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The Didache The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations. Chapter 1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death, but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, love your neighbor as yourself, and do not do to another what you would not want done to you. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there for loving those who love you? Do not the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone strikes your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one who asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he who gives according to the commandment, for he is guiltless. Woe to him who receives; for if one receives who has need, he is guiltless; but he who receives not having need shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what. And coming into confinement, he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape from there until he pays back the last penny. And also concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give. Chapter 2. And the second commandment of the Teaching; You shall not commit murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not corrupt boys, you shall not commit fornication, you shall not steal, you shall not practice magic, you shall not practice witchcraft, you shall not murder a child by abortion nor kill that which is born. You shall not covet the things of your neighbor, you shall not swear, you shall not bear false witness, you shall not speak evil, you shall bear no grudge. You shall not be double-minded nor double-tongued, for to be double-tongued is a snare of death. Your speech shall not be false, nor empty, but fulfilled by deed. You shall not be covetous, nor rapacious, nor a hypocrite, nor evil disposed, nor haughty. You shall not take evil counsel against your neighbor. You shall not hate any man; but some you shall reprove, and concerning some you shall pray, and some you shall love more than your own life. Chapter 3. My child, flee from every evil thing, and from every likeness of it. Be not prone to anger, for anger leads to murder. Be neither jealous, nor quarrelsome, nor of hot temper, for out of all these murders are engendered. My child, be not a lustful one. for lust leads to fornication. Be neither a filthy talker, nor of lofty eye, for out of all these adulteries are engendered. My child, be not an observer of omens, since it leads to idolatry. Be neither an enchanter, nor an astrologer, nor a purifier, nor be willing to took at these things, for out of all these idolatry is engendered. My child, be not a liar, since a lie leads to theft. Be neither money-loving, nor vainglorious, for out of all these thefts are engendered. My child, be not a murmurer, since it leads the way to blasphemy. Be neither self-willed nor evil-minded, for out of all these blasphemies are engendered. Rather, be meek, since the meek shall inherit the earth. Be long-suffering and pitiful and guileless and gentle and good and always trembling at the words which you have heard. You shall not exalt yourself, nor give over-confidence to your soul. Your soul shall not be joined with lofty ones, but with just and lowly ones shall it have its intercourse. Accept whatever happens to you as good, knowing that apart from God nothing comes to pass. Chapter 4. My child, remember night and day him who speaks the word of God to you, and honor him as you do the Lord. For wherever the lordly rule is uttered, there is the Lord. And seek out day by day the faces of the saints, in order that you may rest upon their words. Do not long for division, but rather bring those who contend to peace. Judge righteously, and do not respect persons in reproving for transgressions. You shall not be undecided whether or not it shall be. Be not a stretcher forth of the hands to receive and a drawer of them back to give. If you have anything, through your hands you shall give ransom for your sins. Do not hesitate to give, nor complain when you give; for you shall know who is the good repayer of the hire. Do not turn away from him who is in want; rather, share all things with your brother, and do not say that they are your own. For if you are partakers in that which is immortal, how much more in things which are mortal? Do not remove your hand from your son or daughter; rather, teach them the fear of God from their youth. Do not enjoin anything in your bitterness upon your bondman or maidservant, who hope in the same God, lest ever they shall fear not God who is over both; for he comes not to call according to the outward appearance, but to them whom the Spirit has prepared. And you bondmen shall be subject to your masters as to a type of God, in modesty and fear. You shall hate all hypocrisy and everything which is not pleasing to the Lord. Do not in any way forsake the commandments of the Lord; but keep what you have received, neither adding thereto nor taking away therefrom. In the church you shall acknowledge your transgressions, and you shall not come near for your prayer with an evil conscience. This is the way of life. Chapter 5. And the way of death is this: First of all it is evil and accursed: murders, adultery, lust, fornication, thefts, idolatries, magic arts, witchcrafts, rape, false witness, hypocrisy, double-heartedness, deceit, haughtiness, depravity, self-will, greediness, filthy talking, jealousy, over-confidence, loftiness, boastfulness; persecutors of the good, hating truth, loving a lie, not knowing a reward for righteousness, not cleaving to good nor to righteous judgment, watching not for that which is good, but for that which is evil; from whom meekness and endurance are far, loving vanities, pursuing revenge, not pitying a poor

1


man, not laboring for the afflicted, not knowing Him Who made them, murderers of children, destroyers of the handiwork of God, turning away from him who is in want, afflicting him who is distressed, advocates of the rich, lawless judges of the poor, utter sinners. Be delivered, children, from all these. Chapter 6. See that no one causes you to err from this way of the Teaching, since apart from God it teaches you. For if you are able to bear the entire yoke of the Lord, you will be perfect; but if you are not able to do this, do what you are able. And concerning food, bear what you are able; but against that which is sacrificed to idols be exceedingly careful; for it is the service of dead gods. Chapter 7. And concerning baptism, baptize this way: Having first said all these things, baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water. But if you have no living water, baptize into other water; and if you cannot do so in cold water, do so in warm. But if you have neither, pour out water three times upon the head into the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit. But before the baptism let the baptizer fast, and the baptized, and whoever else can; but you shall order the baptized to fast one or two days before. Chapter 8. But let not your fasts be with the hypocrites, for they fast on the second and fifth day of the week. Rather, fast on the fourth day and the Preparation (Friday). Do not pray like the hypocrites, but rather as the Lord commanded in His Gospel, like this: Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily (needful) bread, and forgive us our debt as we also forgive our debtors. And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one; for Thine is the power and the glory for ever.. Pray this three times each day. Chapter 9. Now concerning the Eucharist, give thanks this way. First, concerning the cup: We thank thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David Thy servant, which You madest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant; to Thee be the glory for ever.. And concerning the broken bread: We thank Thee, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You madest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant; to Thee be the glory for ever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Thy kingdom; for Thine is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ for ever.. But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, "Give not that which is holy to the dogs." Chapter 10. But after you are filled, give thanks this way: We thank Thee, holy Father, for Thy holy name which You didst cause to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You modest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant; to Thee be the glory for ever. Thou, Master almighty, didst create all things for Thy name's sake; You gavest food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to Thee; but to us You didst freely give spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Thy Servant. Before all things we thank Thee that You are mighty; to Thee be the glory for ever. Remember, Lord, Thy Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Thy love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Thy kingdom which Thou have prepared for it; for Thine is the power and the glory for ever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Come, Lord Jesus. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire. Chapter 11. Whosoever, therefore, comes and teaches you all these things that have been said before, receive him. But if the teacher himself turns and teaches another doctrine to the destruction of this, hear him not. But if he teaches so as to increase righteousness and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord. But concerning the apostles and prophets, act according to the decree of the Gospel. Let every apostle who comes to you be received as the Lord. But he shall not remain more than one day; or two days, if there's a need. But if he remains three days, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle goes away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodges. If he asks for money, he is a false prophet. And every prophet who speaks in the Spirit you shall neither try nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven. But not every one who speaks in the Spirit is a prophet; but only if he holds the ways of the Lord. Therefore from their ways shall the false prophet and the prophet be known. And every prophet who orders a meal in the Spirit does not eat it, unless he is indeed a false prophet. And every prophet who teaches the truth, but does not do what he teaches, is a false prophet. And every prophet, proved true, working unto the mystery of the Church in the world, yet not teaching others to do what he himself does, shall not be judged among you, for with God he has his judgment; for so did also the ancient prophets. But whoever says in the Spirit, Give me money, or something else, you shall not listen to him. But if he tells you to give for others' sake who are in need, let no one judge him. Chapter 12. But receive everyone who comes in the name of the Lord, and prove and know him afterward; for you shall have understanding right and left. If he who comes is a wayfarer, assist him as far as you are able; but he shall not remain with you

2


more than two or three days, if need be. But if he wants to stay with you, and is an artisan, let him work and eat. But if he has no trade, according to your understanding, see to it that, as a Christian, he shall not live with you idle. But if he wills not to do, he is a Christ-monger. Watch that you keep away from such. Chapter 13. But every true prophet who wants to live among you is worthy of his support. So also a true teacher is himself worthy, as the workman, of his support. Every first-fruit, therefore, of the products of wine-press and threshing-floor, of oxen and of sheep, you shall take and give to the prophets, for they are your high priests. But if you have no prophet, give it to the poor. If you make a batch of dough, take the first-fruit and give according to the commandment. So also when you open a jar of wine or of oil, take the first-fruit and give it to the prophets; and of money (silver) and clothing and every possession, take the first-fruit, as it may seem good to you, and give according to the commandment. Chapter 14. But every Lord's day gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. But let no one who is at odds with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: "In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great King, says the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations." Chapter 15. Appoint, therefore, for yourselves, bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money, and truthful and proved; for they also render to you the service of prophets and teachers. Therefore do not despise them, for they are your honored ones, together with the prophets and teachers. And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, as you have it in the Gospel. But to anyone that acts amiss against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear anything from you until he repents. But your prayers and alms and all your deeds so do, as you have it in the Gospel of our Lord. Chapter 16. Watch for your life's sake. Let not your lamps be quenched, nor your loins unloosed; but be ready, for you know not the hour in which our Lord will come. But come together often, seeking the things which are befitting to your souls: for the whole time of your faith will not profit you, if you are not made perfect in the last time. For in the last days false prophets and corrupters shall be multiplied, and the sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate; for when lawlessness increases, they shall hate and persecute and betray one another, and then shall appear the world-deceiver as Son of God, and shall do signs and wonders, and the earth shall be delivered into his hands, and he shall do iniquitous things which have never yet come to pass since the beginning. Then shall the creation of men come into the fire of trial, and many shall be made to stumble and shall perish; but those who endure in their faith shall be saved from under the curse itself. And then shall appear the signs of the truth: first, the sign of an outspreading in heaven, then the sign of the sound of the trumpet. And third, the resurrection of the dead -- yet not of all, but as it is said: "The Lord shall come and all His saints with Him." Then shall the world see the Lord coming upon the clouds of heaven.

The Didache Alternate title: The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles The Didache is, in all probability, the oldest surviving extant piece of non-canonical literature. It is not so much a letter as a handbook for new Christian converts, consisting of instructions derived directly from the teachings of Jesus. The book can be divided into three sections—the first six chapters consist of catechetical lessons; the next four give descriptions of the liturgy, including baptism, fasting and communion; and the last six outline the church organization. The Didache claims to have been authored by the twelve apostles. While this is unlikely, the work could be a direct result of the first Apostolic Council, c.50 C.E. (Acts 15:28). Similarities to the Apostolic Decree are apparent, and the given structure of the church is quite primitive. Also, the description of the Eucharist carefully avoids mention of the "body and blood of Christ," obviously being regarded as one of the secret mysteries of early Christianity. Most scholars agree that the work, in its earliest form, may have circulated as early as the 60's C.E., though additions and modifications may have taken place well into the third century. The work was never officially rejected by the Church, but was excluded from the canon for its lack of literary value.

3


The complete text of the Didache was discovered in the Codex Hierosolymitanus, though a number of fragments exist, most notably in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. It was originally composed in Greek, probably within a small community.

4


THE DID ACHE

^

TEACHING OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES

RESTORED TO

ITS

SOURCES,

ORIGINAL STATE FROM VARIOUS

WITH AN INTRODUCTION

TRANSLATION, AND NOTES

BY

CHARLES

H.

