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Create Engaging Scenes and Landscapes in Watercolor


Dreamscapes Fantasy Worlds


Dreamscapes

Fantasy Worlds Create Engaging Scenes and Landscapes in Watercolor

Stephanie Pui-Mun Law

CINCINNATI, OHIO

www.impact-books.com


T

able of Contents IN TR ODUC TI ON 6

CHAPTER 1

Materials & Techniques

8

CHAPTER 2

The Foundations – Stone

42

CHAPTER 3

The Mysteries – Arboreal CHAPTER 4

The Dreams – Skies INDEX

172

AB OU T THE AU TH OR

174

130

82


I

ntroduction The most important thing about creating art is to create. If you want to be at ease with creativity, you have to immerse yourself in it and do a little bit every day—even if that little bit is just five minutes while waiting for the bus. Do a quick gesture drawing of a man reading his book across the street from you. Take a moment to scribble down a thumbnail idea of a concept. Try to do a little bit each day to train your brain to think visually. It can be difficult at first, training yourself to make this small bit of time. You’ll think: I don’t have enough time for it. Art is hard! I’m not good enough yet for that piece I’ve always wanted to do. Yes, art is hard. Yes, you might not feel ready to do that masterwork that you’ve been dreaming of, but I’ll let you in on a secret: No artist ever is! Sure, there is a satisfaction that comes when the last detail is polished, and your signature is scrawled across the bottom corner with its flourishing declaration of “Finished!” Every new painting is a milestone of achievement, hopefully with lessons learned and skills advanced. But if you let yourself rest too long in that satisfaction, then you’re not challenging and pushing yourself onward enough. I like to think that if I still feel a piece I did three years ago is among my best work, then I’m doing something wrong. My best is always going to be among my most recent pieces, with even better pieces on the horizon. Keep moving forward in your art. That masterwork that you just don’t think you have the skills yet to tackle? You won’t gain those skills unless you try. Take it head on. Make the best attempt you can or at least tackle a small portion or element of it. Maybe it’s dramatic lighting. Maybe it’s multiple figures interacting. Maybe it’s something small like a facial expression, or how to paint a tree. When you think you have mastered that, move on to the next item on the list, and the next, until you can face the behemoth. It might be you’ll like the result. If you don’t, then figure out what parts didn’t work for you. Learn to isolate the individual aspects that need to be worked on and then make that your goal of improvement in the next piece.

Preciousness is the enemy of an artist who wants to grow. 1) Precious Time 2) Precious Artwork To let the muse work her magic, you have to let go of attachments to those two concepts. Even as a professional who has been drawing and painting every day for almost two decades, I had to learn this lesson recently. I’m not immune to these pitfalls any more than a beginning artist. Long ago I got past the hump of just getting myself to do art every day. That part I took for granted. In fact, after so long it becomes a necessity—you train yourself to have an artistic outlet, and it becomes a part of you as much as breathing and sleeping. But due to the vagaries of the grand adventure of life, I found my art time throttled back, and then I fell into the trap that (1) Time was precious. Because I had little time to dedicate to creating, it became a commodity, and every moment of it had to matter. Every second sitting at my desk with a pencil or paintbrush in hand had to be momentous because (2) Artwork was precious, and I couldn’t waste my time with non-essentials. There was only enough time for masterpieces. When you fall into that mode of thinking, your brain and your creativity do the only thing they can: They shut up completely. That kind of pressure is just too much. Every work can’t be a masterpiece. Sometimes you have to just let your subconscious have its way and let the creativity flow from whatever small outlet it feels inclined to at the moment. Great art doesn’t happen on a timeline. And I’m not talking about an individual painting that you finish for a client’s deadline. I’m talking more about the overarching body of artwork and selfimposed expectations and time limits. Make time for the little stuff ! For the gesture drawings at the bus stop. For the scribbled thumbnails in your pocket sketchbook when inspiration strikes at inopportune moments. For doodles on napkins at a cafe, or in the margins of meeting notes at your day job or class. Enjoy these little moments. They will take your creativity to new heights.

Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

7


Chapter One

MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES IT CAN BE A DAUNTING TASK TO SIT IN front of a blank sheet of paper with the expectation of creating something magical, yet possibilities and inspiration lie all around you. From the myriad of legends and stories of the past, to the works of other artists, to the inherent beauty that exists in nature, there is no shortage of places to look for ideas. Even the mistakes you make when painting—those unplanned and at times highly frustrating marks or spills—can be utilized to create unexpected and unique results. So while it certainly can be intimidating to stare at a stark white piece of paper and wonder how your composition will turn out in the end, don’t let fear hold you back. The good news is this: By obtaining knowledge about the tools of the trade and being familiar with the basic watercolor techniques at your disposal, you can help ease the transition from nebulous imagination to successful painting. With time and experience, the medium will simply become an extension of your imagination. After all, practice is the only way to turn a once-blank sheet of paper into a colorful, whimsical and magical world filled with iconic figures of fantasy.


S

electing Pencils In this book you’ll use pencils in your studies of drawing ethereal fantasy worlds with the goal of a painted end result. Though the focus here is on painting with watercolors, pencils are a viable tool for completed works of art. Selecting a Pencil

8H

6H

4H

2H

HB

2B 4B

6B

8B

Leads Are Available in Varying Degrees of Hardness

8B is the softest lead, while 8H is the hardest. HB is a medium hardness. The softer the pencil lead, the darker your mark. If you use too soft a lead, the pencil will smear and make your painted colors look dirty. If the pencil lead is too hard, you will have to press harder to draw your lines, creating indentations on your watercolor paper with the point. For this reason, HB and 2B pencils are good choices for sketches that are going to be painted over.

o. 2 ln a ion dit a r T

3 l (. ica n ha Mec

) ness k c thi der

Traditional wood hol d a pencils are a Le good all-around choice. They have an expressiveness that tends to get lost with mechanical pencils. Mechanical pencils, however, are convenient and consistent. They come in a variety of thicknesses and don’t need to be sharpened. The downside of mechanical pencils is that you lose the organic flow that a uniform thickness of line cannot accommodate. If you’re planning to paint on the surface afterward, don’t use much shading if you wish to keep the colors pure. If you are just sketching for ideas or doing a pencil drawing, then go all out. A lead holder is a particular joy to use in that case. A lead holder is similar to a mechanical pencil but can hold a much thicker lead, so you can draw with its edge or sharpen it to a point.

6B leadholder (used on the hair) Mechanical pencil (HB used for the facial details and 2B used for the fins)

Selecting an Eraser Vinyl erasers work fine for sketches, to clean up a piece after all the painting is completed and for removing bits of dried masking fluid. Kneaded erasers are necessary only if your intent is to create finished pencil drawings because you don’t want to lay in heavy graphite under your watercolors—it will muddy the colors.

10

Using Different Pencil Types

Usually just one or two pencil types are needed for a drawing, but here’s an example that incorporates several so you can see the differences in texture and darkness.

Wooden pencil (2B used for the tail and 4B used to add its shadows)


C

hoosing Brushes and Other Tools The two most common types of brushes are flats and rounds. Flats are useful for creating large areas of even color. Rounds work well for shaping certain areas and adding details. Items like salt and rubbing alcohol are great for adding unique textures to your painting.

Flats

Rounds

A ½-inch (12mm) flat is a good brush for doing washes in large areas. If you decide to work with bigger paintings in the future, you should eventually acquire bigger flats that can cover a larger area with one stroke. A ½-inch (12mm) flat is suitable for working in areas up to 11" × 14" (28cm × 36cm). For surfaces larger than this, you’ll need a larger flat to hold the necessary water and pigment.

Having an assortment of brush sizes gives you a nice base of tools to work from. Rounds in nos. 0, 2, 4 and 8 are a good starter set. You can add to your collection as you gain more experience with painting and find yourself in need of a better selection. Sometimes you can purchase a reasonably priced starter brush set that includes three to five brushes of different sizes. Very fine work and details like leaves, eyes and scales require a small brush with a good point such as a no. 0 round, while a large round such as a no. 10 is useful for irregularly shaped washes.

Sable or Synthetic?

Rubbing Alcohol Salt

Sprinkle salt into wet paint. The crystals pull the pigment as the liquid dries, leaving a random starlike, mottled effect. Brush away the salt crystals after the painting has dried.

Sprinkling rubbing alcohol onto wet paint causes the pigment to push away, leaving an interesting splotched effect.

Brushes range in quality from synthetic fibers to top-of-the-line kolinsky sable hairs. If you are just getting started, you might not want to splurge on the most expensive brushes. Many reasonably priced mixed synthetic and sable or pure sable options are of good quality. What you want to look for in a brush is the ability of the hairs to hold a point when wet (if the hairs splay outward or don’t stick together, the brush isn’t good), and the resilience and bounce of the hairs (when bent, they should spring back into shape). Cheaper brushes eventually lose their point as the hairs get splayed or bent, but do not toss these old brushes out. They are good utility brushes to use when you need to lift paint or apply masking fluid. When you don’t want to spoil your nicer brushes with rough treatment, grab an older one.

Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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F

inding Paints Watercolor paints come in tube and cake form. Don’t feel like you are limited to pans or tubes, however. You can always mix and match. Get a pan set for a basic starter set, then when you need additional colors that are not included, purchase tubes.

Scarlet Lake

Tubes or Cakes?

Advantages of tubes: • Tubes offer more control over the intensity of color. • Tubes are easy to acquire in a variety of pigments so you can custom-select an array of colors.

Ultramarine Blue

Cadmium Yellow

• It is easy to get the amount of pigment you need by squeezing a tube rather than trying to work it up from a dried cake. Advantages of cakes: • Starter sets offer a good variety of preselected colors. • Less cleanup is needed because a cake is more self-contained.

Primary Colors

• Sets are easy to take with you when traveling or painting on site—perhaps to a forest or garden for inspiration.

The primary colors (red, yellow and blue) are three basic colors to get you started. In theory, the entire spectrum of colors can be mixed from them.

Payne’s Gray

Burnt Umber

Brown Madder

White Gouache Gouache is an opaque watercolor paint. When used sparingly, white gouache can be an effective way to add some white over a finished area. However, it is the transparent quality of watercolor that really makes a painting glow. When you apply opaque colors, you step away from that look. The white of untouched paper will always be brighter and more pure than the opaqueness of white gouache.

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Lamp Black

Alizarin Crimson

Sap Green

Viridian Green

Cerulean Blue

Expanded Palette

Having more colors gives you a brighter palette to choose ffrom. You can mix a lot of shades from a limited set, Cadmium Yellow Naples Yellow but if you want a very bright aand light color like pale pink, an oor a light shade of a primary ccolor, you should purchase a tube or cake of that color. In addition to red, yellow and blue, I recommend some of the colors shown above. Starter sets of cake paints usually include most of these colors, though if you go with tubes you can sselect them individually yourself. As you gain more experience, you can add to your selection of ccolors. o


G

athering Extras Absorbent Paper Towels Keep a supply of paper towels on hand for mopping up excess moisture from a painting.

Color Shapers These rubber-tipped tools with either a chisel or pointed tip are often used for sculpting or acrylic painting. Because a color shaper has no individual bristles, dried liquid frisket will not harm it, and it can be used just like a brush to apply the masking fluid. When finished, simply wipe off the tip with a paper towel.

Palette A lot of cake paint sets have a built-in palette for mixing colors; therefore, it may not be necessary to purchase a separate one. However, if you are using only paint tubes, you will need a palette to set out and mix your colors.

Water Container A bowl or cup of water is needed for washing off your brushes. Take time out to freshen the water every once in a while Don’t be lazy and let your water get too dirty and cloudy! Doing so will make your colors look muddy.

Masking Fluid and Old Brushes Also called liquid frisket, masking fluid is a liquid latex that you paint directly on your surface to retain white areas before applying paint. Never use a good painting brush for applying masking fluid. Save old brushes for this purpose, and clean them with soap and water right after you finish. Once the frisket has dried on the paper, you can apply washes of color over it. When the paint is fully dry, remove the masking by rubbing gently with your fingertip or an eraser. The areas underneath will be white and unpainted.

Palette

Mixed Neutrals on Your Palette Although it is important to keep colors clean and separate (especially when using pale colors like yellows, oranges, pinks and light greens), letting colors run together on your palette can create mixed neutral tones. Use them to paint subtle shadows and in-between shades instead of a at pure color. The less vibrant hues and neutral shifts will lend a subtle realism to your painting.

Color shap er

Masking fluid Old brushes Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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S

electing Paper The type of paper you choose to paint on is as important as your brushes and paints. Papers are categorized according to the surface texture, commonly referred to as a paper’s tooth: rough, cold press or hot press. Watercolors are most suited to rough or coldpressed papers because they absorb the pigment quickly. Hot-pressed paper is better for more

opaque techniques such as working in acrylics or gouache paints and drawing with inks and pencils. Selecting a paper is also a matter of personal preference. I prefer to work on lightweight illustration board, but you should try out different textures and types of surfaces to see for yourself how the paints behave. Selecting a Surface

paper color r e t a hw Roug

tercolor paper Cold-pressed wa

Cold-pressed illustr ation board

• Rough surface. This finish has the most pronounced peaks and valleys. It is not recommended for a beginning watercolorist because mistakes are hard to hide and paint can pool in the valleys. • Cold-pressed surface. This surface has a medium tooth and allows the water and pigment to be absorbed quickly. The surface is also resilient to rough treatment and can handle lots of layering and lifting. Cold-pressed paper is a good type of paper to start out with. • Hot-pressed surface. This surface is extremely smooth and nonporous. Watercolors tend to pool and bleed a bit more since the liquid isn’t rapidly absorbed into the paper. However, this does make blending easier.

An Alternative to Watercolor Paper Hot-p resse d bris tol bo ard

Usee Paper Us Pape Pa perr With W th Wi h a Slight Sliigh ght Texture T xxttur Te uree Onee of O On o the thee charms cha harm rmss off watercolor rm wat a er erco colo co loor iss the the he randomness rand ra nddom omne nessss aachieved ne chie ch i ve ie vedd with w thh the wi the flfloow ow off water wat ater er and pooling aandd th an thee spreading sppre read addinng an nd po pool olin ol ingg off ppigments. in iggme ment ntts.s Textured T Te xtur xt u ed ur e paper pap aper er facilitates fac a ili it itat ates ess tthis hiss lo hi look ok aand ndd kkeeps eeps ee ps the art from looking too tight and overworked.

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Illustration board serves as a good alternative to watercolor paper. It comes in cold- or hot-pressed finishes, though even the cold-pressed tends to be on the smoother end of the spectrum. Illustration board does not get as warped from repeated washes as watercolor paper does, and it does not need to be stretched. Tape it down to a Masonite board for easy transportation and to prevent damage to the corners. You can also use bristol board, but it does not take water very well and warps easily. Bristol board is better suited for pencil or ink drawings that have very little color.


Basic Watercolor Technique Stretching Watercolor Paper Unless you use prestretched watercolor paper or illustration board, you must stretch your watercolor paper to prevent it from becoming swollen with water and warping.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  watercolor paper (cut to size) , drawing board Other  4 pieces of acid-free masking tape cut to the width and height of your paper, bowl of water, paper towels

1

1 2 3

2

Wet the Paper

Take the sheet of paper and soak it thoroughly in water. Remove Excess Water

Wipe away excess moisture with a paper towel. Let the Paper Dry

Take the paper by the corners and lay it flat on the drawing board. Tape down all four sides with acid-free masking tape. Let the paper dry completely. When it is dry, the paper is ready to be painted. Don’t remove the paper from the board until you’ve finished your painting.

3 Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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U

nderstanding Color

The basic color wheel consists of the primary colors: red, yellow and blue. From these three basic colors, the rest of the spectrum can be created. The secondary colors are orange (mixed from red and yellow), green (mixed from yellow and blue) and violet (mixed from blue and red). The six tertiary colors result from mixing a primary with a secondary color. Generally reds, oranges and yellows are considered warm colors while purples, blues and greens are considered cool. Being aware of a color’s temperature can help you manipulate the mood of your paintings.

Mixing Lively Grays and Blacks Grays and blacks straight from the tube are sometimes referred to as dead colors. This is particularly true of black because it is completely neutral (neither warm nor cold) and often results in a flat finish that draws the viewer’s eye toward it. As such, it’s best to use black paint from the tube sparingly. A nice alternative to pure black is to create a black mixture. After all, few things in the world are truly black; even a black object has light and shadows and is affected by the surrounding colors. Burnt Umber and Ultramarine Blue make a great combination for an artificial black. Add more Ultramarine Blue to the mixture for a cooler black or more Burnt Umber for a warmer cast.

Warm colors

Red-violet (tertiary)

Red (primary) Red-orange (tertiary)

Violet (secondary)

Orange (secondary)

Blue-violet (tertiary)

Yellow-orange (tertiary)

Blue (primary)

Yellow (primary)

Blue-green (tertiary) Green (secondary)

Yellow-green (tertiary)

Cool colors

The Color Wheel

Being familiar with the color wheel will help you when it comes to mixing your watercolors and determining the color scheme of a painting.

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Complements and Color Mixing

Complementary colors sit opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary pairs are red/green, blue/orange and violet/yellow. Mixing complementary colors together results in a muddy brownish gray tone. The more colors you mix, the muddier the mixture becomes. Try to mix only two or three colors at most to get the color mixture you need.


S

uggesting Edges and Incorporating Spills The best paintings are a mixture of control and random accidents. Most artists evolve beyond the frustration of not being able to control their paint, to using an iron fist and killing all the spontaneity of watercolors, to finally finding a happy medium that uses the natural tendencies of watercolors while maintaining knowledge and control over the results.

Don’t Do

Create Clean Edges by Working Wet-on-Dry

Be patient—a minute spent waiting for an area to dry completely will save you much hair-tearing and regret later when trying to correct an error. Working wet-on-dry will help you create crisp edges. DO - nice crisp edges delineating foreground and background. DON'T - The shadows from the wing spilled out into the surrounding blue because the glaze was applied while the background sky was still wet.

