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The John Warner School

Theme: Food

Introduction Well, it was not difficult to decide what we would do when it came to our theme on food. Of course, ‘Ready Steady Cook’ which is a very popular English programme. We decided though to add a bit of flavour from our partner schools in France and Italy. We created three teams, Team England, Team France and Team Italy and then it was up to the three teams to come up with the research and menus of each particular country. At the same time they had to find a food that would link all the three countries together for this they focused on ‘Bread’.

The outcome was breathtaking!

‘Bread, Pane and Pain’ the staple food that links all the Countries together! When we decided to do this theme on food we thought about what food linked all three countries together. We decided to focus on bread as it is a staple food which is found and used also in Italy and France.

Bread, in one form or another, has been one of the principal forms of food for man from earliest times. Bread is a type of food, made from flour and water (to make dough). Usually, salt and yeast are added. Bread is an important part of life in many countries, because everyone eats it. In many cultures, bread is so important that it is part of their religious rituals.


A Bakers' Guild was formed in Rome round about the year 168 B.C. From then on the industry began as a separate profession. The Guild or College, called Collegium Pistorum, did not allow the bakers or their children to withdraw from it and take up other trades. The bakers in Rome at this period enjoyed special privileges: they were the only craftsmen who were freemen of the city, all other trades being conducted by slaves

Many a housewife who made and baked her bread at home made the sign of the cross upon each loaf, perhaps to bring good luck, or to guard against bad luck.

Bread baked on Good Friday is that it does not go mouldy like ordinary bread.

Comenius Project Goes Continental: Ready Steady Cook At the beginning of March 2009, the Comenius Project Pupils organised a ‘Ready Steady Cook Goes Continental ‘ event. The plan involved splitting up the pupils in to three teams, England, Italy and France. This was because these are our partner schools. In each team there were five members that designed a three course meal consisting of some of their country’s traditional foods. They found research, recipes and vital information about their country and the dishes that they chose. Once all the research was completed, each country group produced and presented a presentation to two of the senior members of staff. Their job was to choose a starter, main course and dessert out of the options available. They chose the English traditional soup for starter, the Italian main course which was meatball pasta and finally profiteroles which was the French dessert. On the 20th all the Comenius Project Pupils were off time table and in the food tech rooms all day. Their objective was to cook the three course meal for all the members of The John Warner School’s Senior Leadership Team. Not only were they to cook the dinner, they were to serve and wait on the teachers. Because bread linked all the countries together, different traditional bread shapes, sizes and flavours also had to be made. With Jill Bertolone running around and videoing the chef’s at work, there was no room or time for mistakes. Thankfully, there were no disasters in the kitchen, however somebody puréed the onions in the blender instead of chopping them! Unfortunately, Gordon Ramsay was not available to give the chef’s (Year 9 Comenius Project Pupils) advice. However despite this, all the SLT members enjoyed the food and Mr Scott quoted that the English traditional vegetable soup was “marvellous”’. Many of the other members of SLT asked us if we would cook every Friday lunch for them.

All the Comenius Team really enjoyed the day and for many, their favourite part of the whole day was when they were allowed to eat the leftovers from the dinner especially the meatballs! The whole team and myself would like to thank Mrs Cairns , Jill Bertolone and Miss Allsop for all their support, their much needed help and the use of the cooking facilities and ingredients that were needed to complete the Comenius Project Ready Steady Cook Theme. Written By James Venosi

James Venosi, Jake Lovett, Scott Willats, Michael Cavanagh, Matthew Crowder

British Traditional Foods You may already have several ideas about typical British food, but the most popular dish in England at the moment is‌ curry! British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable. The most common and typical foods eaten in Britain include the sandwich, fish and chips, pies like the Cornish pasty, trifle and roasts dinners. Some of our main dishes have strange names like Bubble & Squeak and Toad-in-theHole. Take care! Not all our puddings are sweet puddings; some are eaten during the starter or main course like Yorkshire Pudding and Black Pudding.