HOOLE,

M.A.

STUDENT OP CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD

LONDON DAVID NUTT, 270-71 STRAND 1894


INTRODUCTION An

addition was unexpectedly

made

to the scanty re-

mains of the Apostolic period when, about the year 1873, Bryennius, now Bishop of Nicomedia, discovered in the library of the

Holy Sepulchre

at Constantinople a

manu-

script of the eleventh century, containing, besides other

works, a complete text of the First and Second Epistles Clement to the Corinthians, which had only existed

of St.

previously in a mutilated state in the Codex Alexandrinus, and a lost work called " The Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles," which, though mentioned in Athanasius^ and Eusebius ^ among the Apocryphal books of the New Testament, had not, since the time of Nicephorus in the

known or quoted. The publication by Bryennius soon led to the discovery that, although new as a work with the title of " The Didache, or Teaching of the Apostles," it was already substantially known, nearly the whole of it being contained in three works that had already been published "The Epistle ninth century, been

of the text

—

of Barnabas,"

"The

Apostolical Constitutions," and a

recently discovered treatise called

Holy Apostles."

This,

though

"The Epitome it

of the

does not affect the

genuineness of the discovery, affects a good deal the importance that was supposed to attach to the publica^

Athanasius, Epist. Test. 39.

^

Euseb., H. E.

iii.

25, 4, 5,

A


INTKODUCTION

iv tion of a

new

theological treatise of the Apostolic period.

An

examination of the text as published by Bryennius, printed at the end of the introduction, with the passages not previously

known marked with

brackets, will

show

that practically the whole of the treatise, with the exception of a

few of the directions given for the reception of

and prophets, was already known, and had been so that the in the hands of scholars for some time to be its would seem discovery importance of the chief

apostles

;

enabling us to identify the passages in the " Epistle of

Barnabas" and the "Apostolic Constitutions," and to and source what had hitherto

refer to their proper period

been doubtful.

What, then, was the source from which the various whose work we find in the " Epistle of Barnabas," "The Shepherd of Hermas," "The Apostolic Constitutions,'" and " The Epitome of the Holy Apostles," drew the doctrines and regulations which we find for the first time collected in the " Didache " of Bryennius? writers,

And

the answer would seem to be this

at a very

the

first

:

There existed

remote period, most likely before the end of

century, a

work handed down by

oral tradition

which was supposed to embody the verbal teaching of the

first

rr;>.wv,

Apostles.

and the use

common

is

the natural Matt.

'

The expression

vii.

of the

word

in the

New

title for

28,

xvi. 12

;

;

;

xi.

42,

teaching or doctrine

bihayri for

Testament,^ so that

it

would be

a collection of sayings or precepts

;

Mark

i.

27,

Acts xiii. 12, xvii. 19; Rom. 2 Tim. iv. 2 Titus i. 9 Heb. vi. 2, word is always translated "doctrine" II

rHv utoo-

itself, biociyri

"teaching of the Apostles," occurs in Acts

iv,

vi.

xiii.

2

9

in the

John

;

17; ;

i

2

Cor.

John

vii.

16,

xiv. 9,

xviii.

16,

10.

26;

The

Authorised Version.


V

INTRODUCTION

which had been handed down by tradition as representing the verbal teaching of the Apostles.

We

may

suppose that this work, after existing for a time in a traditional form,

form part

was embodied in

and used to and conse"The Shepherd of

writing,

of the earliest Christian books,

quently portions of

it

appeared in

Hermas" and the Epistle attributed to Barnabas. At a period a little later, the compiler of the "Apostolic Constitutions " included this traditional work, which had

already partly appeared in writing, in his collection of precepts supposed to have been given by the Apostles themselves, so that in the seventh book of the " Apostolic

Constitutions" we find the doctrine of the Duse

worked out at length, with precepts for the administration of the Sacraments and the appointment Vise

At a still later period the editor Holy Apostles" endeavoured

of Christian ministers.

of the

"Epitome

of the

to complete the notion of a •

Didache

of the Apostles

by

giving the names of the Apostles themselves, and referring each precept to

its

the Apostolic teaching, of them, w^ere in the

known

author. or,

hands

at

any

of the

These four forms of rate, the first three

anonymous writer

of

as "

The Didache of the Apostles," who compiled and abridged from them the work that we now possess as the Didache, giving in a condensed form what had previously existed in a number of other works, with a view to supplying a manual of conduct,

the treatise

based on the actual teaching of the Apostles themselves,

and adding some

formulae, possibly belonging

to

an

than his own, for the administration of the Sacraments and the appointment and maintenance of ministers and church officers.

earlier period


'

I^;TKODUCTION

VI

may

be asked, was the nature of this

teaching, supposed to

have been handed down by tradi-

r>iii

what,

it

by the first Apostles ? The Dua3 VisQ or two ways, a series

tion as having been delivered idea

was that

of the

what was

of ethical precepts as to

what was a

to be avoided,

to be followed in conduct, to

and

which were added

few directions as to the administration of the Sacra-

ments, and the appointment of church

The notion before

men

is

of conduct laid

one of great antiquity, occurring in Scrip-

ture as early as the

where the

ofiicers.

two ways or modes

of the

Israelites

Book of Deuteronomy, xxvii 4, commanded, after they had

are

entered Palestine, to select the two mountains of Ebal

and Gerizim

— Gerizim representing the path of obedience

and Ebal that

of

transgression, blessings being pro-

nounced from the one and curses from the other; and

we are told, was actually carried out by Joshua after the Israelites had occupied Palestine.^ The same notion occurs in the prophecies of Jeremiah xxi. 8 the command,

:

"Thus

saith the Lord,

of life

and the way

Behold I

of death."

classical writers as early as

you the way also found in the

set before

It is

Hesiod, and

it

appears in

the fable called "

The Choice of Hercules," attributed to Prodicus the sophist.- The notion is that of two paths placed before a person at the commencement of his career, the one narrow and difficult but right, the other easy and pleasant but wrong. In this shape it is found the Canonical Gospels,

in

.iifjv\ujf)05

ochg

and the

*

JoHhiui

-

Hesiod, Op. et Dies, 285

viii.

cf.

Matt.

rtOXifMfMsvri odog

vii.

13,

where the

are mentioned and

32. ;

Prodicus apud Xenophont,

Mem.


—

VU

INTRODUCTION contrasted.

"

Wide

is

the gate and broad

that leadeth to destruction, and

go in thereat the

;

because strait

way that leadeth unto

is

is

the

way

there be which

many

the gate and narrow

life,

is

and few there be that

most likely the real source two ways found in the " Epistle of Barnabas," where we read, " There are two ways of teaching and authority, one of light and the other of darkness, and the difference is great between the two ways." This idea of the two ways is expanded and worked out at some length, first in the " Epistle of Barnabas," and afterwards in the " Apostolic Constitutions " and the "Epitome find it; "

and

this passage is

of the doctrine of the

Holy Apostles," and for some reason the name came to be connected with it. Thus it is stated by Athanasius in his remarks on the Canon of the

of St. Peter

*'

There are also other books, not canonical, but called by

the fathers ecclesiastical, such as the book called 'The

Shepherd of Hermas' and that which ; or the Judgment of Peter

Two Ways,

is

called

'The

"

and the same work seems to be mentioned by Eusebius with the title '

of "

The Teachings of the Apostles," didaxat ruv cc^roffroXuv. Thus a new manual of ethics was formed for the use of the Christian Church, based partly on the actual teaching

of Christ as found in the Gospels, partly tion of the ideas contained in

it,

on the applica-

which are arranged and

enlarged so as to form a complete manual of duty. this

To

was added, apparently on the same authority, the

oral tradition of the Apostolic teaching, directions for

the administration of the Sacraments and the appoint-

The ment and maintenance of ministers of religion. work thus edited would supply a code of Christian duty and discipline, based upon what was supposed to have


^

LNTKODUCTION

viii

been said by the Apostles themselves, and supj^orted by passages from the Canonical Gospels, and as such would be what Athanasius calls it, not canonical, or to be considered a book of the

who had

persons

New

Testament, but useful to

recently joined the Christian Church,

wished to be instructed in the duties of a pious life. These books were, he says, "The Wisdom of Solomon," Jind

"The Wisdom of Sirach," the Books of Esther, Judith, and Tobit, the work called "The Teaching of the Apostles" and the "Shepherd." We thus arrive at the "The

complete nature of the work called

Teaching of the Apostles," and find

it

Didache, or

to be in reality a

combination of two systems of teaching, perhaps of two treatises, the

Dua3 Vise or Judicium Petri, and the bibaxal

rm

aTTOGToXuv or the doctrines of the Apostles.

the

first

comes the doctrine of the two paths the directions

second,

for the

;

From

from the the

administration of

Sacraments and the appointment and maintenance

of

ministers of religion.

The latter work seems to have been known under various titles, such as the Duai Viai, the Judicium Petri, at dtaTayal al dta. K\r]/j.€vTos, and iviTo/xr} Spuf tQiv ayluiv dirocrToXuv. The Epitome or Judi'

cium Petri was missing until 1 842, when it was published at Giesseu by Bichell, and afterwards by Hilgenfeld at Leipsic in 1866 it is referred to by Rufinus Aquitanus in the following passage, 345-410 A.l). '"Sciendum tamen e.st, quod et alii libri sunt, qui non canonici, :

:

sed

ecclfcsiastici a

monis et

maioribus appellati sunt

alia Sapientia quje dicitur

filii

:

ut est Sapientia Salo-

Syrach, qui liber apud

Latinos hoc ipso generali vocabulo Ecclesiasticus appellatur, quo vocabulo non auctor libelli, sed scriptura? qualitas dognominata est, eiusdeni ordinis est libellus Tobiae et Judith libri. in

Novo

Hern»atih<, [et]

Maccabaeorum

et

vero Testauiento libellus, qui dicitur Pastoris sive qui appellatur Dujc vise vel Judicium Petri."

Exposition of the Apostles' Creed, c. 38. llifcronymus de Vir, Illustr. c. I (0pp.

ii.

827)

:

" Libri

autem


"

IXTKODUCTION

IX

remains to trace chronologically the various sources

It

from which the Didache seems to have been compiled.

The doctrine

of the

Two Ways is

first

found in Christian

literature at the conclusion of the Epistle of Barnabas,

which may date perhaps as early as 79 majority of critics place

" Let us pass on," he says, " to another

second century.

method {i.e.

of

though the

a.d.,

about the beginning of the

it

knowledge and teaching.

Petri), e quibus

unus Actorum eius

There are two paths

inscribitur, alius Evangelii,

tertius Prsedicationis, quartus Apocalypseos, quintus ludicii, inter

apocryphas

The

scriptiiras repudiantur.

former, the Teaching or

mentioned

HE.

Euseb.,

iii.

TlavXov irpd^eoov

i]

25, 4,

(paueirj,

-qv

6,uo\oyov/xevois.