Make Crisp Edges

To paint details or a crisp edge, do not paint a layer of color near another wet color or it will bleed from one section to another. You can create fine-edged details only with dry adjacent colors. When in doubt and something is wet, wait.

Working With Spills and Bleeds

Learning to not become frustrated with how watercolors flow and bleed is one of the major hurdles to becoming comfortable with the medium. A large part of it is letting yourself work with the medium and its quirks instead of trying to minutely control every aspect of it. Watercolors bleed and spill, and rather than being a disaster, this can allow you to use to achieve effects that you can accomplish only with watercolors and not with other mediums like acrylics and oils. They are much more thick and stay put, even when you lay colors right next to other wet colors. Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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Basic Watercolor Technique Laying a Flat Wash Washes, the most basic of watercolor techniques, are for covering large, flat background areas or for laying in basic colors on smaller elements of a painting.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed watercolor paper, drawing board Brushes  ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Ultramarine Blue

1

Other  acid-free masking tape

Wet the Paper

Tape your surface to a drawing board. Position your paper at a slight angle toward you (prop some books underneath the top if you don’t have a slanted drawing table). Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat to wet the entire area of the wash.

2

Add Pigment

Load a ½-inch (12mm) flat with Ultramarine Blue. Drag the brush across the top of the paper. Since the surface is at an angle, the paint will drip toward the bottom of the page.

3

Add More Pigment

1

2

3

4

Before the previous stroke dries, drag a second stroke across the paper, right below and slightly overlapping the first stroke. Make sure you catch the drips from the first stroke for an even wash.

4

Create the Final Layers

Keep layering pigment, following steps 2 and 3, until you get to the bottom. If too much paint runs to the bottom edge, reduce the angle of your work surface. Avoid going back and retouching areas you have already painted until the surface is dry. Small variations and inconsistencies will smooth themselves out as the water flows and the paint dries.

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Basic Watercolor Technique Laying a Graded Wash For a graded wash, dilute the paint with each consecutive stroke so the pigment eventually fades into clear water and the white of the paper. It’s important to let the paint dry. Do not fuss with it too much or you may make inconsistencies more obvious. Use graded washes to change the colors of the sky’s horizon or to create the vibrant edge of a rose petal fading to the pale pink heart.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed watercolor paper, drawing board Brushes  ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Ultramarine Violet Other  acid-free masking tape

1

Wet the Paper and Add Pigment

Secure your surface to the drawing board. Prop the surface up, angling it toward you. Wet the area with a ½-inch (12mm) flat, then load it with fairly concentrated Ultramarine Violet. Drag the brush across the paper’s top with a horizontal stroke.

2

Add Lighter Pigment

For the next stroke, dilute the paint a little bit so that it is slightly lighter than the first stroke. Drag the brush across the surface, overlapping the first row.

3 4

Continue to Add Layers

Keep layering pigments, following step 2, until you get to the bottom. Remember to dilute the paint for each row.

1

2

3

4

Let the Surface Dry

After you’ve covered the whole area, don’t fiddle with it because that will only mar the smoothness of the wash. Minor inconsistencies will smooth themselves out as the surface dries. Practice this a few times until you can create an evenly graded wash.

Applying a Graded Wash in a Curvy Area Create graded washes in areas with curves and edges by slowly building a series of washes in the area. Start with a very pale wash, let it dry, then continue building layers. This method gives you much more control.

Visit im impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds p to download free wallpaper art.

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G

lazing To give your colors a glowing gemlike quality, consider using the glazing technique. A glaze is a translucent wash applied directly on top of an existing layer of color. This technique not only adds an essence of shimmer to your paintings, but also results in a subtle shifting of colors that direct mixing can’t accomplish. Each

time you add a color on top of another color, it changes the tone in a way that is distinctly different from mixing the wet colors directly before painting. And, of course, you aren’t limited to just two layers. You can add as many layers as necessary to build up the colors and create the tones you desire.

Creating Dazzling Results With Glazing

This chart shows what happens when you use the glazing technique. Notice how a color’s intensity increases when another layer of color is added to it. Layering complementary colors results in muted brown and neutral tones. Creating a chart like this with your various pigments is a great starting point to help you determine which colors to glaze. You’ll be able to see in advance how the colors look when one pigment is layered over another.

Alizarin Crimson Cadmium Orange

Lemon Yellow

Sap Green

Ultramarine Blue

Ultramarine Violet

Glazing in Action

I used glazing here to give the skin a transparent quality. The shadows were laid in first using Indigo, then a very pale glaze of Naples Yellow and Alizarin Crimson was added to suggest the main fleshtones. I also glazed small nimbuses of Lemon Yellow around the bits of jewelry to add even more intensity. This gradual buildup of colors produces a much richer composition than if it were done in one pass with the colors premixed on the palette.

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Basic Watercolor Technique Layering Glazes A dragon perches on a rocky outcropping, guardian of all that he surveys. With just a few layers of a limited palette of colors, you can define forms, light and shadow to create a draconic sentinel.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0 and 2 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat brush Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Naples Yellow, Ultramarine Violet

1

1 2 3

2

3

Lay a Graded Wash Over a Finished Sketch

Lay a graded wash with Ultramarine Violet at the top, fading to Naples Yellow at the bottom with a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush. Glaze the Dragon

Glazing Creates a Subtle Color Change These are the three colors that were used in this demonstration. Glazing them on top of each other adds multiple levels of complexity.

Use a no. 2 round brush to glaze Naples Yellow on the dragon and ground. Let bits of the initial wash show through for highlights.

Add the Final Details

Use a no. 0 round brush and glaze finer details with Burnt Umber over the dragon and ground. Add ridges to the horn on his head, and bring out the contours of the eyes and scales. Be sure to leave highlights of both previous layers of glazing showing through. As you work, you are building up the darker areas, pushing the shadows back and leaving the light areas as highlights.

Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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B

lending When it’s time to blend the tones or colors in your painting, choose one of two approaches…

Blending Wet

Start in the Corners

It can be tricky to blend a background around the tight corners of a foreground element. Select a round brush that is big enough to hold a lot of water, yet get into tight corners. Charge the brush with moderately diluted pigment, using just enough water to flow but not so much that the tones become too pale.

When dealing with large areas, graded washes work well for blending from one tone to another or from color to the white of the paper. For smaller areas though, it can be a bit unwieldy. Blending with your brush while the paint is wet can give you more control.

Blend Outward

Blend Until Clear

As you move out from the foreground element you are painting around, start diluting the paint on your brush with water. Paint fairly quickly to keep the forward edge that you are working along wet. If it dries, a noticeable seam of pigment will show.

As you pull the forward line outward, keep diluting the paint on your brush until it runs clear.

Establish Basic Forms

Lift Along the Edges

Lay in the basic forms for the area you are painting.

A brush with stiff bristles works best for this. After the initial layer has dried, load the brush with water and scrub along the edges of the paint to lift and soften the transition.

Blending Dry Blending dry works well for softening edges, blurring for distance or for shading. Transitions will not appear as smooth as they do when blending wet. Results vary depending on how amenable the particular color is to lifting, as well as the paper type.

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U

sing Salt

Salt is an excellent additive to help indicate texture in your paintings. It works well in creating a nice base for organic backgrounds like leaves and foliage. However, it can sometimes be tricky to achieve a controlled result. By its nature, salt creates a random effect, so be prepared to relinquish some control when using it. To a certain extent, you can control the type of effect created, depending on the type of salt you choose to work with. Sea salt, which is coarser and more irregularly shaped, generates large splotches of differing shapes and sizes. Table salt, on the other hand, is very fine and more uniformly shaped, yielding a consistent, splotched texture.

Sea salt— the rough, irregularly sized grains result in splotches of varying shapes and sizes. Table salt—the standardized size of these fine crystals produces a more regular texture. Sea Salt Versus Table Salt

If you wait until the paint is completely dry before removing the salt, little outlines of pigment will remain behind. This will yield a very feathery, delicate, starry texture. If you very lightly brush the salt away (using a paper towel) when the paint is almost dry, you can avoid the dark outlines. This also blurs the starry texture a bit, resulting in a more nebulous blob shape.

Getting Started

Lay in some wet paint, then sprinkle salt into the area you wish to texturize.

Removing the Salt

Watching Texture Form

As the salt works, the grains suck in moisture and pull away the pigment, creating a distinctive, starry texture on the paper.

When the paint is nearly dry, you can remove the salt by lightly brushing it with a paper towel. The timing for this is something you have to experiment with. It varies depending on how wet your initial wash is, how much salt you use, how absorbent your paper is and what effect you are attempting to achieve. Try it on scrap paper first if you’re uncertain about how it will work.

Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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M

ore Watercolor Techniques

1

2

3

1 Layered Graded Wash

2 Drybrush

By combining graded washes and glazing, you can create a multicolored melding of tones. Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat to apply a graded wash with one color. When that has dried completely, paint a second graded wash with a different color (or use the same color to intensify its appearance). Repeat this until you get the appearance you desire. Use this technique for complex backgrounds.

Like the name suggests, this technique employs a dry brush (a brush with little to no water). Just load some paint on the brush, then dab it in a paper towel to get rid of excess moisture. Experiment with varying amounts of moisture and take note of the results. With less moisture, the brush will skip over the texture of the paper, and the individual hairs of the brush will be evident in each stroke. With more water you will get a very smooth, unbroken line similar to a wash. Drybrushing can be used to paint fine details in foliage, grass and hair.

3 Dry-Into-Wet

Secrets to Successful Lifting Certain colors respond very differently to lifting. Blues lift very easily (for this same reason, blues are sometimes difficult to glaze because the color insists on lifting as you apply a second wet layer). Reds, on the other hand, can be extremely stubborn and require much more force to lift. The paper also affects your ability to lift a pigment. Pigments on hot-pressed paper lift easily since the paint sits mostly on the surface. A very rough cold-pressed paper might be more resistant to lifting. Cheaper papers also have a tendency to suck up the pigment and very reluctantly release any of it.

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When using this technique, wet only the areas you will be working on with clear water. Then, with a brush loaded with relatively dry paint, work through those wet areas. The wet parts will dilute the pigment, while the dry areas hold the paint still. This technique can be used for ripples on the surface of water.

4 Wet-In-Wet If you want to achieve an organic look in your painting or to blend your colors in a looser fashion, simply use the wet-in-wet technique. To begin, wet the entire surface of the area you will be working on with clear water, then take a brush loaded with color and paint into the wet areas. The water will dilute the edges of the painted areas and pull the pigment away from the center, creating a softer, more natural look.


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5 Lifting From a Wet Surface

8 Rubbing Alcohol Texturing

Lifting is when you remove pigment from the paper after it has been applied. You can lift from a wash that is still wet by taking a paper towel, tissue or sponge and dabbing at the paint. The drier the paint gets, the less color you can remove.

You can also create texture using rubbing alcohol. Start by laying a wash, and while it is still wet, sprinkle it with rubbing alcohol. The pigment will push away from the rubbing alcohol and leave an interesting speckled pattern. This technique is great for suggesting distant foliage or bubbles in an underwater scene.

6 Lifting From a Dry Surface To lift color from paint that has already dried, you must apply water. Do this by dropping water onto the dried surface and letting it sit for a moment before lightly scrubbing it with a paper towel. You can also wet a brush with water and use it to lightly scrub the surface. Using a smaller brush gives you more control over what is lifted. This technique is very useful for distant foliage, tree bark, stars, mermaid scales or for creating highlights.

7 Plastic Wrap Texturing If you want to add extra texture to your painting, lay a wash, then while it is still wet, lay a piece of plastic wrap on top. After the paint has dried, remove the plastic wrap. This technique works well for rock textures or stained glass.

Flow With the Medium, Don’t Fight It If you find yourself struggling too hard to accomplish a certain effect, it might be time to take a step back and reconsider your approach. Sure, there are some unpredictable elements to painting with watercolors, but they can be controlled—to some extent—by your choice of materials and techniques. For example, wet-on-dry usually stays where your brush paints it. If you use more liquid, the stroke will be smooth. Less liquid will create a broken-line, dry-brush effect. Wet-in-wet, on the other hand, will cause colors to bleed and bloom across the wet zones. If you find details are hard to paint because everything is becoming blurry, think about the surface you are painting on. Is it wet? Is it too wet? Is the paper too rough? Are your brushes too big? By familiarizing yourself with the characteristics of watercolor materials and techniques, and applying this knowledge to your paintings, you can avoid frustrating mistakes and enhance your watercolor experience.

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P

ositive and Negative Space

Positive space refers to the object you’re dealing with. The two-dimensional shape of the areas that surround the object is known as negative space. Either one can be the main focus of the piece;

being defined as negative space doesn’t mean that part of your image isn’t important. Being aware of the shape of the negative space will impact your composition and the balance of your piece.

Positive Space

Positive and Negative Space Enhance Depth

Effective use of positive and negative space as well as the ability to switch back and forth between painting the two can greatly enhance a painting and add to the perception of depth.

Negative Space

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Impact for Watercolors

With watercolors, you generally don’t paint light areas but instead push dark areas darker, allowing the white of the paper to show through. Any time you leave lighter areas unpainted and paint darker color around an object, you’re working in that object’s negative space. When working with watercolors, you have to be much more conscious of concepts of positive and negative space than with other mediums. Notice how the positive space of the lighter unpainted areas of the girl’s white dress and skin contrast with the darker, more heavily painted areas of the surrounding foliage, and how the shape of the reflective pool of water is defined by the darker contours of rock around it.

Switching Between Positive and Negative Space

Because watercolor is transparent and you work from light areas into dark, you often have to paint around portions of the picture that you wish to keep a lighter color. The fairy riders on their mounts are the focus here, but notice how the light source comes from the lower right corner. This makes it necessary to paint the negative space of the darker background on all edges facing the light source, while on the upper left side edges of the figures you have to flip your way of thinking and paint the positive space of the figures so that their shadows are darker against the background.

Spatial Relationships

Negative space focuses the viewer’s attention on the shape of the area around an object. Be conscious of the push and pull of the foreground and background and the relationship between objects and the surrounding space as you work. The dragon’s neck and head curl around the woman, showing interplay in their spatial relationship. Closest to the viewer is the head and upper neck of the dragon. This occupies the initial positive space, with the woman’s lower skirts and the skies being the background. To ensure that the dragon’s face is prominent, the skirts and sky have to be a low contrast to the head. But as the body of the dragon swings around behind the woman, she becomes the main occupant of the positive space, and the chest scales of the dragon must be played down so as not to draw too much attention from the focus on her face. Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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U

sing Opaque Whites

Watercolor purists would never even think of using anything opaque. For the most part, I am like-minded. Once you start depending on being able to work light on top of dark, you lose a lot of the wonder and magic of watercolors. Part of the beauty of the medium is the transcendent glow that can only be achieved with the transparency of watercolors.

So keep in mind that with these opaque techniques, you’re not replacing the transparency of the paints or compensating for forgetting to leave whites. They're more of a complement to the other techniques being employed.

A Touch of White

If used sparingly, a touch of white can enhance a piece. There are numerous materials to choose from: • white watercolor from a tube (still fairly translucent) • white corrective liquid (available in pen form) • white gel pens (my personal favorite) • white gouache (similar to watercolors but much more opaque) • white gesso (very bright and opaque)

Working Into Wet

Working Into Dry

While the area is still wet, add some scribbled highlights. As it dries, the wetness of the underpainting leaches the white out, softening the edges. I used a white gel pen here, but much of the same can be accomplished using other white mediums.

Go back in after the paint has dried and brighten up some areas with a second layer of gel pen on the dry surface. For harder, more defined edges, draw directly on dried areas.

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Make the White Pop

After drawing some loose textures with the white gel pen, go back in with dark color on a brush and paint some more layers of color around the pen lines. This makes the white stand out by contrast. You can also brush clean water along the edges where you’ve drawn the white. This will blend it into the surrounding colors a bit better and make the transitions more subtle. You can even use your finger to blend a little bit right after you’ve drawn— smear the ink outward a bit while it is still wet.

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L

ifting Out When painting large swathes of smooth background, it’s sometimes hard to avoid painting over bits of the foreground.

Use Broad Brushstrokes on the Background

Old Brushes Are Great for Lifting

There’s no need to be fastidious when you work. Sometimes you have to use broad brushstrokes to achieve that smoothness of the background, and you don’t want to disturb the paint too much by being fussy and trying to paint around every corner and crevice.

After the background dries, take a round brush with a little bit of water and scrub at the edges of the foreground element to lift out the errant color. Stiff brushes work better for this because they give more resistance. Use your older or synthetic brushes for this purpose rather than your new ones with nice points. A retired brush that has lost its point for fine work is perfect for lifting.

Masking Fluid Also Works

Lifting Blends Elements

Of course you could use masking fluid to avoid painting over certain areas, but masking leaves a very hard, rough edge.

Lifting is a much softer approach than masking fluid and helps blend elements into one another so the foreground does not seem pasted on top of the background. The foreground and background are integrated because lifting doesn’t pull all the color out, just most of it.

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D

rawing on Inspiration For centuries now, mythological subject matter has been a source of inspiration for many artists, whether gleaned from the living stories and tales of one’s time or from long-ago legends cloaked in magic and mystery. The fairy tales that have inspired so many can also spark your artistic imagination. Your local library and bookstores have shelves filled with mythologies of the world. Browse through a sample of these texts to arm yourself with the concepts necessary to create innumerable creatures, heroes and goddesses. Once you’ve found the perfect inspiration for a painting—whether it’s a piece of existing art, a photo you have taken or a sketch you’ve done on flimsy scrap paper—you’ll need to copy the image to an appropriate painting surface. Employing a grid method will help you transfer your reference and maintain proper proportion and balance.

Lay out a Grid on the Image and Your Surface

Select a picture or study. Mark off a grid on the image with a pencil or pen and a ruler. If you have a computer, you can scan the image and digitally mark off a grid. Mark your blank drawing paper lightly in pencil with the same number of gridded subdivisions. Your paper does not need to be the same size as your gridded photo. Just be sure the grids have the same proportions of width and height.

