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End of the line JONATHAN FAIR 2013 IIT M.ARCH CANDIDATE


TA B L E . O F

CONTENTS 2 Project description and case statement 6 Graphic Argument 10 Goals and guiding principles 12 Stake holders 14 Site study and analysis 38 Quantitative parameters 40 Organizational parameters 42 Qualitative parameters 46 Additional case studies 50 Masters Project Proposal 76 References


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1


Project description & Case statement DESCRIPTION This project is an urban intervention focusing on the CTA 95th Street bus and train station within the Roseland neighborhood on the South side of Chicago. The project will aim to improve the availability of amenities, quality of pedestrian access to the facility, and vehicular congestion by revisiting the circulation of buses and pedestrians in addition to re-purposing the use and identity of typical bus/train stations.

ROSELAND NEIGHBORHOOD

2


2

CASE STATEMENT This project will be developed because the 95th Street CTA station is the most utilized train/bus terminal in the entire city of Chicago and the Roseland neighborhood, which the station lies in, relies on the transit hub as a direct link to the loop and far North side of the city. In effect, the station serves as a nexus to the surrounding community and has the potential to strengthen the 95th street axis it intersects. The potential for the new station to exist as a safe and thriving service for Chicagoans greatly depends on its ability to redefine and expand its function to cater the surrounding neighborhood.

3


4


2

5


The 95th Street CTA station serves nearly

20,000 commuters daily

- making it the most utilized station in Chicago Source: City of Chicago Data Portal

State

Lafayette

Train & Bus Routes from 95th Street Station

93rd

92nd

95th 95th 98th 100th

100th

100th

106th

Cottag

Michigan

nne Vinc e

Pulaski

King Dr

s

e Grov

e

103rd 104th

Avenue C Avenue B

Western

Halsted

111 th

115th

119th

127th

––––– CTA Red Line

130th

135th

––––– CTA Bus Routes

132nd

––––– PACE Bus Routes 137th

6


2

On average,

32,625

vehicles daily

utilize 95th Street one mile East and West from the 95th CTA station, ranking the street in the

11%of busy roads in the city

top

Source: City of Chicago Data Portal

32,625 vehicles in 24 hours

7


As of 2010, there were

44,619

Roseland residents -many who utilize the nearby 95th Street CTA station Source: 2010 U.S. Census Report

In June of 2012, Mayor Rahm Emanuel in conjunction with the CTA, announced d the renovation of the 95th Street termimiinal. The redeveloped station will provide de e retail space and other missing amenities es for commuters and residents of the Roseeland neighborhood

How?

How can the redeveloped station revision the public transportation terminal typoll-ogy so that it can be act as a safe, acccessible, transit oriented community hub, b, rather than a chaotic passing point?

8


RE-

2

THINKING INVESTMENT & DEVELOPMENT

focused on reassigning pedestrian space and vehicular access along the 95th street corridor and around the redeveloped CTA terminal, while developing the framework for private and public investment will yield a vivacious neighborhood with numerous points of interests for residents and visitors. A complete understanding of how high density public transportation terminals can coalesce with their surrounding neighborhoods (both physically and perceptively) in order to mutually benefit one another is essential to the implementation of this proposal.

Existing 95th Street

Rendering of redeveloped CTA terminal concept

9


Goals and Guiding Principles GOALS NEW USE AND APPLICATION OF TRAIN STATION TYPOLOGY Reinventing the typical use and application of the train/ bus station typology so that it fully integrates its function to its surroundings will provide unavailable qualities and amenities to nearby residents.

ESTABLISH PEDESTRIAN ACCESS AND PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE

Regulating street traffic and the pedestrian zone within heavily congested areas, while developing points of interest along corridors can positively impact the walkability and perception of distance along main thoroughfares.

mesh neighborhood context with station services Currently, the CTA station is physically and perceivably isolated from the Roseland neighborhood. Intertwining the two elements will provide an apparent progression throughout the neighborhood to the central transit hub and amenities along its extents.

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2

GUIDING PRINCIPLES CROWD CONTROL AND ORGANIZING TRAFFIC With nearly 20,000 users per day, the 95th St. CTA station and its surrounding neighborhood must be equipped to mitigate a high mass of vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

DESTINATIONS AND USABLE SPACES ALONG 95TH STREET CORRIDOR Creating points of interest and functioning spaces that cater to existing activity will be essential to the future development surrounding the redeveloped 95th street CTA station.

