC PRINCIPLES. THIS HELPS TO STUDY THE BENDING, EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL.

PHOTOGRAPHYS BY ROLAND HALBE

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B3: REVERSE ENGINEERING ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010

1

3

THE BASIS OF THIS DIGITAL MODEL WAS BASED ON A CURVED LINE. WE TRIED OUR BEST TO FOLLOW THE CURVATURE OF THE LINE THAT WAS USED IN THE ACTUAL ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION BY UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART.

THE TWO LINES THAT ARE DEFORMED WILL THEN BE LOFTED TO CREATE A SURFACE THAT WILL FORM THE 6.5 MM PLYWOOD STRIPS OF ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010.

2

4

58

THE INITIAL LINE WAS THEN COPIED TWICE, AND A CURVE DEFORMATION WAS APPLIED TO THE INITIAL CURVE. THIS CREATES DIFFERENT DEPTH TO THE SURFACES WHICH THEN WILL HELP TO PRODUCE THE DIFFERENT CURVATURES THAT CAN BE SEEN ON THE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010.

THE SAME PROCEDURE DONE IN STEP 2 (DEFORMATION) IS APPLIED TO ANOTHER SET OF CURVES. THE NEW SET OF DEFORMED CURVES WILL THEN BE LOFTED AGAIN (AS IN STEP 2). NOW WE HAVE TWO SETS OF CURVED SURFACES OF DIFFERENT CURVATURE.


5

6

THE FIRST SET OF LOFTED CURVES ARE NOW ROTATED AROUND POINT WHICH FORMS A CIRCLE. THERE ARE 41 LOFTED CURVES THAT ARE BEING ROTATED AROUND THE CENTER OF THE CIRCLE. THIS CREATES THE FIRST LAYER OF SHELL WHICH IS 1 OUT OF 2 OF THE PLYWOOD SURFACES OF THE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010.

NOW THE SECOND SET OF LOFTED CURVES ARE NOW ROTATED AROUND POINT WHICH FORMS A CIRCLE - AT AN ALTERNATE POSITION AS COMPARED TO THE PREVIOUS SET OF LOFTED CURVES. THERE IS ANOTHER 41 LOFTED CURVES THAT ARE BEING ROTATED AROUND THE CENTER OF THE CIRCLE. THIS CREATES THE SECOND LAYER OF SHELL OF THE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2010.

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REVERSE-ENGINEERED OUTCOME OF THE ICD/ITKE PAVILION BIRCH WOOD WAS THEN APPLIED TO THE DIGITAL MODEL ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE. THEREAFTER, IT WAS RENDERED AND PHOTO MONTAGED INTO ITS ACTUAL SITE. THE PREVIOUS TWO PAGES DEMONSTRATES HOW THE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION COULD HAVE BEEN PRODUCED USING PARAMETRIC TOOLS. THIS IS THE FINAL OUTCOME.


INTERIOR RENDER OF THE REVERSE-ENGINEERED PAVILION

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AERIAL VIEW RENDER OF THE REVERSE-ENGINEERED PAVILION

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four

B4 | TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT MATRIX OF ITERATIONS SELECTION CRITERIA MOST SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

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B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

THIS SPECIES OF ITERATIONS REVOLVED AROUND THE NUMBER OF ROTATIONS, AMPLITUDE AND DIRECTION X-Y THAT ARE BEING MANIPULATED TO GENERATE DIFFERENT FORMS.

SPECIES 1

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW

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PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

PLAN VIEW

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

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B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

THIS SPECIES OF ITERATION PLAYS WITH THE NUMBER OF ROTATION OF THE CURVES. THESE CURVES ARE PARAMETRICALLY DEFORMED THAT HELPS TO CREATE A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT CURVATURES. THESE CURVES ARE THEN LOFTED TO CREATE A SURFACE.

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B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

THIS SPECIES PLAYS WITH THE SIZE OF THE CELLS WITHIN THE MODEL, THE DEPTH OF EXTRUSION (HEIGHT) AND ALSO THE CULL PATTERN.

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B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

THIS ITERATION IS INTERESTING BECAUSE IT RESEMBLES A PAVILION: IT HAS A SHELTER, WALLS AND POTENTIALLY, FLOOR. THE WAY THE ROOF IS BEING LAID OUT HAS A POTENTIAL FOR RAIN WATER COLLECTION THAT MAY BE ABLE TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM MICRO TURBINES. BESIDES, THE FORM OF THE ABOVE ITERATION SEEMS INTERESTING AND RESEMBLES NATURE AS IT HAS AN ORGANIC FORM.

THIS ITERATION IS ALSO INTERESTING BECAUSE IT RESEMBLES A ROOF LIKE STRUCTURE THAT SEEMS TO ALLOW PEOPLE TO WALK OVER IT, AND INTERACT WITH THE PROJECT. IT MIGHT BE ABLE TO ALLOW PEOPLE TO WALK ON IT AND GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM COMPRESSIBLE FLOOR PLATES THAT CONVERTS KINETIC ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY.

