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A Residential Analysis and Design

index of sheets

prepared for

James McDonald & Fidelma Culleton

context

1

existing conditions

2

project goals

3

access and circulation

4

views

5

zoning and setbacks

6

final plan

7

planting plan

8

bancroft elevations

9

Jonathan G. Cooper

backyard sections

10

Conway School of Landscape Design Autumn 2008

structural details

11

of

230 Crescent Street Northampton, Massachusetts

for the


Acer saccharum

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Living

>20% Slope

Driveway

Dining

Tsuga canadensis

Hi lls

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>20% Slope

Study

Telephone Pole

Kitchen

Patio

Telephone Pole

Flagstone Terrace Duncan

Residence

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Acer saccharum 5 0

20 ft. 10

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OBSERVATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

60-foot-tall sugar maples (Acer saccharum) on each corner of lot, with a large maple at south east corner on neighbor’s property.

Steep slopes at driveway and along Crescent Street.

Residences and trees to the south and trees on-site block much of the sunlight. No portion of the property exceeds five hours of direct sunlight per day all year.

Soil is well-drained Paxton-Charlton Urban Land Complex, a sandy loam of glacial till. Soil is moderately acidic, pH between 5.0 and 5.5.

Hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) afflicted with wooly adelgid.

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

Maple tree root systems absorb vast amounts of water on-site and to the east.

Driveway slope and lack of sunlight lead to ice accumulation.

No-mow ground cover removes difficulty of mowing slopes.

Vegetation unaccustomed to heavy shade and dry soil will fare poorly.

Diseased hemlocks likely to survive less than ten years.

Hemlock trees will remain functional screens for the short term and not beyond.

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

EXISTING CONTEXT CONDITIONS Sheet Sheet1 Sheet 2 2


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LEGEND 5 0

Primary vehicular - off site

20 ft. 10

N

Secondary vehicular - off site Pedestrian - off site Vehicular - on site Pedestrian - on site

OBSERVATIONS

Principal entry/egress is from rear door at southeast, requiring clients to walk the length of the house to reach the cars or street.

Rear door is 30 feet from vehicles, 50 feet from road.

Brick patio outside offers area for recreation/gathering.

Driveway disrupts natural continuity of property.

End-to-end parking requires coordination and consistently restricts street access for one vehicle. Access to flagstone terrace limited to narrow path by carport.

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

IMPLICATIONS

Backyard is most frequently used portion of the property.

Area between northeast house corner and carport is the circulation “gateway� from public to private.

Walking distance from rear door to street and cars is an opportunity to experience the property in an enjoyable way and comfortably transition from exterior to interior.

Patio is not a separate recreation area, but a section of the main access path. Offers convenience without seclusion.

Lack of access/pathways makes the backyard a space to be observed, and not a place to spend time.

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

ACCESS & CONTEXT CIRCULATION Sheet Sheet 1 4


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LEGEND 5 0

20 ft. 10

Desirable views from site

N

Undesirable views into site

OBSERVATIONS

IMPLICATIONS

Attractive views from interior and exterior to east, south, and west.

Sightlines from the west and north should be limited along the northern side of the house.

Untrammeled sightlines from northwest and west into living room, dining room, and backyard - three principal gathering areas.

Desirable views to the south and east should be enhanced and complemented.

Lack of screening from west to north opens up the house interior and backyard to uninvited public view.

Vegetation and structures can both limit and redirect sightlines into the property.

Driveway location opens sightline to backyard, and forces vehicular access to take precedence over personal sanctuary.

By limiting sightlines at the southeast corner, the property would be opened up for recreational use in order to take advantage of good existing views.

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

VIEWS

Sheet 5


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Shrub Plantings

4 11

Trellis Walk

Driveway

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Flagstone Patio

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Entry Beds

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Garage

Paths

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Duncan

Residence 5

Brick Patio

The most significant structural change to the property is the new driveway and garage at the northeastern corner. These offer the convenience of side-by-side parking and an increased field of vision when leaving the house. The reduction of the curbside slope to less than 10% lessens water runoff/ice buildup. The gentle slope accommodates a wide variety of permeable pavings, including gravel, porous concrete, and open-jointed blocks. The diseased Eastern hemlocks have been removed to make space for the driveway, as has the fence along Bancroft Road, made redundant by the new plantings and garage. Upon entering the property from the rear of the new garage, one sees the backyard, reconfigured to enhance its role as the social and functional heart of the exterior. To emphasize circulation, the backyard is accessible from the front yard, side yards, Bancroft Road, and the garage. The flagstone patio, moved from the eastern edge to the pedestrian entryway, is large enough to accommodate sizable gatherings but does not lie directly the way of daily circulation. Primary paths from the rear door to the street