RECOGNIZING POTENTIAL IN VACANCIES AND ABANDONED BUILDINGS

?

Unused structures and vacancies have the potential to be re-visioned as unique opportunities for spaces that support community interaction and temporary activities. This will also be a critical component for the future development of areas surrounding the redeveloped 95th street CTA station.

Providing missing amenities New programming will respond to amenities and needs currently in demand in the Roseland neighborhood.

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PRIMARY STAKE HOLDERS

95th Street station patrons The current users of the 95th Street CTA Station are significant because the redevelopment of the station and surrounding neighborhood will respond to their travelling needs as well as the character of the pedestrian and vehicular environment in route to the station.

Residents of roseland and Neighbors of CTA Station The residents of Roseland are significant to the project because they will be directly affected by the changes taking place along 95th Street. In consequence to the redevelopment, access to spaces may change in addition to building type.

$ 12

City government and taxpayers The City Government of Chicago and its taxpayers will act as the main financial source of the project. In effect, the considerations and requirements of their representing body must be taken into consideration.


STAKE HOLDER RELATIONSHIP 2

$ Chicago Mayor, Rahm Emanuel

sts

co

ng ati

er

op

tax allocation

ns

tio

ula

g /re

tra

ns

po

95th Street CTA Patrons

rta

tio

n

rv

ice

s

regulations

se

Pastor Gregory Seal Livingston walking the streets of Roseland

13


Site Study & ANALYSIS In the case of this proposal, the redevelopment is focused on the 95th street CTA terminal. However, in order to determine the validity and unique nature of the 95th Street site, I have proposed two alternate, but similar sites to compare in order to determine if similar attitudes towards CTA train end-stations and their neighborhoods can be applied throughout the city.

C

B

A

ROSELAND: 44,619 residents 2011 STATION ENTRIES: 4,019,996

A

95th Street CTA Train and Bus Station

14

The 95th Street CTA station is an endpoint for the Red-line train, CTA, Pace, and Greyhound busses. The 95th street corridor supports a mixed variety of commercial, municipal, and residential structures, but is divided into an Eastern and Western portion by the Dan Ryan Expressway, which acts as a physical boundary to the two extents of the street. In its current state, the 95th Street corridor provides extremely limited pedestrian access and provides very few points of interest throughout its extents.


2

East Garfield Park: 20,567 Residents 2011 STATION ENTRIES: 1,175,588

B

The Forest Park Blue-Line Station is the end station for CTA’s Blue-Line train. The elevated train station located in Forest Park is located on the far West side of the city. The station is considerably isolated from commercial buildings, but is located near many single-family residences. Because of its location in a low density area, the station is unlike either stops of the Red-Line train other than its issues with pedestrian access and proximity to a major highway.

Forest Park CTA Blue Line station

Rogers Park: 54,991 Residents 2011 STATION ENTRIES: 2,037,000

C

The Howard Red-Line Station is the end station opposite the 95th CTA station. Unlike the 95th street station, it receives a considerably smaller amount of daily patrons. The elevated station is surrounded by several major retail buildings and a few well established stores and restaurants. Pedestrian access is limited to this station primarily because the track is elevated and surrounded by vehicle traffic; however, several bus stops are located on nearby streets outside of the elevated train station.

Howard CTA Red-line train stop

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Project Site ROSELAND, CHICAGO 95th STREET & Dan Ryan

HALSTED STREET

16


2

MARTIN L. KING DRIVE

17


95th Street existing conditions

E

MARTIN LUTHER KING DRIVE

FOREST AVENUE

STATE STREET LAND BRIDGE

LAFAYETTE AVENUE

E

18


E

2

W

MICHIGAN AVENUE

W

WENTWORTH AVENUE 19


E

HARVARD AVENUE

E

PARNELL AVENUE 20


2

W

RAIL TRACKS AT EGGLESTON AVE.

W

UNION AVENUE

HALSTED STREET 21


AMENITIES / POINTS OF INTEREST

1 3

3

2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 22

Walgreens Carter G. Woodson Regional Library Trinity United Church of Christ McDonald’s restaurant 95th Street CTA Station

6. Abbott Park Field House 7. Harlan High School (CPS) 8. Chicago State University


2

5 4 6

8

7

23


MAJOR STREETS

2

1

1. 2. 3. 4.