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THIS ITERATION SEEMS INTERESTING BECAUSE IT REPRESENTS A FLOWER OR LEAVES. IT EVOKES AN INVITING EXPERIENCE THAT SEEMS TO WELCOME PEOPLE. THE CURVED PANELS ALSO HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO BECOME DECORATIVE SOLAR PANELS THAT WILL HARVEST THE SOLAR ENERGY. HOWEVER, THIS ITERATION NEEDS MODIFICATION AS IT IS NOT STRUCTURALLY SOUND.

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THIS ITERATION IS ALSO INTERESTING AS IT SHOWS DYNAMISM AND SPEED. IT SEEMS MODERN AND LIGHT WEIGHT. FABRICATION MAY BE EASY BY USING ETFE WHICH IS RECYCLABLE, TRANSPARENT AND DURABLE. THE THREE PRONGED LEGS MAY BECOME THE STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT WHILE THE OVERHANGING STRUCTURE CAN FORM THE SHAPE OF THE PAVILION.


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B5 | DEVELOPING PROTOTYPES

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B5: PROTOTYPES

DURING THIS PROCESS, WE ARE EXPERIMENTING WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS THAT ARE TRYING TO MATCH REAL LIFE MATERIALS. THESE MATERIALS THAT WE HAVE APPLIED ARE OF DIFFERENT PROPERTIES AND FLEXIBILITY. THEY BEND AND SHAPE DIFFERENTLY.

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B6 | TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

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B6: PROPOSAL

THE FORM OF OUR DESIGN THAT A RELATIVELY SIMPLE IDEA LIKE THE POTENTIAL TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FROM WIND MOVEMENT, AND TURNS IT INTO A VISCERAL EXPERIENCE FOR THE USER. OUR DESIGN AIMS TO BE AS INTEGRATIVE AS POSSIBLE, ALLOWING USERS OF THE SITE TO INTERACT WITH THE FORM AND WATCH THE GENERATION OF ENERGY, INSTEAD OF THE CONVENTIONAL GREEN BUILDINGS WHERE W ARE TOLD THAT THIS BUILDING IS GREEN. FOR INSTANCE, HAVING SOLAR PANELS ON THE RESTRICTED-ACCESS ROOF ON THE ALAN GILBERT BUILDING ON GRATTAN STREET. WE KNOW THAT THE BUILDING IS GENERATING RENEWABLE ENERGY. HOWEVER, AN AVERAGE PERSON WILL NOT KNOW HOW THE PV CELLS WORK. HENCE, WE ARE TRYING TO CREATE AN EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE TO THE PEOPLE WHERE THEY ARE ABLE TO WITNESS AND EXPERIENCE THE GENERATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY. THIS WAY, IT IS MORE LIKELY TO EDUCATE OTHERS ABOUT THE IMPORTANT OF THE ENVIRONMENT. THIS PROJECT IS BASED ON CAPTURING WIND ENERGY AGAINST OUR PAVILION THAT WILL HELP TO PRESS AGAINST A PIEZOELECTRICITY GENERATOR. THIS COMPRESSIVE ENERGY WILL THEN BE GENERATED INTO ELECTRICITY. THE ABOVE DIAGRAMS ON THE RIGHT IS SIMULATED WIND FORCE ACTING ON A DIGITAL PROTOTYPE OF OUR PROJECT. COMPUTATION DESIGN ARE SIGNIFICANT TO THEME OF THIS COMPETITION AS WE ARE ABLE TO CREATE A LARGE VARIETY OF ITERATIONS THAT CAN BE DONE OVER A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. COMPUTATION DESIGN ALSO ALLOWS US TO SIMULATE WIND FORCES (IN OUR CASE) TO SHOW THE POSSIBILITY OF MOVEMENT OF OUR PROJECT, WHICH LEADS US TO DECIDE IF IT IS A SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME OR NOT. 82


PRECEDENTS EXHALE PAVILION THE OPEN-AIR INSTALLATION FEATURES SEVEN MILES OF REFLECTIVE AND PHOSPHORESCENT ROPES THAT INTERACT WITH THE WIND TO CREATE A DYNAMIC SPACE THAT CHANGES WITH THE WEATHER. AFTER THE EVENT, ALL THE MATERIALS FROM THE EXHALE PAVILION WILL BE RECYCLED, INCLUDED THE CONCRETE BASES, WHICH WILL BE USED TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL REEF IN NEARBY WATERS. WIND SHAPE THE RESULTING PAVILION WAS A TRANSLUCENT WEB THAT ELEGANTLY EMBELLISHED THE MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE HISTORIC TOWN. TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THESE NEW MEETING POINTS, THE TOWN USED THE SPACE WAS USED TO HOST CONCERTS, EXHIBITIONS AND CEREMONIES. AT NIGHT, WINDSHAPE WAS ILLUMINATED AND VISIBLE TO NEIGHBOURING TOWNS MILES AWAY.

