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Chicago Studio Spring 2014

John Anthony Sturniolo

College of Architecture and Urban Studies Virginia Tech


Special thanks goes out to Program Director Andrew Balster, Von Weise Associates, GREC, CannonDesign, SOM and many others for hosting, teaching, instructing, and supporting the students of Virginia Tech.


Contents

Urban Mapping

page 8

Professional Practice Interviews Lectures

page 30 page 42

Chicago Studio Conjectures Redmoon

page 68 page 76

Photography

page 102


Urban Mapping Sustainability Accessibility Diversity Open Space Compatibility Incentives Adaptability Density Identity


Principle #1: Sustainability

Urban Mapping

Heather Rosen Maru Padilla

The first principle of the book City Building: Nine Planning Principles for the 21st Century is sustainability. It is chosen to head the list because it is an overarching principle which impacts all the others. It is crucial for urban planners to consider the sustainability of a project throughout the entire design process. The principle of sustainability does not only refer to environmental factors, but includes social and economic issues. Sustainability is a holistic design approach. Sustainable urban planning can be broken down into two main efforts: conservation of the natural environment and smart city building. The natural environment needs to be carefully considered whenever designing a city. It is important to calculate the environmental carrying capacity of the land, manage the land use in an area, maintain clean air and water, conserve open natural space, and use local resources. The built environment must also be constructed in a smart way. Strategic plans include using energy efficient systems, making dense developments, implementing efficient infrastructure, and utilizing local building materials. Designing and building dense cities is a critical step towards achieving sustainability. Dense developments allow for maximum conservation of natural landscape and results in more livable spaces. In order to realize this condition, there needs to be cooperation and collaboration between regional and local governments. These groups working together can implement zoning and land use policies, inter-city transit infrastructure, economic sufficiency plans, and building code standards. Combining these elements will result in the planning of economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable cities.

BUILDING A CITY

page 8 of 114


Urban Mapping

Planned vs. Unplanned

Density vs. Sprawl

Guiding Populations

Urban Infill

Energy Efficient Materials

Intercity Transit page 9 of 114


Principle #2: Accessibility

Urban Mapping

Kelsey Dressing Andrew Economou

Accessibility is about facilitating ease of movement and maximizing circulation. In order to design a more accessible city, one of the most important aspects to consider is the concentration of density within an efficient transit network. Compact developments can aid in reducing travel time, discouraging automobile use and encouraging walkability. By connecting concentrated pedestrian-friendly destinations with mass transit systems, the use of cars is reduced. In order to better serve the pedestrian, breaking down large areas into small blocks and streets can provide safer and easier crossings, while also giving the road system redundancy. If a breakdown occurs, parallel routes can provide traffic alternatives. When designing transit systems, having the ability to handle multiple modes of transport is beneficial. Transportation, circulation and access corridors should be considered when designing a city. Setting aside areas as land reserves for future transportation use can prevent possible demolition of buildings. Transit corridors should be located at the boundaries of districts without blocking important views to create more walkable areas. By reducing the size and radius of turns, traffic is forced to slow down, which makes the area safer for pedestrians. Another way to increase pedestrian comfort is to consider the street types and design treatments. Wider sidewalks, designated mass transit, automobile, and bike lines, and landscape treatments can all work together to create a more pedestrian-friendly area. In conclusion, considering the needs of pedestrians and transit requirements in design can lead to a more accessible city.

Multiple Modes of Transportation

page 10 of 114

MULTIPLE MODE


SMALL BLOCKS AND STREETS

EASE OF MOVEMENT

Concentrated Destinations

CONCENTRATED DESTINATIONS

EASE OF MOVEMENT

Geometry & Scale page 11 of 114 GEOMETRY & SCALE

Urban Mapping

Small Blocks & Streets


Principle #3: Diversity

Urban Mapping

Anna Knowles-Bagwell Aaron Williams

Diversification of a place occurs within two main categories; the built environment and the residents. The built environment can be varied through the conservation of natural landscapes or significant historic buildings, allowing for the character of a place to develop over time and authentically reflect its history. When developing new structures, design variation is important because it helps to increase visual variety. This can be accomplished by breaking larger parcels of land into smaller parcels and allowing different design approaches to take place. Design variation may be influenced by zoning laws, which over time vary building stock, or by simply allowing multiple design languages to be implemented. These strategies combine to create an urban landscape which is visually dynamic and representative of the people who inhabit it. However, simply creating an interesting and diverse building stock is not enough to keep people living and thriving in an area. Mixed use can be used as the umbrella strategy for diversifying the cultural elements which draw people to a place, allowing them to find their niche and stay there. In this case, mixed use means more than just variation in the amenities and program of a development. Instead, it incorporates a larger scale of thinking, including accessible transit and practical proximity between amenities. This concept of immediacy reduces the amount of sprawl, creating communities which are overall more viable for residents. It is also important to retain multiple levels of affordability within a mixed use development, thus maintaining economic diversity and combatting social stratification. When all of these elements are brought together, in combination with other proven urban strategies, the result is a place which is rich in character as well as visual and intellectual interest.

Mixed Use To Reduce Urban Sprawl page 12 of 114


Conservation Of Historic Structures

=

Urban Mapping

+

Optimizing Adjacency Between Uses

VISUAL VARIETY

CONSERVATION

Multiple Voices Within A Development

page 13 of 114

SMALL PAR


Principle #4: Open Space

Urban Mapping

Bryce Beckwith Adrienne Milner

The presence of open space within an urban environment is imperative for reasons pertaining to human health, natural habitats, and the quality of living environment. Open space should take into account the preexisting habitat and natural systems. When designing large open spaces surrounding wildlife, migration corridors should be preserved. The ground plane needs to remain porous to accommodate watersheds that often exist surrounding flood plains, rivers, and drainage corridors. The isolation of park spaces should distance habitat from human contact, creating various spaces of sensitivity to natural habitats. Recreation and urban landscape is an important type of open space for the health and quality of life within dense living conditions. Open space intended for recreational use and human activities should be programmed accordingly. The urban landscape should contain green spaces for environmental purposes that improve the quality of life such as cooling air, filtering polluted runoff, and absorbing carbon dioxide. Various scales of open spaces should be distributed within an urban fabric in accordance to easy accessibility. Lastly, open space is a crucial element of any built environment for the visual and spatial relief that it offers. Conserving man-made and natural landscape such as hills, rivers, parks, and skylight strengthens contextual characteristics. Views should be preserved, providing visual relief from the built environment, and highlighting landscaped contextual characteristics. Physical connection to these preserved views are important as it creates a release from cities and prevents the applicability of the island effect on the built environment.

INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURAL INDUSTRIAL Programmed open spaces for human activities versus open spaces that accommodate industrial and infrastructural needs.

page 14 of 114


Urban Mapping

QUNLI PARK, CHINA

NEW YORK, NEW YORK

PHOENIX, ARIZONA TOP: Large open spaces for habitat and natural systems such as water runoff and watersheds. MIDDLE: Different scales of open park spaces for recreation in proximity to living areas. BOTTOM: Dense living conditions surround open space creating islands that isolate wildlife. page 15 of 114


Principle #5: Compatibility

Urban Mapping

Isaac Currey Lindsey Currey

“In deciding whether buildings are to stand out or fit in, the principle [of compatibility] suggests that elements of similarity are just as important in establishing a recognizable, identifiable sense of place as elements of singularity.” Throughout the process of design, context should constantly influence a project. This means checking the proposal against current conditions, and looking at it as a part of the whole of the city. Designers should reference not only the surrounding urban landscape of today, but also the city’s historical context. In addition, designers should try to account for future conditions, even postulate as to what changes their project might spark in the urban fabric. At the resolution of individual buildings, scale is a major factor in establishing compatibility. Parcel size, as well as height and setbacks can be regulated to form an urban consensus. However, allowances should be made for some variation, interest and relief. If desired, a height difference of up to two times can create a landmark building, but anything much above that will seem out of place and “freakish.” Likewise, over large parcel sizes break the continuity of the city. “A building should be respectful of its surroundings and of its time.” Beyond scale, designers are confronted with the temporal matter of style. In many ways, the built environment is a visual timeline of history. Every architect or planner of a new project has to ask themselves how much they want to reference and reflect the context, “respect [the] surroundings,” and how much do they want to deviate, in order to be “of [the] time?” How should the character of the building sit in this timeline? These questions are answered primarily through decisions of material and detailing, color and historical preservation. Compatibility is about the broader sense of place; about both similarity and difference. Seeking to respect the existing character and qualities of a site, compatibility in design makes way for the values of today and the possibilities of the future.

