The Connected World and The World Wars
S ECTION 1
Authorâ€™s Info Page
Hello, my name is John Wegener and I am currently a student at Indiana University studying to be a History teacher. I have written this ebook to help teach students about how the world wars connected the world both politically and economically. The book is designed to contain the main subject material that you would often find in a 10th grade World History Class. I designed the Ebook to contain all of the overarching ideas in an attempt to make provide this as either a teaching tool to teachers or a studying tool to students. I believe that to often students feel disconnected from the past in the history lessons that they are taught, that is why a included a conclusion page relating it to the modern/current world. I hope you enjoy the lessons and that they are helpful and a more effective way of studying.
How To Use Book Guide This book is designed to teach to subject content for History in a typical High School World History class. The standard that this book is based around is Indiana Standard S S. WH. 8: Students will analyze and explain trends and events of global significance, such as the world wars and international controversies challenges, and cross-cultural changes that have connected once-separated regions into an incipient global community. The pages flow in chronological order, beginning mainly with content and ending with more ideological discussion in the latter chapters of the ebook. Each chapter can be used by teachers to quiz their students over topics of both the World Wars. The political and economical connections are simply results of what happened in both the wars. They as well as the conclusion page can be thought of as practical applications to the happenings in the world before 1945. The Interactive photo on page five is to provide some interesting background information on Sophie and Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Run your mouse over the labels to find out specific information. There is also a link in â€œEastern and Western Frontsâ€? to a youtube video for All Quiet on the Western Front that showcases the type of trench warfare that took place in World War I.
Step 1: Readers study the causes content of world war one. Make sure to view video and look through photos of the assassination. Step 2: Students study how the way world war one ended led to world war two. Make sure to look through the photos of the Treaty of Versailles. Step 3: Readers then go through the ending of world war two and how this has changed the world both politically and economically. I would recommend researching the newly formed states after world war two and the economic changes that took place as a result of the war as the length of this ebook is limited. Step 4: Readers then go through how this relates to the present day and how they controversies and wars has changed the current world today. Step 5: Go to any of the links that I have attached as there is additional information to study these topics in more detail.
Table of Contents:
Causes of World War I
Eastern and Western Fronts, Stalemates
Armistice and the Treaty of Versailles
Causes of World War II
War in Africa and Europe
War in the Pacific
8. Connecting the World Economically
10. Conclusion: How it relates to us?
11. Citation/Reference List
12. Back Cover
Connecting the World Politically
• Dreadnought: a new type of Battleship that fronted the arms build-up of Germany and Great Britain Chapter 1: Causes of World War I There are many actual reasons why World War I actually started but the catalyst of that blew all that tension into war came in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austrian/Habsburg Empire. He was killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, who was a member of the Black Hand (which was a Serbian terrorist group committed to the unification of Montenegro and Serbia). The event took place at the end of the Latin Bridge in Sarajevo which is the modern day capital
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Princip and five other terrorists were stationed at different sections of the the bridge as the parade welcoming the Archduke to Sarajevo went by. A hand grenade was thrown by Nedeljko Čabrinović (another member of the Black Hand), but it missed the Archduke’s car and exploded under the wheel of another car further back in the procession. The driver then got out of the crowd and regrouped with security. The parade through the city was ended and the car with the Archduke and his wife Sophie headed towards the hospital to visit the victims of the hand grenade. The driver accidentally took a wrong turn and Princip happened to be on the corner of the street and fired two shots hitting both the Archduke in the neck and Sophie in the abdomen. Both died within the hour and Princip was captured almost immediately by police and attempted to commit suicide twice with a cyanide tube and his gun but failing on both counts. Princip was too young to receive the death penalty but he was sentenced to twenty years in prison but he died of tuberculosis a little more than three years after the assassination. The action enraged the Habsburg family and they blamed Serbia for harboring terrorists that sought to bring down the Empire. Not only did the blame the the terrorists but they also blamed the entire Serbian government as the English version of the 22nd July ultimatum shows. Serbia then sent an ultimatum to Austrian Empire resisting the demands made to them and saying that they were a sovereign state that didn’t need assistance in bringing the culprits to justice. Russia then sent an ultimatum to the Austrian Empire saying that any action to 4
attack their ally Serbia would result in war with Russia. The Austrian Empire rejected both ultimatumâ€™s from Russia and Serbia and prepared to invade Serbia. Russia began preparations for war even after they were sent an ultimatum from Germany stating that they would attack Russia if they attacked the their ally the Austrian Empire. France then sent an ultimatum to Germany saying that they would attack Germany if they attacked their ally Russia. Germany had anticipated this began moving troops into Belgium in the process of creating the Western Front between France and Germany. England then sent an ultimatum to Germany to get their troops out of Belgium or else they would declare war on Germany. Longer story short all ultimatums were ignored, cooler heads not prevailing and Europe was locked in the bloodiest war the world had ever seen.