Puddings and Cakes in England There are hundreds of variations of sweet puddings in England, but each pudding begins with the same basic ingredients of milk, sugar, eggs, flour and butter and many involve fresh fruit such as raspberries or strawberries, custard, cream, and cakes. The more traditional and well known home-made puddings are apple or rhubarb crumble, bread and butter pudding, spotted dick and trifle. The traditional accompaniment is custard, known as crème Anglaise (English sauce) to the French. The dishes are simple and traditional, with recipes passed on from generation to generation. Favourites include: Spotted Dick (Also called Spotted Dog) Spotted dick is a steamed suet pudding containing dried fruit (usually currants), commonly served with either custard or butter and brown sugar. Trifle Made with layers of sponge cake alternate with custard, jam or fruit and Whipped Cream. Sometimes alcohol-soaked sponge cake is used. Apple Crumble Often served with thick cream, ice cream or custard.

Hasty Pudding A simple and quick (thus the name) steamed pudding of milk, flour, butter, eggs, and cinnamon. Bakewell Pudding — also called Bakewell Tart. Custard A thick, rich, sweet mixture made by gently cooking together egg yolks, sugar, milk or cream, and sometimes other flavourings. Most people today use a yellow powder mixed with milk, water and sugar. Custard can be served as a hot sauce, poured over a dessert, or as a cold layer in, for example, a trifle. When it is cold, it 'sets' and becomes firm.


Bread and butter pudding - old English favour(see image)

Cakes La rd y C a ke T h e Victo ria Sp o nge af te r Q ue e n Victo r ia

- N am e d

Pa rkin A s picy cak e com bining o atm e al and ginge r . Tr ad itio nally e n jo ye d ar o und Guy F awk e s N igh t.

Traditional English Main Dishes Traditional British dishes have had competition from other dishes over the years. Despite this, if you visit England, Scotland or Wales, you can still be served up the traditional foods we have been eating for years. Some of the most famous traditional dishes are:

Ma in m e a l d is h e s Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding This is England's traditional Sunday lunch, which is a family affair.

Y o rks h ire Pud d ing This dish is not usually eaten as a dessert like other puddings but instead as part of the main course or at a starter. Yorkshire pudding, made from flour, eggs and milk, is a sort of batter baked in the oven and usually moistened with gravy. The traditional way to eat a Yorkshire pudding is to have a large, flat one filled with gravy and vegetables as a starter of the meal. Then when the meal is over, any unused puddings should be served with jam or ice-cream as a dessert.

T o a d - i n - t h e - H o l e (sausages covered in batter and roasted.)

Similar to Yorkshire Pudding but with sausages placed in the batter before cooking R o a s t M e a t s (cooked in the oven for about two hours). Typical meats for roasting are joints of beef, pork, lamb or a whole chicken. More rarely duck, goose, gammon, turkey.

Beef is eaten with hot white horseradish sauce, pork with sweet apple sauce and lamb with green mint sauce.

Fish and Chips Fish (cod, haddock, huss, plaice) deep fried in flour batter with chips (fried potatoes) dressed in malt vinegar. This is England's traditional take-away food or as US would say "to go". Fish and chips are not normally home cooked but bought at a fish and chip shop ("chippie" ) to eat on premises or as a "take away".

What special foods are eaten during festivals in England? In England, we have special foods connected with certain festivals. The main ones are shown below. Shrove Tuesday Pancakes In the UK, Shrove Tuesday is also known as Pancake Day (or Pancake Tuesday to some people) because it is the one day of the year when almost everyone eats a pancake. Christmas Day Turkey, vegetables, stuffing, bread sauce, cranberry sauce and gravy. Mince pies Christmas pudding flaming with brandy.

Traditional English Christmas Dinner The Christmas dinner is the main Christmas meal and it is usually eaten at mid-day or early afternoon. A traditional Christmas dinner includes roast turkey or goose, Brussels sprouts, roast potatoes, cranberry sauce, rich nutty stuffing, tiny sausages wrapped in bacon (pigs in a blanket) and lashing of hot gravy. For pudding (dessert) there’s always a rich, fruity pudding which you douse in flaming brandy – said to ward off evil spirits.

A Turkey Tradition A Christmas tradition involving the turkey is to pull its wishbone. This is one of the bones of the turkey which is shaped like the letter ‘Y’. Two people will each hold an end and pull. The person left with the larger piece of the bone makes a wish.