A PIEZO GENERATOR WILL BE WIDELY USED IN OUR PROJECT. THE PIEZO ELECTRICITY GENERATOR WORKS IN A SIGNIFICANT WAY WHEREBY WHEN THERE IS COMPRESSIVE ENERGY ACTING ON THE CHIP, ELECTRICITY WILL BE PRODUCED. THE ENERGY GENERATED WILL BE TRANSFERRED THROUGH A CHARGE CONTROLLER INTO A BATTERY SYSTEM. THE BATTERY SYSTEM WILL CHARGE BATTERIES. THIS STORED ENERGY WILL BE USED TO LIGHT UP THE PAVILION AT NIGHT. CHEMICAL ENERGY WILL BE CONVERTED INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND WILL BE INVERTED FROM DIRECT CURRENT TO ALTERNATIVE CURRENT THAT WILL BE USED TO POWER LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES, VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND OTHER SYSTEMS THAT REQUIRES ELECTRICITY. LEFT OVER ELECTRICITY WILL BE RETURNED TO THE SYSTEM GRID.

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POST INTERIM PRESENTATION (PART 1)

DURING THE INTERIM PRESENTATION, THE JURORS TOLD US THAT WE SHOULD BE MORE FOCUSED WITH OUR DESIGN. WE WERE TOLD TO DECIDE ON THE MATERIAL THAT WE WOULD LIKE TO EXPLORE AND USE THAT “MATERIAL’S” PROPERTIES AND SET IT AS VIRTUAL PARAMETERS ON THE ALGORITHM SCRIPTING. THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND BENDING BEHAVIOUR SHOULD BE SET AS THE “RULES” FOR THE DIGITAL MODEL THAT WILL ALLOW US TO GENERATE PARAMETRIC MODELS BASED ON THE LIMITS OF THE MATERIAL. THE JURORS COMMENTED THAT OUR PROJECT REMINDS THEM OF A “BONE AND SKIN” CONCEPT WHICH THE STRUCTURE IS RIGID AND THE MEMBRANE/BUILDING FABRIC IS FLEXIBLE.

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AFTER THE INTERIM PRESENTATION, WE DECIDED TO HEED THE JURORS AND TUTOR’S COMMENT TO BE MORE DECISIVE ON THE MATERIAL THAT WE WOULD ADOPT. WE HAVE STREAMLINED DOWN TO SEVERAL MATERIALS. FIRSTLY, IT IS ETFE. ETFE IS LIGHT WEIGHT, HIGHLY TRANSPARENT TO UV AND NOT DEGRADED BY SUNLIGHT. IT IS DURABLE AND WEATHERPROOF, RECYCLABLE AND CAN TAKE UP TO 400 TIMES ITS OWN WEIGHT (MAKMAX, 2012). IT ALSO DECREASES ENERGY COSTS BY AROUND 30% COMPARED TO GLASS AS IT ALLOWS MORE NATURAL LIGHT INTO A BUILDING. BESIDES, ETFE IS FLEXIBLE AND BENDABLE WHICH MAKES IT A GOOD MATERIAL FOR OUR PROJECT AS WE ARE CAPTURING WIND ENERGY AGAINST OUR PAVILION THAT WILL HELP TO PRESS AGAINST A PIEZOELECTRICITY GENERATOR. THIS COMPRESSIVE ENERGY WILL THEN BE GENERATED INTO ELECTRICITY. THE ABOVE DIAGRAMS ARE IMAGES OF SIMULATED WIND FORCE ACTING ON A DIGITAL PROTOTYPE OF OUR PROJECT. WITH THIS, WE ARE ABLE TO FURTHER DEVELOP OUR PROJECT.

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POST INTERIM PRESENTATION (PART 2)

THE ABOVE IS OPTION THAT WE HAVE PRODUCED THAT IS MADE UP OF SMALL INDIVIDUAL PANELS THAT ARE MOUNTED TO A CONTINUOUS STRUCTURE THAT GIVES THE PROJECT ITS SHAPE. THE PANELS ARE ABLE TO MOVE, ROTATE AND TWIST ACCORDING TO THE WIND MOVEMENT. A PROTOTYPE OF THIS MODEL IS SHOWN ON THE RIGHT.

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seven B7 | LEARNING OUTCOMES

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B7: LEARNING OUTCOMES THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF PART B OF THE JOURNAL, I DEVELOPED THE ABILITY TO GENERATE A VARIETY OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES FOR A SITUATION. I WAS ABLE TO PLAY AROUND WITH ITERATIONS THAT COULD POTENTIALLY LEAD TO A DESIGN OUTCOME. ALGORITHMIC DESIGN AND PARAMETRIC MODELLING WAS DIFFICULT FOR ME, HOWEVER IT PUSHED ME TO EXPLORE MORE ON MY OWN. WITH THE SECOND PART OF THE JOURNAL, I FURTHER UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL AND ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN. IN PART A OF THE JOURNAL, STUDENTS WERE MERELY INTRODUCED TO THE IDEA OF COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN. STUDENTS WERE ONLY REQUIRED TO UNDERSTAND COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN. IN PART B, WE WERE REQUIRED TO GET INVOLVED IN PARAMETRIC MODELLING. HOWEVER, IN THE EARLY STAGES, THE SCRIPTS WERE GIVEN TO US. STUDENTS WERE ONLY REQUIRED TO FURTHER EXPLORE THE ALGORITHMIC SCRIPTS. THE DIFFICULT PART WAS B3, WHERE WE REQUIRED TO REVERSE ENGINEER A BUILT PROJECT. NEVERTHELESS, MY TEAM GOT THROUGH IT AND I THINK WE HAVE GAINED A LOT OF INSIGHT AND KNOWLEDGE INTO PARAMETRIC MODELLING. I LOOK FORWARD TO FURTHER DEVELOP OUR PROJECT IN PART C OF THE ASSIGNMENT.