Background Information for Franz Ferdinand and Sophie
The reason for all this tension came because if the formation of all these secret alliances. These were created primarily because of distrust and previous conflict over land. France had been sore after they had been beaten in a war with Germany between 1870 and 1871. This had lead to distrust on the part of the French and led them to seek out a treaty between France and Germany as kind of an anti-German alliance. Germany was stuck in the middle of this alliance so the opted to strengthen its alliance with Austrian-Hungary Empire. England had formed itâ€™s alliance with Belgium trying to gain political power in the the Western Coast of Europe as they had been involved in an arms race with Germany. Both nations were seeking to be master of the seas. They primarily built-up 5
Dreadnoughts, which was a primarily new and powerful Battleship. There had been conflicts between the two nations in their colonies in Africa. Most notably between Tanzania and Kenya.
Chapter 2: Eastern and Western Fronts, Stalemates Like the last chapter said Germany had already invaded Belgium as a means to creating a larger front from which to attack France from. German forces began pushing forward across the Belgian and German borders into France. This type of warfare was very slow and costly especially in terms of supplies and human life. This is where generals began to be referred to as ‘Butchers,’ for their apparent disregard for the lives of the soldiers to the substantially losses associated with trench warfare on both sides of the trenches. The tactics were very similar on both sides: fire artillery for a few hours across
no man’s land while the enemy is dug deep in their trenches, cease firing and then send your troops across the field you’ve just destroyed. Often as soon as one side was done firing artillery the other would begin catching men in the crossfire. This type of fighting can be seen in this movie clip All Quiet on the Western Front: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrGU4wy9RVU. As this system of fighting went on nothing really changed in the war until the United States joined the war and this greatly aided the British and French forces fighting on the Western Front. The Americans helped push German forces back and emancipated a number of french cities that had been occupied by the Germans when they had initially swept into the country.
The Eastern Front was the fighting area primarily between Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire against Russia. The first fighting began when Russia invaded East Prussia in August 1914. East Prussia as well as Galicia (which was a state in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), were quickly regained by the Austrian-German forces but the Russian second attempt to take the ground succeeded vehemently. The concept of Germany believing this war was to be quick and easy had backfired initially on the Eastern Front as they had concentrated most of their forces on the Western Front in hopes of defeating the French and British quickly and then being able to transfer the bulk of their forces to the Eastern Front. This plan did not materialize as progress was slow and though it is known that France was never conquered during World War I. 6
Russia’s economy was still weak and not fully industrialized, this led to problems with supply to the army that were not fully solved until 1916. By mid-1915 the Russians had been pushed out of German Poland were no longer posed a threat of invasion to the Axis powers. The Russians attempted a number of offenses in 1916 but all of them fell short of their goals as poorly armed soldiers and maintained supply lines lead to defeat after every one. There was a Revolution in Russia that caused the fall of Czar Nicholas II and the Bolsheviks (communist party in Russia), took power. The initially tried to bring about peace but because of the Russian Civil War between the Bolsheviks and their political allies they never were able to declare peace until they were forced into the Treaty of BrestLitovsk in March 1918. This caused Russia to lose large amounts of territory and have to make massive concession to Germany. The fall of the Russian Empire also led to the declaration of independence of many states that are present in the World today such as Finland.