Henry VIII was the first person in England to eat turkey on Christmas Day.

Around 10 million turkeys are consumed in the UK each year.

For 87% of people in the UK, Christmas wouldn’t be Christmas without a traditional roast turkey.

What food was "invented" or discovered in England? 1762: The sandwich was invented in England. We have a town named Sandwich in the south of England. John Montague, the Earl of Sandwich invented a small meal that could be eaten with one hand while he continued his non stop gambling. 1837: John Lea and William Perrins of Worcester, England started manufacturing Worcester Sauce (Worcestershire). Worcester sauce was originally an Indian recipe, brought back to Britain by Lord Marcus Sandys, ex-Governor of Bengal. He asked two chemists, John Lea and William Perrins, to make up a batch of sauce from his recipe.

1902: Marmite was invented in England. Marmite is dark brown-coloured savoury spread made from the yeast that is a by-product of the brewing industry. It has a very strong, slightly salty flavour. It is definitely a love-it-or-hate-it type of food. Mincemeat was invented in England as a way of preserving meat without salting or smoking it. HP Sauce was invented in England at the end of the 19th century by Mr FG Garton, a Nottingham grocer. He was down on his luck and couldn't pay his bills, so when Edwin Samson Moore, owner of the Midland Vinegar Company, offered to cancel his debt with the company and pay him ÂŁ150 for the recipe, plus the use of the name HP, Garton jumped at the chance. Moore had been looking around for some time for a sauce to manufacture and market. He liked both the taste and the name of Garton's HP Sauce, which had an appropriately patriotic ring to it. The HP stood for Houses of Parliament, as it was rumoured that the sauce had been seen gracing the tables of one of the dining rooms there.

Cultures and Customs Britain is full of culture and traditions which have been around for hundreds of years. British customs and traditions are famous all over the world. When people think of Britain they often think of people drinking tea , eating fish and chips and wearing bowler hats, but there is more to Britain than just those things. We have English and British traditions of sport, music, food and many royal occasions. There are also songs, sayings and superstitions . Who was Guy Fawkes? Why does the Queen have two birthdays? Here are the answers to those questions.

Who is Guy Fawkes? In November 1605, the infamous gunpowder Plot took place in which some Catholics plotted to blow the English Parliament and King James, on the day set for the king to open Parliament. The men were angry because the king had treated them badly and they didn’t like it. The story is remembered each 5th November when ‘Guys’ are burned in a celebration know as “Bonfire Night”.

Why does Queen Elizabeth have two birthdays? It is every boy and girl's dream to have two birthdays in one year; well, our Queen is very lucky because she has two birthdays, one in April and one in June. When is the Queen's real birthday? The Queen's actual birthday is on 21 April, she was born on 21 April 1926. When does the Queen have her public and official birthday? It has long been customary to celebrate the Sovereign’s birthday publicly on a day during the summer, when better weather is more likely.

Since 1805, the Sovereign’s 'official' summer birthday has been marked by the Trooping the Colour ceremony, normally held on the second Saturday in June. It is also marked by the flying of the Union flag on government buildings, a 42-gun salute and the publication of the birthday honours list. No particular ceremony is held on The Queen's true birthday, although the Union Flag is flown on public buildings.

Comenius Project

Traditional English Menu

This is the front cover of the menu that we designed for our traditional English menu.

Starter Country Vegetable Soup Served with bread and butter

Main Course Sheperds Pie Served with pan roasted carrots

Dessert Apple Pie Served with homemade vanilla ice-cream

These are the course that we chose. The course that was chosen for us to cook for the ‘Ready Steady Cook Goes Continental’ was the starter ‘Country Vegetable Soup’.

Preparation time less than 30 mins Cooking time less than 10 mins


1 medium potato, diced 1 medium onion, diced 1 garlic clove, sliced 2 bay leaves ½ glass white wine ¾ pt chicken stock 2 tbsp tomato puree dash Worcester sauce To garnish 1 tbsp fresh flatleaf parsley, chopped


1. Heat the oil in a medium saucepan and add the potato, onion, garlic and bay leaves. 2. Sauté for 3-4 minutes. 3. Add the wine, chicken stock, tomato puree and Worcester sauce to the pan and bring to the boil. 4. Reduce the heat and simmer for 10-12 minutes. 5. Ladle into soup bowls and serve garnished with the parsley.