Alternate Methods for Transferring Your Image Artist transfer paper (a product similar to carbon paper) is available at most art supply stores. Just lay the transfer paper (dark side down) on your painting surface, place your drawing on top and secure both to your painting surface. Then trace over the lines of your drawing. Be careful not to press too hard or you will leave grooves on the painting surface where liquid and pigment will pool when you start to paint. If you can’t find transfer paper, use this trick: Make sure all the lines on your sketch are dark, then turn it pencil-side down on your painting surface and tape it in place. With a dull pencil (or anything that can serve to burnish) scribble on the back side of your sketch wherever your sketch lines are. The original drawing will be transferred in reverse onto your painting surface.

Begin to Map out the Image

Complete the Sketch

Using the gridded photo or study as a reference, draw small sections of the image one at a time. Concentrate on one square at a time and try not to think of the picture as a whole figure, but just as lines and shadows. Look at where the lines are in each square of your grid. Notice how the eye is three-quarters of the way across one square. Relying on the preconceptions your brain has of the figure and of what things should look like can lead to an inaccurate drawing.

Continue fleshing out the details and light shading. It’s important to keep any shading very light if you plan to paint over the sketch. If the pencil lines are too dark, the paint’s colors will appear dirty. After you finish sketching, erase the grid lines.

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T

he Importance of Sketching

A sketchbook, or even multiple sketchbooks, is a must-have for any artist. The key is that it has to be exactly what that word says. It’s a book for your sketches, not a showcase for your finished drawings. Sometimes you might get carried away with a sketch, and it’ll evolve into something that you want to show other people, but every artist needs to have one book that is for themselves. A sketchbook is a place where you can feel safe to make mistakes and to just draw what your muse inspires you to create. Don’t draw for an audience, real or imagined, because then you’re not drawing for that little voice inside you that is your creative guide. And the only way you’re going to find your own style and not be derivative of someone else is by paying heed to that voice.

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Don’t let a desire or a need to have a style dictate what you sketch either. A style is what happens when you’re not paying attention. When you simply create what you love, when you sketch with your own rhythm, or lay the paint down just so in a way that appeals to you, that’s when your style happens. As artists, we’re all inspired by the creations of those around us. We’re inspired by what we see and what we experience. How you process that information, how you filter it from your senses to percolate through your brain and then flow out through your hands and fingertips, that’s when you find your own voice.

Sketches can be very rough. They don’t have to go anywhere. A sketchbook is simply a chance to experiment and try things out without getting too attached and without letting the drawings become too precious.


Fantastical art can either closely follow your reference material with only minor deviations, or you can choose to view your references more as an inspirational jumping-o point. From there, you can embellish with elements from your imagination or combine with other references to create a composite.

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Sketching for Its Own Sake Try to find time to let all your conscious thoughts and expectations dictate what you draw. Remember how it felt to just doodle when you were a kid. These can be rough and

just skeletons of an idea, or if your creative juices really get going and you get excited about the direction a sketch goes, see how far you can take it.

Shadows started off as just an experiment with a new brand of drawing paper I wanted to try out. Pencil met paper without any inkling of what would be conjured from the blankness or even how developed the image would be. Even as I finished the main bird figure, I had no idea that I would continue with background shadows or other birds. The image evolved organically on its own.

A Sketchbook Is Your War Chest! On those days when you feel the need to draw and paint, but you just can’t find the right spark of inspiration, flip through your sketchbook. If you’ve been diligently depositing small sums of creativity over the days and weeks and years, then there will be a gold mine of ideas waiting to be developed in your sketchbooks. Sometimes when I’m working on a project, I’ll try several different approaches and experiment with various poses and compositions in my sketchbooks. Out of the many sketches, only one of them gets picked for the project at hand. But this leaves all the other discarded ideas sitting around. On a rainy day, with the benefit of time to distance my inner critic, I can flip back to these unused options and frequently find some aspect worth revisiting.

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This sketch of foxes running through the night under the grand spreading arch of an oak tree was the original thumbnail concept drawing.


I decided to do a closer-up cropping of the white foxes from the original thumbnail sketch. The finished piece utilized very little of the concept I had initially started with.

Something about that first thumbnail sketch really attracted me. So about a year later I revisited it when flipping through my sketchbook and eventually created this painting, On the Darkest Night.

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C

ontrast One of the key concepts to keep in mind when working on a background is contrast. You can accomplish this in several different ways: color, focus, intensity and light.

Contrast by Color

In this piece the area where you want to focus the viewer’s attention is a slightly angled vertical column that includes the two figures, the drapery and the fish.

Scan one of your paintings and examine it in grayscale to see how your balance is. This can give you an idea of how well you’ve designed the larger image. It’s easy sometimes to get bogged down in the details of things instead of seeing a painting as a holistic experience with many overall elements that create a single design.

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The area outside of this focus needs to contrast so it doesn't fight for the viewer’s attention. To achieve that contrast, the background areas are mostly a cooler purple tone.

Use complementary colors, which can be very exaggerated or more subtle. Use complementary colors that are diametrically opposite on the color wheel (purple/yellow, red/green, blue/ orange). I prefer to use a triangular opposition.

You don’t have to use direct complementary colors to achieve contrast. This piece uses mostly blues for the background, with a contrast of colors ranging from green->yellow->orange. It’s still effective though, as the green helps to soften the transition from the distant background into the foreground elements and unifies the piece.


Contrast by Intensity

Contrast by Focus

Focus refers to the level of detail and blurring of elements. Imagine a photograph where a very close-up object is in highly focused detail, while the background is blurred. This serves to focus the viewer’s attention on what you, the artist, want them to see: the foreground elements. If you put too much crisp detail in the background, then it fights for the viewer’s attention, and you lose the ability to control the flow of the composition and how he takes in your picture. The focus of this piece is the dancing pair and the animals immediately surrounding them.

Intensity of color is another way to control contrast. If you let your background contain more neutral shades, then it naturally recedes and lets the viewer see the very bright and lively foreground elements. Since most of the time you work from the background to the foreground, the early stages of the painting might feel dull and lacking in color to you. This is because you have to build the basis for contrast with the foreground if you want to create a truly striking final image.

Contrast by Light

Contrast of light is really the most basic kind of contrast. Light and shadow—that is what defines everything you see. Edges of an object really are just where light is bouncing, and darkness is the absence of light. Remember this and try not to paint lines and things, but instead places where light meets surface.

Bringing It All Together

Don’t let yourself be limited to one of these techniques. You can apply a single one to your painting or any two or even all four. Even within the examples that we’ve examined on these pages, we’ve discussed only one form of contrast on each painting, but in reality they all incorporate combinations of these techniques. Can you go back through the images and spot the other forms of contrast in each one? Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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C

ompositions and the Importance of Thumbnailing Just as a writer gets an idea and scribbles hasty words in a notebook to make sure a moment of potential genius is not lost forever to the void of forgetfulness, an artist needs to make visual notes. This is where thumbnails come in handy. They don’t have to be masterpieces. They just need to capture the idea so that you can reinterpret them at a later time, although occasionally you may use them in trying to communicate your concepts to others if you are painting for a client. A secondary function for thumbnails is to work out composition. When you limit yourself to a smaller space, you only have room in the sketch for the key components. You don’t get bogged down in details like facial expressions, individual leaves and minutiae. What you’re left with is the overall flow of the piece.

Here’s a Thumbnail Exercise! Take these various components, and pick any three of them at random. Then try doing a few thumbnail drawings by trying different sizes and locations for the various elements: Doorway, Tree, Staircase, Woman, Man, Cat, Fox, Bird, Flower, Tower, Mountain, Cabin, Cliff, Bones, Fish, Moon, Sun, Dragon. For example, here are a couple of thumbnails using Fish, Tower, Staircase. You can play around with the size of the various components, their placement or even the proportions of the paper. Don’t let your composition be limited by an 81⁄2 × 11- inch (22cm × 28cm) standard piece of paper. Let the composition dictate the shape of the piece.

Make your own list of random elements and see what ideas you come up with in your thumbnails.

These were various thumbnail sketches scribbled into my sketchbook. I had a concept in mind. The key points were: 1) A doorway in the woods 2) Trees framing this magical portal 3) A staircase leading up to the door With those elements in mind, I played around with various ways of arranging them—but on a very small scale, each drawing only a few inches wide.

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The series of thumbnails eventually led to this configuration for the final painting.


Demonstration Shadow Passage A traveler ventures forth onto the still surface of the lake, drawn by an elusive witch-light, which those who live upon the shores speak of seeing. What creature lurks in the depths of the lake? What spirits haunt the shallows and wander through the halls of the decrepit and forgotten tower?

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray (This step-by-step uses Payne’s Gray until the very last step, but feel free to use any color you wish to create a different mood in the piece. Blues, purples and grays give it a haunting nighttime feel. Green gives it daytime mystery. Warm reds and oranges turn on an air of danger in the glow of dawn.) Other  paper towel or small sponge, sea salt, white gel pen

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Sky

Using a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush, lay a wash into the sky. Use a no. 2 round brush to blend into the the area around the moon, leaving the moon as white as possible. You can also use a very slightly damp paper towel or sponge and very gently dab at the wet paint around the moon to further lighten up the area for the glow of light.

Monochrome

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If you’re new to watercolors, or even working with paints and brushes in general, it can be a daunting prospect to launch right into the experience. That shouldn’t stop you though. Try limiting your palette to reduce the stress of having to deal with multiple colors. Work on a painting using only one color so that you focus on the simple action of working with light and shadow, just as if you were shading and drawing with a lead pencil. This gives you a chance to get used to how watercolors behave and move on paper.

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2

Background Glaze for the Sea and Sky

Add a graded wash with a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush with the darkest part at the bottom of the page (under the water) and getting lighter as you approach the horizon line. Blend that glaze up over the horizon and the tower, still keeping the moon and the glow around it fairly light.

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Darkening the Atmosphere

Using a no. 4 round brush, glaze darker layers into the upper and lower corners of the piece and around the body of the fish. Blend the edges of these light glazes outward into the surrounding wash so that the transition is smooth. Don’t get too much pigment on the brush at once. Seamless glazes are easier to achieve if you can let yourself be patient and slowly build up to darker colors with light glazes.

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The Tower and the Creature

Use a no. 2 round and paint a layer along the rocky island and tower. Leave a thin edge of white paper showing on the edges of the tower so that it can be limned in moonlight. Dab wet-in-wet for some deeper shadows along the rocky shore and sprinkle salt into the wet paint. Add some scales to the creature, leaving an edge of lighter, unpainted space on each scale to create highlights.

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Darkening the Details

Use a no. 0 round brush with much more concentrated pigment on your brush, and start to add definition to the details. On the tower, bring the darker tones into the cracks and crevices as well as on the stones of the shore and the staircase. On the fish, push the darker tones in toward the center of the scales to add definition, as well as on the ridges of the fins by gently stroking in parallel shadows. Be sure to leave areas of the lighter underpaintings for highlights.

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The Boat

Again use the no. 0 round brush with more concentrated pigment and paint the shadowy boat and figure. A Tiny Bit of Color

With a no 0. round brush, take a tiny bit of Lemon Yellow (or any contrasting color of your choice) and blend outward into the gray from the dangling bioluminescent lure on the creature. Add a touch of this reflected light along the edges of the shadowy figure in the boat and a dotted bit in the iris of the creature’s eye. Very sparingly, take a white gel pen and dot in some white highlights along the edges of the fins and scales.

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Chapter Two

THE

FOUNDATIONSSTONE Stone—inert, solid, unmoving. The foundation from which creation and civilization rises. It is familiar, something that human hands can shape and stack and build with. It is the ground we walk upon and representative of permanence and the comfort of the unchanging, even as it contradicts that perception we carry by slowly eroding and slipping away to silt and sand. But that change is invisible during the fleeting space of time human eyes may rest upon those surfaces. The literal foundations upon which your imagined worlds rest are imbued with all these associations about stone, and these feelings are conveyed in paintings— in the majesty of distant mountain peaks and the crumbling walls of ancient castles.


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ainting Stone Stone, the ground and the earth to stand upon, and the walls that rise up around. Using some basic watercolor techniques, you can create base textures upon which to build and carve a world. Loosen your control. Nature is masterful with random chaos, and the goal is to try to emulate that freedom with the properties of paint.

Methods for Stone Texture

B C A

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[A] Wet-in-wet of Ultramarine Violet, Payne’s Gray and Viridian Green. Don’t be afraid to let the colors bleed and create blotches when drying. This makes for great stony texture. [B] Sponge base textures, and then further enhance details after the base layer has dried by emphasizing shadows.

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Using a Sponge

1. Start with a wash of color.

[C] For sharper relief and for highlights, you can use a white gel pen or white opaque paint to add some touches. Use sparingly though.

2. Use a sponge and dab at the wet paint to lift pigment and create texture. 3. Use a finer pointed brush to pull out shadows and create edges. This can be used to create texture for a pitted wall or the base texture for rocky ground. Stone Wall Background

A base texture was created for this wall with some sponging.

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Demonstration Using Bleeds and Wet-in-Wet

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M AT E R I A L S L I S T

Start With Rocky Shapes

Surface  cold-pressed illustration board

Use a no. 4 round with Viridian Green to paint a lumpy rock shape.

Brushes  nos. 0, 1 and 4 rounds Watercolors  Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray,

Add Multiple Colors

Prussian Blue, Viridian Green

Still using the no. 4 round, paint wetin-wet so that the colors bleed into each other. Add Payne’s Gray to extend. Wet-in-Wet Bleeding

After you have laid the paint down, watch it carefully for about a minute. When you see that some of the edges are starting to dry and the moisture is soaking into the paper (but not gone entirely!), take a little bit of clean water and drop it into the wet areas. If you have timed it right, the water will create bleeding pale splotches of texture and nice ragged, random edges.

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Details

Let the paint dry completely now, and once it has, you can go back in with a no. 0 round brush and Payne’s Gray and add shadows and more structure to the randomness that you created with the initial textures. Be sure to leave many of the bleeding and raw edges showing and don't overwork and obscure them.

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Context

Add a background sky by painting around the rocky formation with a no. 4 round brush, using Naples Yellow wet-inwet with a mixture of Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray. Leave some white-edged highlights between the sky and the rocks to limn them in light.

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Birds

Use a no. 1 round brush with Payne’s Gray and paint shadowy ravens winging overhead.

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Demonstration Standing Stones A monolithic gateway guards a passage to the unseen world. An emblem of mystery and magic. Standing stones are portals. They are places where the earth speaks with the powerful thrum of ley line energies and are imbued with the memory of those who stood beneath the same arches thousands of years before.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Cerulean Blue, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green

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Other  paper towel, salt

Sky

Mix Ultramarine Violet and a little bit of Cerulean Blue and paint a wash on the sky with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. Overlap the top portion of the mountains in the distant background. Use a smaller no. 2 round brush to get the area of sky peeking through the standing stones and around the moon.

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Shading the Sky

After the initial wash is dry, glaze a little bit more of the same mixture of colors using the ½-inch (12mm) flat brush in the upper corners to darken those areas a little bit. Blend outward into the existing wash by diluting the paint and dabbing away the excess on your page with a paper towel.

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Distant Hills

Use a no. 2 round brush and glaze the shadow of the distant hills in the background with the same mixture of colors. Watch the paint as it dries for a minute. When you see that some of the edges are starting to dry and the moisture is soaking into the paper, take a little bit of clean water and drop it into the wet areas. Let the water bleed and create some edges within the field of color.

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Distant Hills’ Details

Use a no. 0 round brush with a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Violet to add some definition to the distant hills.

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4 Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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5

Closer Hill

Do the same to the closer hill, glazing with a no. 2 round brush and dotting it with water to let highlights bloom in the wet paint. Then add more definition and structure with a no. 0 round and a little bit of Payne’s Gray mixed in.

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Foreground Hillsides

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and lay a wash of Naples Yellow on the foreground. With a no. 4 round, dot wet-in-wet with various mixtures of Sap Green and Viridian Green, more so in the lower corners. While the paint is still wet, sprinkle with salt and let dry before brushing the salt off. Leave the area around the waterfall mostly white, softly blending the glaze to clear in the area around it.

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Foreground Hillsides’ Details

Use nos. 0 and 1 round brushes with varying mixtures of Naples Yellow, Sap Green and Payne’s Gray to glaze finer details of grass and shadowed cliff edges over the hillsides. Utilize the feathering textures that the salt left as tufts of grass, leaving some of it as is, and trailing out tendrils of grass from the tips of others.

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Stones

Use a no. 2 round brush and with a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Viridian Green, paint the standing stones. Leave a thin highlight of white around the edges of the main stones and some of the larger ones. As the paint dries, drop water wet-in-wet and let the water bleed out in feathery textures.

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Limned Edges

Using a stiff-bristled no. 2 round with clean water, gently scrub alongside the white edges of the main stones to lift the pigment and soften the hard white highlights. Final Details

Use a no. 0 round with Payne’s Gray and add some fine crevices and cracks in the stones.

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M

ountains

Sleeping giants.

Mountains can loom on the horizon, adding atmosphere and deďŹ ning the space of the world you create. What kinds of peaks might they be? Undulating mounds like the spines of sleeping dragons perhaps? Or tall spindly spires that claw toward the heavens, defying gravity? What creatures might inhabit such a sere landscape, safely nesting in cli-top aeries? Or perhaps a lone icy peak with the verdant sweep of tree-lined hillsides rolling upward towards the apex.

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Drawing Mountains [A] Start with the shape of your peaks, roughly triangular but jagged. [B] Let peaks farther in the distance get overlapped. [C] Peaks closer to the foreground should be layered in front. B E

D

C A

[D] Ridges start at the apex of a peak and snake their way down the slope in curves. Don’t limit yourself to the pinnacles. Even from very small peaks, you will see serpentine ridges winding their way down the slopes. [E] Rendering the cusps of valleys joining the ridges becomes a matter of extrapolating how the land curves down in a cup between the ridges.