24

95th Street Halsted Street Dan Ryan / I-94 Martin Luther King Blvd.


2

3

4

25


EXISTING GREEN SPACES

4

3

1

2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 26

Euclid Park 6. Chicago State University campus Wendell Smith Park 7. Tuley Park Robichaux Park Turner Drew Language Academy campus Abbott Park


2

7

5

6

27


existing 95th st. station The current 95th Street CTA station was originally designed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill architects and constructed in the late 1960’s. Despite its heavy use, the station has received no major renovations, with the exception of widening the Red-line train platform for safety purposes. In effect, issues such as narrow boarding spaces for busses and no dedicated pedestrian crossings at terminals have become common hazards for the station, that new design proposals seek to resolve.

28


2

29


existing 95th st. station

North Bus Bridge

Greyhound

State Street

CTA OfďŹ ce

North Bound Dan Ryan

Un-Paid Area

South Bound Dan Ryan

Lafayette Street

Paid Area

95th Street 95th Street

Street level

30

Platform level


2

No dedicated crossing for pedestrians at bus terminals

Crowded Sidewalks and limited boarding space

31


CTA ticketing area within pedestrian bridge

CTA Train Turnstiles

32


2

Pedestrian Bridge

Escalators and stairs from platform level to terminal - limited space

33


artist rendering of redeveloped station

Artist conceptual rendering of redeveloped 95th Street Station entry

34


2

35


Proposed retail area and train terminal entry

36


2

37


Quantitative cASE STUDY Urban redevelopment project at Tainan main station area Designer: Maxthreads Location: Tainan, Taiwan Tainan main station master plan is imagined as a cultural based community and nature intervention, with sustainable residential development and the potential for natural habitat areas. It aims to be a cultural and vibrant edutainment intervention as well as a secluded haven of peace and tranquility. Tainan main station is conceived as a new gateway of Taiwan’s history. The proposal aims to reconcile community and biodiversity. It will act as an eco-transitional urban device, transferring and linking the diversity of the surrounding urban districts and programs. The concept behind the master plan proposal derives from the area’s original function as transportation node. The proposal will maintain the areas historical identity, whilst providing a boundary free and a self-sufficient urban planning, incorporating a number of sustainable systems.

Preserved Area

Art & Culture

Public Space

Park Areas

Residential

Retail

Aerial View of Tainan Redevelopment

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2

9

7 4 1 2 6 9

5 3

9 10 9

8

9

Tainan Main Station Redevelopment Master Plan

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Retail area Railway Museum district Outdoor performance area Urban park area Solar energy collection

6. Tainan cultural creative industry park 7. Rainfall water collection pond 8. Ecological park 9. Personal Rapid Transport points 10. Community market

SPACE ALLOCATION BY PROGRAM

Retail park area Public Space

10%

residential art & culture

20%

15%

15% 40%

BUILT STRUCTURE VS. LANDSCAPE

Structure landscape

Structure 35%

landscape 60%

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Organizational parameters Existing ORGANIZATION OF 95TH street corridor In general, blocks are organized by land use along 95th street near the CTA station. Commercial and retail structures face the 95th street pedestrian and vehicular traffic, while residential structures occupy the city bocks set back from the busy street.

95th Street from LaSalle Street (West) to State Street (East)

LAFAYETTE STREET

PERRY STREET

LASALLE STREET

WENTWORTH AVE.

95TH STREET

COMMERCIAL STRUCTURES

40

RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES


2 for travel Strategy for site organization and Options In general, blocks are organized by land use along 95th street near the CTA station. Commercial and retail structures face the 95th street pedestrian and vehicular traffic, while residential structures occupy the city bocks set back from the busy street. TRANSIT

MODE OF ARRIVAL

AUTOMOBILE

WALK

WALK TIME

PERSONAL VARIABLES

WALK RELIABILITY FATIGUE / HANDICAP EXERCISE

WORK

TRIP PURPOSE

SHOPPING

BUSINESS

CULTURAL

SOCIAL

TERRAIN

PATH VARIABLES

IMAGERY POINTS OF INTEREST

THEATER/ MUSEUM

LAND USE OF END NODE

COMMERCIAL

GOVERNMENT

SCHOOL

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NOISE Intensity along 95th street Existing condition