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REFERENCES IAAC BLOG, 2012. SURFACE ACTIVE STRUCTURES. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.IAACBLOG.COM/MAA2012-2013-SURFACE-ACTIVE-STRUCTURES/FILES/2013/04/ OVERALL-GEOMETRY.JPG [ACCESSED 30 APRIL 2014]. IWAMOTOSCOTT ARCHITECTURE, 2008. VOUSSOIR CLOUD. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.IWAMOTOSCOTT.COM/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD [ACCESSED 29 MARCH 2014]. MAKMAX, 2012. ETFE MEMBRANE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://MAKMAX.COM.AU/MEMBRANE/ETFE [ACCESSED 3 MAY 2014]. STUTTGART UNIVERSITY, 2010. ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION, 2010. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://ICD.UNI-STUTTGART.DE/?P=4458 [ACCESSED 30 APRIL 2014].

PHOTOGRAPHS IWAMOTOSCOT ARCHITECTURE | ARCHITECT | WWW.IWAMOTOSCOTT.COM LAGI 2014 WEBSITE | PHOTOGRAPHY | WWW.LANDARTGENERATOR.ORG ROLAND HALBE | PHOTOGRAPHER | WWW.ROLANDHALBE.DE

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PART C

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C1 | DESIGN CONCEPT

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IMPROVEMENTS FOLLOWING THE INTERIM PRESENTATION WITH ITS FEEDBACKS AND AFTER COUNTLESS THOUGHTS OF IMPROVISATION, OUR TEAM DECIDED TO CHANGE THE ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEM TO DEPEND ON SOLAR ENERGY. THE REASON FOR THE SELECTION OF SOLAR ENERGY ARE AS FOLLOWS: •

IT IS RELIABLE AND CONSISTENT: THE SUN IS ALWAYS THERE AND DOES NOT LEAVE. SOLAR ENERGY IS CONSISTENTLY THERE 24/7 THROUGH THE YEARS. WE DECIDED TO CHOOSE SOLAR ENERGY AS IT IS NOT AS INCONSISTENT AND UNRELIABLE AS OUR PREVIOUSLY SELECTED WIND ENERGY IN PART B. WE REALISED THAT WIND ENERGY MIGHT NOT BE AS CONSISTENT AND RELIABLE AS SOLAR ENERGY. WIND ENERGY DEPENDS ON THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FROM THE ATLANTIC THAT AFFECTS THE WIND SPEED AND VELOCITY THAT REACHES OUR SITE. THEREFORE, AFTER PLENTY OF CONSIDERATIONS, WE DECIDED TO SWITCH TO SOLAR ENERGY THAT IS RELIABLE AND CONSISTENT. PLENTY OF DATA REGARDING THE SUN: THERE IS PLENTY OF ONLINE RESOURCES AND DATABASES THAT CAN PROVIDE SUFFICIENT DATA AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE SUN AND ITS DATA. ONLINE DATABASES SUCH AS NASA IS ABLE TO PROVIDE AMPLE INFORMATION FOR US TO INPUT FOR OUR PARAMETRIC MODELLING TO JUSTIFY THE REASON FOR SOLAR ENERGY AND THE KWH PRODUCED FROM OUR PROPOSAL. MOST ABUNDANT AND FREE: WE DECIDED ON SOLAR ENERGY BECAUSE IT IS FREE AND EASILY AVAILABLE. 95% OF THE EARTH RECEIVES SUNLIGHT IN A DAY WHICH MAKES UP APPROXIMATELY 93% OF THE PLACES IN THE WORLD THAT RECEIVES ITS ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. SOLAR ENERGY IS PLENTIFUL AND ABUNDANT. FOR A NORTHERN EUROPE LOCATION, SUNLIGHT IS ABUNDANT ESPECIALLY DURING SUMMER OR HOTTEST MONTHS FROM MAY TO AUGUST, ANNUALLY. THE ABUNDANCE OF SUNLIGHT LED US TO SELECT SOLAR ENERGY AS THE CORE BASIS OF OUR PROPOSAL.