page 16 of 114


Urban Mapping page 17 of 114


Principle #6:Incentives

Urban Mapping

Patrick McMinn John Sturniolo

Incentives for expanding or building a city generally focus on areas that have underused land, infrastructure or buildings, such as spaces that are in economic decline or brownfields. This development is commonly carried out by governmental or private organizations to facilitate further investment. The most common incentives are: tax reductions; subsidies for land costs; site assembly and preparation; new infrastructure for transportation and utilizes; health care, education, and public safety services; open space and landscape beautification; and additional density allowances. A growing, livable city is an attraction for talented individuals who in turn will accelerate the success and expansion of the city life and attractive spaces. This develop process is found, planned, and defined through master planning and infrastructure improvement. The master plan provides a strategic approach for attracting new investments, city growth and development, and a defined focus for the future of the city. The master plan is designed around development quality, beautification, and value enhancement. Development Quality focuses on circulation, open spaces, and phases of building construction as a framework for potential investors. Landscape Beautification of streets, parks, and waterfronts are one of the main methods of attracting investments to a particular area. Value Enhancement consolidates existing land parcels and adds additional density to the plot which in turn adds further value to the property. The second direction for city development is through infrastructure improvements, which are done through access improvements and the creation of public facilities. By improving the infrastructure of a space to facilitate the ease of access into those areas, transit oriented development follows these constructs; malls, restaurants, hotels, and other like facilities being commonly found near a major access point such as a subway station. This can be accomplished through transit and street redesign, new bicycle paths, pedestrian walkways, parking, and other access improvements. The creation of public facilities such as airports, convention center, ballparks, museums, performance halls, cultural and educational facilities all create new jobs and draw in visitors and economic revenue. These facilities can also add value and revenue to one another, such as a new convention center attracting new hotels which attracts new restaurants and entertainment venues. SOCIAL CENTER

MAIN TRANSIT AXIS

RESIDENTIAL

page 18 of 114

SCHOOL


Urban Mapping UNUSED DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS TRANSFERRED

HISTORIC BUILDING PRESERVED

page 19 of 114


Principle #7: Adaptability

Urban Mapping

Rachel Montague Gregory Dalfonzo

Adaptability, as framed by Kriken, is focused on the goal of creating cities that are flexible over time. More flexibility enables designers to conserve resources and history as a city ages. Designers are expected to take into account the needs of a progressive urban landscape, while maintaining the vibrancy of the built environment. The main points of adaptability are centralized expansion, smaller modules, conservation of open space, and viability of communities. All of these topics overlap in their effects and intentions, developing a balance between adaptation and innovation. Centralized expansion supports an efficient and understandable cityscape. By maintaining focal zones of established areas, both the sense of incompleteness and debris from new construction are separated from daily life. The finished center serves as an orientation device for visitors. Planning with smaller parcels of land encourages the most efficient use of valuable space that centers on the pedestrian. Parcels can be combined to create distinct programmatic groupings that can later be reallocated as uses change. A high degree of walkability, supported by maintaining accessible walkways through larger buildings, connects these disparate elements of the city and supports collaboration. Open space is a precious commodity in the city. For urban dwellers to receive a share of wind, sun, view, and green spaces, cities must prioritize the maintenance and development of flexible open spaces. The economics of the city are such that the supporting elements of daily life must be integrated into every community. Shops, gyms, residences, and businesses can be developed in a mutually supportive way. The viability of communities also relies on simple spatial decisions. Engaging the street and pedestrians results in a more comprehensive use of buildings, which can support a change in program later in time. Most of the moves that support adaptability are common sense, but they are also often overlooked, as designers seek to develop their personal ideas. While the expression of concept is important in the success of a design, the awareness of and engagement with more general issues is just as crucial. Adaptability will make any design much more valuable, especially as cities become more crowded and adaptive reuse becomes mandatory. DIRECTION OF EXPANSION

60’s

70’s

00’s

80’s

90’s

REUSE

RENOVATE ADD

DIRECTION OF EXPANSION

MIX page 20 of 114

ADAPT


General Practice

Optimal Practice

VACANT LOTS

Urban Mapping

PLANNED EXPANSION

COMPLETE CORE

INCOMPLETE NEIGHBORHOOD

DEVELOPMENTS

PERMANENT PERMANENT OPENOPEN SPACE SPACE

PARKPARK

SCALED CITY PLANNING SCALED CITY PLANNING

OPEN SPACE

page 21 of 114


Principle #8: Density Ethan Bingeman Alec Yuzhbabenko

Urban Mapping

Density is defined by the number of people living or working on a given unit of land. It varies based on many factors, but culture is the most influential. Developing countries tend to have a density of about 100 square feet per family while more developed countries have about 1,000 square feet for every 2 people. Another determinant of density is the terrain in the location of a place. Mountains, rivers, oceans and other natural boundaries impose limits and dictate the urban fabric. When dealing with city design, there are three elements to consider in an effort to achieve a livable city: + Integrating transit with shopping, business, and entertainment with residential areas to support efficient transit and encourage walking. + A suggested density of 300 dwellings per acre to maximize views, sunlight, and adequate open space. + Establishing amenities (recreational, cultural, and supportive services) to activate the street at all times. Implementing these elements, higher density, mixed-use corridors connect areas by means of public transportation. Strengthening neighborhoods provide a base for the density to form. Protecting landmarks, parks, and industrial areas, which are essential to a city and neighborhood character, bring economic benefit for the density to thrive. Lastly, expanding open spaces begins to make the higher density more enjoyable for residents. Sprawling development destroys irreplaceable land, wastes energy and infrastructure, and causes millions of hours lost in commutes. Through transit oriented development, careful planning, and providing adequate amenities, these densities are sustainable, livable, and achievable.

S MICHIGAN AVE

S BLU

E ISL

AN

D AVE

S PRARIE AVE

S WABASH AVE

S PRARIE AVE

S MICHIGAN AVE

S INDIANA AVE

S WABASH AVE

S STATE ST

S INDIANA AVE

S STATE ST

S JEFFERSON ST

S CLARK ST

S JEFFERSON ST

S PEORIA ST

S HALSTEAD ST

S CANAL ST

S PEORIA ST

S HALSTEAD ST

S MAY ST

S CARPENTER ST

S RACINE AVE

S MORGAN ST

S MAY ST

S ALLPORT ST

S CARPENTER ST

S RACINE AVE

S MORGAN ST

S ALLPORT ST

S THROOP ST

S LOOMIS ST

S LAFLIN ST

S ASHLAND AVE

S PAULINA ST

S WOOD ST

S CLARK ST

S WOLCOTT AVE

S DAMEN AVE

S PR CERMAK RD

CERMAK RD

page 22 of 114

S WENTWORTH AVE

S PRINCETON AVE

AVE

ST

CERMAK RD

S CALUMET AVE

AVE

ER

ULT

CO

E AV

CH

S AR

N

AND

E ISL

S BLU

W

ER

S WENTWORTH AVE

ETO

INC

S CANAL ST

S THROOP ST

S LOOMIS ST

S LAFLIN ST

S ASHLAND AVE

S WOOD ST

S WOLCOTT AVE

S DAMEN AVE

CERMAK RD

CERMAK RD


Green Space

City Fabric

Infrastructure

Sensible Growth

Brownfield Sites

FINANCIAL DISTRICT

Urban Mapping

Establish Grid

FINANCIAL DISTRICT

RESIDENTIAL

Financial Districts

Establish Neighborhoods

Residential Districts page 23 of 114


Principle #9: Identity

Urban Mapping

Erin Young Catherine Ives

Identity is creating and preserving a unique and memorable sense of place. The primary sources through which cities achieve identity are natural features, climate, culture, and design. Because each one of these elements can vary, it gives uniqueness to cities because of the infinite combinations. The greatest challenge for modern city builders is designing fast-growing, yet livable cities. Such fast development can hinder builders from recognizing and utilizing attributes of a specific city, causing these elements to not have time to develop into rich and deep ideas. On the other hand, generic components of a city can stitch together the urban fabric in an otherwise dense area with too many variables. The generic then becomes the background for specific landmarks and cultures to develop a sense of place. A good city must involve the public interest to protect and enhance the city’s uniqueness over the private interest that threaten it. However, the development of identity can be inhibited by conflicting interests, such as too many monumental icons that don’t respect their existing context. Establishing identity within a city is difficult and can be faced with many challenges. Many of the issues are common among cities, such as environmental sameness, repetition of elements, places that are hard to comprehend, a sense of being lost, and a lack of natural features. By utilizing existing conditions and recognizing a city’s potential, it is possible to create a sense of identity.