Source: City of Chicago Data Portal

11 PM 10 PM 9 PM 8 PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 12 PM 11 AM 10 AM 9 AM 8 AM 7 AM 6 AM 5 AM 4 AM 3 AM 2 AM 1 AM 12 AM

42

RETAIL A /RE RESID SI ENT TIAL

95TH STREET ET

SMA SM MALL MA L RET LL ETAIL ET TA


Proposed condition

2

11 PM 10 PM 9 PM 8 PM 7 PM 6 PM 5 PM 4 PM 3 PM 2 PM 1 PM 12 PM 11 AM 10 AM 9 AM 8 AM 7 AM 6 AM 5 AM 4 AM 3 AM 2 AM 1 AM 12 AM

MIX IXED ED USE

95TH H STREET S E

MIXED MIX E USE43


Qualitative Case study "Urban Lounge" Streetscape intervention

Architect: Carlos Msrtinez Location: St. Gallen, Switzerland In the effort to reduce the chaos of vehicular and pedestrian traffic that was the result of leftover space from existing office buildings, a competition was held to re-design the streetscape. The winning entry aimed to develop an open-air, indoor room that incorporated the indoor activities of civilians with scaled down, controlled vehicular traffic. The resulting typology was labeled the “urban lounge.� The entire surface is made of rubber, with sculptures for sitting and waterworks. The red rubber surface of the space extends out into the surrounding city as a way finding element for pedestrians unaware of the nearby streetscape intervention.

Site Plan

Urban Lounge pedestrian domain with vehicular access

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2

Streetscape water feature and seating sculpture

Cafe outdoor seating seamlessly exists with vehicular traffic

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additional Case studies St. Louis gateway transportation center

Architect: Adrian Luchini, Jacobs Facilities Inc, and Michael E. Kennedy Assoc. Location: St. Louis, Missouri, USA The St. Louis Gateway Transportation Center is situated in an area of heavy traffic on two different sides of an elevated highway. The building gives excellent views to the city, while supporting multiple modes of transportation including Amtrak trains and Greyhound busses. The center solves the issue of utilizing portions of a preexisting urban site which was isolated by heavy vehicular traffic. By designing a very visible entry terrace and pedestrian skywalks that seamlessly take pedestrians between busses and trains, the station is both accessible and comfortable to be in.

Transportation Center Building Plan

Pedestrian Skywalk

Transportation Center Amtrak train hub

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Harper Court & Hyde Park 53rd Street 2 Redevelopment

Developer: Harper Court LLC. Location: Hyde Park, Chicago, IL, USA The Hyde Park community in addition to several developers, such as Harper Court LLC. are planning a series of renovations and developments to introduce new retail and multipurpose facilities along 53rd Street. In effect, 53rd street is slated to physically expand both pedestrian space as well as vehicle space. The goal of the redevelopment is to create a prominent destination on the south-side of the city as well as a gateway to the University of Chicago campus (the University has partnered with the initiative) and community. The redevelopment broke ground in the summer of 2011 and is slated for completion in the summer of 2013. Despite its incompletion, the initiative has already managed to attract over ten major retail chains, restaurants, and other private enterprises.

53rd Street frontage of redevelopment

Proposed Hyatt Hotel in Hyde Park

Proposed 53rd Street Harper Court Facility

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Urban redevelopment in nantes saupin

Architec/Planner: French Global Project (FGP) Location: Quai Malakoff, Nantes, France This project’s site was unique in that it is the size of a large city block. The project site was originally occupied by a soccer stadium prior to redeveloping the space to include office space, residential dwellings, in addition to academic and visiting research spaces..The stadium is a cultural and historic landmark to the city and in effect was left untouched and incorporated into the redevelopment scheme. The resulting design provides three high-rise structures that surround the lawn of the soccer field, creating an urban condition within the space. This architectural decision to accumulate, superpose and mix all the programmes and volumes around the stadium lawn creates a hybrid project, between an urban design approach and the revelation of a new architecture that can be considered as a “super building.”