[A] Light source (the sun)

A

[B] Light side of the ridge

D B

C

[C] Deepest shadows will be here, just on the opposite side of the ridge, and fading out into more general shadows as you extend down the slope. [D] Far distant peaks might be entirely shadowy and hazy.

Shaping the Ridges Keep Your Light Source in Mind

• DO let your ridges be more of a softened zigzag, primarily moving horizontally.

When dealing with landscape elements as distant as mountains, most likely your light source will be either the sun or the moon. (Though a cataclysmic fire or magical eruption or mystical glowing castle are among many other possibilities too!)

• DON’T get too carried away with serpentine S-shaped ridges as they will look too wild and crazy and break the planes that you are trying to create.

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Demonstration Painting Mountains A misty river winds through lowland hills, while high above, icy mountain ranges form a majestic backdrop. They shadow the valley, and inhabitants of the forests speak of the great sages who seek enlightenment on those distant peaks.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Cerulean Blue, French Ultramarine, Prussian Blue, Ultramarine Violet Other  salt

1

1 2

2

Sky

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and paint a graded wash of French Ultramarine at the top of the page, with the darkest color at the top and fading to the white of the page just past the uppermost peaks of the mountains. Distant Peaks

The distant peaks are just shadowy presences in the background. Using a no. 4 round brush, glaze them with more French Ultramarine, keeping the pigment darkest at the top of the peaks and fading to clear at the base, after overlapping the next closest chain of mountains.

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3

3

Closer Peaks

The next chain of peaks is closer to the viewer, and you can start adding some detail of ridges and shadows and highlights to them. Mix a little bit of Prussian Blue with the French Ultramarine and glaze the next chain of peaks in, again overlapping the closer hills and fading to clear. When the liquid is starting to soak into the page and starting to dry, drop some clear water on top to let some texture bleed into the pigment.


4

5

4

6

Shadowed Mountain Faces

Use a no. 0 round brush and with a more concentrated Prussian Blue and French Ultramarine mixture, glaze the shadowed sides of the mountain ridges. Use the textures that were created by the wet-in-wet drops of water. Enhance the existing texture and don't obliterate it with overworked pigment. Keep in mind where the light source is. In this piece the sun is out of the frame of view and behind the right shoulder of the viewer. Therefore most of the shadows should fall to the left sides of the ridges.

5

Deepen the Shadows

Add some deeper shadows along the shadowed side of the ridges by mixing a little bit of Ultramarine Violet with Prussian Blue, and with a no. 1 brush glaze into the inner edges of the ridges. This creates a rippled striation down the mountainside. With Cerulean Blue and a no. 1 brush, glaze similar striations on the lighted sides of the ridges, sloping the opposite way down the peaks.

6

Trees

Continue forward into the foreground. Using a mixture of Burnt Umber and Prussian Blue, glaze the upper treeline with a no. 1 round brush. While the lower edge of the paint is still wet, switch to a no. 4 round and continue the glaze downward to the base of the page, mixing in more Prussian Blue as you go. While the paint is still wet, sprinkle with salt and brush away when dry.

7

Silhouettes of Trees

7

Use a more concentrated mixture of Burnt Umber and Prussian Blue to paint short dotting strokes with a no. 1 round brush to add the silhouettes of trees in the foreground.

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Demonstration Guardian of the Pass With a horn shining bright as a beacon of light, the guardian of the pass leaps across high peaks, and delicate bridges arch across dizzying drops. Verdant valleys plunge down into chasms and the green woods where the fey folk live. Sometimes, standing at the bridge, one can hear their eldritch voices drift up in songs carried by the valley winds.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Cerulean Blue, French Ultramarine, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green Other  white gel pen

1

1

Glows

Use a no. 4 round brush and glaze lightly around the lanterns and the unicorn’s horn with Lemon Yellow, fading out to clear.

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2

2

Sky

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and paint a wash of a mixture of Viridian Green and Prussian Blue in the sky. Let the wash extend over the upper peaks and fade to clear.


3

4

5

3

Distant Mountains

4 5

More Mountains

Use a no. 4 round with the same mixture of Viridian Green and Prussian Blue. Glaze the distant mountains and castle, starting at the top and blending to clear at the lower edges. Overlap the next closer set of peaks. When the paint starts to dry and the liquid starts to soak into the page, drop clean water wet-in-wet for some texture.

Use a no. 4 round brush and apply the same technique to the next line of mountains, painting around the unicorn and the bridge this time. Bright Hills

Continue with the same technique onto the more verdant, closer hillsides, adding Sap Green to the mixture.

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6

Castle

Now that you have the base layers and textures for the background, you can go back and add detail. Starting with the castle and distant bridge, use nos. 0 and 1 round brushes with more of the Viridian Green and Prussian Blue mixture. Glaze the windows and doors of the castle and add definition to the walls. Moving on to the surrounding cliffs, add a little bit of Payne’s Gray to the mixture and add the vertical cliff striations with glazes. Be sure to leave the previous layer showing through for highlights and retain any watermarked texture, working that into the cliff ’s textures.

6

7

Upper Cliffsides

Use nos. 0 and 1 round brushes and mixtures of Viridian Green and Sap Green to build up the shadows of the mountain ridges. Use the textures created by the wet-in-wet watermarks and shade one side of the ridge with deeper glazes. Work Sap Green in light glazes around the glow of the unicorn’s horn, carefully blending to clear at the edges so the glow is a gradual transition.

8

Lower Cliffsides

Continue with the same technique into the lower hillsides, shifting slowly as you work your way down from a mixture of Viridian Green and Sap Green to solely Sap Green so that the lower valleys are a rich and verdant emerald hue.

9

8

Bridge

Mix French Ultramarine and Payne’s Gray. With a no. 4 round, drybrush the granite surrounding the bridge and continue pulling the color out in a glaze across the bridge itself, switching to a smaller no. 2 round if needed. Let the center of the bridge be the lightest. Leave an edge of white along the upper edges of the granite.

Tips • A dry brush lets the bristles skip across the page a little bit and creates specks of highlights. • Water dropped into the pigment, wet-inwet creates splotches.

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9

7


10

Bridge Textures

D

B A

A

C

10

Use varying mixtures of French Ultramarine and Payne’s Gray to build up the details on the bridge with nos. 0 and 1 round brushes. [A] Imply a rough surface by dotting a speckled texture with a no. 1 round. [B] Glaze a shaded line underneath the lip of the bridge with a no. 1 round. [C] Build texture on top of texture. Drybrush with darker pigment on top of the smoother areas of the initial wash with a no. 4 round. [D] Keep the edges of the pillars light, due to the reflected light from the unicorn’s horn and the braziers.

11

Final Bridge Details

Using a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and a mixture of Prussian Blue and Sap Green, lightly glaze diagonally in the lower left and right corners. This will slightly blur and blend the colors, helping to integrate the lower shadows with the background. Be careful not to overwork what you built up so far. With very diluted Sap Green and a no. 2 round, lightly glaze under the lip of the bridge, adding just a hint of green to the neutral stone. Then take a no. 0 round brush with Payne’s Gray and add cracks and crevices at the edges of the bridge.

12

Braziers

11

12

Use a no. 1 round and paint the bowls of the braziers with Naples Yellow. Leave an edge of white along the curve for reflected light. Use a no. 1 round to paint around the flame with Lemon Yellow, blending towards clear on the edges of the glow. Use a no. 0 round with Viridian Green and add a curve of reflected green along the edge of the brazier. Use a no. 0 round and glaze Burnt Umber alongside the edge of Viridian Green, still following the curve of the bowl. Continue using the no. 0 round and glaze speckled strokes of Lemon Yellow around the outer edge of the flame glow. Take a white gel pen and brighten the flame itself. Do the same with the other brazier.

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13

Unicorn

Mix Cerulean Blue and Ultramarine Violet, and with a no. 1 round, glaze shadows on the unicorn’s body. Be sure to leave white highlights of the paper showing through. Use a no. 1 round and glaze the edge of reflected light on the upper contours of the unicorn’s back, tail and head. Blend outward with clear water into the surrounding background. Use a no. 0 round with Payne’s Gray and with short, curved parallel strokes add some faint hints of shadow for his coat and along the mane and tail. Glaze a bit of Naples Yellow across the back haunches with a no. 1 round and finish off the hooves with a darker bit of Payne’s Gray and a no 0. round.

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13


R

emains of Greatness Fossilized dinosaur and other Paleolithic remnants are reminders of great creatures that once walked the earth. Just as the immensity of these incredible bones tells a story for our imagination of what once lived, the bones of mythical creatures in your artwork can convey that same sense of wonder. The fantastic remains of great beasts can dwarf our presence and sense of a human-centric existence and open our minds to the possibilities of what may have once been, or perhaps still is, hiding far from the perusal of mortal eyes.

Access to Bones Often you can view a human skeleton when taking ďŹ gure drawing classes. But if you don’t have the leisure or opportunity for that, anatomy books, both human and animal, are another great resource.

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Rhythm to a Composition

A line of rib cage bones jutting out into a landscape creates a rhythm for the composition, allowing the eye of the viewer to wander along the path it creates.

Flavor to a Piece

As a contrast to the life in a piece, the presence of death (even long past) can be a reminder of the ephemeral nature of beauty and the present. It is evidence of the passage of time and the wonder of the universe, which the characters you depict are a part of.

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Demonstration Path of Ancients What ancient creatures once trod this land? Behemoths—who left only stark bones across the landscape to hint at their greatness. Once, their great wings lifted and blotted out the sun. Their roars shuddered along the spines of mountain ranges and echoed through the vast emptiness of the valleys.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Raw Umber, Ultramarine Blue, Ultramarine Violet Other  paper towel, rubbing alcohol, salt, sea salt, white gel pen

1

Sky

Start with a very light wash in the sky, using Naples Yellow with a no. 4 round around the figure. Blend outwards into the surrounding area by diluting with water and dabbing away the excess with a paper towel.

2

Sky Textures

Add some texture to the sky. Mix Ultramarine Blue with Ultramarine Violet and lay a wash in the sky with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. Use smaller round brushes to get into tight corners. Use a no. 4 round to flick rubbing alcohol splatters into the sky and create texture.

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1

2


3

4

3

Defining the Clouds

Using nos. 0, 1 and 2 round brushes, take Ultramarine Violet mixed with a little bit of Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber (to add a little bit of warmth in the areas near the yellow clouds) and enhance the textures that you created in the previous step. Blend by brushing a damp brush of clean water lightly across the textures.

4

Distant Trees

Use a no. 2 round brush and a mixture of Ultramarine Violet and Prussian Blue to paint a wash for the distant trees on the horizon. Sprinkle with salt for texture. While the paint is still wet, use a no. 0 brush to pull the wet paint upward to create branches and leaves on the top edge. Brush the salt away when the paint has dried.

5

Closer Trees

5

With a no. 2 round brush and a mixture of Ultramarine Violet, Alizarin Crimson and varying amounts of Prussian Blue and Burnt Umber, lay a base wash on the closer trees, varying the color mixture with wet-in-wet so that you have some texture in the base for bark and leaves. Sprinkle with coarse sea salt in the upper foliage for more texture. Brush the salt off when the paint has dried.

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6

7

6

Bark and Leaves

Use a no. 0 round with the same colors from the previous layer, but a more concentrated mixture. Enhance the textures from the wash, making shadows of leaves and bark, trailing the color out on the upper branches and leaves for smaller twigs and branches.

7 8

Lifting out Highlights on the Trees

Using an old stiff-bristled no. 2 round, gently scrub with the tip of the brush to lift out highlights along the bark and the foliage and to soften the edges of the textures painted in the previous step. Shadows in the Trees

Use a no. 0 round with Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray to paint fine shadows in the trees.

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9

9

Bones

Paint the bones with a no. 2 round and a mixture of Prussian Blue and Ultramarine Violet. Sprinkle with salt to add texture. Mix a little bit of Burnt Umber as well for the foreground bones. Paint wet-in-wet with some Raw Umber in the very foreground.

10

Texture

10

With varying mixtures of Burnt Umber, Payne’s Gray and Raw Umber, use a no. 0 round brush to paint detailed textures, enhancing what the salt has created. In the lower left area, use short, overlapping upward strokes of the brush to create grass. Use a warmer blend with more Burnt Umber in the bone ribs, and a cooler blend with more Payne’s Gray for the rocky outcropping and the steps.

11

Highlights in the Foreground

Use a white gel pen to add some highlights along the edges of the bones in the foreground.

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12

13

12

Deeper Shadows and Blending

Use a stiff-bristled no. 2 round and with the brush slightly damp, blend and smooth the edges a little bit on the highlights and shadows. Then, with a mixture of Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray, add some darker shadows in to the deep crevices with a no. 1 round.

13

Birds

Use a no. 0 round with a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Blue to paint the birds and shadows on the figure. Lift along the edges to blend into the background.

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14

14

Final Details on the Figure

Use a no. 0 round brush with a little bit of diluted Naples Yellow to glaze the figure. Leave a little bit of white for the highlights of the folds on the left side of her dress. Darken her eyes with a little bit of diluted Payne’s Gray.


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C

astles

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What about man-made constructs? Humans attempt to mimic the grandeur of majestic mountain peaks and set the aesthetic stamp of a fleeting life upon the enduring stones.


Building a Fantasy Castle [B] Cubes and rectangular boxes (rooms, walls)

[C] Cones, pyramids, wedges (rooftops) [A] Cylinders (towers, columns, pillars)

[A] Multiple arches can frame a doorway.

C

A A B B

Building Blocks

Turn yourself into a mad architect, and with a few basic forms you can create fantastical rambling estates. If you have difficulty visualizing perspective and angles, a set of blocks can be very handy for building a basic model.

[B] Long rows of windows dot a bare wall. Arches, Windows, Doors

Rectangles, squares, arches—use these forms to embellish your basic structure with windows and doors.

[A] Repeating, spaced pillars can be used to support arcades and add some rhythm to the structure. B A

C

[C] Flying buttresses can support stone walls precariously perched upon the edges of cliffs.

[B] Wedge shapes can be used under overhanging rooftop eaves.

Embellishments

Use repetition to create rhythm in the architecture.

Staircases

A winding staircase carved into the cliffside can complete the image, and silhouetted buildings in the background can fill in some of the emptier spaces. Pedestals with gargoyles can add more style and atmosphere.

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B

asic Two-Point Perspective

Take into consideration the scene that you are trying to set. Who is the observer in the world you are creating? Whose shoes do you want the viewer to step into? Choosing the right point of view can set up a much more dynamic experience for your viewer.

1

Horizon Line

Start with a horizontal line. This is your horizon. This is at the height of the eyes of the imagined observer of your scene. Pick two points at the right and left sides of this line and mark them. These are your vanishing points. All your parallel lines that are horizontal to the ground are going to converge on one of these two vanishing points.

2 3

Vanishing Point

Using a ruler, lightly sketch one line from each vanishing point.

1 2 3

Structure

Where your two lines intersect is the corner of a building. Draw a vertical line straight through that intersection. Again with a ruler, lightly sketch another pair of lines from each vanishing point, this time going to where you want the bottom of your building to be.

4 5 6

First Building

Connect the corners of the building with vertical lines. This is your basic block.

4

Define the Forms

Repeating steps 2–4 with a different intersecting point for the first two lines will give you different building blocks within a consistent perspective framework. Embellish the Building

After constructing your basic forms, you can go back and elaborate with details and embellishments. Remember that all the trimmings of buildings with horizontal features are subject to the same rules of perspective. Lightly sketch in your vanishing point guidelines if you need them for things like the bottom edge of a row of windows, height of a door frame, trim or carvings.

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5

6


Perspective is an important part of world building and creating the environment for your characters.

Low Horizon

If the horizon is low (your vanishing point lines will mostly extend upward on your page), then your buildings will seem to loom above the characters and your viewers. It can convey a feeling of being very small, like a mouse.

Mid Horizon

If the horizon is near the middle of your page (the vanishing point lines will extend almost an equal distance above and below your horizon), then everything will seem very centered for your viewer. Perhaps the scene is from a bird’s low flight or from a location in an adjacent building, spying outward across the street.

High Horizon

If the horizon is near the top of your page (the vanishing point lines mostly extend downward on your page), then the buildings will sink down below the viewer. Your viewer might feel very large or tall, soaring above your scene on the back of a dragon or sharing a giant juggernaut’s vantage. Or perhaps your viewer keeps watch with adventurous heroes perched upon a distant aerie of a peak or cliff or mountain fortress.

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Demonstration Dragons’ Spire He is a journeying knight-errant and in his travels he has heard tales of the Dragons’ Spire, where the great ones gather in large numbers, wheeling through the gray skies. At last, after seeking for many long months, he finds the hidden valley and the towering spire that rises from the basin. The bones of those who have dared to issue a challenge to the winged ones line the pathway to the spire.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Yellow, Lamp Black, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Raw Sienna, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green Other  salt, white gel pen

1

1

Sky

Mix Prussian Blue, Ultramarine Violet, Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber. With a 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat brush, lay a graded wash starting from the top of the page. Let the wash dry slightly, but while the page is still damp, drop clean water into the sky and let the clear liquid bleed outward in blotchy textures. As the wet-in-wet water slowly dries, take a damp no. 4 round brush and gently tease out the wet edges of the cloud mass horizontally. ntally.

Creating Scale and Drama In order to enhance the sense of the great height of the spire, the vanishing point is set low, closer to the knight. This gives the viewer a sense of the immensity of the structure as it looms above in the hazy distance.

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2

2

Base of the Spire

Use a no. 4 round and glaze Payne’s Gray over the base of the spire, overlapping the initial wash as you work your way up. Switch to smaller round brushes if you need to get into the smaller corners around the horse and the rider’s head. Let that layer dry. Then take a 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat brush, slightly dampened with clean water, and lightly brush in long horizontal strokes across the bottom quarter of the piece to blend the lower edges of the spire into a hazy distance.


3

4

5

3

Spire

Use a no. 2 round with Payne’s Gray to paint crevices down the face of the spire. Use more diluted pigment as you reach the lower edges of the mountain. Use a stiff-bristled no. 2 round to gently scrub at the planes of the structure at the peak, lifting out some of the color so that you have broader areas of highlights.