KareXe^av,

ravra

/nev

(^

rives,

w?

rjdr] 5'

en

^(pV^,

the

UoL/xriv Kal

\ey6/ui.eP0$

(pepo/ULevrj

-q

t6\o}v at Xeyofxevac AidaxaL'

of

Apostles,

Eusebius and Athanasius

iv rots vodois KaTareraxdiJ} Kal

5.

ypacprj, 6 re

UeTpoii Kal Trpbs tovtois

ei

Teachings

in the following passages in

^apvdfia

re, cbs ecprjv,

dderovaiv,

eiricFToKy] i]

i]

is :

tuv

air ok dXv\p is

Kal rQu dfroa-

'ludvpov dTroKd\v\pi.s,

erepoi

5e

eyKplvovcri

rois

ev rovrois rives Kal rb Kad^ 'IjjSpaiovs evayyeXiov

Xpiarov irapade^afxevoi

p-dXicrra ''E^paioov ol rbv

rrdvra rdv dvriXeyo/jievojv dv

xa'poiyct.

ei'77.

Athanasius, 0pp. i. 2, 963.^ eVe/cct ye irXeiovos d/cpt/3etas TrpoariKal rouTO ypdcpuv duayKaicos, ws on ecrri Kal erepa /3t/3\ta rovrojv

drifxc

e^uidev,

ov

Kavovi^ojueva

jxev,

rervTrwfieva

8e

irapd

rdv

Trarepojv

avayivwcTKeidai roh dpri irpoaepxo^-evois Kal j3ovXo/x4voi$ Karrjxe'icrdai rbv

rrjs

eme^eias Xoyov'

^ocpia ^oXo/uiuJvros Kal ^ocpia '^ipdx xal 'Ead'qp

lovdW Kal Tobias Kal Aidaxq KaXovfjievrj rCov dirocrrbXwv Kal Uoip.'qv. Anastasius Sinaiticus, QuEest. et Respon. lleploooi Kal Sidaxdi rQv

Kal

diroaroXbiv.

Nicephori Stichometria.

AiOaxri diroarbXwv crrt%ot

Zonaras

diSaxw

rrjv

(Sffic. xii.).

^^

'^'^'^

s'.

diroaroXwv rivks Xeyovaiv

elvai rds 5id rov KXrip.evros ypacpeicras oiard^eis.

Matthceus Blastares.

e^codev

oe

{'Adavdaios) rrjv 1>o(piav ^oXo/xuvros d-jToaroXuv.

— Coteler,

i.

Kavovi'^op.evwv

— Kal

rrjv

elvai

cp-qaiv

cidaxw ^^^ dyiwv

193.

Cyprian de Aleatoribus, qiiis frater

rcov

c.

Et

delinquit in Ecclesia, &c.

in Doctrinis

Apostolorum, Si


I^'TRODUCTION

X of teaching

darkness."

and authority, that of light and that of The passage which follows should be com-

pared with the Didache of Bryennios, i.-v. ; the use of hibu.-^% iiri Wipav yiuffiv xai htba^riv, in the

the word

introductory sentence should be noticed, as

germ

contains the

it

apparently

of the notion, afterwards

in the second century, of a

hiba^ri

expanded

or system of teaching

inculcated by the early teachers of Christianity.

The passages that follow are from of

the Epistle of Barnabas

;

xviii.

e.

to xx.

they should be carefully

compared with the Didache discovered by Bryennios, as they contain the earliest statement of the doctrine of the

two ways, and represent, more

closely perhaps

than the later work, the traditional teaching of the Apostles.

XVIII, ^lera^w/uLeu SiSa-^^i'iv.

'OSo\ Svo

Tov (pwTog Koi

Se koi

cttI

SiSa-)(>J9

eiQ-l)/

Tov (TKOTOvg.

rj

kr^pav

yvuoa-Lv kul

koi e^ova-lag,

?/

re

Siacpopci Se TToXX/;

€(p' 7/9 /UL€V jOLp €L(nv TerayjULevoL Twv ^vo oSwv. (pwraywyoi ayyeXoL tov Oeov, e(^' 7/9 Se ayyeXoi TOV Sarara. 2. koi 6 /mep €<jtlv T\.vpLog airo alcopcov

tov pvv

KOI e<9 TOL'9 aiwva^, 6 Se ap-^^oov Kaipov

Trjg

avo/uLia^.

XIX.

H

oOv OVOg TOV (pOOTO'S €(TTLV aVTi]'

OeXow odov

ooeveiv €7t\

Toi<i t'pyoK^

uvTov.

TrepiTTUTeiu

eV

Toi'

TTOujo-ai'Tu

a-e,

(WXov^

TOV Tfi

KoXX>}0)'i(Tf]

ere

KupSla /LLeTu

7]

SoOeicTa

avTU TOiavT>]' (poB>]07'/(T>]

irXovcrio^

TTopevojuLcvcov

ck

tw iv

i]/ULiv

COiP T19 arirevcrri

yvCccri<i

'A-yaTr^/cre/?

2.

TOV

XvTpcoa-diuevov Kai

TOirov

copLG-/uLei'ov

€(jTiv ovv

ToG

co^a(T€ig

tov

ere

irXda-avTa,

OavaTOV TrvevjuaTi' oScv

ecr/y

ov

OavaTOV,


INTRODUCTION

iraa-av viroKpia-LV ov 3.

ovk apeig

jULi(T7](7ei<i

eyKaraXiTry]^ evroXag J^vplov.

fxr)

ov'^ v\p-w(T€i9 creavTOv,

Travra.

Oew

ovk ecrnv apecTTOv T(p

irav o

fxi(T}](T€Lg

xi

ov

\ijim,ylrr]

^ovXrjv irovripav Kara rod irKfimov crov ov 'TV

^^Xi ^^^

Opaarog.

Tov Qeou i^eXOrj

ecrr]

jULrj

TeKvov ev ov

juit]

€K

ov

ttoXlv

6.

ov

jut]

yevrj

'^v)^fjg

jur]

(TOV

evepyijiuLaTa

Oeov

ovSev

tov vlov

olyXcocrcrog, aia"^vvr] TraiSlarKi]

viroTayyjcrr]

(po^w.

Kal ev

eXirL^ovcriv,

juijiroTe

a/LKpoTepoig

Oeov

KaXecrai, v)]creig ^

ev

ov

yevr}

eTriOviacov

ra tov

aXX

e(p>'

iracTiv

Ex. XX.

14.

ovg

tw

ov otl

to

jutj

aXXa

Ta

cog

elScog

on

ovSe

Oeov ev SovXw crov outov Oeov

tov

t]

tov

(popriQi^G-ovTaL

Kara

irvevfjia ^TOiniacrev.

^

eV

Trpocrodirov 8. koivw-

ovk epeig

crov, Kai

Is. Ixvi. 2.

avev

Tvirco

eiriTaPijg

ov

jueTO.

crvjUL/SatvovTa.

Siyvconioov

earr]

eirl

rjXOev

TrXrjcrlov -

ovSe KoXXr]-

v\p-t]Xwv,

Kvpioig jurj

airo

f]

SiSaPeig

ovk

TOig

TriKpla,

ctov

veoTtjTog

irpocrSe^i],

J.

tov

ov (povevcreig

irXeoveKTtjg.

wg ayaOa

Xa^ng

jur}

airo

jULCTa

ylveTai.

ovg

5. 01;

y€vv}]Oev airoKTeveig.

Taireivcov Kal oLKalwv ava(jTpa(pi](Tii. (TOi

ecrr]

^

ayairyjcreig

aov.

crov airo

aXXa

(Tov^

Oeov.

(p6j3ov

7rXr](Tiov crof, 0}]cri]

yeipa

ov

ov.

j]

y^v^iju

tj]v

Xyjimyp^r)

aSeXcpu) crov.

J^vpiov."

(pOopa, ovSe

apijg Trjv

0vyaTp6<s

T}]9

ovofxa

virep

crov

7r\}]ar[oi/

tw

irorepov earrai

to

lULaTalip

ov

Tovg Xoyovg

rpejULcov

/uLvrja-iKaKijcreLg

Siyp^v)^i](Ti'}g

eiri

tlvwv.

ov

Xoyog

crov 6

iuL}j

TrapairTCo/uLari,

eiri

ecrr]

r}(Tvyj.o<s,

ov

ijKOva-ag.

TLva

Scicxreig

7ropvev(T€ig,

ov

ev aKaOapa-la

eXey^ai

Trpoa-ooTTOi' irpaiigj

ov

4.

ov 7raLSo(pOopr](T€L9.

fjLoi-)(€V(TeLg,^

Kara

^e TaireLvocppcov

ecr>/

creavTOV SoPav.

eirl

Ex. XX.

7.

B

'iSia


INTRODUCTION

Xll

yap ev rw u(pOdpT(i) kolvcovol ea-re, irocTco Toh cbOapToig. ovk e<Ji] irpoyXwa-a-o?' yap to G-TOfxa Uavarou. oaov ovuaa-ai virep

clvar^

€L

juLuWov TrayKf

(Tov

'^t'^v?

TtJ9

TO

€i>

ayvevcreh.

ra?

€KT€ipcov

Xafieiv

ayaTTijcreig

(TV(Tirwv}

co?

iravTU TOV XaXovvTO.

€k1(^i]ti]G-€19

aylcov,

?/

crov

tov Xoyov J^vpiov.

10.

vvkto^

Ka& eKCLCTTrjv i]iJ.epav Siu Xoyov kottiwv Ka\

TrapaKoXecrai Ka\ juLcXeTwv Xoyo),

eig

Twv yeLpwv

Sid

1]

a/mapTicov

crov.

I l

epyacr)]

crov

(pvXaPeig d

d(paipu)v.

IJ.Ti]T€

Kpiveig

Se

vaeiis

ov

12.

avveiSi'icreL

XvTpov

e/?

ov

crov.

ij.i}T€

/ULicn'jcreig

Trou'/crei^

Trpocnj^ei'?

auT)]

Trovrjpa.

6loov(^

Trpoo'TiOeig

tov

irovijpov.

cr-)^iG-iuia,

crvvayaycov.

jua-^ojULevovg

djuapTLUig

eiri

ev

to toj

KoXog dvTa-

julktOov

irapcXa/Begf

TeXo^

€ig

SiKaicog.

ei?

\l/u'^7]v

Tropevojuevo^ CTWcraL

Kat tcov

TrpocrwTra

to.

to

yoyyvcei^j yvcocru Se t/c o tov iroSoT^f;.

ij^epa^,

koi

ov oicrTacreig oovvai ovoe

.

/j.ev

to SovvaL

oe

irpog

Kopyv tuu ScpOaX^ov

Kpicrewg

^/Liepav

/ULVi](T6}}<Tt]

(tol

yivov irpog

/my

9.

yeipa^s,

eiptjve-

e^oiJLoXoyya-tj 7rpo(Tev>(j]v

eirl

ooog

ecTTiv

tov

(pOdTO^.

XX. 'H KaTCLpa^

^e tov /meXavog 6S6<s ccttiv oSo';

IxecTTi].

JULCTU Tl/ULCOpia^, €V

avTwv

ecTTiv

CTKoXid kol

OavoLTOv aiooviov

CCFtIv TO. ClTToXXllVTa TtJV \lrV)^1]V

f]

€W(i)XoXaTp€ia,

VTTOKpicrig,

yap

SiirXoKapSla,

OpacrvTyi?, /JLOiyeia^

Swd/uewg,

v\j/o^

(povog,

dpirayy,

vTreptjcpavia, rrrapd^aa-i's^ S6X09, KUKia, avOdSeiaf (pap/jLUKeia,

KTUL

y\/€vSt]. 1

jmayela,

TrXeovc^ia,

Twv dyaOcov,

Acts

ov iv.

yivco(TKOVT€^ 32.

cKpo/Sla

juLicrovvTeg

-

Oeov.

dXyOeiav,

/ulktOov

Ecclu.". iv. 31.