Balance between generic and unique page 24 of 114


Urban Mapping Issues: environmental sameness, repetition of elements, places that are hard to comprehend /sense of being lost, and lack of natural features

page 25 of 114


S Halsted St

Urban Mapping

Pilsen

Industrial Corridor


Urban Mapping

18th St

Chinatown

Cermak Rd

page 27 of 114


Urban Mapping

The diagram on the previous page reflects the general conditions located around Redmoon Theater, situated on the corner of Cermak Road and South Jefferson Street. The nearby neighborhoods include Pilsen, the Industrial Corridor, and Chinatown. In terms of accessibility and infrastructure, the main points of access are along Cermak Road and South Halsted Street, which is clearly limiting to the surrounding area. There is a Red Line Stop in Chinatown to the East, a Green line stop on Halsted to the North, and Pink Line stops to the far West in Pilsen. The point being, that the existing infrastructure of the area does not immediately support the growth of the area. There is only a couple available bus routes through the area, the streets are not necessarily bike friend, and walking is possible, but not completely supported by the existing conditions. There is not an ease of access into places such as Redmoon without walking for several blocks (sometimes through questionable areas) or having a private car to get around. In short, the infrastructure is lacking on various basis. The surrounding environment around Redmoon could be described as the generated sprawl from the cluster developments in Chinatown and Pilsen. However, this also has a more programmatic importance. The clustered developments in Pilsen and Chinatown are largely residential homes and smaller commercial businesses, while in the outward sprawl, industrial buildings, high density housing, and an assortment of community-focused buildings can be found. In some ways, this urban planning basis is completely intentional, by having a cultureheavy community clustered away from main transit access point it allows that community to become an island in itself, thus preserving the heritage of those individuals. That effect has positive and negative consequences in terms of its future development. On one hand, as already stated, the culture will remain more intact in those areas and individuals there will have more choice over the future development of their neighborhoods. However, that means that the inward growth of those neighborhoods is dependent on an increase of like-cultured individuals continuing to move into those areas. Also, it is much harder to impose new development and strategic planning through creating a focal point to draw others in and creating economic growth; that the economics that go through that area are individuals who live there already or individuals who go to those areas for specific intent. Creating an island effect essentially eliminates the whole “big flashing lights” mentality to draw in new businesses and revenue. In terms of future improvement, I believe that there is some critical points that can be addressed to improve the Cermak Corridor. Primarily, the largest point of interest would be improving the existing infrastructure, allowing for closer access points with the “L” train system, improving the bus transit network throughout the area, and allowing for the usage of bike lines and bike sharing. However, this almost means created a stronger point of interest to create incentives for these areas. This could mean adapting existing program buildings for other uses and restructuring the arrangement of some of the vast undeveloped spaces for new business and housing. The biggest question of all this potential redevelopment, however, is “should it be done?” Pilsen and Chinatown do have identities that need to be preserved and any sort of mass changing of the existing system depends largely on the success of preserving the those areas, or if those areas need change at all in the first place. page 28 of 114


Professional Practice Interviews Winn Chen John Janda Carl D’ Silva Hayes Brister Taylor Mckinley Luis Monterrubio Chip von Weise


Winn Chen, CannonDesign

Professional Practice

Low-Level Architect Interview Duration: 50 minutes

‡ Role: “Architect 1, B”; entry-level architectural staff, tasked for a variety of things on a project; project-to-project basis responsibilities; model-making, construction documents, development, etc.; Signifying how many years of experience, 2.5 years currently ‡ Currently a BIM Manager for primary project ‡ Evaluations: technically has a supervisor who conducts his review, but the project team and peers really do the evaluation, being shuffled from team to team; individuals in the hierarchy vary ‡ Nobody in the project is overly specialized on what they are doing day-to-day, unless they are the project manager or something similar; every day is a little different, depends on what needs to be done ‡ For the most of the time, working on a single project, but multiple parts of that project ‡ Architecture, “a nice intersection of being creative and being practical” (reason for choosing profession) ‡ Profession is both vilified and glorified in culture ‡ Always thought he would be designing something; learning about design in school in truth ‡ If not currently in architecture…10 years ago, would have liked to do Apple Product design; Now, science fiction cityscape design and renders in movies, doing the sketching and renderings, does not need to make sense, just look cool ‡ Rewarding: working with people, coordination, design development, really enjoys figuring out details ‡ With academia, there are so many assumptions that are made that are inherently untestable, the key is the built environment ‡ Changes in education/be prepared for: † The product is not the design, in many cases it is the presentation of the design; push for how to present. Period. Consider doing a power point/slide show, the amount of control you have now over what sequence people see things and when! † Collaboration, but always hard in school, because there is not a boss † Studio culture is fun, but can be unhealthy, just take itself a little less seriously, be more comfortable ‡ Changes in the practice/future projections: † Things are getting faster, schedules, demands † Despite the speed, it does not hinder design, everyone has to really consider every decision made; design comes out of weird places, and the only thing that hampers design is the quality of the client ‡ Everyone starting their own practice is not sustainable

page 30 of 114


John Janda, von Weise Associates

‡ Became an architect because of his brother, influenced in high school; marriage of art and technicality ‡ Role: “Quality- control Position”, but functioning as a Project Manager, keeping Chip up to speed on the project; “The Second Chip” ‡ Small Firm role, everyone has to be able to do everything essentially; learning process quickly and development ‡ Gratification of seeing something dreamt up realized; complication of the process also interesting and gratifying; always designing would get boring ‡ Critical importance of budget, but is unfortunately not and cannot be taught in school, just have to learn by experience ‡ Design, Bid, Build ‡ A lot of intuition, experience, and trial and error seem to determine many unsure moments, such as pricing, contracts, day to day operations; the things that are not taught in school; cannot always immediately know how much a project will cost, but can look at previous projects, how things are in the market, materials, and make educated estimations for a bid ‡ Preference toward smaller-firm size due to flexibility, but larger-firms do have that benefit of experience, numbers, and project size, but individuals are more categorized, “part of a machine” ‡ In the next 10-years, takeover of the Revit Model, however, existing issue with the inflexibility of Revit; that when creating so many custom-made designs the efficiency is defeated, good for standardized items, not customization ‡ Revit push from general practice, contractors, clients; the efficiency for them to see things in “3D” space versus the old 2D drawings ‡ Architects are starting to be expected to great an entire building in 3D before it’s ever even created; positives and negatives to both ‡ Coordination is more important and getting easier (potentially) ‡ All this extra work does not necessarily shorten the project timeline, just makes things a little easier for construction later ‡ Advice: do not have to follow the model, do not be afraid to move around, best to know what else is out there when you are younger, do things outside of architecture

page 31 of 114

Professional Practice

Mid-Level Architect Interview Duration: 41 minutes


Carl D’Silva, JAHN

Professional Practice

High-Level Architect Interview Duration: 49 minutes

‡ Role: Vice-President and Principal Architect ‡ Principal Architect: Immediate individual under main designer; take initial concept designs and turn that into a building; architectural systems, coordination with engineers; development and delivery of the job ‡ Vice-President: term reserved for the officers in the firm; LLC (Limited Liability Cooperation); cooperate term, not an architectural term ‡ Reason for becoming architect: test in 9th/10th grade, list of what an individual would be good at. Sister went to Washington-Saint Louis for Architecture, understanding of what architecture school would be like, was not leaning towards anything else so literally just “checked the box” on the Virginia Tech application ‡ Loosely thought about going into graphics for Disney years ago, but did not have a reason to switch out ‡ Enjoyment of current work at JAHN † Type of projects, size/location; starting to enjoy larger projects more † Large complex jobs = longer time frame; able to work on different phases † Enjoys doing details, looking over RFI’s, shop drawings † Always something different, complexity of projects and coordination ‡ “The only person responsible for your development as an architect is you; not Tech, not your professors, not the firm you go work for…” ‡ Against the idea for firms to break down departments into special groups for only certain parts of a project; only details, structure, technical, designing or “hat team” for towers ‡ Understanding design makes better technical and vice versa ‡ Passing off jobs to other groups within the firms, individuals do not necessarily know where that design/intent came from; always have someone that follows through each step ‡ Consistently bringing up that those that are “pigeon-holed” into a particular part of the project, never really have any other understanding of the project (or potentially design as a whole) ‡ Principal > Associate Principal > Core Architects … ‡ Evaluations: used to be done by an “office manager” (recently retired), no current formal staffing policy; project based, the designers stay with the project each step, do not just pass it off after the initial concept, not so “autonomous”, ex. Such as with Foster ‡ Use of AutoCAD, some Revit, difficult to use Revit for the projects they have, will not use unless a client requests it, otherwise it’s solely for their own purpose; local clients do not care ‡ Depends all on the clients ‡ Contractors really cannot force an architect to do things in Revit ‡ JAHN has been naturally focusing on energy code for years; really it’s just understanding fundamentals better than keeping to certain code; reducing the loads and the passive architecture; energy consultant and structural engineer are engaged in the early concept ‡ Whole society is moving towards sustainability ‡ For students to know: how you want to develop your career and what you want to do with your career; give a thought to what type of architecture they want to work in; choose projects/ thesis toward those type of firms that interest you

page 32 of 114


Hayes Brister, Account Executive, Henricksen

‡ Originally did train and pursue a career as an architecture ‡ “Just show up”; be in front of opportunities, just go places, never miss an opportunity ‡ Even though is no longer in architecture, being able to know the terminology and understand space planning makes it easier to convey and talk to certain clients ‡ Architects naturally seem to think differently than other people and thinking in such a diverse and multifaceted way, which is sometimes hard to convince others that architects think so differently and have the capacity for other fields ‡ 5-year program at Mississippi State University ‡ Internship for a year in school with Gensler ‡ Work experience † SCB † Adrian Smith, Gordon Gill; spin off of SOM † Smith Group ‡ After many years realized that the career of an architect just was not for him, even after working at such big firms, if the personality and fit of those did not work, then the life of an architect was not the right choice; never felt dedicated; was never going to be that person with that motivation and drive ‡ Even if some other opportunity comes up that is not necessarily architecture, that does not mean that the opportunity should be passed up ‡ Shift from Architecture to Furniture; friend from IA, knew of a dealership startup and wanted to switch out from architecture anyway; company folded shortly after but the dealership success in the area created other connections and opportunities ‡ Dealership-side is all about connections and keeping those connections ‡ A bit ridiculous for firms when going into an interview and the firm acts like you are doing them a favor; Expectation that “you” are lucky to be here ‡ Management side of work; hands in a lot more; face person for a project; working with the manufactures and exchanging information ‡ Could stay at sales and current position and stay with it; comfortable, enjoys the position, enjoys the work, and the work pays off ‡ Trends; flux of people changing jobs, more movement of people between places; furniture style of open work stations starting to have some back-lash, so backing up slightly some more balance with old cubical style and personal space