The United States entered the war at a much later date and this was due to two particular events: the sinking of the Lusitania and the interception of the Zimmerman telegram. Each were actions of aggression on the part of Germany that affected public opinion of Germany and whether the United States should enter the war. The sinking of the Lusitania was a cargo and people ship that was sunk by a German U-boat. Over one thousand passengers died after the Lusitania was sunk, one and twenty five of them were American citizens.
This began the process of the United States entering into World War I. While the sinking of the Lusitania did begin the process of Woodrow Wilson putting political pressure on Congress to enter the war, the Quiz main thing that it did was • What event set off all the change public tension in Europe in the build-up opinion towards to World War I? the war towards • What was the name of the Germany. The Zimmerman telebattleship that Germany and gram was a seBritain had begun an arm-race cret message build up? sent from Ger • Who was the first nation/ many to Mexico empire to send an ultimatum in to try to instill in the build-up to the war? Mexico the idea of attacking the • What were the names of United States the two territories that Germany and starting a had taken from France in a war. It was interprevious war? cepted by the CIA and published in public press showing the position of Germany towards the United States. This coupled with the Lusitania sinking swung the tide and on the 17th of April 1917 the United States entered the war. The United States had been helping supply England and France during the war and this was part of the reason why the United States wanted to 7
weaken the United States economically to the point of no longer being able to participate in assisting with the war efforts of France and Britain even if their economy was booming because of wartime production rates without having to spend to deploy troops.
Chapter 3: Armistice and the Treaty of Versailles However Germany’s economy had been greatly weakened by the war as it was not prepared to sustain through an elongated war. They were finally forced into signing an armistice on November 11th 1918. The armistice was signed in a manner that painted the United States, France and Britain as the victors and Germany as the defeated though the armistice wasn’t considered a surrender on the part of the Germans. The armistice basically culminated the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson’s plans for postwar Europe. An armistice was initially rejecting by a number of members of parliament as they felt that what the Entente powers were asking for was out of the question. It was only after a revolt by sailors in Wilhelmshaven which spread across the whole country lead to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. George Ebert head of the newly formed German government then agreed upon signing the armistice. Ebert was a social democrat and this would later come back to haunt Germany in the build up to the second world war.
Though the Armistice was signed on November 11th of 1918 a peace treaty was not signed until the 28th of June 1919. This came in the form of the Treaty of Versailles and the long drawn out process that it took to be signed was due to how harsh it was on Germany. The aims of the Big Three or the three leaders: George Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the United States and David Lloyd George of Britain var8
ied extremely in their thinking of how Germany should be treated. Clemenceau wanted Germany to be crushed economically and militarily so that it could never grow strong again and invade France as it had during previous wars and in World War I. David Lloyd George had just been elected Prime Minister of Britain under a platform that he would punish Germany for what they had done at the peace talks to be held shortly after his election. His focus was more towards protecting British interest and making sure that Germany’s colonies were taken away. The United States wanted Germany to be punished but they felt that it would be dangerous to make the treaty so severe. These disagreements are why the treaty took so long to be decided upon and then there was some delay due to the representatives of the provisional government being out-
raged at how severe the treay was, but Germany was so economically weakened after four years of fighting that there was no way that it could begin fighting again so they had to succumb to a treaty that would doom the world to a second world war.