SiKaiocrvvt]^, ^

2.

Siw-

dyair(jovTe<s

jj^^j^

ov koX^jii^ -^


INTRODUCTION Xw^evoL ayaOM,^ ov ou

Kai

to

eiri

SiKala^

X^/^*?

aypvirpovvTeg ovk

TTjOOcre^oi/re?.

aAAa

Kpio-ei

xill

irovtjpov, cov /ULaKpau

Km

'^"^

viTO^ovri, ayaircovreg /udraia, SicoKOvreg

evyepeh

Tov

ev

KaraXaXia, ov

7roLi](ravTa auroJ?, (poveig tckvcdv,

/aotro?

Geoi', airoa-rpecpo^evoL

TTOPovvTeg Trevy'iTcov

TOV

OXifio/iievov,

Kara-

yivcca-Kovre?

(pOopeh

irXaar-

ivSeojuevov,

/cara-

ttXovg-lcov

TrapOLKXrjTOl,

ovv ecTTLV /maOovTa to, SiKauoimaTa

TOV rivplov, ocra yiypairTai^

yap

avrairoeirl

avofxoL KpiTal. TravOaiudpTtjTOi.

XXI. KaXoi^ 6

tov

Geoi;

iroppco irpaurrj^

oo^a, OVK eXeoiyvTeg tttco^oV, ov irovovvTe<s iTOvov^evWj

opcpavo)

(hoj^ov

eig

TttVTa

(T6}]arâ&#x201A;¬TaL'

6

iroicov ev Tr]

ev TOVTOig irepLiraTelv.

^aa-iXeta tov

cKXeyojuevog

eKeiva

fxeTO,

Oeov So^atwv epyoov

avTov (TvvairoXeLTai.

Next

in order follows the

a date not

much

and certainly one the canon of the

Shepherd of Hermas, with

later than the Epistle of Barnabas, of the oldest Christian

New

Testament.

works outside

Here we have again

the doctrine of the two ways, called here the oodn and gtos/SKti odbc,

the straight and the crooked path, and two

angels are fancifully represented as presiding over them.

"Walk

thou," says the author of the Shepherd, "in

the straight path, and avoid the crooked."

The notion

two lines of life laid before every one, one to be avoided, and the other to be followed, is insisted upon in Hermas chiefly on ethical grounds, of duality in conduct, of

and with little reference to Scripture, but more to the dUaiov and cidizov of the philosophic schools, and even an ^

Rom.

xii. 9.


INTRODUCTION

xiv

might be traced

allusion to the system of the Peripatetics

terms dvmfMi;

in the use of the

'Ei/eTe/Xayu»;i' aoi,

I.

Iva

(pvXd^i}^

eyKpdreiai'. (Tois

SiTrXai

yap

SiKaiip

Ktu

Se

ciSiKcp

TO

e^et,

TTopevov

yap

KOI

Na/,

(pijjUiL,

Kvpie.

Se aSiKOv (TTpe/3\i]V' [/ca) ojuLaXif]^, T)]v

ttoXXu,

PXa^epd

OL

TOvcTi

ovT€ ecTTL

Se

3.

>/

dvo^la^ Ka\ Ka)

ojuaXw^

yap

ovv

otl

TTopevearOai.

6S(p

(ptjUJLi,

Kvpi€, TavT)]

(ptjcri,

Ka\

09

cctti

ovT€

/BXiTreig

aKavOcioSt]?. Tij

6p0t]v oSov

t)] opOrj 6S(p

aXX

oSip 7rop€v6jUL€voi

aTrpoa-KOTTTcog'

TavTij

tco

SiKaicpf

aKav-

ovv cctti Toig ev avTrj TropevojuLevoL^,

T^ opO^

Ku]

eirl

rw

aXXd av

Tpa^^eta

Ka\

'iva

evepyeiav.

Se (TTpeBXtjv ea<Joi'. e-^^et,

rtji'

OeXoo

KeivTat ovv

TO yap SUaiov

oTTpe/BXt] 6S09 Tpl/3ov^ ovk

6wSf]9.

e^ef Kai

ovv iricTTeve

CTu

7rL(TT€vcr>]'$'

/UL}]

TrpocTKOjUjuaTa

4.

2.

pvi'

avrwv^

SvmiU€i<?

vvvajiXLv

at ev^pyeiai avrm''

elcriv

a^iKO)'

Trpcor}] ePToXij

'AXAa

ra?

Koi

t;/

rov (po^ov koi

irlcTTLV

avTwv TLva

t/?

iv'ioyna.^

ev

<^;;o-iV,

T//!/

SijXwcrai

(pijcrl,

vo))(Ti]<i

and

tT]

6S(t)

av e^ oX^?

Kvpiov iropevareTai ev

ecTTiv

crviuLCpopcoTepGv

5.

^A^pecrKei

iropevecrOai.

/ca^ocVa?

rrrepLira-

Tpay(€~Ld

juoi,

Ilo^eJcr//,

€7ricrTpe\lr}]

irpog

avT7].~

IT. "Akouc vvv^ Cpijcrl, irepl Tijg irlcrTem. Svo elcriv ayyeXoi yuera tou avOpwirov, eh t^? ^iKaiO(TVvt]g kol eh T^? TTOvtjpiag. 2. II wg ovv, (ptj/mi, Kvpie, yvcoa-ojuiai Tag avTwv evepyelag, otl d/ULCpoTepOL ayyeXoL /ueT e/uLOv

KaTOiKOVdiv

;

3.

"A/coiye,

(p)]G-L,

'

Hermas

-

Parallelisms occur also in Hermas.

Pastor.

vide Doctrina Apost.

Mand. c.

i.

s.

vi.

Ka] avvie avTag.

i.

xi.-xiii.

Mand.

ii.

and Mand.

xi..


INTRODUCTION o ^ev

Tijg

eiTL

Tt]i'

ayyeXo^

OLKaLO(Tvvt'i<s

aia")(yvTripo<s Ka\

irpdvq kol

KapSiav crov

XV

ecm

Tpv(pâ&#x201A;¬p6<s

kol

OTav ovv ovTO<i evOem XaXel /uLera crov

r}(Tv-)(j.o<s.

ava/Brj,

irepi oiKaLoa-vvt]g, irep). ayvelag, irepl creiULvoTtjTogf irepl

avrapKeLag, irepl iravrog epyov SiKalou kol irep\ TraV;/?

ravra irdvTa orav on 6 ayyeXog

aperrjg evSo^ou.

eL<s

aua^r], ylucocTKe

crov

^6Ta \ov

rrji/

KapSlav

SiKaioa-uvrjg

epya tov ayyktovtw ovv TrtcrTeve kol roh opa vvv KCii tov ayyeXov Trj<i irovrj-

]^TavTa ovv icTTLTa

(Tov icTTL.

SiKUioarvv}]?.^

Ttj?

kpyoig avTov. piag

Trjg

4.

Ta epya.

irpwTOv irdvToov

TFiKpog Kai acppcov, koi

6^v')^o\6<s

tu epya avrov

earn koI

ttow/^cc,

Kura-

(TTpecpovTa TOv<^ oovXovg TOV Oeov' OTav ovv ovto^ Trjv

KapSlav

Next

crov dva^rj. yvcJoOi

eirl

avTov diro tcov epycov

follows the recently discovered work, which

best described as the Duse Yije or Judicium Petri. 1

is

It

does not seem to be quite complete, as though two ways are mentioned in detail,

the

odh;

i,

c.

only the

odbg

Oavdrov being omitted

;

^w^g it

is

given in

concludes with

directions for the appointment of church officers.

It

is

impossible to avoid noticing the similarity between the

^

This

Epitome or Duse Viae and a well-known

the

style of

title is

not found in the manuscripts where the work is and ''EinTOfji.r] 6pwv tQv aylojv

called At SiaTayal al dia KXrifxeuTos,

Hilgenfeld has conjectured, with some plausibility,

dirocrToXiov.

that

it is

in reality a portion of the missing

however, the of precepts

title of

Epitome

on the subject

chief speaker.

is

of the

preferred,

Two

it

Judicium Petri. If, would be a collection

Path?, with St. Peter as the

The commencement should be compared with

of the Epistle of

Barnabas.

that


INTRODUCTION

XVI

fragment of Papias/ so that it might almost be conjectured that a portion of the Aoylov Ku|/axwi/ 'Eg^yjjff/;

Judicium Petri, which would thus carry the source of the Teaching of the

was contained

of Papias

in the

The text

Apostles almost to the Apostolic period.

who

Hilgenfeld has been given, of the

work

There

is

^

3.

:

cites three

Yindobonensis, Mosquensis, Ottobonianus.

also a Syriac version.

OiiK dKVTjdOi 84 aoi Kal

(fiadov Koi

KoXQs

(iaiovfievos,

virkp

oca

irore

avrCJv dX-rjOeiav.

dXXd

fxo-^pof ibcnrep ol iroWol,

wapa tuv irpea^vrepuiv /caXws

avyKaTard^aL Ta7s

i/xvr)fx6u€vaa,

dWoTpias iuToXds

ov

yap

rots

dia^e-

epixTjueiais,

to,

ttoXXo, Xeyovcriv

toIs TaXrjdi] diddcrKOvaiv, ovBe rots ras

dWd

/xPTjfxovevovaiu,

rds irapa toO Kvptov

rots

TrtVrci dedofxeuas Kal dw' avrrji rrapayivo/J.^vois rrjs dXrjdeias.

5^

TTov

Kal

TraprjKoXovdrjKws

tis

to2s

i)

Ti

Gw/iSs

'IdKOj^os

7]

Tuiv TOO Ki'piou fxadrjTui', oi

ToO Kvpiov

fie

w^eXeTv

fjLadTjTai,

7.

Kal

i

6 vvp 5e

;

ocrou

ov

yap

irapd

Tci,

Euseb. H.E.

ijfxip

?)

Ti 'I(j}dvv7]$

iii.

5r]XovfjL€vos

rt

rrj

Et tuv

Utrpos direv ^

"Matdalos

TJ

a re 'Apiariuv Kal

Xiyovaiv.

vireXdfx'fiavov,

— Papias, Frag,

"^

4.

wpecr^vrepois iXdoi, tovs

Trpea^vripwv dveKpivov XSyovs' ri 'Avdpeas i'/XtTTTToj

of

manuscripts

ij

t'l

Tis 'erepos

Trpej^^repos ^ludvvtjs,

to. e/c

twp ^L^Xltav toctovtov

^'ibarjs

(puprjs Kal /xevovarjs.

39.

Uairias tovs

fxeu

tQp dTToaroXup

Xbyovs irapd rCip avroh TraprjKoXovOrjKOTWP ofxoXoyeX irapeiXTjcpepai, '

Apiariupos 8^ Kal rod wpea^vripov 'Iwdppov avrriKoop eavrbp

yepecrdai.