and garage are wider than the secondary and tertiary paths that lead to a brick patio. A beach plum between the paths forms the contemplative center of the area. The brick patio now sits on the property’s high point, shifted and shaped to take advantage of pleasant views across the backyard. Smaller than its flagstone counterpart, it is framed by tall Indian sea oats, lush rhododendrons, and hardy Labrador violets. It is accessible from the garage and the rear door by leaner paths, meant to emphasize its less frequent use. Along Crescent Street, the entry beds complement the formal entryway. The fourseason arrangement brings out the flowers of the bluebell and golden wood poppy in the spring, a burst of coral bells in late summer, the purple-leaved white snakeroot in the fall, and the foamflower’s burgundy leaves in winter and white spikelets in the early spring. The plantings are suitable for the higher pH found under the canopy of the sugar maples.

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

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20 ft. 10

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The ground cover plantings of the front and side yard replace the time- and resourceconsuming needs of turf lawn with a thick, attractive, and low-maintenance mixture of sedges and herbs. Along the northern side of the house, extending to the garage, is the trellis walk. Redirecting the eyes of passersby away from the backyard or house interior, it combines natural and man-made elements to make a functional and attractive statement to the public. Laden with moonseed vines, five trellises, six feet tall and three feet wide, hug the curve of the existing walkway, leading to a six-by-ten-foot trellis at the house corner that encloses the backyard. Another trellis connects to the garage, leaving a two-foot space for pedestrian access. Mimicking the form of the trellis walk are the shrub plantings, spaced to alternate with the trellises and similarly anchored at the house corner by the dense spread of an American holly. By the driveway, mint and summersweet clethra yield refreshing fragrances coming or going.

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

FINAL PLAN Sheet 7


N Bancro

ft Rd.

Va Lb Hq Hq Cpr Lb Cal St Lb Ac Mca Io Mco Cpa Mca Pa Mr

20 ft.

5 10

0

Mr Dp Dp Hp Tw Sd Aa Mv Hp Tw

Gp

Mr

Va

De Ed Tw Mv Hp Aa Sc Df Cap Aa Ed Sd Hp Sc Tw Pm Mr Ed Ed Cpr St Ac Cl Ed Cpa Mr

Df Sc

The native, low maintenance plants listed below have been selected in consideration of the following characteristics: Scientific Name

Cl

Vl

FUNCTION

SUNLIGHT

PLACEMENT

SOIL TYPE

VALUE

- Fitness for use (as ornament, screen, ground cover, etc).

- Tolerance for moderate to deep shade.

- Salinity tolerance for plants along streets.

- Preference for acidic soil.

- Wildlife value (as food or cover). - Human use (as food, herb, or fragrance)

Scientific Name

Common Name

Common Name

Symbol Height Uses

Vaccinium angustifolium lowbush blueberry Va Lindera benzoin common spicebush Lb Hydrangea quercifolia oakleaf hydrangea Hq Clethra alnifolia summersweet clethra Cal Ilex opaca American holly Io Meehania cordata Meehan’s mint Mco Menispermum canadense common moonseed Mca Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Pa Heuchera pubescens coral bells Hp Tiarella wherryi foamflowers Tw Stylophorum diphyllum golden wood poppy Sd Mertensia virginica Virginia bluebells Mv Ageratima altissima white snakeroot Aa Carex appalachica Appalachian sedge Cap

Key

Vl

E: Edible leaves or fruit

1.5 - 3 E, G 6 - 12 E, F, S, W 4-8 S 6 - 12 E, F, S 15 - 4 S 0.5 - E, G 15 - 20 S, W 1.5 - 2 G 1 1 1.5 1.5 - 2 1.5 - 3 1.5 - 2 G

F: Fragrant

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

- Preference for a well-drained, sandy loam soil.

Prunus maritima Eurybia divaricata Deschampsa flexuosa Viola labradorica Symphyotrichum cordifolium Chasmanthium latifolium Dicentra eximia Dennstaedtia punctilobula Gaultheria procumbens Carex praegracilis Sedum ternatum Asarum canadense Carex pensylvanica Mitchella repens

G: Ground cover

Symbol Height Uses

beach plum Pm 5 - 15 white wood aster Ed 1-2 crinkled hair grass Df 1 - 1.5 Labrador violet Vl 0.1 - 0.3 blue wood aster Sc 2-4 Indian sea oats Cl 3-4 wild bleeding heart De 1 - 2 hay-scented fern Dp 2 - 2.5 eastern teaberry Gp 0.2 - 0.5 clustered field sedge Cpr 0.5 - 1 woodland stonecrop St 0.3 - 0.5 wild ginger Ac 0.5 - 1 Pennsylvania sedge Cpa 0.5 - 1 partridgeberry Mr 0.1 - 0.2