The story behind a loaf of Bread BREAD Bread in this country has to everybody's benefit reached a high standard of purity and hygiene. Bread is perhaps the most important item in our diet; it has often been called the staff of life. To give you an idea of the benefit we get from flour and bread, a Government survey showed that flour and bread provided us with more energy value, more protein, more iron, more nicotinic acid and more vitamin B1 than any other basic food. Bread comes to us in many interesting shapes and flavours. From the time-honoured 'cottage' loaf, to some of the delicious Vienna rolls. Nowadays, the sliced and wrapped loaf is the most popular loaf of all. It is ideal for making sandwiches for picnics, and for workers' lunches; there is, however, an important drawback. If you like your bread with a beautiful rich golden crust on it, do not buy the ready-wrapped variety. One of the nicest things in life is to come home hungry from school or work, and have set before one the fresh, buttered crust from a well-done cottage or coburg loaf.

Bread is such an important part of our lives that it ought to be taken more seriously, and enjoyed to the full. In your town, there are probably a number of bakers. Find the one whose bread you usually enjoy. Besides the ordinary white, wholemeal and wheatmeal loaves, many other kinds are on sale which the baker calls 'fancies'. There are the 'malt' breads, bread with currants, milk loaves (containing milk powder), and various tea breads. Then there is spiced bread, in the form of ginger-bread, but this really comes under the heading of cake, although in Holland it always features on the breakfast table. Time is marching on in many fields of industry; total mechanisation is the order of the day, and as you have seen, the baking industry is rapidly becoming mechanised. An ordinary loaf needs about three-quarters of an hour in the oven at present. But already, electronic devices are being developed that can bake a loaf, by means of high-frequency heat, in three minutes. A loaf baked so quickly, though, has no time to form a crust-the product is not an attractive one. It would have a great use, though, in international emergencies, such as great earthquakes, floods, etc., when perhaps thousands of people would be in dire need of food. A neighbouring country could make and send huge batches of bread to the stricken area in a very short time. Have you ever thought how much bread you eat in a year? As well as the meat, potatoes, vegetables, etc., you probably eat more than 100kg or nearly twice your own weight. One thing you can be sure of - bread is one of the finest foods it is possible to get; in fact, it would not be an exaggeration to say that we cannot do without it. There are many items of food and luxuries, such as ice-cream or sweets which we could well do without, and be far healthier for it. A balanced diet to keep you strong and well in mind and body must always contain that staff of life -good bread.

Salvatore Tone, Joshua Leverton, Daniel Collins, Rhiannah Mocket & Nicole Phillips

Magna Grecia The history of Italian cooking began with Magna Grecia, where the traditions of the Greek colonies popularized the art. The daily fare was simple and sober (pork, salted fish, chickpeas, lentils, lupins, olive pickles and dried figs) but at banquets the food was more varied and plentiful (soups, game in vinegar and honey sauces, sweets with almonds and walnuts) and also took on ritual and symbolic meanings. The Etruscans too had a simple diet based on the cereals favoured by the fertile region (present-day Tuscany). The richest Etruscans were particularly fond of excellence and the pleasures of the table: The ancient Romans tell of sumptuous feasts.

Roman Cuisine in the Republican Era Romans of the Republican Era were a sober people of frugal dietary habits: they usually had two meals a day, prandium and supper. The custom of a breakfast of cereal, honey, dried fruit and cheese was increasingly introduced. For a long time the most widely inspired foods were boiled cereals (a kind of mush), legumes such as broad beans, lentils, chickpeas and lupins, vegetables of a variety of types of bread and cake. The diet also included fish, game from the hunt (only eaten on festive days and there was no rising of livestock), milk, cheese and fruit.

Roman Cuisine in the Imperial Age The Romans had two main daily meals, but they often added a breakfast of bread soaked in wine, grapes, olives, milk and eggs. The midday meal was a light affair of cold dishes. Dinner was the main meal: a feast of hors d'oeuvres (mixed seafood) followed by game, pork, veal, goat, fowl and, especially, fish and finally sweets with a honey base, fresh and dried fruit. These courses were accompanied by sweet, scented wines, as well as often having interludes for entertainment. Cuisine had thus become a refined pleasure and, for some, a show of wealth and originality, as in the famous banquets of Lucullu and Trimalchio.