'Opo/xacrTl

youp iroXXaKis avrup

/xPTjfiopevaa^, ip rots

(pTjai

avrov

avyypdfJLfxacTi rld-qcLv avrup Kal irapaooaeis. Kal ravra 5' tj/x'lp ovk eh TO &xpV(^T0P elprjadu. Euseb. H. E. iii. 39. Papias, lohannis auditor, Hierapolitanus in Asia episcopus, quinque tantum scripsit volumina, qu3S prsenotavit Explanati<> Sermonum Domini. In quibus quum se in preefatione asserat non

variaH opiniones sequi, sed apostolos habere auctores, ait: Considerabam, quid Andreas, f|uid Pefcrus dixissent, quid Piiilippus,

quid Thomas, quid Iac(»bus, (juid lohannes, quid Matthceus, vel alius «iuilibet discipuloruiii xviii. p. S2.

Duniini.

Cf.

Jerome de

Vir.

111.

c.


INTRODUCTION

The Du^ X^alpere,

Vi.e or Judicium Petri.

Ovyarepeg,

kul

viol

XVII

ev

ovo/uiaTL

kvo'lov

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KaOiarTapearOcoarap

Matt,

;

-

xviii. 17

2 Thess.

iii,

;

11.

2 Cor.

xiii.

Tpeigi.

at


INTRODUCTION

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Matt. xTv. 35

;

r

Tim.

iii.

13.

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INTRODUCTION rov

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XXV

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Next follows the seventh book

of

dimrjv.

the " Apostolic

Constitutions," composed most likely about 250

chapters i.-xxxii.

Didache

of

is

ovo/maTi

tcc

a. d.

In

contained nearly the whole of the

Bryennius, only more complete in form, ^

Matt. XX vi. 26

so.


INTKODL'CTIOX

XX Vi

and with the precepts worked out at length. There is no reference to any previous treatise, but the doctrine of the Two Ways is given as one of the Apostolic Doctrines, supplemented by directions for the administration of the Sacraments and the appointment of church officers, and a prediction of the end of the world follows.

and

is

This completes the series of works parallel with the Didache, and by comparing them with the Constantinople manuscript it will be seen that nearly every sentence in the Didache of Bryennius occurs in one So that the question or other of the four works cited. arises

whether the Didache was the source from which

the other writers drew their sentiments, or whether

it

made by an anony-

was not an epitome or collection mous writer, who selected what he considered

primitive doctrines of the Apostles, omitting

to be the

what he

considered to be of later date or less importance, and

forming out of their teaching a short manual of duty. of the treatise published by Bryennius

The shortness

seems to suggest the latter view, which

will

make the

work somewhat resemble the Syriac version of Ignatius, which is now acknowledged to be an abridgment of the Greek. ^ ^

Whiston seems

to

have supposed that he had discovered the

missing AiSoxtj tQv aTOdrdXuv in some Arabic fragments of the Apostolical Constitutions found by him in the Bodleian Library at

Oxford but though he was right works coincided in part, none of ;

genuine Didache, being

all

in his conjecture that the

of the Apostolical Constitutions, while the in

two

fragments are found in the taken from the first to the fourth book his

Didache

is

only found

the seventh book (Whiston, "Primitive Christianity Revived,"

p. Si) and Grabe himself was mistaken (c/. Grabe, "An Essay upon two Arabic Manuscripts ") in supposing that it was contained in the eighth book tlie fact that it was really contained in the seventh ;

;


INTRODUCTION }^€(p. ^

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of the

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at Constantinople, all the previous conjectures as to the nature

contents of the lost work having been entirely incorrect.

D

and


INTRODUCTION

xxviii

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INTRODUCTION

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xxix

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rj/miv

ov koi to. iravTcx

crou, SI'

yevea-Qai

TraOeiv koi

So^dcraL

eKdOiarag

^juliv

Trjv

iraTcp

lr](Tov

tov

Kai

twv

ov

crwTrjpia

Kai

tJj

crvve-^oopria-ag

ov Ka\ ava(TTr]orag evS6Kt](Tag

diroOavelv,

Kai

eirriyyeiXw

avOpodirov,

evyap-

croi,

oia

eirl

log

Trjg

eirolrja-ag

oXcov irpopoeig, ov koI airea-TeiXag r}iuL€T€pa

evyapicTTOL,

oovXor fxei/ XeyovTeg " rju-^apiarTOviuLeu

KOI evyi'co/ULOPeg

TTitTTol

icTTiag

25.

e/c

Se^iwv

avdcrTacriv

Sia-TTOTa iravTOKpdTop.

Oee

crov,

tow

aicoi'ie,

ov

Si

veKpwv.

cocnrep

i]v

Kai 2i7,

tovto


IXTEODUCTION

XXXViii

Si€(TKOp7n<7/ui€vov KUi (TvvayOev

(Tvvdyaye

crov

virep

>ljULcoi',

twv ireparcov Trjg "Eri evyapicTTOh^ev, irarep

^acTiXeLav.

y>]^ c/V o-))V

tou

eyevero eh apro?, ovrco

eKKXtjcrlav airo

ti]v

Koi avTLTVTra

ravra

KarayyeWeiv tov avTOv OdvaTOV Koi.

^e

Tf?

d/uiVi]Tog

el

djuLvijTcov,

cov

/uli]

imeTeXa/Bev cov ov

Se Tig KaTCi

avTov yap

oi

M/yoe)?

cljul/jv."

dXXa /nopoi ol ddvaTOV. Ei

ek rov tov 'K.vpiov Kpvy^ag eavTov ^eToXaBij,

alwvLOV (pdyeTai, otl reo)?

alwva^'

ep avTwv twv

eaSieTco

fie/SaTTTicriuievoi

^e

Tovg

e/?

TLfxwplav

el^

ayvoiav /meToXa/Boi, tovtov

oxw?

/xuvo-are,

(jTOf)(eLU)cravTe<;

Kpl^a

eU ^picrTOV

tj;?

OejULig,

ov

avrov Siara^a^evov

eTriTeXov/mev,

(701

So^a

o-cOyaaro?,

tl/uliov

rjfxiv

)]

tov

li)crov JS^pLCTTOv

tiijuov aijuLUTog

eKvyOevTO^ virep ^juwv Koi tov

tt/ct-

eavTOv' Ta')(jiOv

KaTa(ppopr]Tt]9

/x>;

e^eXOoi.

Mera

Iv^d). 26. crTi)craTe

(TOV,

rifxlv

oe t^v iJ.eTa\}]^LV ovTOjg evyapL-

^v^apL(jT0viJ.ev

tov

'Irjarov

Koi

'*

arooTripog

ov KaTecTKi/vooarag ev Tr/o-reo)?

koi

Sia 'Iijcrov

)]/JnVy

dyd-Krig

ev avTit) Si

TUig y^v^aig

rijucov,

TTLCrTWV

KTLcrag

vojjlov

tov

eirl y>]g 'Itjcrovv

(Tvvuv(x<TTpa(jjt}vai to?

Kocr/mov

KaTecpvTevcrag ev

irpog /ULeTaXij\p^iv irpoevT-

koi 'laauK

ev

eScoKag

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ical

d/me/uLirTCOv

ITlCTTOg

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tov ^picrTov

twv

LaKwfB,

SovXwV (TOV 6 SvVUTOg GeO?, 6 d\l/evd)]g

iraTrip

6p6juLaTd<i

2v, SecnroTa irav-

Geo? twv dylcov koi

^/J-wv, 'A./3paa/UL

dXfjOivog Kui

(TTCiXag

dOavacrlag,

oXcov, 6

tu

Ka\

Geo? Kal

6

tov dylov

kul virep Ttjg yvcocrecjog

crov.

avTOV, Kai

peTTicrag uvOpcoirotg' 6

TTUTepcov

KCii

tov iraiSog

TOKpaTOp, 6 Oeog TWV Koi. TO.

<toi,

virep

^/ulcov,

crov

dvOpwirov, Oeov ovtu

KOI

diro-

dvOpwiroig

Xoyov

koi


XXXIX

INTRODUCTION avOpooTTOu,

Koi.

KOL

avTOv

vvv

Sl'

TavTrj?,

W

irXavrjv irpoppLTov aveXelv'

Trjv

fxv}]orOr]Ti

<TOv avrrjv ev Trj

ayainj

Travrag

6

eirKpavelg

irpocrep-^ea-Oo)

volag.

tov ^piCTTOV

<tov koll rrj aXrjOeLa crov, koi

^julcl?

rrjv

e/9

fiaa-iXelav,

crrjv

tw

cocravva

el

^/mlv

ev

rjv

^apio,

vlw

Geo?

K.vpLOv,

6 6pyoiUL€vo<i ev opo/uarL

evXoyrjfxevo<s

avT0<5

eKKXrjcrlag

iravTog irovrjpov Kai TeXetco-

^lapapaOa

y]TOLpM(ja<i avTij,

Kvpiog

aylag crov

TrepieTTOirjo-o) Tcp tijuliw aiiuaTL

crov, Kai pvaraL avTrjv airo

(Tvi/dyaye

T/J?

E'/ Tig dytog,

crapKL."

Se tl9 ovk earn, yivea-Oco Sia fieraSe

^JSiTTLTpeTreTe

Kai TOig

ir

pecr^vTepOLg

v/uLcov ev-^api(7Teiv.

Ke(^. 27. Tie pi Se rod jULvpov ovrcog ev-)(^api(TTJ]" ^vyapi(7T0ViJ.ev croi, Gee Srjiuiovpye tcov

crare'

oXwv, Koi virep

rrjg

evcoSiag

tov

aOavoLTOv aloovog ov eyvcopicrag TraiSog

(TOV

OTi crov euTiv

y]

tov

lULvpov, koi virep riiuuv

Sia

So^a koi

tov

'Irjcrov

rj

cvvafxig eig

Tovg aicovag' aiuyv." '^Og

eav eXOccv ovTcog evy^apia-Trj, irpoaSe^acrOe

avTOv wg ^pia-Tov

iULaOt]T7]v'

Kripv(T(jri Trap' i}v vjuliv

T(p

TOiovTM

jULij

(Tvy^wpelTe evyapKTTelv

6 TOiovTog TOV GeoV, Kecj). 28. lULaa-Oeig,

SvvaorOe

eav Se aXXt]v

irapeSwKev 6 ^piarTog

Uag

Se

'/jirep

yvwvai

Se^iav

Se

\|/L')(>/9

TrapaSe^ecrOe Se avTOV

avTw,

'iva

yap

crvveo-iv t]

apKTTepav

Kai

e^j^ere,

Kai

SiaKpivai

'TjXOovti fxevTOi

tw

e7ri^opriy}](TaTe to. SeovTa'

tu>

yi/^evSoSiSaa-KaXo), Swa-eTe jmev

aev^ea-Oe

yap

So^a'^ei.

yp-evSoSiSaa-KaXovg SiSacTKaXcov. SiSaa-KoXo) €K

^fxwv,

vj^p'i(eL

6 epyofj^evog irpog vfxag, Sokl-

^e;(ecrOw

ovtco

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Si

T>ii/ /mrj

Ta

TrXdvtjv,

irpog

ouTe

crvni^iavOiJTe

-^^peiav,

ov

p.)]v crvfj-irpo-

avTw,

Tldg


INTRODUCTION

xl

a\i}0iPO9

7rpo(^)i'lTJ]^

v/uLu^

u^id^

ri}?

ecTTi

€pyo^evo<s

SiSacTKaXog

"}]

Tpo(p}]<s

7rpo<?