page 33 of 114

Professional Practice

Alternative Professional Interview #1 Duration: 37 minutes


Taylor Mckinley, Navigator and Urban Planner, Redmoon

Professional Practice

Alternative Professional Interview #2 Duration: 40 minutes

‡ Do not always rely on bureaucracy to facilitate change, just go do it, get friends and make a change ‡ Interest in urban planning: 5 years old and family moving to a pedestrian friendly environment (Toronto) from a place that had a more “lacking” infrastructure; subconscious influence of the little things of the ease of going across town to see friends, walking around, clean spaces ‡ Elementary School project on Global Warming and Urban Planning ‡ Originally went to college as a civil engineer, not satisfied, took an environmental geography course; mind blown! ‡ Can analyze anything with a map; pros, cons, assets, etc. ‡ “Death & Life of American Cities” by Jane Jacobs; Urbanized (film); Suburban Nation (film); Chinatown (film) ‡ Activating people in public spaces ‡ Interesting in meeting and interviewing people, find out what people are doing in their free time ‡ Knowing to go out to a neighborhood and asking people what makes them angry, what needs to be improved on, and act on it ‡ Meet people, talk to them, in a park or coffee shop, and find out what they are thinking; combine social media and design, circumvent the slow bureaucratic planning process (waste of time); outreach and plans and reports, but does not actually engage the community, not real “grassroots” planning ‡ Meet with anyone ‡ Fulfillment comes from little meetings and bringing everyone together to reach a “critical mass” ‡ Transit Oriented Development (TOD), good idea, but hard to implement unless one already processes the necessary funds, needs to be accomplished fast ‡ Meetings; address issues and hold a charrette; create a framework for a couple of issues; outreach to community groups; regroup and build on that idea ‡ Jeffersonian / Enlightened individuals who are experienced in multiple fields, getting them involved to created something extraordinary ‡ “Activate the Space”: create something simple, unique, that draws people in an let those individuals fill the activity ‡ Urban Planners just copy and replicate the process that others do because that is all that needs to be done, spread the ideas ‡ Activating spaces and people through the use of technology page 34 of 114


‡ Primary function within the Planning Division; management of the hundreds of plans within the city; adopting plans that confirm with existing city policies ‡ How to make plans happen, where, and in what capacity ‡ Licensed architect from Mexico City; thesis in Chicago; internship with the firm that would eventually become GREC; 3 month internship turned into 14 years and hired by the city ‡ Residential and commercial planning development ‡ Selling the site, but also seeing the proposed project proposal and how that fits into the city plan at large ‡ Still learning something new every day; more involved with urban planning vs individual projects in recent years ‡ Concentration clusters of diverse commercial zoning, especially around existing assets ‡ Placement and arrangement of programs; transportation, commercial, entertainment, housing, etc. and the influences of each ‡ Projects on-going over the course of multiple years; 5, 10, 20 years… ‡ Fulfillment: seeing something eventually constructed; community meetings and conversations; knowing that the planning is impacting the city landscape and individual’s livelihoods ‡ In city planning, each zoning tax district is allocated a certain amount of money based on existing space criteria, so even if the city has a larger pot of money, that money is not available to each space ‡ Reviewing the feasibility and use of plans ‡ Cannot be an expert on everything, so need to have conversations with those individuals ‡ Knowing what is the correct location of certain business types; on the corner versus the center of a block, especially larger businesses ‡ Urban Planning improvements basically dependent on new emerging technology and advances; will become more data managers ‡ Architecture to urban planning transition, same principles, just change of scale

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Professional Practice

Luis Monterrubio, Coordinating Planner, City of Chicago Planning and Development Alternative Professional Interview #3 Duration: 80 minutes


Professional Practice

After speaking to each of these individuals, one major thing has become extremely clear throughout each of the conversations, that these individuals are extremely passionate and find fulfillment and enjoyment in their work, whatever it may be. For years I would have to say that I did not necessarily know the difference between a “job” and a “career”. These individuals do not have jobs, they have created careers. Part of it I believe has to do with my own background and what I have seen from individuals I have met, that people that have “jobs” do not necessarily find the same enjoyment and fulfillment in what they do. Jobs pay, put food on the table, get the bills paid, but are an ends to a means. The jobs also do not contribute to the growth of the individual; they are simply something that needs to get done. So what does this mean for the future? Well, find a career, not a job, clearly. However, that career does not necessarily have to be in architecture. Talking to Hayes was probably one of the most interesting and insightful conversations, purely because of the relation he has to architecture as a background. It is one to thing to talk to an individual who has had a more straightforward career path (like Carl and Winn), but to talk to someone who started a successful path toward being an architect and then realize that there is another path to take is incredibly important! There are other things that can be done with an architecture degree! Sure, we have had lectures on what other paths one can take, but it is another thing to sit down with someone and hear their story on how they made that transition. Another thing that kept coming up was the importance to take opportunities as they come along. Part of me does think that this is largely due to the environment, that Chicago offers so much more versatility and opportunities than a normal city (aside from maybe cities like D.C., New York and Los Angeles). Opportunities are sometimes a little harder to come by that people make them seem and sometimes they just arise out of seemingly nowhere. I believe that certain opportunities should never be passed up, that sometimes you have to follow up on those as they come along. At the same time, some opportunities, while they might be new and interesting are not always the best choice for the moment. I think each of these individuals have carefully weighed each opportunity and potential change that has come along and assessed if it was the right thing for them. Carl, for example, found a great spot with JAHN early on and simply has not had a reason to change where he was, while Hayes, on the other hand, jumped at the opportunity to transition out of architecture and has been happier because of it. It really just depends on where an individual is in their own life, their own path, when those chance happenings come along. I believe that speaking to each of these individuals has made a significant contribution to my understanding of architecture and the world in general, each in their own way. It may be a reason just as simple as hearing someone else’s life story and what they had to go through. As a student trying to start out in the world, so much is uncertain and the future is always in flux, but at some point life will fall into place and things will be clearer than they ever have been. It takes time, it takes mistakes, but ultimately the path we wish to travel is all up to us and somehow we each seem to make it work in one way or another. So there is that little glimmer of hope…

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Chip von Weise, Architect and Principal, Von Weise Associates

‡ Cannon: impartial, without self-interest objective and without prejudice, etc. ‡ Conflicts of self-interest: budge and Fee as percentages of construction; balance between client’s budget and running a business that has to support families; seldom in best long-term interest to screw the client; Ex. Schematic design, table finish of a certain material, fee based on a percentage; more expensive material, larger fee, more money for the designer ‡ Pushing clients to spend more money equals a reputation for driving up a client’s budget ‡ Good reputation for designing well and treating clients fairly in order to get the next project ‡ Mesh of client’s expectations for the design and expectations of cost; always leads to “Value Engineering” at some point ‡ There are no norms currently for design; previously, 15% for residence, 10% for commercial ‡ Hourly; Flat fee for each stage of design; Percentage of construction costs; Flat fee per dollar per square footage (usually for interior projects) ‡ For hiring, knowing people helps get your food in the door, but not under any obligation to hire that individual, but will interview them as a courtesy for their colleague or friend ‡ Best possible candidate for the least amount of time ‡ Hiring is a risk; individual is not good, can steal from the employer, act unethically, potentially loose a client ‡ Cannot discriminate on the basics [race, gender, sexual orientation, etc.], but also cannot discriminate or ask individuals marriage status, family status, location; biased assessment for employer’s interest in the company ‡ Need to compartmentalize when making a decision and when running a business in general ‡ Only promise what you can deliver ‡ Negative consequences of fairness; error in drawings, acting ethnically has financial consequences to the business, instead of passing the error off to someone else ‡ Conflict of interests with designs: cool and interesting ideas are not always the best one that represents the client, could lose a client by pushing a design forward; the client becomes a “means to an ends, not an ends to itself” ‡ Integrity of the design with the integrity with the clients objectives ‡ “Howard Roark” myth of architecture ‡ Fine line between education your client and being arrogant