4 5 6

Citadel Shadows

Use a no. 2 round with Payne’s Gray to glaze shadows on the citadel. Citadel Windows

Use a no. 0 round brush with Lamp Black to dot in the windows and shadowed eaves of the citadel. Citadel Highlights

Use a white gel pen and sparingly add some highlights to the edges of the eaves and along select edges of the citadel.

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7

Dragons

Use a no. 1 round brush and glaze the distant dragons with Payne’s Gray mixed with a bit of Ultramarine Violet. For the two closer dragons glaze a layer of Raw Sienna.

8

Dragon Details

Use a mixture of Raw Sienna with a little bit of Lemon Yellow. Take a no. 0 round brush and glaze some details of shadows on the dragons’ wings and bodies. Very sparingly, dot some highlights on the closer dragon’s forehead, front legs and edges of its wings. Don’t get too fine with your details since the dragons are still in the distance. You want to just hint at contours on their bodies so that they don’t fight with the foreground for the viewer’s attention.

9

Foreground Grass

Mix Naples Yellow and Sap Green. Use a no. 2 round brush and paint the foreground turf. Working wet-in-wet, add Ultramarine Violet to the upper edge. Working quickly while the paint is still wet, take a no. 0 round and use short curved strokes, pulling upwards from the wet purple edge to trail off in shadowed blades of grass. Sprinkle the wet paint with salt. Brush the salt off when the area has dried.

7

8 9

10

Grass Shadows

Mix Viridian Green and Ultramarine Violet. With a no. 0 round brush, use dots and short curved strokes to fill in some shadowed areas around the blades of grass, painting the negative space. Let the shadows travel up the legs of the horse away from the viewer.

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10


11

12

11

Horse

13

Mix a tiny bit of Sap Green with Naples Yellow. Use a no. 2 round and glaze a base layer for the horse. Leave some lighter white paper highlights along his face and mane. If the background gray is too dark along the knight's neck and top of his head, use a stiff-bristled no. 2 round slightly dampened and scrub parallel to the edges to lift some of the background color.

12

Fleshing out the Horse

Use a no. 1 round and add some shading to the horse’s neck and flank with a light glaze of Raw Sienna. Mix in a little bit of Ultramarine Violet for slightly darker corners. Use a no. 0 round with Lamp Black to gently drybrush the hooves, nose and facial shading. Drybrushing with a no. 0 round lets you gently shade an area and texture it slightly with implied fur. After shading the mane and tail, lightly run a damp no. 4 brush across the surface to blend and soften the edges of your paint for a softer hairlike texture.

13 14

Armor

Use a no. 0 round with a mixture of Ultramarine Violet and Prussian Blue to paint the horse’s breastplate. Use Lamp Black for the shield. Be sure to paint around the details of the metalwork. Gold

14

Use a no. 0 round and glaze Cadmium Yellow over the metalwork details. Bits of white paper showing through will add highlights and sparkle.

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15

16

15

Knight

Use a no. 2 round to paint the knight’s cloak with Sap Green. Mix Ultramarine Violet in and use that to paint a base layer for the rest of his body and the blanket across the horse’s back. Leave the knight’s face and hand.

16 17 18

Highlights in the Cloth

Use a no. 1 round dampened with a little water and gently rub along the upper folds of the knight’s clothing to lift out highlights in the cloth. Pull the bottom edge of the cloth on the horse downward. Shadows on the Knight

Use a no. 1 round brush with a mixture of Ultramarine Violet and Viridian Green. Glaze shadows on the knight’s armor and cloak. Final Details

Use a no. 0 round and with a very diluted amount of Alizarin Crimson mixed with Naples Yellow, glaze the face and hand of the knight. Use a more concentrated mixture to paint the reins on the horse. Use this mixture to glaze over the knight's hair, close to the base of his head and for the darkest corners of shadow where his shield overhangs the saddle and his body.

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Chapter Three

THE MYSTERIESARBOREAL The shadowy recesses of the forest are places of primal mystery. The tangle of verdure is the embodiment of the wild, a contrast to the order that we can impress upon our more controlled surroundings. The deep dark woods are where heroes and heroines of fairy tales venture to seek their fortune or seek to vanquish their foes. The quiet embrace of the sun-dappled surroundings is a place of meditation, solace and peace. Seek the mysteries of the arboreal when you paint trees. The stories that the trees have seen are etched into the whorls of their bark. Trace those tales with your paintbrush as you lay the tangled branches and greenedged shadows across your pages.


T

ypes of Trees Simple techniques and basic shapes are often very effective. Sometimes it’s easy to get lost in the complexity of nature’s chaos and then not know how to start.

Branches

Start with a no. 4 round brush and paint a basic branch shape. Try to capture the kinks and curves.

Repeat with overlapping branch shapes and dot the tips with leaves.

You can switch to smaller round brushes to trail out more delicate twigs from the main branch.

The trees in the background behind the girl, as well as their reflections in the water, are branches painted in this simple way. After they dry, a finer point brush is used to add a little bit of shadow.

Silhouettes

A tree in full profusion of foliage

The trailing branches of a weeping willow

The spare silhouette of a tree sleeping in the wintertime

With a no. 4 round, you can set up the base shapes. These silhouettes are perfect in the background of a piece. You can add layers on top of these initial silhouettes to bring out shadows and highlights when the trees are in the foreground.

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This brilliant red tree is mostly painted as just a simple silhouette. The thin and delicate lower branches are added with a no. 0 round brush, trailing the Burnt Umber outward to blend into the background.


Evergreen trees have a different shape to them. For large but distant trees you can sometimes add a little bit of texture to the shape by sprinkling salt or rubbing alcohol into the wet paint.

Colors

A silhouette on a much larger scale, and with a slightly surreal aspect to it, this giant tree towers behind the boat.

You’ll notice that the examples use a variety of colors. Don’t let yourself be trapped by your perceptions of what a tree’s bark and foliage colors should be. They're not just brown and green. The colors are a combination of the season, the lighting, the shadows—and most importantly—the mood you want your image to convey. When you try these exercises, choose whatever color your mood dictates.

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Far in the Distance Distant Pines

1. Using a no. 2 round brush, start with a short vertical stroke. 2. Crosshatch it with a series of slightly curved horizontal strokes. 1

2

3. Layer several of these together, letting them overlap to form a distant copse.

3

4. Use a larger no. 4 round brush to blend the bases into a hillside. 5. Blend into the surrounding page by diluting with water.

4

5

1

Distant Birches

2

1. This is done wet-in-wet, so start with a no. 4 round brush and wet the area with clean water. If this is done in a painting where you are currently doing a wash in the background, you can start painting in the wash without having to re-wet. Dot in several splotches of color, letting the mixture of tones vary slightly to give variety to the foliage. 2. Let that dry and add tree trunks with thin lines drawn from the wet-in-wet splotches to the ground. Try to match the tones that you used for the foliage.

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Clusters of evergreens line the banks of this distant river, shadowy shapes against the mountain’s edges.

Hazy in the background, the forest is a dark and mysterious setting.

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T

extures of the Forest

Foliage

Variety of Nature

Leaves can come in all dierent shapes and shades of color. Occasionally you might have some highly rendered foliage in the foreground, but most of the time when crafting a landscape you will be painting textures of leaves, bark, moss and vines at a distance. The challenge then is to create enough of a hint of shape and texture that lush surroundings are implied, without detracting from the main focus or foreground elements of your painting.

Creating an atmosphere means choosing your focus. The leaves in the water are rendered with great attention to the details and individual shapes and textures. The foliage and textures in the background are no less important even though they are less highly rendered. They hint at the surrounding forest, and this is what creates the atmosphere for the piece.

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Painting Distant Clusters of Leaves

1. Start out by dotting some paint in the area for the cluster. 2. Working wet, increase the density of the dots. Vary the sizes and shapes of the dots and let them bleed together. Be careful to maintain the white of the paper for highlights showing through your dots. 3. Keep increasing the density. You can vary the colors you use as well. Working wet-in-wet lets the colors bleed and blend together.

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4. Finish off with a no. 0 round brush and trail wet paint out from the edges of your cluster into small twigs.

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From a Distance

Looking at a tree from a distance, you don’t see all the individual details and shapes of leaves. You might get an overall impression formed by the light striking the planes of the leaves, the shadows and the density of the foliage. If you were to paint every single leaf in high detail, you would overwhelm your viewer or end up with a more graphic-design approach to a painting rather than naturalistic. Look out your window at the trees and bushes. What jumps out at you when you glance quickly?

If you want to be more deliberate about your foliage, sketch scattered clusters of highlighted leaves. DON’T spend all your time sketching out every single leaf. You’ll overwhelm your viewers by not giving their eyes a place to rest. Also, you don’t want to torment yourself with this level of over-planning. You need to leave room for the watercolors to work their magic. DO study a tree in the sunlight, and take note of how shadows and light interplay and how clusters of foliage capture light while much of the rest recedes into low-detail shadow.

Painting Tree Leaves

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2. Use a small brush (no. 0 or 1 round) to push the shadows back around the leaves. 3. Use a stiff-bristled or old brush to lift highlights out from the leaves. Add some more intense bits of shadow by dotting a much darker pigment with a no. 0 round.

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Demonstration Greeting the Sun As the sun lifts up over the edge of the mountains, the denizens of the forest gather to welcome her life-giving warmth. In a ritual to greet the dawn, she bears a candle to light the brazier at the tree of life, and her voice sends a lilting melody out above the branches.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Cerulean Blue, Lemon Yellow, Light Red, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green Other  salt, white gel pen

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Light

Use a no. 1 round with Lemon Yellow around the sun and around the candle dishes. Blend outward into the surrounding white so that it is a soft glow. Sky Background Layer

Use a mixture of Naples Yellow and Alizarin Crimson toward the upper areas and fade to Viridian Green in the lower sky. Use a no. 4 round to get into tighter corners. Since the glaze is thin, don’t be too concerned with avoiding all of the individual branches. Just try to work around them. Make sure the background colors stay clear of the foreground woman figure though. Brush with a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat to smooth and blend the colors.

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Hills Base Layer

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Add texture to the lower hills in the background. With a no. 1 round, paint a mixture of Viridian Green, Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray for a neutral green tone. Blend the Hills

Use clear water and a ½-inch (12mm) flat. Brush across the hills to smooth and blend the textures. Add More Depth to the Hills

Use a no. 0 round and more concentrated Viridian Green, Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray mixtures to add finer details on the hills and to pull out the shadows. Keep it relatively hazy. This is a far distant background and shouldn’t be competing for attention with the foreground.

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Work on the Clouds

Using Cerulean Blue mixed with Payne’s Gray and a little bit of Lemon Yellow, take a no. 2 round brush and darken the sky in the lower areas. Around the sun add neutral tones with a bit of Naples Yellow. Sprinkle with salt for added texture. Brush the salt away when the paint has dried.

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Highlight the Clouds

Use a white gel pen to edge the cloud highlights, emphasizing irregularities made by the salt. Don’t overdo it. The point is not to draw white clouds but to add to the highlights you have already created and draw them out farther.

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Further Define the Clouds

Using a no. 0 round brush, take a Payne’s Gray, Cerulean Blue and Viridian Green mixture and darken the cloud shadows. Brush with a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat to smooth and blend. This will soften the edges of the white gel pen as well.

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Leaf Shadows

Using a no. 2 round and varying mixtures of Ultramarine Violet, Alizarin Crimson, Viridian Green and Payne’s Gray, paint a wash in the upper areas, leaving gaps for the leaves. Dot in contrasting colors wet-in-wet. Sprinkle with salt and brush the salt away when the paint has dried.

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Tree Base Layer

Mix Viridian Green, Sap Green and a little bit of Ultramarine Violet and paint a base layer on the tree trunk with a no. 2 round brush. Blend in more Ultramarine Violet toward the top branches so that it melds into the shadowy leaves. Around the light sources (the sun and the lanterns) edge the tree with Lemon Yellow, still with the no. 2 round brush.

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Darkening the Upper Branches and Leaves

With nos. 0, 1 and 2 rounds darken the upper branches with a mixture of Ultramarine Violet and Viridian Green. Try to blend these into the shadows you have already started. Add smaller leaves and twigs. Blend these by brushing a damp 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat across when they have dried.

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Leaf Details

With a no. 0 round brush paint detailed texture on the leaves with Sap Green mixed with Payne’s Gray. Paint the edges of the leaves with a darker and more concentrated mixture of Ultramarine Violet and Payne’s Gray.

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Bark Details

With a no. 0 round brush paint detailed texture on the bark with a mixture of Viridian Green, Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Violet in the upper branches, blending to slightly warmer tones in the lower areas with a mixture of Burnt Umber and Viridian Green. Add a little bit of Cadmium Orange in the edges of the branches nearest the light sources.

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Foreground Rock

Using a no. 4 round brush, use Sap Green mixed with a bit of Naples Yellow as the rock extends up onto the branch. Dot in a bit of wet-in-wet Ultramarine Violet in the lower left corner. Sprinkle the wet paint with salt and brush it off when it’s dry.

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Defining the Texture

Use a no. 0 round and let your imagination follow the cracks, crenelations and whorls that the paint created as the initial glaze dried. Use a more concentrated mixture of Sap Green with Naples Yellow pulling out the shapes that you see to create texture.

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Highlights on the Rock

Take a white gel pen and use it sparingly to emphasize some of the highlights.

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Darken Shadows on the Rock

To complement the white highlights, go in with a no. 0 round brush with a mixture of Viridian Green and Ultramarine Violet, deepening the shadows around those highlights. Grass and Ground

Use a no. 4 round and paint a base wash of Naples Yellow on the ground, dropping Ultramarine Violet wetin-wet in the lower right area for shadows from the figure with Lemon Yellow in the grass. With a no. 1 round brush add some definition to the grass and stones, still wet-inwet so that the paint spreads a bit. Sprinkle a little bit of salt in the lower right area and brush it off when the paint is dry. Use a no. 1 round brush after the base layer has dried, and with short curved strokes add some more grass shadows with Light Red.

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Fox

Start with a wash of Light Red using a no. 2 round brush on the body of the fox. Use a very diluted mixture of Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Violet to lightly wash over the tip of the tail and the chest. When the initial layer has dried, load a no. 0 round brush with a more concentrated pigment of Light Red. Use short curved strokes to paint in the shadows of fur. Take a no. 2 round dampened slightly with a diluted wash of Naples Yellow and lightly brush over the textures to smooth and blend. Use a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber and a no. 0 round to add a few more shadowy strands to the tail and chest and to darken the paws, eye, nose and ears.

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Braziers

Do all of the following for each of the brazier dishes: Use a no. 1 round and start with a light glaze of Burnt Umber. Leave the white of the paper showing on the highlighted curve and along the very bottom edge. With a mixture of Payne’s Gray and a very small amount of Viridian Green, use a no. 0 round to add more shadowed depth to the brazier. With a no. 0 round add a final small glazed streak of Light Red curving along the surface of the brazier, through the darkest part of the shadow. Still with the no. 0 round, use Cadmium Orange to edge the bottom curve of the dish and blend outward from the flame, leaving the center of the flame white.

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Shadows

Using a no. 1 round and Ultramarine Violet mixed with a tiny bit of Payne’s Gray to dull the brightness, paint the shadows of the figure's clothing and flesh. Add some deeper shadows around her jewelry and ornamentation with a touch of Burnt Umber.

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Adding Colors

Use a mixture of Alizarin Crimson and Naples Yellow with a no. 2 round to glaze over the dress. This softens the edges of the shadows you painted in the previous step. Leave an edge of highlighted white along the left side. Dilute the mixture of color and add a bit of Lemon Yellow. With a very light glaze, paint over her skin.

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Hair and Ornaments

Use a no. 0 round and glaze Payne’s Gray for her hair, darkening the shadows to sculpt the braids with more concentrated pigment. With a no. 0 round, glaze Naples Yellow on her hip adornments. With a no. 0 round lightly dot in Sap Green for the leaves in her basket.

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Base Layer for the Birds

Use a no. 2 round and glaze the birds with Burnt Umber. Make the ones who are slightly farther in the background a little darker, with more concentrated pigment than the ones in the foreground.

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Details on the Birds

Use a no. 0 round and dot in the beaks and legs of the birds with Cadmium Orange. Add deďŹ nition to the feathers and shadows with a mixture of Burnt Umber and Ultramarine Violet with a no. 0 round.


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L

ight and Levels of Detail It’s easy to get carried away with the level of detail in a painting. You have to strike a balance of elements that are highly textured and areas of shadow that let the viewer’s eyes have a chance to rest and pause. Don’t overload a piece. More doesn’t always mean better.

Try to keep in mind that it is more effective to have varying levels of focus and detail. Most of the time you want to suggest shapes and to sculpt your painting out of light and shadows.

Tree Textures

Rough bark Smooth trunk

Boles and knots Look at a tree trunk and what do you see? What stands out?

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Smooth

Slightly Rough

1. Start out with a well-charged no. 4 round and paint the trunk.

1. Drybrush with a no. 4 round brush, letting the paint skip across the paper texture.

2. While that is still wet, use the tip of the brush (or a smaller round) to pull the wet paint out and upward into branches. 3. Working quickly so that you can paint wet-in-wet, use a no. 1 round brush with a darker color to add some horizontal striations across the trunk with short horizontal strokes. 4. After that has dried, use a no. 0 round to add finer shadows to the striations.

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2. Use a no. 0 round to add darker pigments and deeper crevices to some of the textures the drybrush created. 3. Use a no. 4 round with a light wash of the same or a different color to slightly blend the textures, being careful to maintain the highlights and not overblend.


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Boles

1. Use a no. 0 round brush and start with some short and crooked strokes. Keep them oriented in approximately the same direction.

1. Use a no. 2 round brush well-charged with pigment to create the shadowed bole.

2. Let your strokes overlap, creating a mesh-like network.

2. Using a no. 0 round brush while the initial pigment is still wet, pull outward from the edges to create a textured border.