• Top Left: The signing of the Treaty of Versailles • Top Right: The great hall in versailles where the treaty was made • Left: Crowds wait to hear the terms of the treaty • Leaders of Great Britain, France and the USA
Chapter 4: Causes of World War II
• Nazi party symbol: The Swastika
Nazi led Germany began to break clause after clause of the Treaty of Versailles while the remembrance of how terrible World War I was kept the allies from stopping them from breaking the treaty. Germany had enjoyed some economic growth under democrat leader (though the economy was crushed by reparation payments), most economic growth came under the Nazi party’s rule. The Nazi’s proceeded to rearm Germany, breaking the treaty of Versailles in the process. It also annexed Austria (which it was forbidden to do under the Treaty of Versailles) and invaded Czechoslovakia. The allies did very little and were accused of appeasing Germany rather than doing anything to stop it. However while the allies did very little to stop the breaking of the treaty the did prepare
It is widely believed that the the severity of the treaty of Versailles, the rise to power of the Nazi party (Hitler being the head of the party) and the appeasement of the allies in the hopes of avoiding a second war were the major factors as to why a second world war occurred. The treaty outraged the German public with protests nation why calling for the rejection of the treaty and the return of the Kaiser. These protests came to nothing and Germany had to comply with all of the regulations of the treaty which consisted of: paying reparations to the entente powers, giving up all of its colonies, promising that it would never form a union with Austria and that it’s military had to be greatly decreased. The leaders of Germany had their hands tied as the public didn’t want them comply with the treaty but the allies were enforcing it and Germany was powerless to stop it. This distrust for the current government lead to the growth of national socialism and communism within Germany. These two parties eventually began to gain considerable political power though they each hated the other. In 1933 the national socialist or Nazi party won a majority in the German government and named for war and rearm. The final straw came when Germany at10
tacked Poland in the Fall of 1939. Poland was attacked from the West by Germany and by the East by the Soviet Union. This caused Germany, Italy, France and the Soviet Union to enter into World War II. The reason that World War I is said to be responsible for World War II is because of the way it ended. World War I ended with the treaty of Versailles which was essentially the United States, Britain and France blaming Germany for the war and forcing very harsh conditions on them because of it. These harsh conditions pushed radical ideas to the forefront of politics and pushed radical men to the forefront of political parties. This explains the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, who was a very extreme anti-semitism and promoter of scientific racism. The nationalist ideas of the Nazi party inspired the German people to make Germany a great nation again so they sought to reverse the thing holding them down, namely The Treaty of Versailles. This caused aggression on the part of the Germans and it could have been met with aggression and Germany could have been put down again while it was still week. The reason this didnâ€™t happenis because of the memory of World War I and the allies seeking to avoid this at many costs. This caused the allies to appease Germany and let them become very imperialistic again until Poland was the last straw when war broke out.
â€˘ Adolf Hitler: Nazi Party Leader
Chapter 5: War in Africa and Europe Initial fighting began in May 1940 between British and French forces and German and Italian forces in France. There were two primary offenses that the Germans needed to push further into France. The first was ‘Case Yellow’ which led to the evacuation of BEF (British Expeditionary Force) as well as several French Divisions at Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. The Germans pushed on with new enthusiasm and carried out ‘Case Red’ with the combination of air superiority and wellmaintained supply lines punctured holes in the French lines and allowed German troops to storm through. The German army broke the French line and caused a chaotic time period for the French government as it sought to flee Paris just before the city was captured easily as it was unguarded. French officials regrouped in the southwest of France and signed an armistice with Germany on the 22nd of June 1940. This accepted German occupation of the country and the nation was separated into different zones. The Germans controlled a large zone in the northwest of the country, the Italians a smaller portion in the southeast and in the southwest was the unoccupied zone which was governed by the newly formed Vichy Government, however axis soldiers were present here to prevent uprising and to defend the coastline from allied invasion. The speed at which Germany plowed through France is why often times the battle of France is simply referred to as the fall of france.