High-rise facade system

View of redevelopment from Saint Felix Canal

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2

5 3

4

6

1

2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Redevelopment Site Plan

Library Research Institute Site programming section

Residence Services Apartments

Restaurants Science Institute

Institut des Etudes Avancees Residential Services Parking Building Residential Dwellings Tribunes Green park

Conference Space Lounge

View to preserved soccer field

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End of the line 95TH STREET CTA STATION PROPOSAL JONATHAN FAIR - 2013 M.ARCH CANDIDATE; M. FELSEN

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2

51


111

115

1 15 106

353

103

95E

112

29

95W

119

352

395

108

381

359

TYPICAL ROUTE 4:30 AM - 12:00 AM 353, 395, 352, 381, 359, 108, 29, 95W, 95E, 119, 103, 106, 111, 115, 112

BUS ROUTE INFORMATION 52


1

2

34

24 HOUR ROUTE 34 Michigan

1 100

2 N9

MORNING ONLY ROUTE (6-9 am) 100 Jeffery Express

N5

G G

OWL ROUTES N9 Ashland and N5 South Shore

varies G

GREYHOUND BUS (8-12 am) Interstate Bus travel

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BUS ROUTE PATHS

R 29

MICHIGAN AVENUE

WENTWORTH AVENUE

29

N9 359

352 395 381

112 95W

95E

N5

108

115

111

STATE STREET

34 103 106 119

54

353 100

ABBOTT PARK

N

106


I-94 SOUTH BOUND

I-94 NORTH BOUND

BUS PATH OF TRAVEL IN2 STATION

NORTH BOUND BUS

NORTH BOUND BUS

GREYHOUND STATION

(ONE WAY NORTH)

2 LANES

2 LANES

2 LANES

TICKETING AREA

STATE STREET

(ONE WAY SOUTH)

LAFAYETTE STREET

2 LANES

N

95th STREET BRIDGE

55


down to train

56


2 Bus paths and entry to train platform To address the issue of congested bus drop off points and no dedicated pedestrian crossing space, a new strategy was implemented to deal with bus circulation. In the proposal, a passing lane and drop off lane are used to eliminate pedestrian traffic throughout bus paths. This way, pedestrians are dropped off from buses directly outside of the main terminal through designated pull in points for buses. In the event that all pull in points for buses are occupied while unboarding, a waiting area for buses exists between the passing and drop off lane, so that buses may wait clear of any traffic for the next available drop off point to become available. In addition to this, the method of entry to the train platform has been changed from stairs to a large ramp to better handle large moving crowds of CTA patrons.

Development of ground floor The form of the ground floor of the CTA terminal building was largely determined by the motion of busses moving from the waiting areas to the drop-off lanes of the station. This “force� provided by the bus motion on each side of the structure is responsible for the asymmetric form; however, it provided the added benefit of creating large outdoor waiting spaces for patrons waiting on buses.

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58


2 bus path influence on building form The general path of buses moving from the west side of the site to the east, gave way to the initial form of the second floor. Because the function of the buses are critical to the overall terminal, specific effort was made to encapsulate the domain of the buses below. The resulting form provided reaching cantilevers that unified the two elevations.

development of second floor The second floor is equipped to serve as a prototypical space which will cater to the surrounding community’s needs, while challenging the traditional use of spaces within a transportation hub. For that reason, a large portion of the second floor space exists as an open floor plan with movable partition walls. Ideally, community events, town hall meetings, and other various activities will take advantage of the entire terminals ease of access, transferability, and flexibility.

59


60


Second floor structural2 system In order to accommodate the long spans and cantilevers that the second floor space demands, a space frame/ three way truss system was implemented. With this structural system the necessary virtual depth needed to span and cantilever the designed lengths was achieved, while avoiding large structural members that would entirely block spaces above and below. Rather than extending the floor to ceiling height and hiding the structural system, the structural system is expressed as a key space maker for the second floor spaces.

Development of roof deck To further challenge the use and function of transit hubs and to provide a new amenity to the immediate neighborhood, a green roof deck is proposed for the new terminal. The green roof will boast a combination of both intensive and extensive vegetation that will be structurally supported by space frame and a secondary structure below. Aside from a positive environmental impact, the green roof deck will provide a myriad of activities and potential events that are otherwise unavailable near this area of the city.