3. When that has dried, take a larger no. 4 brush and paint a light wash with your chosen color on top of the texture.

3. Use a no. 4 round brush to lay a wash with the color of your choice, blending the edges of the textured area.

4. Use a white gel pen to pull out highlights. If you don’t have a white pen, you can use a sti-bristled no. 2 round brush to scrub and lift out highlights.

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Lighting

Take note of light and shadow from the curvature of the cylindrical base form. Distinct textural elements will be most visible in the mid-lighted range. Very bright and very shadowed areas will wash out and blur and cloak the details. 1. Light from in front and above. Upper areas will be fully lighted, as well as parts of the trunk unshadowed by the canopy (this will vary depending on how high of an angle your light source is). 2. Light from the side. Brightly lit on one side, shadows round to the far side. 3. Light from the back, or backlit. There is an edge of light around the borders of objects. The rest of the tree has deep shadows. Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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Demonstration Shadows Shadows in the forest creep closer. Is it the imagination, or do those shadows have eyes and teeth and claws? Dark woods have always been a place that touches on our primal instincts and fears. The monsters dwell there;the big bad wolves and the witches with their tempting gingerbread houses. The shadows are alive with ancient beings.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cerulean Blue, Lamp Black, Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Raw Sienna, Raw Umber, Ultramarine Blue, Ultramarine Violet Other  salt, sponge

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Background

Use a no. 4 round and paint the background between the two large trees with Cerulean Blue. Paint over the background trees. Foliage

Use a no. 2 round brush with a mixture of Cerulean Blue and Prussian Blue to paint some foliage for the background trees.

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Closer Foliage

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush with a mixture of Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray in the upper branches and foliage, painting directly over previous layers. Blend downward until clear. While the paint is still wet, sprinkle with salt. Brush off the excess salt when the paint has dried.


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Details of the Foliage

Use a no. 0 round brush and with a more concentrated Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray mixture, paint in the negative space around the leaves that you sketched out initially. Blend outward from these areas with a clean and damp no. 2 round brush, blending into the salttextured areas.

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Tree and Ground Textures

Use a no. 4 round brush with varying mixtures of Ultramarine Blue, Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber. Drybrush the foreground trees, leaving highlights along the edges of the branches. Extend the rough textures down to the ground and then take a small sponge and dab at the wet paint of the ground to give it a mottled texture. Use a little bit of the above mixture of colors with the addition of Ultramarine Violet and paint the path in the same way, dabbing with a small sponge while still wet to create a mottled texture.

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Trees

Use nos. 0, 1 and 2 rounds with Cerulean Blue to add definition to the distant trees. Don’t go overboard with short dabbed strokes on the tree trunks for bark texture. Trail off into the branches above by mixing a little bit of Payne’s Gray. Use a no. 0 round with varying mixtures of Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber for the tree bark texture, working with the dry-brush textures you initially created.

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Tree Blending and Highlights

Use a stiff-bristled no. 2 round brush with clean water and lift out color to soften the edges of the highlights along the tree trunk. If you lift out and obliterate too many of the dark lines, take a no. 0 round with Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray and go back in on top for more definition.

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Ground

Use a no. 4 round brush and paint a wash of Raw Sienna across the foreground areas. Painting wet-in-wet, drop some Ultramarine Violet across the very lower left corner under the wolf and for texture in the rocks. Switch to a no. 2 round if you need more control, but let the color bleed a little. While the paint is wet (if the layers have dried out by now, you can apply some clear water over the lower right corner and in the rocks under the left side tree), dot some Alizarin Crimson wet-in-wet to add a bit of color and a hint of flowers or autumn-colored foliage in the ground. Let the color bleed.

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Shadow Wolves

For the main wolf, use a no. 2 round brush to paint a glaze of Payne’s Gray and a tiny bit of Prussian Blue around his body, blending outward towards the background. Darken the smoky aura close to his body by adding black to the mixture. For the smaller shadow wolves just use Lamp Black and a no. 1 brush and blend the edges of the shadows with a little bit of water. Dot a little bit of white for the eyes of the shadow wolves.

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Wolf

Take a no. 1 round and glaze Ultramarine Violet to shade the legs and tail. Paint a light glaze of Payne’s Gray on the back and face. Leave an edge of white for a highlight.


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Girl

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Final Details on the Wolf

Use a no. 1 round to paint Alizarin Crimson on the dress, cloak and hood. Mix a touch of Prussian Blue with Alizarin Crimson and paint shadows on her clothing with a no. 0 round brush. Dilute a small mixture of Alizarin Crimson and Lemon Yellow and dot her face and hands with a no. 0 round. Very carefully add the shadows of facial features with Burnt Umber and a no. 0 round.

With a no. 0 round paint short, curved brushstrokes with variations of Raw Umber and Payne’s Gray for the wolf’s fur. Keep the strokes consistent with the direction of the fur. Add definition to the ears, eye, mouth and nose with a touch of black. Using a no. 1 round with very diluted Raw Umber, glaze over the legs and underbelly to smooth out some of the fur texture and blend a little bit. Add darker markings with a no. 0 round and Lamp Black. Touch Lemon Yellow to the eye with a no. 0 round. Trail some dark grass under the paws with Lamp Black and a no. 0 round.

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Demonstration Illumination A lantern hung from the branches of a weeping cypress gleams in the night, and the wild creatures creep forth with curiosity. The many tails of a fox spirit flicker in the grass and a bed of autumn leaves. They are drawn like russet-colored moths to a flame; as fascinated by humanity as we are by their feral and elusive beauty.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1 and 2 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Brown Madder, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue Other  paper towel

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Light

Use a no. 2 round and paint Cadmium Orange around the lantern and the foxes. Blend outward with clear water so that the color fades to the white of the page.

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Background

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and paint the background wet-in-wet. Use Prussian Blue muted with a little bit of Burnt Umber at the top and blend some Alizarin Crimson in as you come to the middle, with more Prussian Blue again at the bottom corners.

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Tree Silhouette

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Blending the Background

Use a no. 2 round with a mixture of Burnt Umber and a little bit of Alizarin Crimson to paint the silhouette of the tree branches. Switch to a no. 0 round to do short little strokes for the pine needles at the tips of the branches.

Make sure the previous layers are completely dry. Charge a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush with a mixture of Cadmium Orange and Alizarin Crimson. Starting at the top of the piece, use broad, sweeping horizontal strokes across the width of the painting. As you move downward around the top third of the piece, dilute the paint by brushing off some of the excess pigment onto a damp paper towel. This will blend and blur the branches slightly. Use a much more diluted version of the same mixture and do the same along the bottom corners of the painting.

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Background Details

Use a dampened stiff-bristled no. 2 round and scrub in the upper shaded tree branches to lift out some splotchy patches (light coming through a tangled canopy of branches). Use a no. 0 round with a Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray mixture and add some details of bark texture to the larger branch. Add more pine needle details as well with short crosshatched strokes and some thinner tendril branches. Use the same mixture to paint the shadows in the leaves and grass at the base with a no. 1 round brush. Gently drybrush with a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush over those shadows to blend and pull up blades of grass.

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Foxes, Lantern, Leaves

Use a no. 2 round brush and paint the foxes’ bodies with Brown Madder. Leave their chests and the tips of their tails white. Use a no. 1 round brush and paint the lantern with varying mixtures of Cadmium Orange and Cadmium Yellow, blending to Lemon Yellow on the edges. Let the white of your painting surface show through on the creases of the paper lantern and along the edges. This is your light source, so you need to be certain to maintain whites here. Edge the branches closest to the lantern with a bit of Cadmium Yellow and a no. 0 round. For the leaves, use varying mixtures of Cadmium Yellow and Cadmium Orange to add some color to the foliage underneath the foxes. Leave white along the edges of the leaves and the veins of the larger leaves. For some of the smaller leaves you can blend the shadows a little by just glazing the color over the leaves and shadows.


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Blending the Foxes

Use a damp stiff-bristled no. 2 round brush and gently scrub the edges of Brown Madder on the foxes at the tail and chest areas to blend the color.

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Final Details

Use a no. 0 round brush and stroke along the direction of the fur for the foxes with varying mixtures of Brown Madder and Burnt Umber along their backs. Still keeping the fur texture, lightly edge their bodies with Cadmium Yellow. Add the details of eyes, noses, paws and ears with a mixture of Burnt Umber and Payne’s Gray. Use that same mixture to finish up the tassel and strings on the lantern.

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P

ortals Portals are the places where our world touches the Other. Journeys must have a beginning. Where do we leave the comfort of the predictable and familiar in our everyday lives and step into the realms of the fantastic? Whether this is a conceptual divide (and that world exists completely independently of our experiences), or it is an adjacent but altered reality, we travel to these places through real doorways (like the wardrobe of C.S. Lewis’s Narnia) and

metaphorical doorways (simply opening and reading a book and submerging ourselves into the vast reaches of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth). Doorways are the thin places in the veil of Reality. The normality of the everyday is made apparent when the contrast of the Other is offered in a tantalizing glimpse: an invitation to dare to peer beyond! Come venture near! Step through! Journeys and adventures await!

A Humble Portal

In Irish lore the hills themselves are hollow. Under the mounds in the countryside are the domains of the fairies and the sidhe. Perhaps a portal to that Otherworld might look like a humble wooden door—not a hint on the exterior of what it might hide— but pry it open and the magic spills forth.

A Subtle Invitation

A portal can be as simple as a hole. A gap is all that is needed to invite the viewer to wonder at what might lie beyond. It creates a mystery and an adventurous spirit for your painting.

Less Obvious Portals

Perhaps less obvious, but for those who know to look, a mushroom fairy ring is a clear sign of a portal to the unseen realms.

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Beckoning the Viewer

Just as the subject of your drawings and paintings might be drawn into the mystery of a portal, so too is your viewer!

A Sense of Magic

A portal where logic dictates that there should be none—this is magic, and it tells your viewer that here lies something outside normality!

Grandiose Portals

Not all portals need to be simple and unadorned. A grandiose gateway can hint at a much more intimidating world beyond the threshold. Visit impact-books.com/DreamscapesFantasyWorlds to download free wallpaper art.

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Demonstration Hollow Hills It is said that fairies live beneath the hollow hillsides. What might a brave adventurer find if one dared to step down into that Otherworld? Golden hallways, bowers of endless summer blooms, crystalline springs to bathe in, and fantastical spreads of fairy feasts await. Graceful beings dance in the twilight, beckoning you to stay within the dream for a moment, for forever.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green Other: rubbing alcohol, salt, white gel pen

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Sky Base Layer

Start with a mixture of Prussian Blue and Ultramarine Violet and use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush to lay in a base glaze for the sky. Blend softly into the lighted area coming up from the portal and keep it darker toward the edges of the page. While the paint is wet, splatter it with rubbing alcohol using a no. 4 round brush.

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Building up the Depth

After the initial layer is completely dry, take the ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and mix Prussian Blue with Payne’s Gray to darken the edges of the sky more with another glaze. Let the tones fade to the white of the page by diluting the paint as you move toward the pillar of light extending from the portal. To get a nice gradation into the white, clean the brush and just moisten it slightly with water then brush parallel along the length of the beam of light to blend the pigment. Dot some more rubbing alcohol into the sky using a no. 4 round brush.


Painting Grass

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Grass in Positive Space

Grass in Negative Space

1. Using a no. 0 round brush and the color of your choice, start with scattered short, slightly curved strokes. When you paint in the area defined by an object, that is called the positive space.

1. With your pencil, roughly sketch some short curved strokes for your blades of grass.

2. Let the strokes vary in length and curvature, and layer on top of each other as well. 3. Keep building up the blades of grass in this manner. 4. When you are satisfied with a tuft, take a no. 2 round brush slightly dampened with a little bit of clean water, and brush it along the bottom edge of your tuft of blades, blending the pigment down into the surrounding page.

2. Using a no. 0 round brush and the color of your choice, start painting in the areas between the lines of the pencil, leaving the lines (the blades of grass) white. When you paint in the areas around an object, that is called the negative space. 3. Take a no. 2 round brush slightly dampened with a little bit of clean water and brush it along the top edge of your tuft of blades, blending the pigment up into the surrounding page.

5. When the paint has dried, you can continue to layer another tuft using steps 1–4 on top of the blended wash area to build up an area of grassy texture.

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Hillside Textures

In this next part you will be working wet-in-wet relatively quickly with a variety of colors, so try to have them ready beforehand. Using a 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush, start in the left corner and paint a glaze of a mixture of Viridian Green, Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray. As you move across toward the portal in the hillside, change to Sap Green and then a little bit of Lemon Yellow

to give the ground near the portal a springtime look. Switch back to the Prussian Blue/Viridian Green/Payne’s Gray mixture for the far right side. Switch to a no. 4 round brush if you need to get into the corners around the figures and the doors. While the paint is still wet, sprinkle some large grains of salt for texture. Let the paint dry and then brush off the salt crystals.

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Shadowy Trees

Using a mixture of Viridian Green, Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray with a no. 1 round brush, paint in the shadowy trees. Leave bits of white paper showing through for highlights of leaves on these distant trees. With a no. 4 round glaze the leaves of the large tree. Then take more concentrated pigment with the same mixture to dot wet-in-wet.

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Grassy Hillside

Use a no. 0 round brush and try to match the tones that you have already used on the hillside (mixtures of Viridian Green, Prussian Blue, Payne’s Gray, Sap Green, etc.) with more concentrated pigment than you used in the earlier washes. Add grassy textures using techniques both for positive and negative space. In particular add more shadowy, darker areas around the perimeters of the hillside and try to keep the edges less defined. Keep the more crisp and defined lines of texture in the lighter Sap Green area, around the portal and the flowers that spill down the hillside.

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Foliage

Use a mixture of Viridian Green, Prussian Blue and Payne’s Gray with a no. 1 brush to paint in the shadowy areas around the leafy highlights in the tree. Allow the lighter colors from prior glazes to show through for the leaves themselves. In the area of the foliage on the far right, illuminated by the glow from the portal, use more of a mixture of Sap Green and Lemon Yellow. Use a no 0. round brush to trail the edges of the wet paint out into tendrils of twigs and small branches.

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Tree Trunk

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Paint a base layer wash of Payne’s Gray with a no. 2 round for the tree trunk. Leave white along the lower edges for highlights. Let the middle of the main trunk be the darkest.

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Tree Textures

Using a no 0. round, go back into the trunk of the tree with more concentrated Payne’s Gray and add texture to the bark, tracing the shadows as they run along the trunk. Afterward, use a no. 4 round slightly dampened with clean water and brush over the entire trunk to blend and slightly blur the texture.

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Beams of Light

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Take a very diluted bit of Lemon Yellow and with a stiff-bristled no. 4 round, paint long straight strokes parallel to the beams of light emerging from the portal. Blend and soften the hard lines into the surrounding sky and keep most of the white of the paper showing through.

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Fairy Shadows

Using a no. 1 round and a little bit of Lemon Yellow with Sap Green, add slight shadow-beams upward (and still parallel to the angle of the light) from the fairies.

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Fairies

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Mix Prussian Blue, Payne’s Gray and Viridian Green, and dot a little bit of the mixture with a no. 0 round in the center of each of the fairy sparks. Blend outward with water into the surrounding background.

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Opening in the Hillside

Mix Naples Yellow with Payne’s Gray and use a no. 0 round brush to paint the rocky edges of the opening in the hillside. Leave highlights of white showing on contours that face inward towards the center of the hole. Use a no. 2 round brush to paint the same mixture of color on the open door facing inward to the glow, and streak the wood with a no. 0 round and Burnt Umber for texture. For the open door with the shadowed side facing the viewer, use a no. 2 round brush with Burnt Umber for the base color and Payne’s Gray with a no. 0 round for woodgrain texture. With a no. 0 round and Payne’s Gray, add a few more shadowy tufts of grass along the edge of the doorway to really anchor it to the hillside.

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Children

Mix Naples Yellow and Alizarin Crimson and paint a pale wash on the skin with a no. 1 round. Using Burnt Umber with a no. 0 round brush, paint shadows and details of the features. Glaze Lemon Yellow with a no. 1 round brush on the girl’s hair and on her outstretched hand and arm where it reaches into the light. Lightly dot the highlights of both with a white gel pen, and on the highlights of her facial features—the tip of the nose and forehead. For the boy’s hair glaze Burnt Umber with a no. 1 brush. Use a no. 1 round and paint Lemon Yellow along the front of the girl’s dress, blending wet-in-wet into a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Violet on the shadowed side. Use this darker mixture on the boy’s clothes. Add highlights to the clothing with a white gel pen, following the folds of cloth. Darken the shadows with Payne’s Gray using a no. 0 round.

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Flowers

Use varying mixtures of Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Orange and Cadmium Yellow with a no. 1 round brush to paint the flowers. Dot some Cadmium Orange wet-inwet in the center of a few of the flowers.

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Finishing the Flowers

With a no. 0 round, take more concentrated Cadmium Orange and add some streaked texture along the petals of the blossoms with short, curved parallel strokes along the length of the petals. Darken the centers of the owers with Burnt Umber and add a little bit along the edges as well. With a no. 2 round use varying mixtures of Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Orange and Cadmium Yellow to dot some smaller owers on the hillside.

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nhabiting the Woods When you’ve stepped beyond the portals and entered the realms of the fantastic, what might you find? Denizens of the forest can come in many shapes and sizes, and their homes can be indicative of their nature. Living in such surroundings is a juggling act: How do you balance the nature of constructed order with the chaos of the wild?

On a Small Scale

Perhaps a small pixie lives within this tiny domicile. Let your fancy and whimsy influence your designs and sketches. What might lie camouflaged by leaves and underbrush? What creatures might be under your nose if only you would cast your eyes down to see?

A Melding of Nature and Construction

The arching of the branches mimics the soaring buttresses of a cathedral. Elven architecture can combine with the natural elements of the forest in an aesthetic melding of construction and growth.

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Organic Shapes

Let your imagination shape the growth of the forest, like the shaping hands of elves coaxing the trees to grow into the forms that they desire.