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LAGI 2014 BRIEF DESIGN GUIDELINES: • CONSIST OF A THREE DIMENSIONAL SCULPTURAL FORM THAT HAS THE ABILITY TO STIMULATE AND CHALLENGE THE MIND OF VISITORS TO THE SITE. THE WORK SHOULD AIM TO SOLICIT CONTEMPLATION FROM VIEWERS ON SUCH BROAD IDEAS AS ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, HUMAN HABITATION AND DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND RESOURCE GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION, AND/OR OTHER CONCEPTS AT THE DISCRETION OF THE DESIGN TEAM; • CAPTURE ENERGY FROM NATURE, CONVERT IT INTO ELECTRICITY, AND HAVE THE ABILITY TO STORE, AND/ OR TRANSFORM AND TRANSMIT THE ELECTRICAL POWER TO A GRID CONNECTION POINT TO BE DESIGNED BY OTHERS. CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE MADE FOR ARTFULLY HOUSING THE REQUIRED TRANSFORMER AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE PROJECT BOUNDARY AND RESTRICTING ACCESS TO THOSE AREAS FOR THE SAFETY OF VISITORS TO THE SITE • NOT CREATE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND NOT POLLUTE ITS SURROUNDINGS. THE WORK MUST NOT IMPACT THE NATURAL SURROUNDINGS NEGATIVELY. SOURCE: LAGI COMPETITION BRIEF (LAGI COMPETITION 2014, 2014)

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SITE ANALYSIS THE SITE IS LOCATED IN COPENHAGEN, DENMARK, WITHIN THE NORTHERN SIDE OF EUROPE. THE SITE IS WITHIN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO THE WORLD FAMOUS LITTLE MERMAID STATUE ACROSS THE WATERWAY. THE LAGI SITE 2014 IS GENERALLY LOCATED WITHIN AN INDUSTRIAL AREA WITH GOOD INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDED. MEDIUM DENSITY ROADS IS SERVICING THE AREA BEHIND THE SITE. AREAS HIGHLIGHTED IN RED ARE INDUSTRIAL AREA THAT ARE NORTH OF THE SITE. THE TO THE EAST ARE SOME TOURISM ASPECTS AS CAN BE SEEN, THERE ARE JETTIES PROVIDED. THERE IS A WATER TREATMENT PLANT LOCATED TOWARDS THE NORTH WHICH IS NOT VERY APPEALING TO VISITORS. OVERALL, THE SITE IS LOCATED IN AN INDUSTRIAL AREA THAT IS AWAY FROM ALL THE ATTRACTION AND CROWD FROM ACROSS THE WATER WAY. DESPITE SO, WE ARE CONFIDENT TO DESIGN A PROJECT THAT IS ABLE TO ATTRACT VISITORS OVER TO THE SITE BY CREATING AN EDUCATIONAL AND INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCE.

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AVERAGE SUNSHINE IN COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

THE HOTTEST MONTHS IN COPENHAGEN IS FROM JUNE TO SEPTEMBER, ANNUALLY. DURING THESE MONTHS, THE AVERAGE SUNSHINE HOURS PEAKS AT APPROXIMATELY 250-270 HOURS A MONTH GIVING AROUND 8-9 HOURS OF SUNSHINE A DAY. THIS INFORMATION IS EXTREMELY VITAL FOR US TO DETERMINE THE SUCCESS OF THIS PROJECT. ON OTHER MONTHS FROM OCTOBER TO APRIL, SUNSHINE HOURS DROPS SIGNIFICANTLY HOWEVER STILL ACHIEVES APPROXIMATELY 50 HOURS ON AVERAGE IN A MONTH.

COPENHAGEN WEATHER ENJOYS FOUR DISTINCT SEASONS DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR. DURING THE COLDEST MONTHS (NOVEMBER TO FEBRUARY), THE CITY BECOMES QUIET WITH MANY REMAINING INDOORS TO ESCAPE THE SUB-ZERO TEMPERATURES. HOWEVER, THE SEASIDE COMMUNITY SPRINGS BACK TO LIFE WHEN SUMMER (MAY TO AUGUST) HITS AND THE BOARDWALKS ONCE AGAIN ENJOY HEAVY TRAFFIC. COPENHAGEN WEATHER IN THE SPRING (APRIL TO MAY) SEES TEMPERATURES OF ABOUT 10 TO 15 째C, SIMILAR TO AUTUMN (SEPTEMBER TO OCTOBER), WHICH IDLES BETWEEN 7 TO 12 째C.

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DESIGN AGENDA

WITH THE INFORMATION FROM THE SITE ANALYSIS AND CLIMATE INVESTIGATION, WE CONCLUDED THAT WE WOULD OPT FOR SOLAR ENERGY AS OUR ENERGY GENERATION TECHNIQUE AS SOLAR ENERGY IS ABUNDANT, FREE, RELIABLE AND CONSISTENT. OUR REFINED DESIGN AGENDA WAS TO DESIGN AN URBAN SPACE WITHIN AN INDUSTRIAL AREA WHICH IS ABLE TO HARVEST THE SOLAR ENERGY THAT IS EASILY AVAILABLE WHILE BEING EDUCATIONAL AND RESPONSIVE. OUR PROJECT SERVES AS A VIRTUAL SPATIAL BARRIER THAT DISTINGUISHES ITS FUNCTION FROM THE BUILDINGS WITHIN ITS CLOSE PROXIMITY. THE PROPOSAL IS MEANT TO SERVE AS A PEACEFUL AND QUIET PLACE, AWAY FROM ALL THE HAPPENINGS AND BUSYNESS OF THE CITY. THE PROJECT AIMS TO BE AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE, PRESERVING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE SITE. THE PROPOSAL AIMS TO PRESERVE THE LANDSCAPE OF THE EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS.

