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s! w ing et No d she rea on th si wi ehen pr com

The Phonics Handbook

A Handbook for Teaching Reading, Writing, and Spelling in print letters

Sue Lloyd and Sara Wernham


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Introduction

The aim of this book is to teach students to read and write through an early, systematic, synthetic phonics program. The word “synthetic” refers, in this case, to the “synthesizing” – as in the blending or combining – of sounds to make spoken words. This means that the students are taught the main sounds of English, not just the alphabet sounds. With this knowledge, they are taken through stages of blending sounds to form words and then to reading. At the same time, they are taught to write by identifying the sounds in words and relating the letters to those sounds. The Phonics Handbook provides a program for the first year of learning to read and write. The first eight to nine weeks are spent learning the letter sounds, which are introduced at a rate of one letter sound a day. This is followed by learning the main alternative vowel sounds, the tricky words, and how to write independently. The program is multisensory, active, and particularly suitable for young students. Step-by-step guidance is given for the teacher, with reproducible activity sheets for the students. The structured approach is suited to whole-school, whole-class teaching but it also works well with individual students. Teachers following this method of teaching can be assured that their students will read and write independently much more quickly. A suggested timetable for teaching the program over 36 weeks can be found on the preceding pages. In this introduction, the teaching is divided into five basic skills, each of which has its own chapter in this book: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Learning the letter sounds Learning letter formation Blending – for reading Identifying the sounds in words – for writing Tricky words

Although the teaching is outlined in this way, it is important to realize that the first four skills should be taught simultaneously, while tricky words are taught after the first few weeks. Learning to read and write fluently is vital for students. All parents know this and want their children to master these skills. The majority of parents are keen to help but are not sure how to go about it. It is a good idea to invite new parents to a meeting and explain to them how reading and writing is taught in the school. The Jolly Phonics method of teaching was developed and tested over a period of time at Woods Loke Primary School, Lowestoft, in Suffolk, England. Before

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5. Tricky Words

Tricky words are frequently used words that the students are unable to read and write simply by blending and listening for the sounds. This is either because the words use phonic knowledge that the students have not learned yet, as in the ‹i_e› spelling in “like” and the ‹y› in “my,” or because the spelling is irregular, as in “said,” “one,” and “two.” Regardless of how “tricky” a word may be, some part of it will always be regular: for example, in the word “some,” the ‹s› says /s/ and the ‹m› says /m/. By knowing the letter sounds, and being able to relate the sounds to the letters, the students find it easier to read and write tricky words; they are able to look at them carefully and find it amusing to look for the “tricky” part. This kind of extra attention is really the start of analyzing words and helps put the spellings in the students’ memories. A list of 72 tricky words is given in Reproducible Section 12: Tricky Word Sheets; they have been carefully chosen as examples of words that the students use most frequently. The words can start being introduced after the fifth letter sound group has been taught, when the /sh/ in “she” and /th/ in “the” will be familiar to the students.

Learning to Read Tricky Words

For reading, a good pace of teaching is three new tricky words a week. The students look at them carefully and identify the “tricky” part: in “of,” for example, the ‹o› is regular but the ‹f› is sounded like a ‹v›. It is also important to regularly review the tricky words already taught; flash cards are a good way of doing this and can be used just before going out to play and in other spare moments. Some students need plenty of practice before the words are known and it may be necessary to give them extra support, teaching them separately in a small group.

Learning to Spell Tricky Words The students should start learning how to spell tricky words when they can read the first ones easily. For spelling, a good pace of teaching is two new words a week, along with practice of those already taught. Some fortunate students have a sufficiently good visual memory to master the spelling of tricky words simply by reading them, but most students have to be taught. The following techniques for teaching spelling are all useful.

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REPRODUCIBLE SECTION 2: SOUND SHEETS

Letter Sound: /r/

Storyline: A boy has a playful puppy. The puppy finds an old blanket. He grips it in his teeth and shakes it from side to side. The boy grabs the blanket, but the puppy hangs on tightly, going, /rrrrrrrrrrr/. The blanket rips! It looks like a rag now, so the boy calls his puppy “Rags.” Action: The students pretend to be the puppy with its blanket, making a continuous /rrrrrrrrrrr/ sound.