20th Century Cuisine In the last few decades Italian cuisine has altered as a result of rapid and profound changes in lifestyle. The connection of industry in the food sector and the subsequent improvements in preparation, conservation and distribution has led to modifications of the old system and a rising of food standards but perhaps at the cost of a certain loss of flavour in meats and fresh vegetables. Italian cooking, with its adaptability in preparation, has remained resistant to this, as well as keeping up with the pace of 20th-century life. Italy therefore remains a country with a noble culinary tradition and is renowned abroad as such.

Italian Breads Italian bread has been one of the staple foods of Italy for as long as history has been recorded. As in other European nations, bread in Italy has been taken quite seriously for a considerable amount of time. Therefore, the Italians typically have their own rigid standards when it comes to what a good family-sized loaf of bread should be. The basic criteria for an Italian bread is that it is unsweetened, yeast-leavened, and baked into a thick oblong loaf with tapered ends. While French bread is long, thin and crusty, the typical Italian loaf is 1-2’ long and 6-10� thick with a fairly thin crust. This is due to the yeast in the bread being allowed to rise to its fullest extent, generally over the course of several hours. The inside of well-made Italian bread is moist and porous— ideal for absorbing toppings such as olive oil and tomatoes. However, Italian breads of this sort do not store well for extended periods of time. Italian bread arrived in the United States with the immigrants that arrived in the 18th century. Requiring little more than salt, four, water and yeast for preparation, it gained popularity quickly. Many variations with seasonal or regional ingredients have been added to Italian bread recipes since it first arrived. Today it is commonly used for deli sandwiches, on the side of soup, and with olive oil for soaking as an appetizer.

Italy sports many different kinds of bread with its wide geographic variety and its long history of political division contributing to the development of widely different bread making recipes and traditions. As a rule of thumb, bread rolls are typical of the northern regions while large loaves are typical of the southern regions. Bread often has a small quantity of olive oil, butter or rendered lard mixed into the dough to make it softer and more palatable. Traditional rustic breads include Sfilatino Imbottito (a stuffed bread roll) and Pizza Bianca (a flat white bread).

Bread Bread is a type of food, made from flour and water (to make dough). Usually, salt and yeast are added. Bread is an important part of life in many countries, because everyone eats it. In many cultures, bread is so important that it is part of their religious rituals.

Bread from the Piemonte Region ‘Mica’ is a type of bread from the Piemonte region of Italy. It is a type of savoury bread which is produced in Turin. You have got to leave it to rise for a night and each loaf will weigh between 400-500 grams.

Here are some Italian types of bread. Friuli Venezia Giulia Lazio Lombardia Marche Puglia Sardegna Sicilia Toscana Trentino Alto Adige Umbria Veneto


‘Pan de Frizze’ ‘Pane di Genzano’ ‘Mantovano’ ‘Integrale’ ‘Friselle’ ‘Pane Carasau’ ‘Pane Forte’ ‘Pane Toscano’ ‘Pane di Segale’ ‘Pane di Terni’ ‘Ciabatta’

Ciabatta Bread Ciabatta Bread is a traditional Italian recipe for a classic olive oil flavoured bread that's full of large air bubbles. The full recipe is presented here and I hope you enjoy this classic Italian dish of: Ciabatta Bread. Ciabatta is one of he classic Italian breads. It makes a wonderful accompaniment to many meals, can be used as the basis for a simple and quick pizza, makes great toasted sandwiches and croutons. Ingredients: For the Sponge Starter: 1 tsp active dried yeast 250ml warm water 350g sifted plain flour For the Dough: 1 1/2 tsp active dried yeast 5 tbsp warm milk 1 tbsp olive oil 250ml warm water 600g plain flour 2 tsp salt

Ciabatta Bread Preparation: Method: Begin with the sponge: in a bowl add the yeast to the water, mix to combine then allow to stand for about 4 minutes, stirring occasionally so the yeast activates. Add the sifted flour to the yeast mixture and combine the ingredients well. Cover the bowl with a clean towel and allow the mixture to stand at room temperature for 12 hours. The following day, combine the yeast and milk for the dough mixture then stir and allow to stand for about 4 minutes, to ensure that the yeast is working. Now add the yeast mixture the olive oil and the water to the sponge starter and mix thoroughly, kneading with your hands for 5 minutes.