The war in Africa was fought between 10th June 1940 and the 13th of May 1943. It spanned over five different northern African nations and was primarily fought between the British taking on the axis powers (after the fall of France), until the United States entered the war and began direct military assistance in North Africa on the 11th of May 1941. The fighting began between the Italians and the British and they eventually were joined by the United States on the allies side and by Germany on the Axis side. This fighting eventually ended with the Allies victory in Africa and served as a starting point for the invasion of Sicily and then Italy. At certain times during the war this was the only actually fighting going on until the British and American invasion of Normandy on the 6th of June 1944. By actual fighting I am discussing direct conflict between men and tanks, however there was bombing going on between both sides during this time not to mention the serious U-boat and naval battles taking place around the world’s oceans.
The United States was eventually forced into the war with the Japanese Bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. The United States then entered the war in the Pacific and took part in the war in North Africa. These were the primary actions of the United States in its beginning stages of World War II. By trying to stop the movement of Japanese forces throughout Southeastern Asia and trying to force the Germans and Italians out of Africa. The major turning point in the war came on the 6th of June 1944. The British and American forces had been preparing for the largest invasion in the war and in his12
tory. It was be an attack of paratroopers from the sky and of naval battleships and passenger ship from the sea. The Germans had been preparing for a long time, bulking up defenses to prevent the landing of allied ships. The invasion was very costly for both sides but the allied forces were to many for the Germans and they overwhelmed them and pushed them back of the coastline which allowed the safe arrival of allied reinforcements for the rest of the war. Progress was slow and every town and mile was fought for the but eventually the Germans were pushed out fo Germany. Italy who had ousted fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in 1943 had been separated into a German puppet state in the north and in the south was a monarchy state that fought for the allies. All this to say they were no longer an actual force in France that needed to be driven out though many Italians from the German puppet state chose to fight for the Germans against the allies. Progress of the allies was slow but the allied forces pushed into Holland but encountered a long stalemate in the advance in the Battle of Bulge (Bastogne). This took place from the 16th of December 1944 until January 25th 1945, and was also very costly in term of human life.
of their homeland (the Soviet Union). One very interesting aspect of the Soviet Union is that it actually began the war as an ally of Germany when they both blitzed Poland in 1939, however it quickly changed sides to try to gain support against the German advance towards Russia. The initial fighting was widely in the favor of the Russians as they pushed further into the Soviet Union and were stopped only 30 kilometers from Moscow. This could have ended the war between Germany and the Soviets very quickly but the resolve of both the Soviet people and soldiers was shown. The Soviets repelled German advances in famous battle such as the battle of Stalingrad which was a turning point in itself toward eventually Soviet domination on the Eastern Front. Another factor that played a huge role was the winters in the Soviet Union which the Soviets were used to but this lead to many deaths in the German ranks. After the battle of Stalingrad the Soviets began to push the Germans out of the Soviet Union and they began to cross over into Poland and then eventually Germany itself.
Soviet forces in Russia put up a much more strong fight to the German advancement after the German invasion of Poland that started the war. The Germans were astonished in the different ideologies of the French and the Soviets and how the unification of one and the lack of in the other allowed one to be overrun (France) and the other to fight for every inch taken 13
arrived to help push the Japanese out of Australia. The process of fighting Japan become reverse island hopping, as the United States freed territory from the Japanese, island by island. After victory in Europe Ally forces were again able to provide military support, primarily in Southeast Asia though the Soviet Union did attack and conquer Manchuria controlled China. One of the most famous battle in the whole war was fought in the pacific, the battle of Iwo Jima.
Chapter 6: War in the Pacific The war in the Pacific is understood to have started on the 7th of December 1941 when Japanese forces attacked Thailand, British holdings in Southeast Asia and Pearl Harbor the United States naval base in Hawaii. Earlier tensions in the region are reasons to explain the invasions, especially the Japanese occupation of Manchuria China in 1931. The other axis powers besides Japan had limited participation in the war in the Pacific though German and Italian submarines had submarines and raiding ships in certain areas of the Indian and Pacific oceans. British, Dutch and Australian forces provided minimal resistance to Japanese conquest of the area as these nations were drained economically due to the fighting in Africa, the Middle East and Europe. The Japanese advanced through nation after nation in Southeast Asia and then employed Island hopping tactics for the islands of Southeast Asia and Oceania. The Japanese attacked a number of cities in Australia, most notable Darwin in northern Australia, however they never were able to gain a foothold as United States forces 14
While progress was steady and the United States had begun a bombing campaign of many major cities in Japan the United States decided to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th and on Nagasaki on August 9th. This is widely debated among historians and many believe that President Harry Truman made the wrong decision to have the atomic bombs dropped. Many historians due however support him and cite the number of lives saved both Japanese civilian and United States soldiers in avoiding an invasion of Japan.