€pyart]<;

\oyou

yevvijiuaTow

Xtjiov^

a.'?

SiKaiocruvt]^.

Ked). a\o)i'o<i,

u'd

ru

Ildcriv

29.

powv re

airap-)(t]v

Kai irpoPdroov

evXoytjOwcrii'

al UTroOtJKai

€K(p6pi(l

yt]9

TrJ9

o'li'iv

KOI eXalcp,

(Tov

Kui

Tu

SeKfiTijv

koi

tw

Scotreig

oii'ov

crTa(pu\>]<;

lepevcriv

Haarav

apyvplov

Ke^.

30.

pio-TOvvreg evrjpyeTtja-ev

Sew

///xa?

IUL€l/lKrJ9

aVTOV

€KKX>](7iag

7rpo(7€i^€-^0i]<T€Tai

Ku}

TO ovo/ma l\€(p.

31.

eliui,

TOig

ococreig

Ka\

iravro^i

tov K.vpiov ^/mepap, dSiaXeiTTTcog, cvy^a-

e^OfJLoXoyovjUievoi

ottw? diuLefATTTog

OTl

OujulaiuLa

(3a(TiX€vg jiieya^ e'yco

V

airap-^iiv

IjULaTKr/uiOv

Gew, tm

Kai €vavd<pop09

Oep/mcov,

ccKpoSpvcov,

Geo? Sid ^picrrov

6

TTucrav

tij yjipff-

Kai

dypoia*;, TrXaut]^, Sec/uLcov v/uLow

>/

Tt]V

(pajuev, avvep'^ecrQe

T(o

aprwv

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T>;i'

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Kai

twv ^ocov

rw tttw^w

)(*/jOa,

a'irap'^i]v

Ka)

Se

opcbavw Kai

KTrj/maTO'; T(p

Kai

TTpo^aTOov (Tov

eXalov

'ij

twv aWoop

5/

(Tr?]pl-)(Ol]^

opcbavco Kai tjj

Kai Tcp 7rpoG-)]\vT(p. Kepajuiiov

Twv

crov

CTLTW

Tajueicov

j^ovKoXia

to.

av^t]6ij

TToljULvla

twv

KOI

O-OV,

toI^ lepevcriv,

i^cocreig

e(p'

oh

pvcrdjULepo^ ij

t]

Qvcria

eiirovri irepl r^? oikov'tjV

Kai

iraVTl

Ovcria

TOTTCp

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/ULOl

on

Xiyei J^vpiog iraPTOKpdTwp.

juov OavjuLaaTOv ev

llpo-^eipiQ-aarOe

Toh

Se

eOvecri.

eTTKTKOTrovg

d^iovg

TOV l\.vpiov Ka\ Trpea-^VTcpov^f Kai SiaKOPOv^, dvSpa^ eifXa^eh, SiKaiovg, Trpaeh, d(piXupyvpov<}, (piXaX})0€i<i, oeSoKi/ULacriuievovg,

pov^ SiSdoTKeiu €1'

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o(tiov<;^

TOV Xoyov ]\vpiov

air porrwiroXijirTOv^,

SwajuLe-

Trj^ evo-e^eiag^ opOoTOiuiOvvTa<}

Sdyiuaa-n'.

'Y/ul€i<?

Se TijuaTe

^


INTRODUCTION TOVTOVi

Trarepag,

(09

co?

Kupiov?,

oog

xli

evepy^rwi, w? tov

€u elvai aLTLOv<i.

juaKpoOv/uLia /mera ^pricrTOTriTO's kui

Ta

irpocTTeTayiJ.eva

Tptjyopeire

virep

v/uliv

^o)^?

tTj^

Wdvra

eipijvr}<i.

tov J^vplov (hvkapare.

vtto

"'Ea-Twa-av

ly/xwj/.

al

\vyvoL

KaioiuLevoi,

Kai vjuei^ bjuiOLOt avOpcoiroi^ TrpoaSe-^o/uiivoi^

tov Kvpiov

Kai

0(j(pve<i vjuLwi/ TrepLe^coa-jULevai

eavTwv iroTe i)

^Jc^ei,

fxea-ovvKTiov'

6 J^vpiog,

Koi.

ij

ecr7repa<s

yap

ol

h irpm

oXeKTopocpcoPLa^

1]

copa ov irpoaSoKwarLi/, eXevcreTaL

eav avrco avoL^waif /uaKapioi ol SovXol

€K6ivoi, OTi eupeOrjo-av

yprjyopouvTe^' otl irepii^wcreTai

KOI avaKXivel avTOvg Kai irapeXOcov SiaKOvrjaeL

Nyjcpere ovv Kai

TTpoa-ev-y^ea-Qe

imt]

virvwaraL

avroh.

ek Odvarov

yap ov^(Tei vjmag ra irporepa KaTOpOcojmaTa, eav Ta ea^aTa vjulcov aTTOTrXavrjOyJTe r^y? Tricrreo)? TrJ9

ov el's

a\i]Oovg. }^e(p. 32.

'Ei^

yap

Tai<f ea-yuTai'S ^/mepaig 7r\>]0vv-

Oijo-ovrai ol \jrevSo7rpo<pyJTai Kai ol (pOopeig

tov \6yov,

Kai crTpacbrjcrovTai to, irpo/SaTa €ig XvKOvg Kai €ig jULiarog'

irXyiQwOeiari^

aydirr]

Twv iroWoov,

r}

y^P

'^'^^

jULicri^crovcn

6 KOG-jUi07rXavo<s, 6

riy?

irvevjULaTi

dvaiplJov

Irja-ov^

tov (TTOfxaTO^ avTOv, 6

darePrj'

Kai

ol

Kai TOTe

aXt]66Lag e-^Opo^,

6 TOV yp'evSovg 7rpocrTaTt]9, ov 6 Kvpiog

TW

dydirrj

yap dWr'jXovg

dvOpcoTTOt Kai Slw^ovctl Kai TrpoSwcrovcri. (pav}](T€Tai

t]

dvo/mia^ y^vyycreTaL

oia

dveXei

-^eiXewv

iroXXol a-KavSaXia-Oi'/crovTai

eir

avTcp, ol Se vTrojULCLvavTeg eig TeXog, ovtol crcoOyjorovTai.

Ival

TOTe

(pav^(T€Tai

to

(rrj/uLeiov

dvOpcoTTOV ev TO) ovpavw^ e^Ta Sl

dpyayyeXov

(po)Vi]

tov

vlov

tov

a-aXiriyyo? ecTTai

Kai jueTa^v dva^icocri^

tcov KeKOi/mtj-


INTRODUCTION

xlii

jULevwv fXf.T

Kai

(lyytXwv Kph'UL eKacTTcp ol

rore

avTOv

yuti/

€V

Svi'u/uL€w<}

Tov

Kara

6(pOaXjUiog

eig

TOig

etV

Ti]

i/eipeXwv julct

koi

Tore

avrov.

Kara-

/Sao-iXelag

Sia^oXoi'

aioivlov

ovk elSe kuI

ev

twu

KoXacriv,

aTTOoovvai

aireXevcrovTaL ol

Se

SiKaioi

C^rjp aicoviov, KAtjpovo/movPTeg €K€iva,

ovk

ay ai7war Lv avTOV GeoJ

evraro)

avTov eV/ Opopov

Ttjv irpa^tv

irovripo)

Kapoiav avOpwTTOv

TCI'

6 ls.vpio9 kol Trai/re? ol dyioi

KOcr/ULOTrXdi'ov

TTopevcropTai

a

y^ei

crvcrcreia/LLw

ovk

01/9

ai/e/5;;,

a

tjKOvcre

ijTOtiuiacrev

koi 6

ctt)

Oeo?

Kai -^aptjcrovTai €V tij SacTLXeLa

XpiaTw

'hjcrov."


THE DIDACHE OR

TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES AS DISCOVERED IN MANUSCRIPT BY BRYENNIUS


;

(

45

)

The passages from Barnabas, Hermas, the ApostoHc Epitome serve as an introduc-

Constitutions, and the

tion to the Didache as discovered by Bryennius, and

published

at

solymitanus.

Constantinople from

No

the Codex Hiero-

other manuscript or version of

been found, but there

is

it

no reason to doubt that

a genuine manuscript of the eleventh century.

has it

is

It con-

and second Epistles of Clement, a complete text of the longer recension of Ignatius, " The Epistle of Barnabas," " The Synopsis of St. Chrysostom," tains, besides the first

and " The Teaching of the Apostles," which comes between the Clement and Ignatius. After a good deal of consideration, I have come to the conclusion that the Didache is not an original work, but a compilation or series of excerpts from the treatises already quoted. Any one who will compare the Didache of Bryennius with the passages taken from Barnabas, Hermas, the Judicium Petri, and the Apostolic

Constitutions, will

find

it

difiicult to

avoid the

conclusion that the author of the Didache had these

works

in his hands,

and compiled from them what he

supposed to be the primitive doctrine of the Apostles

and the position of his work is not that of an original an enlarged and completed copy, but that of a condensation and compilation from a number of other works. There seems some reason to suppose that the work thus composed underwent a further abbreviation, and that to


(

the Didache discovered

46

)

by Bryennius, which was no

doubt the same as that mentioned by Nicephorus in the ninth century, was a shortened form of the Didache

mentioned by Athanasius, as

it

does not correspond in

length to the works with which he compared

it,

such as

"

The Shepherd of Hermas " or "The Book of Wisdom," and some mention of the names of the Apostles themselves would have been expected in it. In my own restoration I have endeavoured to replace what I supposed might have been found in the original Didache by giving the names of the Apostles, and bringing the work a little more into the form used at the assumed period, by supplying a commencement and conclusion in the style of the second century. For this purpose the Epitome or Judicium Petri has chiefly been used, but a complete collation has also been made of the parallel passages in Barnabas and the Apostolic Constitutions.


(

Aida'^7]

oia

l\.vpLOv

47

)

twv

ScoScKa airoa-ToXajv

TOig eO veer IV.

The passages marker^ in brackets

are not found in

]

[

any of

the preceding tvorks.

'

I.

OSo\

Svo

tij^

jula

ei(Tif

kcu

X^oor)<s

tov

fxla

Oavdrov, Sia(popa Se ttoWj] /uera^v tmv ^vo oSwi.

'H

2.

tov

ayairrjcrei^ 5

TOP

3.

t>;?

TovTWV

^e

Trouper avTO.

koi

croi,

Xoyccv

Toov

rj

ir

Apostol-^^^^^^

pwTOv

SevT€pov Epitome

ere,

dXXip

crv

irolei.'

/ul7]

ecTTLV

^iSa-)(J]

auTr].

^vXoyeiT€ Toug KaTapcoju-evovg vfxiv kui TrpOTevy^eaOe virep TMV 6y(0pwv vjuloov, vrjcTTeveTe oe uirep tcov oico10 KOVToov

v/UL€ig

yap

TLoia

v/ULug.^

dyaircovTag

v/uidg

;

ov^}

ayairuTe Tovg X^P^^^ ^"^

/^"^ t"« eOvij

edv

tl<s

tol

Sw

pdTricr^a

15 (Tiayova, (TTpe\^ov avTcp kol Trjv

Cvo'

dyy ipevTY] eav apt]

yj-Twva.^

ttoiovctlv',

ov^ e^ere

'ATre^of twv crapKLfcwv Kat (Tco^aTiKwv

4.

eTriOujULicov.

edv

to avTo

Se dyairdTe roi/f jULicrovvTag vf^dg koi

e^Ppov.

ae T19 Ti<f

to

/uliXlov

Matt.

xxii. 40.