Mix in the salt and 400g of the flour. Combine well then knead for 10 minutes. As you knead add more flour (and/or) more water until the dough begins to come away from the sides of the bowl. You are aiming for a dough that's quite soft but still firm enough to handle without sticking to your hands. Turn the dough onto a floured surface and knead well for 5 minutes. Place the dough in a large, lighly-oiled bowl, cover with a clean tea towel and set aside in a warm place to rise for 1 hour (or until tripled in size) and bubbly all over. Turn the resultant dough onto a floured work surface and divide into 4 equal pieces (do not knock the dough back as the air is essential). Gently form the dough pieces into rectangles about 25 x 10 cm in size. Still on the floured surface, press down lightly with your fingers then cover and set aside in a warm place to rise for 90 minutes. The dough will only rise slightly (this is OK). Lightly oil two baking sheets and place these in an oven pre-heated to 200째C for 15 minutes. Remove from the oven after this time then pick up the loaves, carefully turn them over (so that the surface that was in the flour is now uppermost) to retain the air in them and transfer two to each baking sheet. Immediately place the loaves in the oven and bake for about 25 minutes, or until the surface of the loaves just begins to turn golden. It's best, during the first 10 minutes of cooking to paint or spray the bread with a little water 3 times as this allows the bread to cook through without colouring too much on the outside. Allow to cool and serve.

A nice way to eat it is dipped in olive oil and balsamic vinegar!

Italian Recipes On the next three pages are the three recipes that we decided to do.

Minestrone is a traditional Italian soup. Serve with warm crusty bread. Preparation time :25 Total time :1 hour 25 : minutes . Cooking time :1 : hour .Total minutes Serves: 6 to 8 Ingredients 75g Parmesan, coarsely grated 1 packet fresh basil, roughly chopped 2 tbsp olive oil 1 onion, finely chopped 1 garlic clove, crushed 2 medium sized waxy potatoes (eg Estima), peeled and diced 2 carrots, peeled and finely diced 2 courgettes, finely diced 3 sticks of celery, chopped 1 litre of water or vegetable stock 1 x 227g can chopped tomatoes 100g small pasta, eg macaroni 1 x 300g can red kidney beans, drained and rinsed 225g spinach, roughly chopped Salt and freshly ground black pepper

Method Place the oil in a large saucepan with the onion and garlic and gently fry for 8-10 minutes until the onion is soft but not brown. Add the potatoes, carrots, courgettes and celery and continue cooking gently for a further 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the water (or stock) with the tomatoes, cover and simmer for 30 minutes. Stir in the pasta, kidney beans and the spinach and continue to cook for 10 minutes. Season to taste then stir in the basil. Sprinkle with the Parmesan and serve with chunks of warm crusty bread. Kitchen tools Vegetable knife, chopping board, large saucepan, wooden spoon, grater, set of measuring spoons, measuring jug.

Ingredients 3 eggs (separate white and yolk) Mascapone 1 pot of double cream 3 tablespoons of sugar Finger biscuits 3packets Italian coffee or liqueur Cocoa powder (for decoration)

Instructions •

• •

Whisk egg yolks together with sugar in one bowl. Whisk double cream until thick in another bowl. Mix egg yolks, sugar, double cream and mascarpone together. Whisk egg whites in a separate bowl until thick and peaky, add to the mix ture and fold. Place hot Italian coffee into the finish ing dish, then dip biscuits into the cof fee. Put 1/2 the cream mixture on top. Then add a second layer of biscuits and then add the rest of the cream to the dish. To finish add a sprinkle of a little bit of cocoa powder on the top.

Ingredients: 250g mincemeat Breadcrumbs Grated Parmesan Cheese Salt and Pepper 1 or 2 eggs Method 1. 2. 3. 4.