Chapter 7: Victory After the Battle of Bastogne progress into German went much quicker as German supply routes began to be affected and certain areas of the nation were being captured and occupied. While the American and British were advancing towards Berlin (the capital of Germany on the left, the Soviet (Russians) were advancing through Poland on the right. All this advancement culminated in VE (Victory in Europe) Day which was on May 8th 1945. It marked the unconditional surrender of German forces and ended World War II in Europe. During the Battle of Berlin Germanyâ€™s leader Adolf Hitler committed suicide on 30th April 1945 and Germanyâ€™s successor was then authorized by his successor. Soldier werenâ€™t free to go home then as many nations that Germany had taken control of needed to be cleared of German soldiers who were taken as 15
prisoners of war. Germany was divided into four different zones and Berlin was separated between France, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union. Poland came under the Protection of the Soviet Union as did most of Eastern Europe while western Europe was aided more primarily by Britain, France and the United States.
The final Japanese surrender took place on the 2nd of September 1945. This act officially ended a war the had been raging for nearly six years. The implications of that remain because of this war and the first world war are still very prevalent today. There is still national tension usually on a local level between different nations based on who fought against who in the world wars. However this event sparked of massive celebrations all over the world. Chapter 8: Connecting the World Economically The events and controversies of both world wars have affected the world economics tremendously. The creation of the EU (European Union), the expansion of the free market, foreign investment in Israel, foreign investment in the Far East, Independence of African colonies and the creation of wartime production. Another economic connection between the world wars and economics is the insertion of the United States into the world economy. The United States took this response after the second world war, though itâ€™s reaction was completely different after World War I as it took on a separatist view of eco16
nomics. This separatist view helped form new ways to protect US goods from foreign imports as foreign imports were not in any way encouraged during the years between the wars.
While the World Wars created a world economy it also created different localized economies around the world. The formation of the European Union which is a protected sub-market for countries in Europe who fit certain criterion that matches up with states committed to freedom both economic and political. The controversy of the atomic bomb changed economies in relation to energy and opened the door for nuclear energy to be a major player in the economies of all nuclear nations around the world. The invitation of the United States to the world market after World War II established pre-war ties to establishing the US dollar as the world currency standard as it is today.
Chapter 9: Connecting the World Politically The Allied forces encountered labor, concentration and death camps in Germany as well as other nations under itâ€™s political control. This is where Jews, Gypsies, foreigners and general unwanteds in society were forced to live, work and were often simply brought to the camps to be killed. This was in response to the fierce anti-semitism that the Nazi party had spread throughout Germany. This has major implications leading to today about human rights and the role of the state. People today saw what the power of a government who had absolute power that was loved by their people was capable of. It has had major political repercussion on the world and the role of 17
government to this day. It also led to the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 which brought about much conflict in the Middle East to this day. Also the introduction of nuclear weapons in the form of the atomic bomb used on Japan in the United States affected the whole world through the Cold War and still affects the world today in regards to nuclear power and how nuclear arsenals are regulated.