3

Luke

vi.

28, 32.

elg

dWrjv Kai ev,

viraye

Tt-jv

ecrr)

<jov, ^rj

"

Tob.

^

Matt.

iv. v.

avTOV

kui

tov

aTraiTer

15.

39

Se'^idv

TcXeiog'

/xer'

LfxaTiov arou, 009 avTcp

edv Xd/Br] T19 dizo crov to

1

^?}^^^'^^^^-

IldvTa Se otu edv ^Jn™^^

wg creauTOv}

jLvecrQaL

imr]

Tw^? ecTiv avT^y

tov

Oeov

(TOV

7r\t](TL0V

6€\r](Tri<s

ovv oSog

fjLev

sq.

'1^^

Barnabas

i.

ii


48

(

yap

roi/tJe

KOI

JUL)]

^vva(TaL.~\

airaiTei}

aOwog yap

ri)v ei'ToXj/v

yap

/utev

€1

6 ^e

fj-h

TOVTOV Se ra?

ovk e^eXevcreTai

Ka\

" lopvcraTCi)

rAeiyrejOa ^e evToXt] rrjg

'

ov

,

^

,

,

6. r]

ecTTai'

eXape

irepl

jme-^pig

oXXu

5

Kai

ov

Kal irepi

eXetjjULOO'vvt] crov e:?

lo

Ou

(poi/ev-

2.

OVK

yap Qavarov

tov

to.

OVK

ecrrj

rj

ov

"vl/efo^?,

'

J.

(papjuLaKeva-eig,

ov

tckvov ev (pOopa ovoe yevvtjOev CiTTOKTeveig, 15

eTriOvjUiijcreig

(T€i9.

'

ov

/mayeva-eig,

ov

yl/evSojULaprvptjcreig,

3.

t'l

SiSa-)(^^g'^

'

ov

K\t\l/€i^.

OVK

f

aOwo^

T19,

\va

CKeiOeu,

KoSpdpTr]i'.^

€(T')(aTOv

e'lptjTai'

(povevcrei^

.

Kara

Xaju^apovTi'

OV u.oiY€V(Teig, OV 7raiSod)0opt]G-€ig. ov TTopveva-eig,

(Tef?, ,

oiKtjv,

tw

^efjOa? aou, jme-^ig av yucpg tlvl oct)?."]

11.

ix.

ova\

dwoyj] ^e yemjuLevog e^eTaa-dyG-erai

ev

Ti'

e/V

oloov

ere

/maKapiog 6 oiSovg

ecrriv.

eyoov ococrei

uitovptl

OeXei oloocrOaL o iraTep

y^pelav eyoov Xa/ulSavei

-^peiai'

wv cTrpaPe CLTToSu) Tov

Uennas Maud, viii.,

yap

Tiev iSiwp '^apKTiJ.aTwv!^

[e/c

rw

iravTi

5.

Trucri

)

7rXi]criov,

oiyvco/uLwv

faXXa

K€v6g

iTriopKrjcreig,

ov

ov

V.V^

Trayh

ovoe SlyXcocrcrog'

irpa^ei]. 20

jue/ULecrTCOjULevog

ovoe dpiraP ovoe

viroKpiTt]^

'••''

j

ovoe KaKorjOtjg ovoe VTreprjcpavog. irovt]pav /caret *

l

^

*\

'

'

/

tov

ai'OpcoTTov, aXXct Trepi

mu

ce

4. ov X^\j/r] jSovXiji/

ov

TrXtjariov crov.

ovg

irporrev^r}^

jULcrrjcreig

eXey^eig, ovs

/mev

ovg

Se

Se

ayairtjcrei'S

iravTa

eXe^creig,

virep

Trjv 25

"^V^^^U (TOV.

r ;JLi. II

i^eKuov

lil-

^^^y^^aiTO iravTog

"THt^

yap

opyh

t]

fjLOv,

oiiiOLOv

^

Luke

^

Matt.

(pevye airo

avTw.

irpog tov

2.

/ui)]

irapTog irovrjpov Ka\

ytvov opyiXog' 6S}]y€i

(povov

/mtjSe

^ijXcoTtjg

29.

-

Hermas.

V. 26.

*

Exod, xx. 13

vi.

i

juivr]ariKaKt]-

ovk ecrrat 6 Xoyog crov

SiyXcoG-cria.

TrXeopeKTi]?

€(T>]

ovk

KaKoXoytja-ei'?,

sq.

/uajSe

h' 7


49

(

epKTTlKO^ ^t]Se (povoL

5 TOVTcov fJLOV,

airavTOdv

HirjSe

TrepiKaOaipMV /u^Se OeXe avTa ^Xeireiv

ylvov

////

(pLXdpyupog

TOVTCov airavTwv KXoiral yevvoovTat. ylvov yoyyvarog'

15 TOVTODV

avOaorjg

/arjoe

(prjjuilav'

airavTcov

Se irpavg'

eTre)

ayaOog

Ou^

ov

aXXa

jmera vy^rjXwv, Tpa<p}]<Tt].

ayaOa

9.

25 TOV Oeov

Kvpiog

3.

ov

twv

yap

J. "IcrOi Ti]V

y^v}

Kal aKaK0<s koi ^crv-^iog

Xoyovg Sia iravTog, ovg eavTOv ovoe rj

ococreig >|/"f^>/

tt]

crov

/uLera SiKalcov Kal raireivcov avacr-

arep Oeov ovSev ylverai.

TOV XaXovvTog vvKTog Kai rj

'iva

tjiuepag.

top Xoyov Tijuiiicreig

Se

KvpiOTrjg XaXeiTai, ckci

'E/c^>?T>/o-ef9

ayicov,

croi

/caO'

<^e

eiravairarj's

TTOLYjCTeLg G")(l(TfjLa, €ipr]V€V(T€ig

^/txepav toI<s

Matt.

V. 4.

-

to,

Xoyoi?

Se iJ.a'^oiJ.evovg'

les. Ixvi. 2.

iJ

A

I

o)?

l^pLvelg SiKalcog, ov Xrj^r] irpoa-wirov eXey^at ex) 1

I

2.

ecTTLv.

Trpocrooira

avTcov.

fxov,

jULvrjcrOijarr]

(3\ap-

e/c

a-v/uL^alvovTa croi evepyij/uLara

Kvpiov oOev yap

0)9

eig Tr]v

KoXXr]Oyi(TeTaL

TrpocrSe^r], eiSoog otl

IV. TeKvov avTOV

Ta

o^rjyel

e/c

TeKPOv

6.

KX}]povojUL}iG-ovcri

u\|/cocref9

20 "^vyj] (Tov Opacrog.

y^eva/ULa e/9

yevvwvrai.

fcal eXernJLOov

Ka\ rpejucov tol'9 8.

/ULt]S6

Trovrjpocppcov'

/SXaa-cprjimlai

ol irpaeig

ylvov jULaKpoOvjULog

ijKOvcrag.^

eireiSj] /mrjCe

yap

e/c

KepoSo^og'

yap

jmrjSe

Ttiv

'VeKvov

5.

to

y^evG-Tr]^' eTreiSr] oSijyei

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/ULOV, jur]

eig

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^eKvov

o^rjyel

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yap

e/c

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TOVTCov airavTwv eiocoXoXaTpeLa yevvaTUL. 10 /xou,

Tropvelav

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yevvwvraL.

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yivov einrSv-

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jutjSe

ylvov oioovocKOTrog'

fxyj

eiSwXoXaTpeiav

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eTTiOvjULLa

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aia-)(^po\oyog

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)

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of

(

TrapaTTTWfxaa-iv.

Hernias

Mand.

ix. 1]

ov.

ra?

Ov

4.

)

M>; yivov irpo^

5.

to

Trpog Se

-^eipa^?,

irorepov eaoai

^Ly\rV)^}](T€i<i,

to Xa^eiv eKreipwv

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6

tov

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(poj^r^Orj-

/ui]

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0^^^^^'?^o

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irpoaev^^jv crov ev crvv-

eiri

aVTt] eCTTLV

TOV OavaTOv

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to.

ecpearov O

i)

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iruvTCOv TTOVijpu ecTTi Kol KaT(lpa9 yuecrr?/"]

[irpcoTOV 25 2.

(povoi^

ApostT)!

^omtiuit.

jULOLX^iai, eTTiOviULiaty Tropveiai,

KXoirai, eiocoXoXaTpeiai,

/mayeiai, (pup/uLaKeuu, dp-Tray (ii, -ylrevSo/u-apTvplai, viroKplcrei^j

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'SxtjoSO'JpeV,

rHv

,

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9.

^^^

Ou/C

tov avTOv

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Tw 10.

XX.

Toh

J.

evr)

^umjcreLg irarrav viroKOicriv^ai irav o

(TOV KUi

Bam abas

OcOV.

Oeov [oJ yap epyeTai

a/ULCpOTepOLg

Trpoaodirov KoXecrai,

i'jToliuLacrevl. (

?;

(pO^OV TOV 7r(xiSl(TK}],

e\7n'(^ov(Tiu, ev irLKpla crov, /un'/TroTe

(Toi'Tui

ei

fxuWov

irocrw

ecTTe,

oe

6.

eTT/ra^e^? Sov\cp crov

.

€pei<;

elvai.

^>VK apei^ T}]u X^^P^ ^^^ "'^^ ^° airo Tri<i OvyuTpog crov^ aXka airo

ui'>]T0i9.

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Oeov

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5

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yap

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€1'

yoyyvaei';'

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TOV HJUdOov KoXo^

ma ov

Tcov yeipwv (Tov Scocreig \vTpo)criv a/mapTicov crou.

(iXa^oveuc

3.

KUKia.,

^tjXoTVTcia,

ciwKTai dyaOcov,

Opajuicr-


51

(

ay air oovTe^

ovvre^ aXy'jOeiav,

SiKala, aypvTTvovvTeg TTOVtjpov.

ovk

MV fxaKpav

4.

ayaTTCovTcg,

ov yivwcKOVTeg

\p-euSog,

KoWco/mevoi ayaOu) ovSe

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5

)

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cXeovvTcg

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to ayaOou. aXXei^ to

eig

TTTOoyov, ov irovovvTe<s eiri KaTaTrovov/mevcp, ov yivocxr-

KOVTcg Tov iroLrjcravTa avTovg, (boveig TeKvan\ (pOopei^ Oeov,

7r\a(riJi.aT0^

airocTTpeCpoiULei'oi

tov

evSeo/uevoi',

KaTairovovvT€<s.TOv OXi^o/uLevov, irXovcrloop TrapcmXtjTOi, 10

KpiTai,

avojuioc

7revt]T(t)v

TravOa/mapTrjTOi'

pvcrOeitjTe,

T6Kua, airo tovtcov airavTcov.

VI. "Opa, T^9 o^ov Sd(TK€L.

15

^vyov TOV TOVTO

OVVr]

3.