Opulence Giving Way to Entropy

Or create something more opulent! Rather than a structure that seems to have been built while the trees grew so that construction and nature could be a uniďŹ ed whole, perhaps it is an ancient ediďŹ ce that is now overgrown by the forest, like the ancient temples of Angkor Wat entombed by the dripping roots of banyan trees. Nature is more patient than humans or even fairies and elves and dwarves.

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Demonstration

Nestled in the Branches Warm lights glow through jewel-like stained glass windows in the upper branches of an ancient oak. This dwelling was carved into the boles and coaxed from the heartwood by fairy magic.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Sap Green, Viridian Green Other  white gel pen

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Background Wash

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and lay a graded wash into the background. Start with a mixture of Prussian Blue and Viridian Green at the top left and blend it down into Naples Yellow in the bottom. Don’t worry about keeping the buildings white; just try to avoid the windows so that the stained glass light shining through in later steps will be more brilliant.

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Tree

Mix Burnt Umber and Prussian Blue and start with a no. 4 round brush to glaze the tree’s branches and foliage. Switch to smaller round brushes nos. 0–2 for the thinner branches and to trail off into delicate twigs. Use a no. 4 round and drybrush a mixture of Sap Green and Burnt Umber in the ground. Wet the lower right side of the sky and dot a hazy stand of distant trees wet-in-wet with a no. 2 round brush, using the same mixture.

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Detailing the Tree

Use a no. 0 round brush and a mixture of Burnt Umber and Prussian Blue to paint textures and details on the tree. Afterward, run a slightly dampened 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat brush lightly over the textures to smooth and blend them. Use the same mixture of colors with the 1⁄2-inch (12mm) flat and gently drybrush some feathery grass in the foreground.

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Treehouses

Use a no. 1 round brush and paint a glaze of Burnt Umber on the houses, painting around the windows. Leave white for highlights. After the initial glaze, use a no. 0 round brush with Payne’s Gray to add shadows and definition.

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Stained Glass Colors

Use a no. 0 round brush and carefully dot in the colors for the stained glass using Sap Green, Lemon Yellow and Prussian Blue. Leave white along the edges of the tiny panes and try to keep the color in the centers.

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Definition on the Stained Glass

Use a no. 0 round with Prussian Blue and trace the leading around the stained glass panes. Lightly brush with a damp no. 2 round outward from the edges of the circles into the surrounding brown.

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Final Glints of Highlights

Using a white gel pen, sparingly add the barest touches of highlights along the sides of the base of the tree trunk, the edges of the rocks down below and the detailing on the buildings.

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Demonstration Autumn Glory Elven treehouses meld with the forest in its resplendent glory. Grand avenues of tree branches are lined with gold and crimson leaves. The regalia of autumn sets the branches ablaze, and the inhabitants stroll along the bark-lined boulevards.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Yellow, Cerulean Blue, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Ultramarine Violet Other  salt

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Background Sky

Use a no. 4 round brush and paint a light glaze with a Lemon Yellow and Naples Yellow mixture in the background. Blend a little bit of Cadmium Orange in the lower left area and a little bit of Ultramarine Violet in the upper right. Paint around the branches, but it’s not necessary to keep them entirely white.

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Textures

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Leaves

Use a no. 4 round brush. Paint a glaze of Cadmium Orange in the leafy areas of the tree. Sprinkle the wet paint with salt. While that is drying, drybrush with Burnt Umber to add some base texture to the tree trunk. Brush the salt crystals o the background when the paint has dried.

Using nos. 0, 1 and 2 brushes and a varying mixture of Cadmium Yellow and Cadmium Orange, paint around the sketched leaves. Blend out with water into the surrounding initial textures created by the salt. Trail o the ends of the branches with a no. 0 round for small twigs.

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Add More Color

Use a no. 2 round brush and glaze Alizarin Crimson onto more distant branches and leaves, leaving the underlayers showing through for highlights. Take a no. 0 round brush with Payne’s Gray to add some ďŹ ne shadow bits to the leaves.

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Glaze the Tree Trunk

Mix Naples Yellow with a little bit of Ultramarine Violet and glaze the tree trunk with a no. 4 round to blend in the dry-brush textures a little bit. Add more Ultramarine Violet to the mixture as you trail out into the branches.

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Shadows

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Blending the Shadows

Add shadowy crevices to the tree with a no. 0 round using a mixture of Prussian Blue and Burnt Umber. Use the textures that were created initially by the drybrush to guide you.

Use a sti-bristled no. 2 round and with a slightly damp tip, scrub lightly at the highlights of the trunk texture, softening and blending the darkened crevices.

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Buildings

Mix Cerulean Blue with Ultramarine Violet and glaze the buildings with a no. 2 round. Final Details

Using a no. 0 round brush and a more concentrated mixture of Cerulean Blue and Ultramarine Violet, paint the ďŹ ne details on the buildings. Darken the windows and add the shadows under the eaves. For the far right cluster of buildings, add a little bit of Alizarin Crimson to the mixture. Use a no. 1 round brush and glaze the larger leaves with Lemon Yellow.

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Chapter Four

THE DREAMSSKIES The skies have always fascinated humans. Stories and myths often center around celestial beings. The firmament is what we strive for, reaching toward the perfection that we imbue in heavenly beings. How else do we explain this realm of wonder that can present a breathtaking painted sunset, the jeweled night sky or be the backdrop to a meteor shower? It is the aerie from which gods and goddesses look down upon the mortal coil. It is where the sun shines forth upon us, the domain that grants us warmth and light and life. It is where the moon and stars watch over us, the domain of mysteries and guidance. Seraphic angels, sinuous dragons, fairies—these are the creatures that stories through time have told us are the rulers of the skies. So it is with a sense of wonder that we cast our eyes up and populate the heavenly realms with fantastical creatures in art.


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louds Painting clouds in the sky can be as simple or as complicated as you want it to be. Using a variety of wet techniques, you can create many different cloudy atmospheres.

Using Washes

Using Wet-in-Wet

The dispersion of pigment in a wash is well suited to the ephemeral and misty nature of clouds. Start by wetting your surface with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. Then load your brush with Ultramarine Blue and drag it unevenly across the top of your page. Tilt your surface so gravity does its job and the pigment disperses down the wet page. You can control the dispersion by tilting the surface in different directions or even blowing on the wet paint to force it to flow one way.

Make use of the many ways that pigment can be dispersed onto a wet surface, and use the random textures this creates for your base. Start by wetting your surface with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. Then load a no. 4 round brush with Ultramarine Blue and drag and dot it across the wet surface, painting random splotches wet-in-wet. Don’t overwork it. Let the water and paint interact and spread and create feathery-edged fluffy clouds.

Shadows in the Clouds

With a no. 2 round brush use Ultramarine Violet glazes to bring out the shadows in the clouds, using the random textures you have created as your guide.

Splotches, Bleeds and Drying Edges

Highlights

Lay in a base glaze of Raw Umber with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. While that is still wet, dot Ultramarine Violet over the glaze with a no. 4 round. Then tilt the surface sideways so that the bleeding runs from left to right. When painting a new layer over a not-quite dried layer, sometimes you get a leading edge of dark dried pigment like the upper Dark Umber edge here. While frustrating at times, it can be useful for creating background textures. For flatter, streaked clouds like the purple sections, tilt your surface to the left and right and allow the pigment to bleed to the sides.

With a no. 2 round brush use Cadmium Orange to lightly glaze the upper left corner. Then paint wet-in-wet with Cadmium Red Deep for the crimson disk of the sun. Use a white gel pen and sparingly add some highlights to the top edges of the clouds.

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Streaks High Above Sometimes you want to create more defined clouds and have more control over the formations than you do with a simple wash or wet-in-wet technique.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  no. 2 round, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Cerulean Blue, Prussian Blue Other  sponge

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Sky Wash

Shadows

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush and paint a wash of Cerulean Blue. Let it fade to the white of the page at the bottom. Don’t worry about keeping the wash smooth. In fact, irregularities are great for the randomness of clouds.

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After the initial layer is dry, take a no. 2 round brush with Prussian Blue and work around the textures you created with the sponge. Deepen the shadows and add definition to your cloudy streaks.

Cloud Textures

While the paint is still wet, take a small sponge and use it to lift out the pigment by dabbing onto the wet page.

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Demonstration Dawn Clouds Tawny golden masses of clouds gather on the morning horizon, threatening to break upon the stillness of the hushed morning.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat Watercolors  Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Raw Umber, Ultramarine Violet

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Sky Base Layer

Use a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush with Ultramarine Violet and trail it in a semicircular stroke across the upper left side of the sky. Let the bristles lift off the page so the white of the page shows through in streaks.

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Color to the Clouds

Use a no. 2 round brush with Raw Umber to glaze lightly in the lower left corner. Working wet-in-wet, mix in some Payne’s Gray as well and darken the mass of the clouds. Use a no. 0 round brush to dot in some smaller shadow tufts in the upper right. Be sure to leave some of the white paper showing through the edges for the highlights of the clouds.

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Darken the Upper Sky

Mix Ultramarine Violet with Prussian Blue and drybrush in an arc across the top left corner of the sky. Let the brush skip across the paper so the previous layers show through for cloud highlights.

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Foreground

Use a no. 4 round brush with Payne’s Gray to paint a dark glaze over the ground and tree. As the paint is drying, paint wet-in-wet with more concentrated pigment for hints of shadows and to deďŹ ne the grass and branches, leaving lighter glazes toward the edges.

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Softening the Edges

Use a no. 2 round brush with Lemon Yellow and glaze over the lowest edges of the horizon, painting over the foreground. Carefully run the tip of the brush along the top edges of the foreground to slightly blur and blend that area into the sky and make the transition less harsh. Take a slightly damp no. 2 round brush and lift the upper cloud highlights in the purple area to soften the hard edges.

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Demonstration Pinnacle Soaring high above the world, kings of the sky, the great dragons spread their wings. The clouds part in heavenly corridors, and their wild cries echo from distant mountains and untouched shores.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat brush Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Cerulean Blue, Lemon Yellow, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Raw Sienna, Raw Umber, Ultramarine Violet Other  rubbing alcohol

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Base Layer of Clouds

Start by laying in Cerulean Blue in the top portion of the painting with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush. Drop some Prussian Blue wet-in-wet in the mid and lower sections. Then, while the paint is still wet, splatter it with large drops of rubbing alcohol. Let this layer dry. Avoid painting over the main foreground dragon and the two other closer ones, but don’t worry about painting over the more distant figures.

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Blending the Textures

Use a diluted bit of Lemon Yellow with a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush to lightly glaze a wash horizontally across the top third of the page to slightly smooth out the textures in the upper area. With a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush, use a diluted wash of Ultramarine Violet mixed with Payne’s Gray in the lower clouds, blending out the edges into the white.

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Finding Cloud Shapes

Just like you can gaze at the sky and try to find familiar shapes in real clouds, use the randomized textures you have created on your page to pull out more defined cloud formations and shapes with a no. 2 round brush and Prussian Blue. Keep the edges soft by blending or scrubbing lightly with stiff bristles to lift color. Your cloud formations will not look exactly like this. What you see will depend on the textures your own random splattering of rubbing alcohol created. Don’t get frustrated by trying to make your image conform exactly. Let yourself explore what your textures have created!

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Pinnacle

Paint a base layer of Payne’s Gray mixed with Ultramarine Violet and use a no. 4 round to drybrush.

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Stony Textures

Use a no. 1 round brush with varying mixtures of Burnt Umber, Payne’s Gray and Ultramarine Violet to add cracks and crannies to the pinnacle. Use the textures that were created initially with the drybrushing, keeping the speckled white highlights and darkening the crevices.

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Dragon Highlights

Use a no. 1 round brush and paint Lemon Yellow along the highlights of the three closer dragons. Dragon Base Layer

Use a no. 1 round brush and paint the darker areas of the three closer dragons with Naples Yellow. Darker Shadows

Use a no. 0 round with Burnt Umber mixed with Raw Umber and add ďŹ ner detail on the scales of the dragons.

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Dragon Details

Use a no. 0 round with Prussian Blue and darken the deeper shadows on the dragons. Paint the eyes, the crevices of the scales and shadows on the horns. Add some texture shading to the wings and soften the edges of those shadows with a little bit of clean water on a no. 2 round brush.

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Distant Dragons

Use a no. 1 round brush and glaze the distant dragons with Raw Sienna.

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Shadows on the Distant Dragons

Use a no. 1 round and lightly glaze Prussian Blue toward the core of the bodies of the distant dragons. Blend outward towards the lighter areas on the edges of their bodies.


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tarry Skies

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During the day the skies are a painter’s palette with the light of the sun and fantastic cloudscapes. But at night there is the glow of starlight.


Demonstration Painting Stars The stars gleam in the velvet darkness of the night. Those pinpricks of light, so elusive and distant, invite one to dream of the vastness just beyond our horizons.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0 and 2 rounds, ½-inch (12mm) flat brush Watercolors  Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Yellow, French Ultramarine, Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray Other  white gel pen

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Sky

Start your sky in the color of your choice, using a ½-inch (12mm) flat brush to lay down a wash. In this example, it is a mixture of Payne’s Gray and French Ultramarine.

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Working Wet-in-Wet

When the liquid has soaked into your paper a little bit, enough so that it no longer pools but not so much that your paper is dry, use a no. 2 round brush dipped in clean water and lightly touch the tip of the wet brush to the page. Do this in an uneven scatter of dots across the sky and let the water bloom and repel the pigment.

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Softening the Contrast

While some dramatic blooms can be nice, you don’t want to overdo it. Take a damp flat brush and very lightly brush in long horizontal strokes across your sky to blend some of the contrast. Depending on the painting you can sometimes do this with a different color, glazing in a contrasting shade to the sky.

3 Tips [A] DON’T be too eager and dot your clean water in too early, before the excess liquid has had a chance to soak into your paper, or your blooms will not be as dramatic. [B] DON’T overwork an area with your wet brush by trying to move the pigment around or dabbing at it with paper towels. Just lightly touch a dot of water and then let the water and the pigment do their thing. [C] DON’T wait too long and let your wash dry out or you won’t get any blooming at all. You might get some lifting of color, which works as well, but it is a different sort of look. DO test on scrap paper first so that you can get the feel of how dry to let your wash become before dropping in the water. This can vary depending on the type of paper and the pigment you use.

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Pinpricks of Light

Use a white gel pen and dot stars in the lighter areas created with the earlier wet-in-wet technique. Vary the sizes of your dots. DON’T just center all your dots in the middle of the lighter splotches. DO let them congregate in bunches and share the same light areas. Vary the spacing and relative position.

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Hazy Glows

Use a damp no. 0 round and brush the very edges of the larger stars outward to blend the white into the surrounding area and soften the hard edges. Tints and Colors

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Add a bit of liveliness to your celestial display by taking a no. 0 round brush and tracing the edge of some of the stars with a glaze of color. A range of Lemon Yellow, Cadmium Yellow and Cadmium Orange provides a nice contrast to the deep velvet blue sky.

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Demonstration By the Light of the Moon A crescent moon limns the world in silver edges, and under the wheeling dance of the stars the ancient ones come out. They are spirits and memories incarnate; imbued with life by the thin silver light of the moon. They beckon any onlooker, “Come dance with us under the glorious canopy of the night sky!”

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ¾-inch (19mm) flat Watercolors  Cadmium Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Prussian Blue, Sap Green, Ultramarine Violet, Viridian Green Other  white gel pen

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Sky

Use a ¾-inch (19mm) flat brush and paint a graded wash vertically with Prussian Blue. Keep the pigment darkest to the sides and lightest in the center where the figure and owl are.

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Wet-in-Wet Sky

While the paint is still wet, drop water wet-in-wet around the moon to disperse the pigment. Deepening the Dusk

After the previous layer is completely dry, use a 3⁄4inch (19mm) flat brush and glaze once again across the entire piece with Ultramarine Violet, avoiding the moon. If you need to, switch to a no. 4 round brush to paint in close around the moon. Keep the wash much more diluted in the area around the moon to maintain that brightness. Don’t overwork the wash or the underlying texture will be lost.

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Use a white gel pen and dot in stars in the night sky. Scatter them randomly and vary the size and placement of the dots. Starlight

Use a dampened no. 1 round and lightly brush around the edges of the larger stars to blur and blend the opaque white pigment outward and give the stars a bit of a nimbus glow.

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Horizon Glow

Use a no. 4 round and a mixture of Sap Green and Lemon Yellow to paint a glaze along the lower horizon and extending up through the central figure. Darkening the Lower Horizon

Use a no. 4 round and mix Viridian Green with Ultramarine Violet. Glaze the lower left and right corners, diluting to clear about a third of the way up the page. Trees

With a mixture of Viridian Green and Ultramarine Violet, use a no. 2 round to paint the trunks of the trees. Start at the base of each tree and as you move up, switch to smaller brushes (nos. 1 and 0) to paint the offshoot branches. Trail off to the tips of the branches with a no. 0 round.

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Underbrush

Mix a little bit of Payne’s Gray with Viridian Green and drybrush with a no. 4 round into the lower corners for shadowed bushes. Use a no. 0 round to pull the pigment upward into trailing twigs and branches.

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Hooded Figure

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With a no. 0 round brush paint the figure with Payne’s Gray. It is distant and small, so don’t get caught up in trying to work in too many details. Sometimes it’s best to hint at shadows and highlights and let the viewer’s mind fill in the rest. Leave a few highlighted folds of the robe and lift the paint slightly on the upper edge of the hood and arms to soften the transition to the sky. Dot the ground with scattered dappled shadows as well.

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Owl Glow

With a no. 0 round brush take some Cadmium Yellow and lightly glaze in the area around the owl for a golden nimbus. Trail the pigment down toward the outstretched arms of the figure, and circle a random scattering of stars with a bit of the golden-colored glaze.

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Owl Spirit

Take a white gel pen and use slightly curved strokes for the long feathers of the owl’s wings and tail. Wet a no. 1 round brush and blend the area in the main part of the owl’s body so the white melds into the blue. Still using the no. 1 round brush, glaze a little bit of Cadmium Yellow in the core of the owl’s body. Use a white gel pen to add glowing orbs hovering above the figure’s outstretched palms.