Another way that the world wars has affected the world today is through the formation of many states. If it had not been for the anti-semitism of Nazi Germany the formation of the nation of Israel would not have taken place in 1948. If it had not been for the first world war Korea would never have been separated as the territory was split between the United States and the Soviet Union after the Japanese had been driven out of the Peninsula. The separation of certain states and the makeup of Eastern Europe today has a lot to do with decisions made after World War II. The political actions of world leaders have been changed forever because of the world wars. Political leaders are very delicate and careful in the way they communicate with other nations because of the warnings of what can happen in a world that is not connected and aware of promoting the greater good of all. The formation of the League of Nations which was disbanded before World War II was a group of world nations that would seek to keep world peace as well as many other goals. The United Nations grew out of this but came in response to
the second world war. This puts power into the hands of those who are seeking peace as they can put certain types of sanctions on nations who are on a war path that can help deter them from starting wars. This has forever changed the world the way in which different nations interact with one another.
Chapter 10: Conclusion: How it relates to us? History always relates to us, the question then is whether we know how and why? Both world wars have changed every aspect of human culture and society to widely promote peace in hopes that a World War III never becomes a reality. Controversies like nuclear energy and weapons were born during these wars and these are still very much with us today. The biggest changes are in the way that we think about one another and particular particular races and nations. As I said before these historical events delve almost every facet of human life because these events caused the facets to change in some way. The question then becomes what do we learn from these sinister events? Learn we can from these events but reflection upon them sometimes is what is applicable to our lives as humans inhabiting planet Earth today. We should mainly be concerned with how to replicate the good from this time period and how to avoid the bad.
I really hope you enjoyed this ebook and that it was helpful to you and my wish is that you will use it to teach others. If I inspired you to teach congested in an interactive manner (which stimulates memory) then I have been successful in this ebook.
Resources (Listed in Chronological Order): 1. Cover photo of Soldier jumping over trench: http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/07/world-war-ii -axis-invasions-and-the-fall-of-france/100098/ 2. Soldiers in trench photo: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2383977/Lord-Ki tcheners-iconic-Your-country-needs-image-used-recruitme nt-posters-First-World-War.html 3. Header photo of Sample Gates:http://www.publichealth.indiana.edu/community/in dex.shtml
9. Photo of Princip being arrested on page 5: http://blogs.forteana.org/node/118 10.First photo of the outside of the Palace of Versailles:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versaill es 11. Photo of signing of Treaty: http://www.memo.fr/en/article.aspx?ID=CON_GUE_029 12. Squared table at Versailles photo:http://treatyversailles.wordpress.com
4. Dreadnought Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreadnought
13. Photo of Big Three George Clemenceau, Woodrow Willson and Lloyd George: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/14/first-wo rld-war-treaty-versailles
5. Paraphrased text and themes throughout ebook:http://www.publichealth.indiana.edu/community/in dex.shtml
14. Photo of packed Great Hall at Versailles:http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?Mod uleId=10005425
6. Link to video from All Quiet on the Western Front: http://treatyversailles.wordpress.com
15. Swastika photo: http://robert.thegeakes.co.uk/wallpapers.shtml
7. Interactive Picture of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Archduke_ Franz_Ferdinand_of_Austria
16.Photo of Adolf Hitler: http://sz-n.com/2013/11/adolf-hitler-to-keep-honorary-citi zenship-of-szczecin/
8.Photo of Gavrilo Princip on Page: 5:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Archduk e_Franz_Ferdinand_of_Austria
17. Iwo Jima flag raising photo: http://free-images.gatag.net/en/2011/12/25/000000.html
18. Atomic Bomb Explosion: http://whyfiles.org/020radiation/ 19. It’s “VE Day” photo: http://www.graphics20.com/funny/category/important-ev ents/v-e-day/page/3/ 20. Victory over Japan Kiss Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victory_over_Japan_Day 21.European Colored EU map: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Nightstallion/List_of_E uropean_Union_member_states_by_accession 22. The EU flag: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbo ok/geos/ee.html 23. The EU flags:http://www.ukrep.be/european-union/ 24. North and South Korea Map: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~unsa/committees.html 25.Globe of World Flags: http://www.bus.miami.edu/news-and-media/recent-news/ 2008/global-business-forum.html
An Ebook that teaches about the World War and World Controversies. It is meant to show how this has effected the world that is present in th...