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SITE PLAN THE IMAGE ON THE BACKGROUND IS OUR PROPOSAL ON THE SITE PLAN. THE PROJECT AIMS TO MAINTAIN THE EXISTING SITE CONDITION. MINIMAL CONSTRUCTION WORKS WILL BE CARRIED OUT THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF ITS CONSTRUCTION. AS IT IS NOT STATED IN THE BRIEF WHETHER THIS PROJECT WILL BE PERMANENT OR TEMPORARY, OUR PROPOSAL AIMS TO SERVE ITS FUNCTION BE IT TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT. GENERALLY, THE SITE HAS TWO ACCESS POINT: (1) BY ROAD FROM THE MAIN LAND (OPPOSITE) AND (2) WATER TAXI.

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PARAMETRIC TOOL: FORM FINDING THROUGH POINT CHARGES THE CURVES THAT FORM THE PLAN IS NOT DRAWN RANDOMLY. THE INITIAL CURVE IS DRAWN BASED ON THE DIVERSION AWAY FROM THE INDUSTRIAL AREA, THAT PROTRUDES INTO THE WATERWAY. THIS IS THE FORECASTED BEHAVIOUR OF VISITORS TO THE SITE, WHO LOGICALLY WILL AVOID UNPLEASANT AND UNSIGHTLY VIEWS. ATTRACTIVE VIEWS THAT OVERLOOKS THE WATER WAY AND THE LITTLE MERMAID STATUE WILL BE THE ATTRACTION. THEREFORE, WE DEDUCE CERTAIN GATHERING SPACES THAT VISITORS MIGHT POTENTIALLY USE. GATHERING SPACES ARE THEN SET AS POINT CHARGES IN GRASSHOPPER TO ALLOW THE SOFTWARE TO GENERATE LINES THAT AVOID THESE POINT CHARGES. AS WE WANT GATHERING SPACES TO BE OPEN AND INVITING, THIS METHOD IS EFFECTIVE AS IT DRAWS A PATH AWAY AND SURROUNDING THESE GATHERING SPACES. THE INITIAL PROCESS STARTED IN DIAGRAM 1. HOWEVER, IT TURNED OUT TO BE TOO MESSY AND CONFUSING. WE THEN SIMPLIFIED IT ACCORDING TO DIAGRAMS 2-8 AND EVENTUALLY ARRIVED AT DIAGRAM 9, IN WHICH THE GATHERING SPACES NOW SEEM OBVIOUS.

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RENDER OF PROPOSAL WITHIN ITS SITE CONTEXT

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POTENTIAL USE OF SITE

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C2 | TECTONIC ELEMENTS CONSTRUCTION PROCESS JOINT DETAIL JOINT DETAIL AND DIMENSIONS PANEL DETAIL AND DIMENSIONS

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COLUMNS - STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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THE OVERALL PROJECT IS MADE UP OF FOUR MAJOR COMPONENTS. FIRSTLY, THE COLUMNS THAT ARE PARAMETRICALLY DERIVED FROM MILIPEDE AND GALAPOGUS TO CALCULATE THE MOST EFFICIENT SYSTEM. SECONDLY, THERE IS THE ROOF STRUCTURE THAT IS SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS. THE ROTATING JOINTS ARE BOLTED ONTO THE ROOF STRUCTURE. THESE JOINTS PERMITS THE PANELS FROM ROTATING AND ORIENTING TOWARDS THE SUN. FINALLY, THE LAST COMPONENT IS THE SOLAR PANELS THAT ARE ROTATING, CONSTANTLY FACING THE SUN. ROOF STRUCTURE 3

ROTATING JOINTS 4

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JOINT DETAIL

THE ABOVE DRAWINGS ARE AN EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC OF WHAT THE DETAIL JOINT WILL LOOK LIKE, EXPLAINING THE WAY THE PANELS ROTATE.

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JOINT DETAIL AND DIMENSIONS

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PANEL DETAIL AND DIMENSIONS

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MOVEMENT OF PANELS IN RELATION TO THE SUN

THE SOLAR PANELS ARE PROGRAMMED TO BE CONSTANTLY ORIENTED TOWARDS THE SUN. THE ORIENTATION OF THE PANELS TOWARDS THE SUN WILL HELP TO PRODUCE MAXIMUM PRODUCTIVITY AND OUTPUT AS KWH PRODUCED IS CALCULATED BASED ON SURFACE AREA RADIATED BY ULTRA VIOLET RAYS.

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ROTATION OF SUN PANELS ACCORDING TO SUN MOVEMENT

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PROTOTYPE THESE ARE PHOTOGRAPHS OF OUR 3D PRINTED ATTEMPT. IT WAS NOT VERY SUCCESSFUL AS THE STRUCTURE (SCALE) WAS TOO THIN HENCE THE 3D PRINTER WAS NOT ABLE TO PRINT TO SUCH DETAIL. NEVERTHELESS, THE PROTOTYPE ON THE LEFT IS AN INDICATION OF HOW THE OVERALL MODEL WILL LOOK LIKE.