Place all the ingredients into a bowl. Make a well in the centre and then add the egg(s) and mix together. After roll into small balls then roll the meatballs in flour. Place the meatballs on a plate to rest for a few minutes. Put a little oil in a frying pan. Heat the oil and then place the meatballs in the frying pan and fry until brown. When all the meatballs are brown take them out of the pan and place them into your homemade cause then cook for a further 15-20 minutes.

Ingredients: ½ Onion 1 clove of Garlic 3-4 tins of chopped tomatoes Olive oil 1 Beef oxo cube Salt and Pepper 1 small tin of Tomato puree

Best served with pasta

Method Put some oil into a saucepan and add the crushed garlic and onions then fry on a low to medium heat. Blend two of the tins of tomatoes and then place into the saucepan and then add the other tin of tomatoes as normal. Then add the tomato puree, salt and pepper, sprinkle the oxo cube and add a little water and then let them all simmer in the pan. Then taste for flavouring.

Nicholas Halfhide, Norina Maniscalco, Laura Bartlett, Lauren Dickie, Louise Barnes

French food is very individual and very tasty! It isn’t just frogs legs, snails and baguettes though most people think it is! French food in old France was mostly grains. World War I marked the beginning of modern French Cuisine, because of this tourism became high during World War II and furthered the need for grand cuisine at a fair price. Nowadays people can walk into bars and restaurants and order a large French meal! French food consists highly of quality, flavour and appearance.

Bistros and cafes now dot the land and the French have their pick of Pain au Chocolat or Brioche daily. In France there is a cafeteria for everyone. Attention is paid to the quality, flavour, and appearance of food. It is a pure, nearly religious, sensory experience. What once was survival is now an object of daily, living art.

French cuisine

is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. It evolved

from centuries of social and political change. The Middle Ages brought lavish banquets to the upper class with ornate, heavily seasoned food prepared by chefs such as Guillaume Tirel. The era of the French Revolution , however, saw a move toward fewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and refined techniques, beginning with François Pierre La Varenne and further developing with Napoleon Bonaparte and other dignitaries, Marie-Antoine Carême. French cuisine was codified in the 20th century by George Auguste Escoffier to become the modern version of haute cuisine. Escoffier's major work, however, left out much of the regional character to be found in the provinces of France. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to bring people to the countryside during the 20th century and beyond, to sample this rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of France. Basque cuisine has also been a great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Ingredients and dishes vary by region. There are many significant regional dishes that have become both national and regional. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles regionally and nationally with their many variations

Old France In 1789, most French people were poor farmers whose diets were based mainly on grains. In the decades that followed, an upper class came about – one that signalled good food as a sign of how important people were in the society. Even though the good cuisine being served in the private homes of the best, all was not well in the nation. During this time, seventy percent of French peasants still put up with poverty and starvation.

20th Century Changes World War I marked the beginning of modern French cuisine. Improved transportation during the first half of the 20th century spread the wealth and regional cuisine that had previously been split. Tourism came into high demand after World War II and furthered the need for grand cuisine at a fair price. Now anyone could walk into a bar or restaurant and have a large meal.

French bread is a lean bread as it contains no fat, lasting about a day at most. This is why people visit the local "Boulangerie" (bakery) and buy it daily in France. French bread is eaten at all meals, and forms the most important part of breakfast. French bread is typically made with flour, water and yeast.

French Family Values

The family is the social backbone of the country and each member has certain duties and responsibilities.

The extended family provides both emotional and financial support. •

Despite their reputation as romantics, the French have a practical approach towards marriage. •

Families have few children, but parents take their role as guardians and providers very seriously.

Relationships - Public vs. Private

The French are private people and have different rules of behaviour for people within their social circle and those who are not.

Although the French are generally polite in all dealings, it is only with their close friends and family that they are free to be themselves. •

Friendship brings with it a set of roles and responsibilities, including being available should you be needed. Friendship involves frequent, if not daily, contact.