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Greyhound bus lounge

foodcourt kitchen market place/ food court

men

women

bike storage/ repair shop

ground floor 62


2

view from east looking north west

VIEW WITHIN FOOD COURT & MARKET 63


conference room

entry to roof deck

conference room

men

women

conference room

flexible town hall/ event space

SECOND floor 64


2

flexible event space example 1

flexible event space example 2 65


66

view from second floor


2

67


2

1 entry/exit to 2nd floor

extensive vegetation 2

1

community growing garden

2

1 intensive vegetation grove

2

viewing deck seating

THIRD floor 68


WINTER

2

winter plant conservatory winter/holiday open market sledding, snowshoeing harvest collection observation deck

wild vegetation preserve harvest collection outdoor event/rentable space outdoor market space observation deck seasonal blooming art installation sculpture garden seating lawn

FALL

SPRING wild vegetation preserve growing garden outdoor event/rentable space outdoor market space observation deck seasonal blooming art installation sculpture garden seating lawn bird wildlife preserve

wild vegetation preserve growing garden outdoor event/rentable space outdoor market space observation deck seasonal blooming art installation sculpture garden seating lawn bird wildlife preserve

SUMMER

seasonal use of roof deck space

intensive vegetation and growing garden 69


LONGITUDINAL SECTION

a

a

70


2

b

b

71


PERSPECTIVE SECTION

72


2

73


VIEW FROM DAN RYAN EXPRESSWAY 74


2

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Bibliography 1.Betancur, John J., and Douglas C. Gills. “Community Development in Chicago: From Harold Washington to Richard M. Daley.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 594.Race, Politics, and Community Development in U.S. Cities (2004): 92- 108. Print. The article provides information pertaining to the gains and loss in Chicago community development during the administrations of Mayor Harold Washington and Richard M. Daley. During this time, Chicago community grew out of touch with the grass-roots community agenda and needs of low-income areas and instead showed interest in commercial interests that ensured political patronage. This sentiment has seemingly ensued to the present day.

2.Johnson, Steven. “Chapter 2 Street Level.” Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software. New York: Scribner, 2001. Print. The second chapter of Johnson’s book emergence defines the concept of emergent intelligence. Johnson begins by comparing the behavior of ants and human cells to human beings, then rationalizes how cities grow in an emergent, seemingly natural way because of the way humans interact with one another and behave daily. The chapter implies that human behavior and the growth of a city is largely dependent on the existing environment.

3.Ockman, Joan. Out of Ground Zero: Case Studies in Urban Reinvention. [New York, N.Y.]: Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture, Columbia University, 2002. Print. Ockman’s book cites several historical urban reinvention/redevelopment efforts. In many cases, the areas intended for redevelopment were areas that either experienced near/ complete destruction or were impoverished/low-income areas. Ockman does a good job in exposing how the redevelopers were able to see the potential in such devastated areas.

4.Ranjan Das, Partha. “Designing the Streetscapes: Visual Elements of Pedestrian Corridors.” ART ETC. News & Views. Chisel Crafts Pvt. Ltd., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.artnewsnviews.com/view-article. php?article=designing-the-streetscapes- visual-elements-of-pedestriancorridors>. This web-magazine entry explains some key pointers in developing urban streetscapes. Ranjan Das uses historic precedence such as Florence and Siena in Italy to define powerful, but subtle techniques that were used to develop framed views and captivating passages.

5.Thorne, Martha. Modern Trains and Splendid Stations: Architecture, Design, and Rail Travel for the Twenty-first Century. London: Merrell, 2001. Print. Thorne’s book on train stations of the 21st century provides a cross-section of train stations (and a few airports) that serve several functions, house various types of trains, and are placed in a variety of urban contexts. Many of the train stations feature state of the art technology.

6. “City of Chicago Data Portal.” Updated 2012. < http://www.cityofchicago. org/city/en/narr/foia/CityData.html>.

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2 7. Watson, Donald, Alan J. Plattus, and Robert G. Shibley. Time-saver Standards for Urban Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print. Time-saver Standards for Urban Design is a general index that provides basic strategies and concepts for urban design in the United States. Strategies are supported with existing case studies and are expressed in graphic form as well as text.

8.Furuto, Alison. “Urban Redevelopment Project at Tainan Main Station Area / Maxthreads.” ArchDaily. N.p., 03 July 2012. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. 9. ”Architectural and urban redevelopment site in Nantes Saupin / FGP(a)” 10 Jul 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 06 Dec 2012. <http://www.archdaily. com/251558> 10.”City Lounge by Carlos Martinez.” CoolBoom RSS. CoolBoom, 22 May 2008. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. <http://coolboom.net/landscape-design/ city-lounge-by-carlos-martinez/>.

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Jonathan Fair: End of the Line 2013 IIT Masters Project  

Jonathan Fair 2013 IIT M.Arch Candidate Masters Project