S: Screening

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

E, W

G

F, G F, E, G G G G, E G G, W

W: Attractive to wildlife

PLANTING PLAN Sheet 8


SHED

HEMLOCKS, FENCE, CARPORT

Above is shown the current alignment of 230 Crescent Street, facing south from the northern edge of the property. The driveway, slicing into the property from the street, invites passersby to observe James and Fidelma with a casual glance into the backyard or eye-level first-story windows. The hemlocks and fence limit this view along the northeast edge of the property, but they strike an inhospitable tone. The lilac tree by the chimney is the only planting large enough to screen visual access into the first floor, but it does not provide the dense spread to do so. From the house corner to the maple tree, the lack of sizable plantings and stretch of open front lawn exaggerates the size of the house. Consequently, the smaller plantings by the house exterior are lost and the house appears alone.

SHED & GARAGE MOVED SUPPORT WIRE

DRIVEWAY, SHRUBS, LILAC, HOUSE

TREE

Below is a view of the proposed design from the same perspective on Bancroft Road. Gone are the sickly hemlocks, the fence, and the driveway that make up the present face of the property’s north side, replaced by a garage more in keeping with the house’s architectural style. The permeable paving suggested in the design enables precipitation to pass through the driveway instead of accumulating on it in the winter months. The eye is drawn to the unique and attractive trellis walk, which is partnered with salt- and shade-tolerant shrub plantings. The moonseed, spicebush, hydrangea, and clethra are hardy, fragrant, and dense, attracting birds and small mammals from September through February. In front of the gateway is the evergreen American holly. As shown, these plantings are at the low end of their height range, but it is possible that they will grow even taller over the years. The low blueberry patch at the lawn corner spreads with edible fruit.

ENTRYWAY & SHRUBS, TRELLIS WALK, LILAC AMERICAN HOLLY

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

LAWN

GROUND COVER

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

BLUEBERRY PATCH

BANCROFT ELEVATIONS Sheet 9


Figure 1 is a view of the garage, looking east. 20’x20’, with a peak of 15’, it is large enough to accomodate two cars and pedestrian traffic. It is depicted with a post foundation, by which disturbance to the soil is minimized while providing the necessary support for the structure. An alternative to a trench foundation, the posts reduce damage to the laterally spreading root systems of the maple trees the garage is underneath. These roots are instrumental in keeping the water coursing down Round Hill out of the house’s basement, and should be left intact. Figure 1

0

5 ft

32” 4”x 6” beam

4”x 4” red cedar

8” concrete piling

AWG #10 wire

4” concrete parking slab Gravel fill

72” Root ball dugout 3” fence bracket

8”

40”

Figure 2 0

Figure 2 details the elements of a post foundation. 4’ posts, 8” across, are dug and filled with concrete. The wooden beams of the garage are placed in the concrete, which rises 8” above the soil line to prevent wood rot. The 4” concrete parking slab is poured level with the top of the pilings, and rests on a bed of packed gravel.

8” concrete footing

6”

48”

1 ft

0

1 ft

Spaced pavers Bedding aggregate

4”

Optional geotextile 1/4” - 3/4” stones

6”

2” stones

Soil subgrade

Figure 3 is a detail for a permeable paving system for the driveway. While the slope of the driveway would support gravel, a more structured installation would last longer and require less maintenance. Spaced pavers, available in many sizes and styles, allow water to course through to a 2” bedding course of stone aggregate. Beneath the aggregate is an optional geotextile film that filters the water before it passes to the 4” sub base of 1/4” to 3/4” stones. A second, 6” sub base, with larger 2” stones, is the final layer between the driveway and the compacted soil subgrade. Systems like this one retain and filter a great volume of water otherwise evaporated or frozen.

JONATHAN COOPER FALL 2008 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road Conway, MA 01341 www.csld.edu

0

1 ft

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 4, above, illustrates the components of one of the trellises proposed in the design. Red ceder is a naturally rot-resistant wood, and its longevity is increased in a well-drained, sandy loam soil like the one on the property. Not unlike Figure 2, the beams extend 4’ into the ground, placing them below the frost line and ensuring that they will not be raised and torqued by the freezing and thawing of the ground. The moonseed vine is planted at the center of the trellis, and it makes its way up the wire grid as it grows. If ties are used to encourage vertical growth, they must be loose-fitting and easily removed, as the vine has a tendency to grow very quickly.

Culleton/McDonald Property 230 Crescent StREET Northampton, MA 01060 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on legal surveys.

STRUCTURAL DETAILS Sheet 11


Residential Design Master Plan