Beheading Bottles of Champagne A tradition that is popular at weddings is beheading bottles of champagne using a specially made sabre. The tradition originated in the time of Napoleon when the Hussards under the famous general’s command began celebrating victories by swinging a sabre and thus neatly slicing the top off a champagne bottle. According to legend, the Hussards, skilled cavalry, would ride up at full gallop to one of the ladies, holding up the bottle, and with one swipe, behead the bottle. Christmas Many old French traditions are related to the holiday season. Holding a puppet show on Christmas eve is very common and later at midnight, people attend church for the traditional Christmas Mass. After mass, they have a late Christmas Eve dinner, called le Réveillon (referring to the wake up or revival, alluding to the birth of Christ). Menus for this occasion change according to the region you are in but will usually consist of dishes containing turkey, capon, goose, chicken, and boudin blanc (white pudding). Children wait for Père Noël (Santa Clause) and leave their shoes out in front of the fireplace, doping presents will fill them by morning. The tree is hung with nuts and candy. Children also believe in Père Fouettard who hands out spankings for anyone who’s been naughty. Easter Called Pâques in France, this is a very important time for the French, who have a strong Christian, and especially Catholic, background. According to tradition, no church bells are rung on the Thursday before Good Friday and remain silent for several days, until on Easter Sunday, they revive. As the bells toll, the custom is for people to hug and kiss each other.

Flying Bells Children don’t look for eggs left by an Easter Bunny… rather, the French believe that the Flying Bells leave on the Thursday before Good Friday, taking with them all the grief and misery of mourners of Christ’s crucifixion, reaching Rome to see the Pope and then come back on Easter Sunday morning bearing chocolate Easter eggs, which are hidden around houses and gardens for children to find. Poison d’Avril This is the name used for the French Easter Fish and also comes in a chocolate version. An age-old tradition however, that dates back several centuries, involving the Poison d’Avril, takes place on April 1st. The great joke is for children to make fish of paper and pin as many as possible to the backs of adults, then run gleefully away yelling “Poison d’Avril!!”, which is a little like saying ’April Fool’. Bastille Day Celebrated on July 14, this is one of France’s most colourful traditions. The day commemorates the day The Bastille, a prison in Paris that was regarded as the symbol of the much-hated French monarchy of the times, was stormed and pillaged by angry mobs of French citizens in 1789. Called La Fête Nationale, many fireworks are set of as the day goes by, well into the night. Parades are also to be seen with dancing in the streets. 5-Week Holidays Another interesting tradition of the French is the fact that almost all employees are entitled to 5 weeks of holiday a year. August has been the traditional holiday month in France, with almost all locals clearing out of their cities to venture to other parts of the world or simply to go camping in their own countryside. For those taking their holidays during the winter months, skiing in the French Alps is the way to go.

The French Menu Starter Croquettes de camembert– camembert fritters Main Quiche Lorraine avec salade nicoseSavoury bacon flan– with a salad Dessert Profiteroles

Above is the French Menu that Team France decided to create for our food theme .

Ingredients Choux pastry: 250ml (8 fl oz) water 125g (4¼ oz) butter 125g (4¼ oz) plain flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 4 eggs Filling: 450ml (16 fl oz) double cream 1 tablespoon caster sugar 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract Topping: 75g (3 oz) plain chocolate Preparation method 1. 2.



Preheat oven to 230 C / Gas mark 8. In medium saucepan, bring water to the boil. Add butter and stir as it melts, then return to the boil. Add flour and salt all at once and stir vigorously until mixture forms a ball. Remove from heat and add eggs, one at a time, stirring vigorously after each until smooth. Drop by heaping tablespoons, 7cm apart, on a baking tray. Bake 15 minutes in the preheated oven then reduce heat to 160C/ Gas mark 3 and bake 25 minutes more. Remove pastries from oven, split and remove soft dough from centre. Turn oven off and return pastries to dry in cooling oven, 20 minutes more. Cool completely on wire rack. In medium bowl, whip cream with electric mixer until stiff peaks form. Stir in vanilla and sugar. Fill profiteroles with whipped cream. Melt chocolate in microwave or slowly over low heat. Drizzle melted chocolate over tops of profiteroles. Serve immediately.

This makes delicate profiteroles or éclairs, perfect for filling with whipped cream and topping with melted chocolate.

Comenius Project


Front Cover

Starter Country Vegetable Soup English

Main Course Meatballs with Fusilli & Italian Sauce Italian

Dessert Chocolate Éclairs French

Selection of Bread and Cheese


Food Menu


test doc 13102010