Flash card: Hold up the letter ‹r›, and say /r/.

Letter formation: Explain how the letter sound is written. The students form the letter in the air. Then they trace the dotted letters on the Sound Sheet. Finally, they write the letters on their own. Blending: The students blend the words on the Sound Sheet, pointing to the dot underneath each sound as they say it. Word bank: Rat, rap, rest, trap, trip, pest, strap, crack, strict, cricket.

Extension activity: Paint a rocket picture, or make a rabbit from modeling clay.

FURTHER PHONICS

Useful information for teachers

The sound /r/ can also be written as: • ‹rr›, as in “arrange” • ‹wr›, as in “write” • ‹rh›, as in “rhyme.” 56


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rip rest

rat

ran 2

r ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ê 1

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Pretend to be a puppy, pulling a rag, and shake your head from side to side, saying, rrrrrrrrrrr.

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Rr

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At the Park

1. The dog is carrying a

.

2. There is a cat in the

.

boat / tree

3. The fox is looking at the 4. The ducks

.

cat / rabbit

on the pond .

5. The boys have a bat and 6. The bird in the tree is

stick / stone

quack / quit .

ball / wall

. singing / swinging

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The Phonics Handbook is a comprehensive resource for teaching reading, writing, and spelling

The Phonics Handbook provides a systematic, synthetic phonics program, which teaches students to read and write in a fun, multisensory way. It gives students an understanding of the main sounds of English and shows them how to use this knowledge to read and write words. Then, once the students can blend sounds in words for reading, and identify them in words for writing, they learn the alternative spellings and tricky words and move toward independent writing. There is step-by-step guidance and extensive reproducible material, along with a wealth of practical advice. The teaching, with its use of a story and action linked to each sound, is especially suitable for young students and progresses at a challenging pace. This third edition includes updated Sound Sheets and lesson notes, new Sound Sheets for the alternative spellings, new sections on guided writing and reading comprehension, and a comprehensive timetable for the teaching year. The pages are slightly wider than 81/2" x 11" so that copies can be made without showing the binding. The reproducible material uses Sassoon Sans, a typeface without joining tails. This material is recommended by Cambridge International Examinations to support the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework.

The Phonics Handbook provides all the essential ideas for teaching students to read and write in their first school year. It can be used alone or alongside these other core items:

ISBN

Jolly Phonics Word Book, in print letters* Jolly Phonics DVD, in print letters* Finger Phonics, set of books 1-7, in print letters Finger Phonics Big Books 1-7, in print letters* Jolly Phonics Workbooks 1-7, in print letters Jolly Phonics Wall Frieze, in print letters* Jolly Songs, in print letters* Jolly Phonics Cards, in print letters* JP Tricky Word Wall Flowers, in print letters* JP Alt. Spelling & Alphabet Posters, in print letters* Jolly Phonics for the Whiteboard, in print letters JP Games CD, site licence, in print letters JP Readers, level 1, complete set, in print letters* JP Starter Kit Ext, in print letters (incl. * items above)

978-1-844140-28-2 978-1-844140-72-5 978-1-844141-52-4 978-1-844143-86-3 978-1-844141-05-0 978-1-844140-45-9 978-1-844140-79-4 978-1-844141-08-1 978-1-844140-46-6 978-1-844140-29-9 978-1-844140-87-9 978-1-844140-85-5 978-1-844143-39-9 978-1-844142-81-1

ISBN 978-1-870946-95-7

Jolly Learning Ltd

™xHSLIRAy946957z

82 Winter Sport Lane, Williston, VT 05495, USA. Tel: +1-800-488-2665 Tailours House, High Road, Chigwell, Essex, IG7 6DL, UK. Tel: +44 20 8501 0405

Reference: JL952

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