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Professional Practice

Ethics Interview: PMI Cannon, Fairness Duration: 37 minutes


Professional Practice

The cannon of choice was “Fairness”, as outlined in the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct guidelines set by the Project Management Institute. “Fairness is our duty to make decisions and act impartially and objectively. Out conduct must be free from competing self-interest, prejudice, and favoritism.” For architects, being impartial and acting without self-interest in a field that devotes so much time, energy, and personality into the work, creates various instances where acting “fairly” comes into conflict. To facilitate a better understanding of this cannon, Chip von Weise, Principal Architect of Von Weise Associates was chosen to be interviewed. This choice was made due to Chip’s role as head of the architecture firm and experience as an architect and business owner. The main points of conflict with self-interest come from the business side of a firm and the individual designer’s ego and ideas of a design. While the architect is there to facilitate the design of the client’s intent, the architect and the firm do have to be paid for those services. This conflict for generating profit for the company can come up in the payment of the contract, primarily through a fee generated by the percentage of the construction cost. For example, if the design fee is 15% of the construction cost, and the finish material of a table top is $10K, the company will make 15 hundred dollars of the design versus the same table top being finished with a much less expensive material. While the business does have to pay its employees and provide for those families, it is generally not in the firm’s interest in the long term to drive up the client’s budget. This can cause the firm to develop a reputation of being more expensive, potentially loosing other perspective clients. At Von Weise Associates, they strive for a good reputation for designing well and treating the clients fairly in order to get the next project. In the practice of architecture and client budgeting, there are various methods that are being used to determine the cost of the architect���s design. The work can be done hourly; a flat fee for each stage of the design; a percentage of the construction costs; or a flat fee per dollar per square footage, which is usually done for interior projects. The previous norm was 15% for residential buildings and 10% for commercial or multi-family buildings. That has shifted more due to the nature of making the client more uncomfortable throughout the design process, plus the architect’s easy of ability to increase the price of their design. The other major point of conflict with the architect’s self-interest stems for the design itself, being an extension of the architect’s ideas, vocabulary, ego, personality, and

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Now from my own view points and perception, the “fairness” of hiring and screening for candidates was brought up. The notion that individuals who have contacts within a firm, who are able to get their resumes to the right individuals and essentially get more focus on their resume and portfolio, the fairness of that practice was brought into question. In the professional realm, having a contact within a firm does make it easier to get one’s “foot in the door”, however, that does not mean that the employer is under any obligation to hire that individual. As Chip noted, he would look more closely at that recommended individual’s resume and call them in for an interview, purely as a courtesy for the colleague or friend, but the lack of obligation to hire that individual still stands. Now this practice is accepted mostly because, from a business perspective, they need to hire the best candidate for the position within the least amount of time. It is not effective for the business, usually, to create a broad posting then go through hundreds of applications. Also, just on the basic level, hiring any individual is a risk to the business; that individual may not be good at their job; they may steal from the employer; act unethically in some way; or potentially act in a way that loses a client to the business. By getting a recommendation from a trusted individual, it helps eliminate some of the risk and time of screening through candidates and going through numerous interviews. After looking over the ethical conduct of “Fairness” as described in the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct guidelines set by the Project Management Institute, the ethical implications and adherence to this principle is critical to a firm’s behavior, but also largely common sense in certain aspects. Clearly it is unethical (and illegal) to discriminate an individual on the bases of gender, race, and sexual orientation, and purely need to be stated for legality purposes. On the other hand, the ethical acts of “fairness” in the architecture profession and business market are initially harder to theorize and are slightly blurred when approaching from a purely academic basis. While a firm does have a goal to produce architecture and make money, it

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Professional Practice

general preference of design. The built design of the architect is a monument of their work and ideas to some degree and because of this intrinsic value that is generated, the architect might push a design forward that does not meet up with the ideas of the client. Interesting and radical ideas are not always the best designs that represent the client and one could lose a client by pushing a design forward. In this case, the client becomes a “means to an ends, not an ends to itself”. It is primarily unfair to the client, to receive a work (while being of sound architecture and design) that does not represent their own image and still has to pay for the work.


Professional Practice

still has to run a business. The fairness of that business largely has to do with how that individual decides to run their business and generates a risk of the success of their work. It is not unfair or unethical to design based on cost of construction and getting a percentage of that work and thus drive up the fee of the architects work, however, that business is unlikely to succeed in the long run if it does not maintain a healthy environment with the clients and potential referred future clients. This also applies to how the individual pushes forward with their designs; if they facilitate the client more or if they push forward with their own work. Neither of those are inherently unethical practices, but not necessarily good business sense. On the subject of hiring however, the lines of fairness in who is interviewed or whose resume is given more attention is blurred from just a purely academic debate standpoint. One could argue that every resume and individual should be looked at and assessed on the same merit with each individual having an equal opportunity to be hired for the intended position. However, that is extremely difficult, time consuming and not cost effective for the business to go through each resume with the same focus. It is slightly disappointing that this practice of “getting your foot in the door” is so widely accepted, but on the other hand, it makes sense. Creating a network of connections in order to facilitate the ease of getting a job and establishing ones values and making those know to a potential employer is extremely helpful, but that also means that “equal opportunity” is not necessarily 100% equal. The real situation and influences on the matter are not purely black and white, as academics would lead one to believe, but as with the rest of life lay somewhere in the realm of varying shades of grey.

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Professional Practice Lectures Randy Guillot Drew Ranieri Brian Lee Natasha Krol Mauskapf Carl D’ Silva Iker Gil Geoff Walters Laura Fisher Frank Weiner Don Copper Peter Ellis Adam Whipple John Syversten


Randy Guillot, AIA, LEED

Professional Practice

Princiapl Designer, CannonDesign 6.2.2014 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

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“Build meaningful relationships through hard work” “Keep your ears open…hang out after work…be ready for anything” Integrity and Character could be more valuable than talent Surround yourself with broad influences and mentors Communication is everything Your client is your “design partner” Listen [to me & ignore me] Don’t expect the outcome; set yourself up for discovery Promote your strengths Be generous and be courageous There is always more than one right answer


Communication cannot be stressed enough. That is probably the most important point that any individual in the field has to say, that communication is key. Communication is the key for everything; for the project, getting a job, building clients, producing what is truly needed, etc. A better way to put it is, “communication is god”, or life or blood or oxygen or any other analogy to signify the importance of communication residing at the pinnacle for anything getting done. Communication probably holds more significance than the design itself at the end of it all, because so much of the project depends on the success of that dialogue between client, designer, contractor, and project manager. When going into a career, an individual must be ready to throw themselves out there and be open to everything that comes along. Be a sponge, look up to those that have experience, talk to those individuals and learn from them. Find a mentor, have more than one, someone that can direct you along your chosen path.

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Professional Practice

Randy Guillot’s lecture was primarily focused on a basic thoughts and experience that he has gained throughout the years as an architect. This culminated more into an introduction into the professional practice lectures and advice for those about to start a career in architecture. The discussion was not about time stamps or project deadlines or how to deal with certain events that might come up in a project’s lifetime, but rather just a frame of mind that one should be aware of as they grow as an architect. As he put it, “this is not a talk about architecture; this is a talk about getting to architecture”.


Drew Ranieri, AIA

Professional Practice

Associate Principal, Solomon Cordwell Buenz (SCB) 19.2.2014

Contracts ‡ Money ‡ Schedule ‡ Roles ‡ Responsibilities / Risks ‡ Scope ‡ Expectations ‡ Accountability ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Four Stages: Schematic Design Design Development Construction Documents Construction Analysis

Risk, Responsibilities; specs, design, building warranty / insurance

‡ ‡

O. A. C. Meetings Owner – Architect – Consultants

‡ The digital world has held the designer more accountable; produce more, show more, render more; “taking on more liability in an effort to minimize risk”

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Brian Lee, FAIA

‡ View SOM as generations of architects, a focus on research and development, innovation, and energy efficiency ‡ Due to the larger aspect of the company and the spread over the world, SOM has developed this large corporation aspect (yet implied that doesn’t feel like a “bloated corporation” mentality, also see above bullet point) ‡ People don’t always think alike, but can be like driven ‡ Urban Buildings Interaction with the city ‡ Leverage problems ‡ Communicate purpose ‡ Connect to the community ‡ Programs > connect ‡ Humanize the Experience; scale, natural light, tactile materials, link to the landscape ‡

Using a screen, design of detailing also functions as a structural importance

‡ The importance to go back later after a project is done to see how it turned out, does it really look how it was envisioned, how it was rendered, is everything conveyed properly.

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Professional Practice

Design Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) 26.2.2014


Natasha Krol Mauskapf

Professional Practice

McKinsey & Company 5.3.2014

‡ Recording thoughts, views, breaking assumptions ‡ <architectural space> ‡ <life> ‡ <work> ‡ <…> ‡ Psychology & neuroscience of space ‡ What is the problem? Who are you designing it for? What is the best way they will receive it? ‡ “facilitate collaborative thinking” ‡ “you think about how you think” Communication ‡ Start talking to the angriest people first (usually a sign of passion) [applies more to Natasha’s personal job criteria] ‡ learning-by-doing environment ‡ it’s one thing to be polite & open, it’s another to be empathetic

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In a way, this turned into another “communication is key” lectures. However, the lecture went beyond just being able to talk to an individual, but rather just how to create a network and working dialogue with someone. Since architecture is starting to become more of a profession of urban engagement, master planning, urban planning, and community development, we have to engage individuals on a broader scale, rather than simply producing a limited confinement of space. I believe that certain individuals in architecture are becoming more involved with urban development, and that architecture is not just limited to a single building on a landscape but changing the entire landscape as a whole. I guess in some part that is unavoidable, as much as some believe that architecture doesn’t necessarily need to some “save the world vanity project”, at some core level, we define the status of our society by our architecture. For example, the best way for film makers to express a futuristic environment is to have futuristic and radical architecture, and that architecture expresses a change in society’s life style. As ridiculous as it sounds, at some point architects will have to engage individuals beyond our buildings and define what society and interactions will be like in the future. Architects will define the future, or at least design it.