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SUN RADIATION ACCORDING TO TIME INTERVALS

THE ABOVE DIAGRAMS ARE AN ILLUSTRATION OF HOW THE PANELS REACT TO THE SUN. AREAS IN RED SHOWS THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE KWH PRODUCED IN AN HOUR. ON AN AVERAGE WINTER DAY AT 9 AM, THE PROPOSAL PRODUCES 589KWH, 831 KWH AT 12 PM, AND 253 KWH AT 9 PM. HOWEVER, ON A SUMMER DAY AT 9 AM, IT PRODUCES 530KWH, 1675 KWH AT 12 PM AND 310 KWH AT 9 PM.

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C4 | LAGI ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OVERALL PERFORMANCE MATERIAL SYSTEM KWH PRODUCED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

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C4 | LAGI ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT OUR PROPOSAL IS ONE THAT COMES FROM A SUBSET OF TWO VERY SIMPLE IDEAS NAMELY, SOLAR ENERGY AND PEOPLE. THE PROJECT IS ONE THAT ENTAILS AN URBAN SPACE WITHIN AN INDUSTRIAL AREA COMPLEMENTED BY WATER SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT TO THE NORTH. WE WANT TO BREAK THE ICE BETWEEN THE INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS AND NATURE – TO CREATE THIS MEANINGFUL SPACE BETWEEN HUMAN AND BUILDINGS. WITH INFORMATION REGARDING CLIMATE AND SITE ANALYSIS, WE DECIDED TO CREATE THIS URBAN SPACE IN THE MIDST OF AN INDUSTRIAL AREA THAT IS ABLE TO HARVEST SOLAR ENERGY WHILE BEING ENJOYABLE AND EDUCATIONAL. OUR PROPOSAL AIMS TO BE AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE. WE TRIED OUR BEST NOT TO ALTER THE EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS AS WE AIM TO PRESERVE ITS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. WE REFRAINED OURSELVES FROM COVERING THE GRASS WITH CONCRETE OR TILES. WE DECIDED IT TO BE GRASS – A REAL URBAN SPACE. WE DECIDED TO GO ALONG WITH SOLAR ENERGY AS OUR METHOD OF ENERGY GENERATION FOR THREE APPARENT REASONS. FIRSTLY, SOLAR ENERGY IS RELIABLE AND CONSISTENT. THE SUN RISES AND SETS AT A SIMILAR TIME EVERYDAY. ITS CONSISTENCY AND RELIABILITY CONVINCED US THAT IT IS THE BEST ENERGY GENERATION METHOD UNLIKE WIND ENERGY THAT IS FLUCTUATING ON A DAILY BASIS. WE WANTED AN ENERGY GENERATION METHOD THAT WOULD WORK EVERY SINGLE DAY OF THE YEAR. THE OTHER REASON BEING THAT THERE IS PLENTY OF ONLINE DATABASES THAT COULD POTENTIALLY PROVIDE US VERY USEFUL INFORMATION WITH REGARDS TO THE SUN AND THE CLIMATE IN COPENHAGEN. WITH THE USE OF ONLINE DATABASES, WE ARE ABLE TO FORECAST THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY THAT OUR PROJECT COULD GENERATE. THE ENTIRE PROJECT IS BASED ON SOLAR PANELS THAT ORIENTS ITSELF AUTOMATICALLY ACCORDING TO THE MOVEMENT OF THE SUN. THE FORM OF OUR PROJECT IS BASED ON GATHERING SPACES THAT ARE REPRESENTED BY POINT CHARGES. VECTOR LINES ARE THEN GENERATED BY THE COMPUTER, TO AVOID THESE POINT CHARGES AS THEY ARE GATHERING SPACES. THESE GATHERING SPACES ARE THEN ULTIMATELY FORMED AS THESE VECTOR LINES GO AROUND THE POINT CHARGES. IN REALITY, VECTOR LINES ARE HUMAN MOVEMENT AND POINT CHARGES ARE GATHERING SPACES. THEREFORE, BY HAVING THE VECTOR LINES AVOIDING POINT CHARGES, THIS ULTIMATELY CREATES THE PATH THAT PEOPLE WILL WALK IN. THE GATHERING SPACES ARE DERIVED AND DEDUCED FROM COMPREHENSIVE SITE ANALYSIS AND VIEWS THAT MIGHT POTENTIALLY AFFECT THE WAY VISITORS USE THE SITE. WITH THE USE OF GRASSHOPPER, WE WERE ABLE TO FORECAST THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY OUR PROJECT COULD GENERATE. ON AN AVERAGE SUMMER DAY AT NOON, IT IS ABLE TO GENERATE 1675KWH OF ELECTRICITY AND AT 9PM ON A SUMMER DAY, IT CONTINUES TO GENERATE 310 KWH. ON THE OTHER HAND, AT NOON ON A WINTER DAY, IT GENERATES 831 KWH AND AT 9PM IN WINTER, IT CONTINUES TO GENERATE 253KWH. OUR PROJECT GENERALLY USES A STEEL STRUCTURE THAT IS EFFICIENTLY ADOPTED WITH THE USE OF MILLIPEDE WHICH HELPS TO DEDUCE THE MOST EFFICIENT COLUMN PLACEMENT. THESE STEEL STRUCTURE HOLDS UP THE ROOF STRUCTURE IN WHICH EVERY OPENING OF THE ROOF STRUCTURE HAS MOTORISED JOINTS THAT COULD ROTATE. THE ROTATION OF THESE JOINTS ARE TO FACILITATE THE ROTATION OF PANELS TOWARDS THE SUN. THE RESPONSIVENESS OF SOLAR PANELS TOWARDS THE SUN WILL HELP TO MAXIMISES THE YIELD HARVESTED FROM SOLAR ENERGY. IN CONCLUSION, THIS PROPOSAL HAS VERY MINIMAL TO ALMOST ZERO ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. THE PROPOSAL DOES NOT ALTER MUCH OF THE EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS. NEEDLESS TO SAY, THE SITE NEEDS TO BE CLEANED UP AND BEAUTIFIED PRIOR TO USAGE. HOWEVER, THE EXISTING SITE ENVIRONMENT REMAINS THE SAME – GRASS. THE COLUMNS ARE THE ONLY COMPONENTS OF OUR PROJECT THAT ALTERS THE GROUND CONDITIONS. HOWEVER, THIS AREA IS EXTREMELY MINIMAL COMPARED TO BUILDINGS OR PAVILIONS. THIS PROPOSAL HARVESTS SOLAR ENERGY WHICH IS EXTREMELY RELIABLE. THEREFORE, IT WOULD BE QUITE RIGHT TO SAY THAT ADDITIONAL ELECTRICITY WILL BE NEEDED TO OPERATE THE LIGHTING FIXTURES OF THE SITE AT NIGHT.