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I

nhabiting the Skies Who hasn’t gazed up into the sky and imagined fantastic denizens of the heavens? From celestial beings to fantastic creatures, the skies are their bastion.

Cloud Castles

Simulate the experience of ďŹ nding pictures in the clouds by painting those pictures on your pages. Set up the areas on your paintings for the sky with texture (perhaps salt, wet-in-wet techniques, rubbing alcohol or lifting with a damp towel), and then look in the pooling of pigments for the shapes that appear.

Piercing the Clouds

A pinnacle of stone pierces the clouds with a fortress in the sky, reachable only with wings.

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Floating isles, completely suspended in the sky, drift in the vast azure expanse. Stone citadels defy gravity with the impossibility of their exience.

Denizens of the sky can be more substantial than mist and imagination.


Wanderers of the Blue

And what of the intrepid explorers who dare to breach the vault of the ďŹ rmament? The adventurers who craft wings, be they mechanical or magical, and dream, as Icarus dreamt, to touch the sun?

On borrowed wings of a fantastic mount.

Or borne aloft by wondrous mechanical contraptions, carried up to view the world spread out below. Airships and windmills in the skies. Self-propelled, to dance through the skies.

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thereal Clouds

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A very dreamy quality can be imparted onto an image with the proper treatment of the surroundings. The horizon edge of sky and water melting together is like the half remembered boundaries of reality.


Demonstration Dreaming in the Clouds She dreams of pavilions and pagodas that climb in the mounted cumulonimbus clouds. Somewhere beyond the mist, she knows there are distant lands, whose names are unspoken and unknown within the boundaries of the waking world. She yearns to walk those hallowed halls.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, ¾-inch (19mm) flat Watercolors  Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Red, Dioxazine Violet, French Ultramarine, Lamp Black, Lemon Yellow, Light Red, Naples Yellow, Payne’s Gray, Raw Umber, Sap Green, Viridian Green Other  paper towel

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Sky

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Smoothing out Select Areas

Mix Dioxazine Violet and French Ultramarine. Use a ¾-inch (19mm) flat brush to paint a wash over most of the page. Avoid the foreground girl and the tree branches as well as the one torii arch. Switch to a no. 2 round, if needed, to work into the corners. While the wash is still wet, drop clean water with a no. 4 round wet-in-wet onto the surface and let the pigment spread away from the drops. Use a paper towel to dab lightly and shape some clouds in lighter patches near the girl.

Dampen a ¾-inch (19mm) flat brush, wiping excess water off with a towel, then use broad horizontal strokes to slightly blend the lower third of the page. Brush directly over the branches and the girl. Some of the pigment will lift and tint those areas, but the general idea is to even out the tones in the negative space around her. Using a more concentrated mix of the same colors, paint the upper left corner with a glaze using the ¾-inch (19mm) flat. This will even out the tones in the sky in that area as well as darken the pigment.

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Cloudy Highlights

Use a no. 2 round and lift pigment by gently rubbing in small circles to shape the towering clouds. Focus on the darker patches in the areas around the cloud pagodas. Sculpting Shadows

Use a no. 1 round brush with the same mixture of Dioxazine Violet and French Ultramarine to glaze shadowy shapes in the clouds, sculpting the billowing shapes around the highlights you lifted out.

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Cloud Pagoda

Use a no. 0 round with the mixture of Dioxazine Violet and French Ultramarine to glaze details of the buildings in the clouds. Use successive layers of glazing to darken gradually.

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Torii Arch

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Use a no. 1 round and glaze Cadmium Red on the torii arch. Use a no. 0 round to paint details onto the roof of the torii arch with Raw Umber. For the deeper shadows under the edge of the roof, add Payne’s Gray to the mixture. Then use a no. 0 round with Alizarin Crimson to glaze deeper color at the core of the arch’s supports.

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Tree Trunks

Use a no. 2 round brush and a dry-brush technique to paint the tangled tree branches with Burnt Umber. Vary the tone slightly with Raw Umber for the larger branch that the girl sits on.

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Trailing Twigs

Use Dioxazine Violet with a no. 0 round to trail twigs and branches away from the main trunk. Bark Texture

Mix a touch of Viridian Green with Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber and use a no. 0 round to glaze in bark texture with a webwork of strokes worked around the highlights of the drybrushing.

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First Layers

Use a no. 1 round and mix Naples Yellow with a touch of Sap Green for the girl's gown. Paint her hair with Cadmium Orange. For the flesh, use a very diluted wash of Alizarin Crimson.

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Add Depth

Mix Viridian Green with Raw Umber and use that to glaze shading on the folds of her dress. Darken her hair with Alizarin Crimson, then blend with a glaze of Lemon Yellow. For her flesh, dilute a bit of Light Red and glaze in the shadowed areas around her neck, collarbone, arms and foot.

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Final Details on the Girl

Use a no. 0 round with Dioxazine Violet for the darkest shadows in the creases of her dress and for the fine details of her eye and hair. Butterfly

Use a no. 0 round with Cadmium Orange and glaze the other dreamer who has wandered far above. When the orange has dried, add some detailed wing markings with a few strokes of Lamp Black using the no. 0 round.


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Demonstration Sailing the World The ebb and flow of ocean tides are no limitation when the seas are the skies. Soaring high above with the birds, the land is a living patchwork etched in sunlight. The rivers are tiny silver threads, embroidered through the chasms. The birds call as they wheel through the sky and glide effortlessly on the updrafts. “Welcome, kindred spirits!” the movements of their playful flight seem to say.

M AT E R I A L S L I S T Surface  cold-pressed illustration board Brushes  nos. 0, 1, 2 and 4 rounds, 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat Watercolors  Burnt Umber, Cadmium Orange, Dioxazine Violet, Lemon Yellow,

1 2

Payne’s Gray, Raw Umber, Viridian Green, Yellow Ochre

Glow

Start with a no. 4 round and glaze in a nimbus around the balloon with Lemon Yellow. Switch to a ¾-inch (19mm) flat brush and swipe across the lower edge of the sky as well. Sky

Start at the lower edge of the sky slightly overlapping the Lemon Yellow from the previous layer. Start dabbing with a 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat brush with Yellow Ochre. Switch to a no. 2 round brush if you need to get in closer around the ship. Keep working your way upward, working wet-in-wet and dabbing Dioxazine Violet into the upper areas. Tilt your page in different directions to let the liquid move and flow and create interesting pools of pigment. If you get too much of the violet tones close to the balloon, lightly dab with a paper towel to lift the excess pigment.

3

Clouds

Wet the lower third of the sky with a 3⁄4-inch (19mm) flat brush. Then take a no. 2 round brush and paint wet-in-wet, adding a striation of lower horizon clouds with Raw Umber. Mix a tiny bit of Dioxazine Violet in for slightly darker patches. Glaze a diluted wash of Dioxazine Violet mixed with a little bit of Viridian Green across the top third of the sky to blend the textures there and darken the upper corners. Paint with broad horizontal strokes from one side of the page to the other for a smooth wash.

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Lower Clouds

Use a no. 0 round brush with Raw Umber. Use the textures you have created with the wet-in-wet glazes as a base and start glazing finer shadowed bits of detail into the clouds.

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2

4

3

Tip Because successful wet-in-wet depends greatly on letting the pigment and water interact with minimal interference from your hand, your patches of light and dark pigment blooms will not look exactly like this. Don’t worry about it! Let your pigment and water dry, and then ďŹ nd the shapes in the clouds that are unique to your piece.

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Upper Clouds

Lift out lighter patches of clouds in the upper purple atmosphere by rubbing the page with a damp stiff-bristled no. 2 round.

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Upper Cloud Shadows

Use a diluted mixture of Viridian Green and Dioxazine Violet and paint a glaze with a no. 2 round to further sculpt the shapes of the upper clouds.

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Ground

Use a no. 4 round to paint a wash of Raw Umber on the ground. Leave the white of the paper for the river. While the paint is still wet, use a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Viridian Green and drop wet-inwet into the lower left and right corners. Tilt your page at a slight angle so that the excess liquid runs toward the bottom of the page.

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8

Shadows in the Hills

Use varying mixtures of Burnt Umber and Raw Umber to add definition to the edges of the hillsides and the shadowed valleys with a no. 1 round brush.

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Ridges and Trees

Lift out pigment for lighter areas along the ridges of the hills by rubbing the page along those ridges with a damp stiff-bristled no. 2 round. With a no. 0 round dot small trees onto the distant ridges with Payne’s Gray. Switch to a larger no. 2 round for the trees in the corners closer to the foreground.

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Stones and River

Use a no. 0 round with a mixture of Dioxazine Violet and Payne’s Gray to paint in the standing stones. Leave a bit of the white paper as highlight around the edges. Slightly blend the base into the surrounding hillsides with a touch of Raw Umber. For the river, take a no. 0 round and Dioxazine Violet and lightly paint horizontal lines as rippled reflections of the sky across the closer section of the river. On the left, close to the trees, use a little bit of Payne’s Gray mixed with Viridian Green for reflections of the trees. Be sure to leave the white of the paper showing for highlights along the borders of the river and close to the horizon where the light is brightest.


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Balloon

Paint Lemon Yellow with a no. 4 round brush in the core of the balloon. Use a no. 2 round and glaze the seams of the balloon with Cadmium Orange. Start on the left side and trace the seam. Then wash your brush clean, wipe o the excess water and use the damp brush to blend the edges of the orange. Repeat along each seam. Glaze the top and bottom of the balloon with another layer of Cadmium Orange, blending in toward the center of the balloon.

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Ship

Use a no. 1 round to paint highlights of Lemon Yellow. Paint the main body of the ship with Burnt Umber. Leave edges of white paper showing through for highlights. Ship Details

Use a no. 0 round brush with a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Burnt Umber and paint the fine details on the ship. With a no. 0 round glaze Cadmium Orange along the sails and along the ropes holding the balloon.

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Birds

Use a no. 0 round and glaze the birds with Raw Umber. Add some more distant birds in the upper violet area with a mixture of Payne’s Gray and Dioxazine Violet.


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I

ndex

A

airships, 167–169 architecture, 70–71, 120–121, 126 armor, 77 artist improvement, 7, 32–35 atmosphere, 40, 88

B

background, 104, 106 See also washes sky, 90, 122 stone, 44 balloon, 167–169 bark, 66, 93, 98–99, 158 birch trees, 86 birds, 68, 96, 153, 168 blacks, 16 bleeds, 17, 45, 132 blending, 136 dry, 22 wet, 22 bloom, 25, 143–144 bones, 62–63, 67 branches, 84 brushes, 11, 13 lifting with, 30 brushstrokes, 30 butterfly, 160

C

castles, 70-71 children, 114 clouds, 92, 132–137, 162 inhabitants of, 152–153 cold-pressed surface, 14, 24 color use for contrast, 36 mixing, 16 temperature of, 16 of trees, 85 color shapers, 13 color theory, 16

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color wheel, 16 composition, 38 contrast, 36–37, 144 corrective fluid, 28 creating art, 7 cropping, 35

gouache, 12, 28 grass, 76, 111 grays, 16 grid method, 31

D

hair, 96 highlights, 58, 78, 120, 132, 156 hills and hillsides, 46, 48, 57, 91, 111–112 horizon lines, 72–3 horses, 77 hot-pressed surface, 14, 24 human figures, 68, 95–96, 152 children, 114 girl, 103, 160 hooded figure, 149 knight, 77–78

depth, 26, 91, 110 detail, balance of, 98–99 dragons, 76 drama, 74 dry, working into, 28 drybrush technique, 24, 58, 98 dry-into-wet technique, 24

E

edges, 17 embellishments, architectural, 71 erasers, 10

F

fantastic creatures creature, 40–41 dragons, 76, 138, 140 fairies, 113 owl spirit, 150 unicorns, 60, 88, 152 flats, 11 flowers, 114–115 focus, use for contrast, 37 foliage, 66, 88–89, 93, 100–101, 112, 123 foreground, 30 forest habitations, 116–121 forests, 83–85 foxes, 34–35, 95, 106–107

G

gel pens, 28, 145 gesso, 28 glazing, 20–21 glows, 56, 145, 148, 162

H

I

illustration board, 14 image transfer, 31 inspiration, 31 intensity, use for contrast, 37

K

knights, 77–78

L

layering. See glazing; washes lead hardness, 10 lead holders, 10 leaves, 66, 88–89, 93, 100–101, 112, 123 lifting out, 24, 30, 44 from a dry surface, 25 from a wet surface, 25 light, 98–99 beams, 113 use for contrast, 37 lantern, 104, 106 light source, 53 of the moon, 146–149


liquid frisket, 13, 30

M

masking fluid, 13, 30 materials, 10–14 mechanical pencils, 10 mistakes, 8 mixing colors, 16 monochrome palette, 39 mountains, 52–55, 57

N

negative space, 26–27, 111

P

paints, 12 palette, 12–13 monochrome, 39 paper towels, 13 paper, 14 selection of, 14 watercolor, 14–15 pencils, 10 perspective, two-point, 72–73 pine trees, 86 plastic wrap texturing, 25 portals, 108–109 positive space, 26–27, 111 practicing skills, 7 preciousness, 7

R

river, 166 rocks. See stones rough surface, 14 rounds, 11 rubbing alcohol, 11

S

salt, 11, 23 scale, 74 scrubbing, 25 shadows, 98–99, 125, 132–133, 156, 164 skeletons, 62–63 sketching, 32–35

skies, 39–40, 54, 56, 64, 74, 130, 146, 155, 162 See also clouds background, 122 moonlit, 146–149 shading, 46 starry, 142–145 skin, 20 smearing, 29 space, positive and negative, 26–27 spacial relationships, 27 spills, 8, 17 splotches, 58, 132, 143–144 sponges, 25, 44 stained glass, 25, 120 staircases, 71 stars and starlight, 142–147 stones, 43–44, 46–50, 93–94, 138, 166 stretching paper, 15

T

techniques, 8 blending, 22 drybrush, 24, 58, 98 dry-into-wet, 24 layered graded wash, 24 layering glazes, 21 laying a flat wash, 18 laying a graded wash, 19 lifting, 24–25 plastic wrap texturing, 25 rubbing alcohol texturing, 25 stretching watercolor paper, 15 using salt, 23 wet-in-wet, 24, 45, 86, 143, 163 wet-into-wet, 24, 28, 132 wet-on-dry, 17 temperature of color, 16 textures blending, 136 of clouds, 133 in the forest, 88-89 hillside, 111 in paper, 14 using plastic wrap, 25 using rubbing alcohol, 25

using salt, 23 in the sky, 64 of stone, 44, 138 of tree and ground, 101 of trees, 123 thumbnail sketches, 34–35, 38 thumbnail exercise, 38 tints, 145 transfer paper, 31 tree branches, 93 tree trunks 98–101, 124, 158 trees, 65, 84–85, 101, 148 distant, 65, 86–87, 89 evergreen, 85, 87 silhouettes of, 55, 84–85, 105 two-point perspective, 72–73

U

unicorns, 60, 88, 152

W

washes, 132–133, 143 background, 118 in curvy areas, 19 flat, 18 graded, 19 layered graded, 24 water containers, 13 water splotches, 58, 132, 143–144 watercolor paint, 12 attributes of, 25, 27 watercolor paper, 14–15 watercolor techniques. See techniques wet-in-wet technique, 24–25, 28, 58, 86, 132, 143, 146, 163 wet-in-wet bleeding, 45 wet-on-dry technique, 17 white areas, 27 white gel pen, 28, 67 whites, opaque, 28–29 wolves, 102–103

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About the Author Stephanie Pui-Mun Law’s work follows in the tradition of the mythic arts. She is based in Oakland, CA. Her paintings explore a surreal otherworld, and the manifestations of desire and archetype when seen with a shifted perception. Much of her inspiration stems from mythology and folklore, mingled with the movement of dance and the chaos of Nature’s wild growth. She has authored and illustrated 4 books (Dreamscapes, through IMPACT Books), a series on watercolor technique within a fantastical framework, and she is also the author and illustrator of the Shadowscapes Tarot (2009, Llewellyn Worldwide), as well as exhibiting her work in galleries and private collections.

Dedication To Claire and Ellio — you make us all stop to appreciate the hidden beauties.

Dreamscapes Fantasy Worlds. Copyright © 2014 by Stephanie Pui-Mun Law. Manufactured in China. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Published by IMPACT Books, an imprint of F+W, a Content and eCommerce Company, 10151 Carver Road, Suite 200, Blue Ash, Ohio, 45242. (800) 289-0963. First Edition.

Other fine IMPACT Books are available from your favorite bookstore, art supply store or online supplier. Visit our website at fwmedia.com. 18 17 16 15 14

5 4 3 2 1

DISTRIBUTED IN CANADA BY FRASER DIRECT 100 Armstrong Avenue Georgetown, ON, Canada L7G 5S4 Tel: (905) 877-4411 DISTRIBUTED IN THE U.K. AND EUROPE BY F&W MEDIA INTERNATIONAL LTD Brunel House, Forde Close, Newton Abbot, TQ12 4PU, UK Tel: (+44) 1626 323200, Fax: (+44) 1626 323319 Email: enquiries@fwmedia.com DISTRIBUTED IN AUSTRALIA BY CAPRICORN LINK P.O. Box 704, S. Windsor NSW, 2756 Australia Tel: (02) 4560-1600; Fax: (02) 4577 5288 Email: books@capricornlink.com.au ISBN 13: 978-1-4403-3562-4 Edited by Beth Erikson Designed by Wendy Dunning Production coordinated by Mark Griffin

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METRIC CONVERSION CHART TO CONVERT Inches Centimeters Feet Centimeters Yards Meters

TO Centimeters Inches Centimeters Feet Meters Yards

MULTIPLY BY 2.54 0.4 30.5 0.03 0.9 1.1


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Dreamscapes Fantasy Worlds Stephanie Pui-Mun Law