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Professional Practice

Natasha Mauskapf’s lecture started off with a quick exercise of making a recording of one of the surrounding blocks; no limitations, no set way of making the recording, just go and do. It was more a commentary on how we as designers and architects are trained to take a simple idea or proposition and create something without needed guidelines or directions imposed on us. The rest of the lecture focused not on design or anything particularly related to architecture in general, but rather just how to engage people. So while it might not have been about architecture and how to deal with a contract, but generally just how to interact with individuals and setting up an environment to get things accomplished. As Natasha noted, in a situation where you wish to bring about major change, first talk to the angriest person in the room, since they will have the most passion about making that change.


Carl D’ Silvia, AIA

Principal Architect, Vice President, JAHN 6.3.2014

Professional Practice

‡ Bangkok International Airport, Passenger Terminal Complex, ’94 Design Competition ‡ Heavy international politics influenced the speed and duration of the project ‡ Modern airport designs all have parallel runways since jet engines planes aren’t as dependent on the direction of the wind as previous propeller planes ‡ So…go for dumb, rich clients

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Professional Practice

This lecture came across more as a “building construction” lecture, than more of a professional practice lecture, focusing more on an example of architecture (The Bangkok International Airport) and the details and stages of the construction process throughout that project. However, certain things can be noted, such as the interaction of those involved within a project. Commonly, there is a triage between an owner, designer, and contractor, that all have to interact through a project manager. However, there are limitations to that interaction, such as everything going through one direct individual, the speed at which that is conveyed, certain red tape, request for information, etc. This also depends primarily on the scope of the contract between these individuals and any flexibility it allows. Also, on more of a joking matter, it is better to go for “dumb, rich clients”. This means clients that have money to spend and do not have a full understanding of the design process or a major concern for the produced architecture, but are just producing something for production sake. This allows the designer the most amounts of freedom and expression that might not always be possible with the “usual client”. For example, with the Bangkok Terminal, it is extremely unlikely that it would have ever been allowed to be constructed in the United States, as it would have been shot down for pricing long before.


Iker Gil Mas Studio 17.3.2014

Professional Practice

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Scale of architecture and city [building & urban planning] What assets do certain cities have? Smaller space common within a larger network Not everything is linear Doing things that you find interesting as primary driving factor Projects “Mas Context”, Quarterly publication Small scale garden object † Provide the idea/framework, even if program/context is limited † Cheap plywood sheet material Pedway intervening/mapping † Don’t need to immediately label everything, just an idea, diagrams and sets of images Newspaper as most domestic items Someone makes fun of something, embrace it Marina City photography exhibition Do things that may not have an immediate outcome, it will find its way If you want to do things, it will be figured out

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Geoff Walters, AIA, LEED

Director of Quality, Standards Development, CannonDesign 18.3.2014 Technical Details † Process, performance, detailing, documentation, building systems, delivery ‡ Building performance expectations need to be engaged with the client early on; acoustic, durability, health care, etc. † Early dialogues usually need to be brought up by the designer ‡ Older generation massive building, so incredibly energy inefficient that it uses more net energy than transportation (?) ‡ Architecture 2030 challenge – path to net zero by 2030, energy reduction, CBECs; 2015, 70% reduction goal † Envelope impact, user interface broader comfort range ‡ “These aren’t issue for a profession; these are issues for a society” ‡ How to design a net zero… † Fundamentally, form, massing, site orientation, openings, etc. † Need to start energy modeling all projects; codes are a bit outdated ‡ Article by NASA on future effects of income equality and net zero and others will lead to civilization collapse in decades ‡ Find mentors, resources, so much which will have to be continuously learned

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Professional Practice


Professional Practice

Geoff Walter’s professional focus and viewpoints on existing architecture struck me at different levels and sort of created some mixed thoughts towards it. On one hand, I am an individual who is always drawn towards the details, the process, and the small nuances of a project. So, the fact that Walters understands the importance of a building’s performance and creating that early dialogue early on, I find extremely satisfying and compelling. Buildings should be able to perform as intended and I believe that the profession is starting to move towards a path where buildings and architectural systems are becoming more versatile, doing more than ever before. Houses are becoming smarter. On the other hand, Walters is part of CannonDesign dedicated towards energy efficiency and net zero. Architecture that is slated towards net zero, green houses, energy efficiency, is a “grey area” for me in the focus of design. I do believe on some level that as a society we have to design more efficiently, our buildings cannot be wasteful, must benefit the environment (both natural and physical), and should become healthier places in a variety of ways. However, this outlook/design focus for new architecture seems to come across as more of a business strategy, to create buildings that are energy efficient, just for the sake of creating such buildings. At times it almost sounds like the driving factor of these buildings to create and test out a new greentechnology and often times I wonder if the building is really “architecture”. Now, I know that half of that thought process is completely ridiculous; creating buildings not for architecture/program sake, but rather for business energy efficiency sake. It is ridiculous, which is why I’m talking not about the building, but the driving idea, the idea behind the building is what I question. If core idea of the project seems to be the adaptation and expansion of a green idea, not some other precedent, does that make the building “architecture”? In an interview with Carl D’Silva of JAHN (See Professional Practice Interview Section), this net-zero focus was brought into question, as to the importance of new zero/energy reduction/ASHRAE/LEED in JAHN’s practice. There it was noted that this idea of energy reduction does not make up an entire department in their firm, nor do they follow some long-term 2030 challenge. For them, it is not so much the act of creating a net zero building, or new green technology or guidelines, but rather just knowing the fundamental principles of efficient design and already implementing those principles in the initial design stages. The projects they create are not “green driven”, but rather are driven by a design idea that intelligently incorporates green elements. Now granted, I do not know enough about Cannon’s design process,

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Professional Practice

especially in that particular department, nor any of the firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s general practice standards. What I am merely pointing out is this idea and question of how important green-technology should be in the driving force for an architectural design. I believe that it is better to understand basic energy efficiency principles, understanding lay out, site, context, and if it is possible to incorporate various methods of green design, then one should do so, but I am merely skeptical on this idea that a project is enhanced and elevated by incorporated green design. A tower should be significant because it is an architectural piece and should not be expressed as a sales pitch due to new low-E coated windows and variable environmental controls.

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Laura Fisher, FAIA

Professional Practice

26.3.2014

‡ “alternative careers” – range of things than normal ‡ Went from Architect to Corporate Real Estate to Interior Design; bank management/bidding, rezoning ‡ Know when to get rid of individuals on a contract team when they clearly don’t know what they are doing ‡ Old office reuse; lack of being up to code, simple reuse would be an issue,; change in work practices over 20 years, more collaboration vs. private office ‡ Once you figure how well something works; reuse & adjust ‡ Figure out what your skill set is ‡ Know the value of your services ‡ Presenting yourself: † Look to the leaders, not necessarily your peers † Represent the firm to the client † Professional behavior † Get your name around [maybe a professional/personal website] † “prepared, performed, assisted” ‡ Career Folder † Keep track of particular things, work, events or anything that may be brought back up † Talks, old work at firms, committees

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Especially as of late, I have wondered what I would do with my future career if I did not work as an architect, what skills I have picked up that I could use. Graphic design, carpentry, furniture design, or industrial design are all fields that I have considered at some point in time that I would be perfectly happy being in for an extended period of time. For me, there is not anything different from designing a house, boat, chair, or hand-held object, only the scale of the project in the context to the human element. As long as I am doing something design related I feel that I will find enjoyment and gratification in my work. I could spend all my time in a wood shop and covered in saw dust, working on detailing a table and chair set, but as long as I was able to spend my time sketching, making drawings, working out details on how it all fits together, I would be happy (not caring about money at the time obviously). Our education for our degree is not solely focused only knowing how to design buildings, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really about knowing design in general and how to look and think different than the norm. If we understand our own capabilities, we can apply our skills to a variety of different fields and choose some other career path if necessary.

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Professional Practice

Laura Fisher began this lecture stating that the following would a different type of lecture, primarily implying what a Bachelor of Architecture degree offers beyond just working at an architectural firm. It was not a direct list of â&#x20AC;&#x153;alternative careersâ&#x20AC;?, but rather just an exam of how one can progress from position to position throughout the years. Fisher trained as an Architect, but steadily moved through Interior Design, Corporate Real Estate, and Bank Management, sometimes just by how connections were made and what became available. The point that it was not the degree that enables an individual to take on this range of fields, but rather knowing what skills an individual has learned or inherently has and knowing how to capitalize on those skills.