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C5 | LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOME

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AFTER THE FINAL PRESENTATION AFTER THE FINAL PRESENTATION, WE DECIDED TO FURTHER IMPROVE OUR PROJECT BY TAKING IT FURTHER. THE COMMENTS THAT WE HAD WAS THAT OUR PROPOSAL DID NOT SEEM TO HAVE A “DESIGNATED AREA” OR CONFINED AREA TO ALLOW VISITORS TO RECOGNISE THE POTENTIAL USAGE OF THE SITE. THE SITE SEEM A LITTLE BIT TOO OPEN AND IS LACK OF VIRTUAL DIRECTIONAL PATHS THAT COULD POSSIBLY HELP VISITORS REALIZE THE POTENTIAL OF THE SITE. WE DECIDED TO ADD CERTAIN CURVED WALLS THAT HELPS TO SEPARATE SPACES - TO DIVIDE SPACES INTO SMALLER AREAS TO HELP VISITORS UNDERSTAND THE INTENT OF THE SITE, AS WELL AS THE POSSIBLE POTENTIALS OF THE SITE. WE WERE QUESTIONED WHAT MAKES US THINK THAT VISITORS WILL TRAVEL THE PATH THAT WE’VE INTENDED? THEY WILL BE WANDERING ALL OVER THE PLACE, AS IT DOESN’T MAKE ANY SENSE TO WALK DIRECTLY UNDERNEATH THE ROOF. THEREFORE, WE IMPROVISED THE DESIGN BY ADDING IN CURVE WALLS TO CREATE SOME SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OR TO CONFINE VISITORS TO CERTAIN AREAS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES. THE PANELS ON THE ROOF STRUCTURE WAS ALSO CHANGED TO BLUE COLOR TO REFLECT THE SKY AND THE SEA. AS THE SITE WAS SITUATED IN THE MIDST OF A WATER WAY, WE WOULD LIKE THE PROPOSAL TO REFLECT MORE OF ITS SURROUNDING CONTEXT, TYPICALLY THE SEA. THE PREVIOUS COLOUR WE CHOSE FOR THE PANELS WAS ORANGE AND WE FELT THAT IT WAS NOT REFLECTING MUCH OF THE SITE’S SURROUNDING CONTEXT. NEW RENDERS ARE PRODUCED TO ILLUSTRATE THE DIFFERENCE AND THE IMPROVEMENTS. THE DESIGNATION AND DEMARCATION OF SPACES ARE ALSO SHOWN IN THE NEW RENDERS. FURTHERMORE, SEVERAL MODELS WERE NOT COMPLETED ON TIME BEFORE THE FINAL PRESENTATION. THEREAFTER, WE MANAGED TO MAKE THREE MODELS NAMELY: • A PART SITE MODEL AS AN INDICATION OF THE OVERALL PROPOSAL • A DETAIL MODEL OF THE STRUCTURE AND THE SOLAR PANEL • A DETAIL MODEL OF THE ROTATING JOINT (1:1)

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MODEL MAKING OF SITE MODEL

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TESTING OF MODEL UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHTING CONDITIONS

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROOF STRUCTURE

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROOF STRUCTURE

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROOF STRUCTURE

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROTATING JOINT

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROTATING JOINT

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROTATING JOINT

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROTATING JOINT

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FINAL DETAIL MODEL OF ROTATING JOINT

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