Carl D’ Silvia, AIA

Principal Architect, Vice President, JAHN 26.3.2014

Professional Practice

‡ ‡ ‡

Site/Context > Programming > Planning > Detailing Analyzing > Designing “What are you trying to do?” † pitfall of a “green field” site, going off on some idea/tangent, hard to work your way back

‡ The Louvre, the various additions, add-ons and expansions ‡ Before beginning site analysis, having an idea of what you want to focus on, what are you looking at, what is the effect of that analysis; what is there? ‡ Having a clear logic ‡ Being clear in how your ideas manifest into physical form ‡ Being able to explain a project in 20-30 seconds or just a couple slides; clarity of presentations

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“What are you trying to do?” is a simple yet horribly complex question that always seems to leave the individual asking completely unsatisfied no matter what is said. The biggest issue with having a perfect or ideal or blank slate site is that the designer might go off on some random idea and often times it is hard to find their way back to a concrete notion of “what they are trying to do”. By having a “Sandbox” design space, sometimes it is harder to convey the purpose and point of the design, because design for design’s sake is apparently not enough. It is strange to notice that by having a situation perfect of design, exploration, and essentially a space without limitations is always met by the confines that it is to be something beyond the visual esthetics. This just comes down to the simple fact of: know what you are doing. Know the purpose, placement, incentives, constructs, and limitations of the design. The design should have some inherent logic behind it; something giving a clear indication on it came about. The design should be able to be explained quickly and clearly within a few short sentences and directly to the point. In essence, the design simply needs to actually have an idea behind it, to know what that idea is, and how that idea is represented to avoid confusion. In my own opinion, if it takes more than a minute to state what the idea is behind the project, the individual actually has no idea what the project is or what they are doing.

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Professional Practice

Generally speaking, the design process goes from the site/context, to program development, to planning, and ending at final detailing. This can be put more simply as a gradual continuous process of analyzing to designing. For most of the time, this is how design projects are approached; a site is given, a program is established, rough plans and sections are created, and then final detailing and construction documents are completed. Throughout this process, the designer goes through various analysis of the site and once they accumulate enough information, then they switch into design. There are limitations and benefits of that linear process, both that are argued consistently in the educational realm, so I will simply state that at some point a decision has to be made and lines have to be drawn.


Frank Weiner

Virginia Tech Professor of Architecture 1.4.2014 ‡

Fundament & Firmament

Professional Practice

‡ Pearls; takes about 7-8 years for each pearl to form, but unlike a diamond, once it is created, it is done, it is not shined and polished ‡ San Ivo alle Sapienza, Roma; Borromini ‡ Sapienza; “wisdom” ‡ Knowledge vs. Wisdom, The Baroque ‡ Atlas (Greek mythology); talent; “how much you can bear” ‡ “remember to look up…but when you look up, you can sometimes fall into a hole” ‡ Forces of society cause us to look “at” or “down”, and architecture always supposed to cause us to look “up”, there is a disconnect/issue ‡ Pedagogy [ped-a-go-gy] n. The method and practice of teaching, esp. as an academic subject or theoretical concept ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Perception is a sense that has been intellectualized and historized Sense- a willful act of reaching toward something; only partially fulfilled Process destroys sense “can only sense what you love”

‡ ‡

Black = Details, Section; White = Space, Plan Still life; natura morta (il.)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Equilateral Triangle – Gods Scalene Triangle – Man Isosceles Triangle – Demigods --Plutarch’s “The Obsolescence of Oracles”

‡ Foundation is the clarifying moment of the floor plan, so much simpler than the plan that is clears out the mind in the hassle of the plan ‡ Flatness vs. Curvature and the overgeneralization of both ‡ Knowledge resist trivial change and more comfortable in the realm of generalities and universals page 58 of 114


Don Cooper

‡ Ace Hotel – Los Angeles ‡ Adaptive reuse landmark building in old downtown LA ‡ Live-Work rezoning; retail and new hotels ‡ Theater at base level – 1972, founded by United Artists like Charlie Chaplin & office building topper ‡ Converted into hotel, restaurant, lobby, conference space while keeping and renovating the theater ‡ Added concrete frame on exterior walls to support lateral loads due to new seismic codes ‡ Building overseen by City, State, and Federal Landmark Building Codes; planes had to be check with each level of code ‡ Site/Context --- Floor Plans --- Building Sections and Elevations --- Enlarged Plans --- Called out/Reference Details --- Schedules & Inventory ‡ As Architects “we are just articulating something that everyone already knows… artistically and technically…we are more conscientious of it” ‡ “Every mistake costs somebody something” ‡ Disclaimer that the architect is not responsible/have any control over construction costs; labor costs, economy flux, raw material prices, shipping

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Professional Practice

Principal Architect, GREC 17.4.2014


Peter Ellis, FAIA

Professional Practice

Lead Designer, City Design, CannonDesign 22.4.2014 ‡ Beginning with India Project + spawned off into design branch ‡ Blank canvas vs. existing city constructs & conditions as applicable to future changing conditions [sustainability, climate change, etc.] ‡ 21st century meets 2,000 B.C. land ‡ “urban sponge” – network of connected parks to collect rainfall during monsoon season ‡ “open space that structures the city” ‡ 120degrees 6 months of the year; have to design the city in favor of the sun ‡ Better to have many, smaller roads closer together than larger roads spaced apart ‡ Decentralized utility network located in the neighborhoods better support the city than from one location miles and miles away ‡

Changing American Cities: † Transforming infrastructure gradually † Collecting storm water on grade † Stitch together every bit of abandoned/vacant land and create an urban space † Nature is the new city infrastructure [not sci-fi themed] † For Chicago: take every block/4 streets and create with this “green grid” † Each technique is being done in at least one city, but not one city has stitched them together into one urban plan † “Develop a public consciousness”

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There was a conversation momentarily generated about the future of a city is always portrayed as heavily influenced by science fiction. A city of glimmering lights, clean streets, flying cars, white buildings, but only ever contains a subtle hint of green spaces. For some reason it is easier for us to imagine artificial spaces than managing natural ones. I agree with Peter Ellis though, that the future of city planning will have a nature and green space as the new infrastructure. On the other hand, I also believe that the more we allow the land to be recovered by nature, the more we will extend cities more downward under the ground. Ellis’s proposals do strive for a healthier cityscape and at some point I believe a radical shift in city planning will occur. The nature and cause of that radical shift is somewhat more of an uncertainty, but one could theorize that to push the masses into such a change would almost be on the brink of catastrophe. Radical causes bring upon radical changes.

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Professional Practice

Peter Ellis should probably redesign every city master plan for the future because he actually understands what needs to be done. As a race, we have turned the actual natural forest/jungle in the largely cliché and dead “urban/concrete jungle”. However, it is completely true, green space is all but eradicated for most of a city plan. Of course there is always some ordinance code that there must be a designated green space every so many blocks, but realistically the basic high rise city could be described as living in a prehistoric carved out cave of rock and stone. But back to the lecture…


Adam Whipple, AIA 23.4.2014

Professional Practice

Project Management & the Broadened Filed of Architecture Skills: † Problem Solving; Presentation and Communication Skills; Coordination; Break down complex tasks; Spatial understanding; Design and creativity; Broad training in multiple fields

‡ Project Management – Science of organizing the parts of a project; defining, planning, organizing, etc. ‡ In architecture, responsible for project delivery, schedule, budge ‡ In a smaller firm, PMG more integrated in design and technical coordination vs. large firm compartmentalization ‡ Range of responsibilities for the PM can vary for each project; can be potentially very hands-on but sometimes can only be limited to coordination, schedules and bidding ‡ “Design Thinking” – if the architectural degree is “worthless”, why are all these other companies taking the way that architects think into their projects? ‡ Architecture Practice can bleed out into other fields and substrates; Real Estate, Government, Construction, Engineering ‡ ‡ ‡

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Professional code of ethics Interest in protecting public welfare Interest in promoting public domain


This has been the second or third lecture that has taken place that tries to apply the degree of architecture to another field. Part of me does believe it is possible to switch into another field without having to go through an entire process of getting a new degree, but at the same time part of me doubts the success of this. I do not believe it is entirely impossible, but I would say the difficulty in transferring into a different field is the ability to convince an employer that one contains those necessary skills. It seems today that employers are more concerned about having an individual that satisfies a specific checklist and anyone outside that list is automatically excluded. Risk is too much to ask for. Chances are harder to come by. If an individual is trying to change out of their degree, it is an effort that they might have to totally devote their energy toward that goal. However, it is possible, but there is an understanding that there has to be someone willing to make that risk.

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Professional Practice

An architecture degree has been regard for some time now as being “worthless”, almost below “Liberal Arts”. Society development aside, a degree in architecture offers so much more than it is accredited. As students, we learn a variety of critical skills that can be applied to other fields. We know how to present and communicate our ideas, managing our time, coordinating tasks, design, and many of us try to be an actual “Enlightened Individual” and have skills and knowledge multiple fields. These fields can be Real Estate, Government, Construction, Engineering, Project Management or just general design work.


John Syversten, FAIA, LEED

Professional Practice

Senior Principal, CannonDesign 30.4.2014

‡ In charge of the advancement of urban and social sustainability ‡ Connect multiple people to opportunities; legacy of improving people’s lives ‡ Bring attention to the power of design in order to impact & improve people’s lives and wellbeing; “Department of Good” ‡ Ford Foundation; 1% Program (pro bono work); Brownsville, TX, city decay due to social and economic collapse primarily due to neighboring towns and safety factors; Master Planners for University of Texas Brownsville Campus; project that begin as pure generosity leads to trust ‡ Dream of getting communities involved, culture of the office; “environmental laboratory” ‡ Risk = value of work ‡ Reward as quiet & profound; humble; humility ‡ J.B. Jackson, Harvard Professor, how the invention of barbed wire changed the American landscape; how to see moving through a place; beauty derives from human presense ‡ Influences: Team 10, Aldo van Eyck; Louis Kahn; My Struggle by Karl Ove Knausgard; John Adams by David McCullough; Team of Rivals by Doris Kearns Goodwin

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Let’s set the date at least 20 years from now, I would be about 45, would have been a licensed architect for at least half of that time, knowledge and experience would have hopefully grown significantly at this point. At one time I would have thought about creating my own firm, of being able to make my own schedule, manage a project, and make my scar upon the world. Now however, that glimmer of making my own business seems a little too stressful right now; it could be possible, but I might not sure if it is absolutely necessary as it once was. I still wish to be a licensed architect though, that is still a goal. For the lecture itself and what gets said… I would talk about my process of how I ended up getting to where I am, where I ended up working and what I am currently focusing on. The most important focus of the lecture will be the process of what my thoughts where about life and architecture and my career over the years. I have always been more interested in the intimate process of things rather than the bullet list from A to G. I have been keeping an electronic journal for years and I hope that I will continue to use it more often, writing down not just my mental state and thoughts at the time, but my plans for the future, quotes of conversations that are said, special moments to remember, things of that nature. But mostly, I want to be able to talk to the students on a level that they could easily understand; talk to them about what was going through my mind 20 years before, and where that changed and developed. Most of the time when a professional gives a lecture, they always talk about the conclusions that they have come to at this moment but rarely their thoughts from when they were a student and how they saw the future. It is like giving the answer to an equation, without having any concrete understanding on how the answer is reached. It is possible that they do not tell us the process of how they found their own answer because they want us to find our own process for ourselves. That would be too horribly simple. So to answer the other side of the question, what do I want to be doing with my career by that point. Honestly, part of me still is not sure. I still like focusing on the details and creating the focus and importance on those details. I view the human scale as to be as intimate as possible; it is immediate touch and texture and sight;

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Professional Practice

The response for this lecture was phrased much differently than the other lectures. Instead of writing a simple response, for this lecture the premise is based on “if you were to give this lecture at the pinnacle of your career, where would you see yourself/what would you talk about”. So here it goes…


Professional Practice

it is space just within reach (or just barely out of reach). As one progresses in architecture however, the greater you become and the more responsibilities that you take on, the harder it is to be able sit down and work on those intimate drawings. I would like to be able to find a balance between focusing on the parts of a design that I enjoy and not just being a CAD monkey that spends all the time crunching out drawings. I would like to be able to sketch, make hand drawings and intricate physical models. I want to be able to feel like I have done a sufficient amount of work in a design and not simply do the schematic/idealistic work for it and simply pass off the rest of the project to someone else. Twenty years from now, I still want to be getting my hands dirty.

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Chicago Studio Radical Conjectures Chinatown Island MegaBLOCK Senses Cermak Context Redmoon Theater


Conjectures

Conjecture #1: Chinatown Island

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Ao

W Cermak Rd

Conjectures

S Wentworth Avve

e Av er rch SA

A damping wave from a linear source wrapped back on itself and focused inward. Like a water drop on a pond, crashing in on itself from the rim then rippling back outward.

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Conjecture #2: MegaBLOCK

Conjectures

Dyson Sphere, a hypothetical megastructure originally theorized by Freedman Dyson. A system of orbiting solar-power satellites meant to completely encompass a star and capture most, if not all, of its energy output.

Dyson Swarm - a large number of independent constructs orbiting in a dense formation around the star; components sized appropriately and consructred incrementally

Dysan Ring - Simplest form of Dyson Swarm, orbit is 1 AU in radius

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Conjectures page 71 of 114


Conjectures

Conjecture #3: Senses

A cartographerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s workshop inspired by the sense of touch, but not in the literal sense, rather the sight of the sense of touch. The rubbings above were taken on one surface of each building along the north side of Cermak Road, from South Damen Ave to McCormick Place.

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Conjectures 3

2 4 5

6

KEY 1 MAGNETIC 2 WORK 3 CATALOG 4 PROJECT 5 SORT 6 SIT

1

N N

1 ft

20 ft

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Conjecture #4: Cermak Context

Pilsen

Conjectures

Industrial Corridor

McKinley Park

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Bridg


Prairie District

South Loop

geport

Conjectures

Chinatown

Near South Side/ Bronzeville

Douglas

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Redmoon

Sink. Sank. Sunk... (2004)

Astronautâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Birthday (2010)

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Last of My Species: The Fearless Songs of Laarna Cortaan (2009)


Boneshaker (2012)

Redmoon

Urban Interventions (2012)

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Redmoon page 78 of 114


Redmoon page 79 of 114


Redmoon page 80 of 114


Redmoon page 81 of 114


Redmoon page 82 of 114


Redmoon page 83 of 114


Redmoon

Cedric Price, “Fun Palace”

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Redmoon page 85 of 114


Redmoon

Conrad Roland, Drawing of an exhibition hall with floating levels,1963

Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano. Auca. 33 1977: 41

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Redmoon

Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano. Auca. 33 1977: 18

Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano. Auca. 33 1977: 42

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Redmoon

Redmoon Warehouse Sketch #1, 4.3.2014

Redmoon Warehouse Sketch #2, 13.3.2014

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storage

Redmoon

production

production

OBJECT MAKE DAY

DAY-TO-DAY

EXTERNAL DEPLOYMENT CURRENT SPECTACLES

FUTURE SPECTACLES

storage

performance

production

production performance

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Redmoon page 90 of 114


308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

2

5

182 ft.

157 ft.

4

3

1

156 ft.

1522 ft.

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space. 2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet

2

10

20

2

10

20

6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater.

Redmoon

Existing First Floor Plan 308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

2

7

157 ft.

182 ft.

5

7

4

3

1

156 ft.

1522 ft.

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space. 2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet 6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater. 7. Catwalk - used as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;VIP loungeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; during events.

Existing Second Floor Plan

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308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

2

5

182 ft.

157 ft.

4

3

1

156 ft.

1522 ft.

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space. 2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet 6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater.

Redmoon

Existing Structure Plan

0 1

5

10

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2

10

20


Redmoon

CONTRAPTIONIZED ENVIRONMENT ephemeral spatial conditions

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308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

2

5

182 ft.

157 ft.

4

3

1

156 ft.

1522 ft.

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space. 2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet

2

10

20

2

10

20

Proposed Ground Floor Plan 308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

8

2

5

9

7

157 ft.

182 ft.

Redmoon

6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater.

7

4

3

1

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space.

156 ft.

1522 ft.

2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet 6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater. 7. Catwalk - used as a ‘VIP lounge’ during events. 8. Platforms - each individually adustable to allow for dynamic performances, as well as out of the way storage or spatial elements for defining smaller rooms within the large hall. 9. Elevated Bar - Fixed platforms above W/C used as a bar or incorporated into performances.

Proposed Lower Structure Plan

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308 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

20 ft.

22 ft.

6

2

5

182 ft.

157 ft.

4

3

1

156 ft.

1522 ft.

1. West Hall - used by Redmoon for storage, performance and production. Also used for outreach programs and as rentable space. 2. Spectacle Hall - performance space. 3. Wood Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 4. Metal Shop - used for production of sets and props, and storage/auxiliary functions for performances. 5. Water Closet

2

10

20

6. Office - houses the day-to-day administrative functions of the theater.

Redmoon

Proposed Upper Structure Plan

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Redmoon

Variable Program Usage

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Redmoon page 97 of 114


Redmoon

Proposed Bathroom Platforms

Proposed Bathroom Platforms, Mid-Line Section

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temporary signage

MOTOR ROW PILSEN

CHINATOWN

MCCORMICK PLACE

Redmoon

Temporary External Signage

Internal Generation - Exterior Deployment - Internal Regeneration

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Photography

Redmoon Guthrie Theatre Christ Church Lutheran Harley-Davidson Museum Milwaukee Art Museum


Photography page 102 of 114


Photography page 103 of 114


Photography page 104 of 114


Photography page 105 of 114


Photography page 106 of 114


Photography page 107 of 114


Photography page 108 of 114


Photography page 109 of 114


Photography page 110 of 114


Photography page 111 of 114



Chicago Studio Spring 2014 - John Sturniolo