Kvpiov,

irXavrjcrr}

(T€

eTreiSf]

yap Sv^acai

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TeXeio?

el

ea-tj'

Se

Trj^

/Spoocrecog

TOV eiSccXoOvTOv Xlav

Se

ecTTi

Oewv

VII.

airo

S'

,

"

TavTa iravTa

fb ovvacrai irpocreye'

^acTTacrov

XaTpeia yap

TOV BaTTTicraaTO^. [ovtco BaiTTLcraTe' r V o to ovo/aa eL<s ,

,

>

irpoeiirovTe^ paiTTLcraTe

eav Se

ev vSaTL TcovTL.

vSwp /SaTTTicov

el S'

25 eav Se a/uLCpOTepa

t]

e-^^pg

vSoop

TOV

^coi',

e/V

aXXo

e)(>/?,

eicyeov

eh

t>]v Ke<paXi]v Tpig

aylov TrreJ/xaro?.]

/SaTrTla-jUiaTog irpovi](JTev(TaTO)

/SairTl\J)

Ka\ ol j^airTiC^oiJLevoL ^Ka\ el Tiveg aXXoi SvvavTai.

KeXevcreig

30

jULrj

iul>]

Tri^eJ/xaro?

ov Svvacrai ev yb-v^pcv ev Oepimw.

ovojJLa iraTpo's Ka\ vlov Ka\

2. TTpo Se

Si-

ov Svvaarai, o

TOV iraTpo^ Kai tov vlov Ka\ tov aylov

^a)^^]

ere

oXov tov

veKpcov.l

IleiOf Se

vSwp ek

[rai/r^;?

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TLepl

OLTTO

20

jmev

el

2.

TLq

liir}

SiSa-^r](;,

Tri<s

Se

vrja-Tevarai

tov

/SairTii^o/ULevov

irpo

fxiug

Suo.']

VIII. Ai Se

vi-jCTTelaL

v/ulcov /ur]

ecTTCoTav /ueTa tcov

G

Apostoi. Constitui vii. 22.


52

(

Apostol. ConstJtut. vii.

23-24.

vTroKpiTcev

vjuL€t^

2.

(TKevijv.

yap devTepa

vtjcrTevouari

—tjULTTT)].

()e

TO

TO

,11 (ireo

tm euayyeXnc

TOV eiTLovcnov dog Kai

ij/uLcov,

Kui

5

cKpeg ^jmiv

i]/ULiv

at^fxepov kul

rj/jLelg

aCpUjUiev TOig ocpeiXeTaig

eiaeveyKijg rj/mag eig

juii]

elg

Tovg aicovag/

3.

aXXa

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airo tov 7rov>]pov' otl crov ecTTiv

tjjjiag

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rj

o ev to) ovpavw, ayiac-

tj/j-wv

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Ttjv ScpeiXrjv ^jULCov, cog koI

pvcrai

avTOv, ovtco

ovojULu (jov,

OeXijjuLa crov cog

t]/uiu)v

Kai

aW

irpocre^-^ecrOe cog 01 vTroKpiTai,

/urjSe

irpocrevyea-Qe}

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v)]crT€ucraT€

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(t'f

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i)

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ovtco

^

TTpocreuyecrOe. Apostol.

IX. WepL Se

C'onstitut. vii. 25.

tov 7roTi]p:ovTj

TTdTep

\v7rep

^/uicov,

Traioog crov\

jov ov

I'/g

T>]g

ij/uiv

TOvg

€ig

.hjiv ^^apiCTTOVjUiev croi,

KOI

yvcocrecog,

TOV iraiSog crov >)v

TOVTO

opecov^ crov

Kai

TOvg

>]/jliv

eyeveTO

crvva-^dev

iocrirep

tcov

\_e'7ravco

ovtco

€V,

virep

Sia 'hjaov 20

aicovag.

mecTKopTrLcr jnevov

Se tov

t]iJ.cov,

(rvva-)(OyTco

CKKXtjcria airo tcov irepuTcov Trjg ytjg eig t>]v

t)

hjcrov

ipaycTco

ire pi

iraTep

croi,

elg

irep\

2.

eyvcopicrag

So^a

rj

[/cXacr/xa]

^acriXelav

aXX

cro\

?/?

tov Traioog

via 'li](Tov

aicovag'.

KAacrpLaTog'j ,tjv-^apicrTOv jmev TP}g "^cofjg

OL

otl crov ecTTiv

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elg

jTOVTOV

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t]

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paiTTLcrQevTeg

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airo elg

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rj

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Se

3.

ev-^apicTTiag

ovofxa Kvpiov.

Kvpiog'

cr>]V

Svvaiuig

[/cal

,Mj/ SwTe to

25

vjulwv,

yap ay lov 30

-J

Matt.

15

aylag ajULireXov Aa/3\6 tov

eyvcopLcrag

So^a

[(To\ Jj

^ovToog evyupicTTrjcraTe'

Trjg ev-^apigTiag,

-rrpcoTOV irepi

-

Matt.

vii.

6.


53

(

Mera

X.

to

oe

ij/uLoyv,

iruTep ayie,

oo ^a

eig

aicovag.

-

eowKag

*^iroToi'

tov

<Tol

t]

So^a

irovtmov 15 (jvva^ov

avTrjv

ovTO<s.'\

20 epxecrOw

Traioog

ovvaTog Kvpie,

iuiin'i(TO}]Ti,

3.

tov pva-aaSai toov

\_airo

t>V

eig

avT}]v airo

//

Tecrcrapwv /SacriXelap,

^h^^

ecTTiv

crov

\^OTi

alcovag.^

TOV otl

(toi,

Trarro?

TeAeiuxjai avTr]i' ev tij ayairi] crov Kai

kcxi

ay laa-Qeiarav avTi]'

h

airoXavcnv^

eig

aloovLov oiu

X^o)i]v

Tovg aicovag.^

efV

arov

Trjq €KK\t](Tia<;

[cto]

Tpo^^v

crov

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iravTow evyapLCTTOv/jiev

irpo

(TOV.

(tov

Se e-^apicro) TrvevfJiaTiKJjv

rj/uih'

iroTov Kai

Ka'pcVai';]

aOavacrlw;,

kcxi

7rai(]6<?

avOpcoiroig

toi'?

u'a croi eiiyapLcrT)}(Toci(TLv,

lo Tpo(pJ]P Kol

el'

raig

m', SearTToru iravTOKpuTotfy^^'*'^^^*'^^

2.

\J^TLaa<i faTraPTcTeveKei'

T€ Koi

rod

Sia ^Ii]crov

tj/mh'

Tovg

tov ayiov

virep [eu

KaT€crK}'ii'coar(xg

Kai virep ri}? yvwcr€co<? Kai Tr/o-reco?

eyviopicrag

5 J/?

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ov

o-ou,

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)

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ovk

ei

Tig

5.

Tolg Se

[a/x»Ji/.']

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jUieTavoeiTw.

cctti,

eiriTpeireTe euyjip-

ir po(pr]Taig

iCTTeiv [ocra deXovcriv^.

XI. '^O? av ovv eXOoov ^

Ta

^/i^

,

TrpoeipijjuLeva^,

juLtj

[SiScxpii ' "'

oet^acrOe

25 SiScxcTKCov (TTpacbelg']

KaTaXvcrai,

A

avToV

SiSolctktj

avTOv

viuL(7g

aXXiju

7>

eav

r

5i\

oe

to

•)

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SiSa-)(fjv

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o

[eh ro

irpocrVeivai

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0)9 Kvpiov]^.

twv cittog-toXcov Kai 7rpo(pt]Tm' kcxtu irag 0/; TO Soyiua TOV evayyeXiov ovtco iroii^craTe. 2.

[irep\

Se

30 a-n-oo-ToXog ep^piJ-evog irpog vfxug SexO^iTO) ^

Matt. xxi.

9.

m Kvpiog.

Apostoi. Constitut. vii.27,28,29.


54

(

Tp€i<i ^e

eav

/ulcii't],

6 airocTToXog

c^e

)

Xa/m/BaveTco

ov avXicrOiJ' eav Se apyvpiov

ovoe

ov ireipdcreTe

Se 6 XaXcov ev

6

Kal

Se

irug

TrvevjULaTi

yap

Trvev/uan

uvTt]<f'

ei

7rpo(p}]T)]<;

airo ovv tuov Tpoircov

6

kul

'7rpo(pr]T*jg.

TpaireXav ev

Se /uajye, SiSclctkcov

aXrjQeiav

Trjv

TTOiei.

uxravTwg

7rpo<prJTai. t]

H"?

5-

^

5

v/ulcov juLeTu.

yap

Oeov

eiroitjcrav Kai 01 apy^aloL

.Ao? /uloi 6. ''0(s S' av e'lTrijev TrvevjUiaTr erepa Tiva^, ovk aKovcrecrOe av~ov- eav Se 20

dWcov

Trepl

y^P

y

el

SiSd(TK(jov Se TTOieiv ocra

ov KpiO^creTai ed)'

e-^eL T)]v Kp'tcTLV

dpyvpia

jui]

^o

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7rpocbf]Tf]9 SeSoKi/uLaG-jULtvog

T)'ipiov KOQ- iJLLKOov €KK\}]criag,

ov

^

aXX'

ccttlv,

ir po<p)]Ti}<i

5

a/LLapTta

SiSdcTKeL ov iroiel, \lrevS07r pocptjTtjg ecrTi.

aVTog

eto?

d/ULapTia ovk cKpeO/jcreTai

7ra9 TrpocbijTf]^ opl^cov

ecTTi.

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ov (pdyerai air

a.

apTOV,

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Tracra

Tovg Tpoirovg Kvpiov.

e')(r)

yvcocrOi'icreTai

4.

aiT}],

oiaKpiveiTe'

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edv

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ei

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va-Tepovvrcov

eiirr]

Souvai,

avTOv

/>t>/oe}9

KpiveTwj. Apostr.i. vii. 28.

XII.

riu?

Se-)(04Toy rrvvecTLv

6

Se

eireiTa

ydp e^ere

irapoSio^;

ecTTiv

ep->i^6/uevo9

Se

6

f]

aiay Kt],

3.

ep-^ojuevog^

K/

Se

KaTa

(payerco'

T}]v (Tvverriv v/ulwv

* Peculiar to the Didache.

Svo

Ef

2.

avT(p

/BoijOeiTe ei ,u>/

Kvpiov~\

juev 25

ocrov

TpeiS ^aepa<^,

t]

OtXei ttdo? vjuag KaOiaai,

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31

s(j.

/ll7)

30


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vi. 2.

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7rpo(j)r]Twv Ka\ SiSaa-KoXwv.

Se aXX-i]Xov9 l^h ^^ opyP],

lULeTavoijcri],

yap

vjuliv

ovv v7r6piS}]T6 avTOvg avTol

vjULwv,

acpiXapyopovg Kai

irpaelg Ka\

Oelg Kai SeSoKijULa(TiuL€vov<}.

yap

Trla-Tewg v^oJv, eav

TeXeiMO)]Te.

ev

yap

Taig 30

7rXr]Qvv6i](JOVTaL ol ylrevSoTrpocpnrai


72

(

Koi

ayairrj (TTpa(p})cr€Tai.

t]

yap

vovart]9

Siu)Pou(Ti

r//?

Kcxi

repara, koi Trou'jo-ei

Tore T^9

>}^€i

ai/o/x/a?

ek

/micD'/arovcrii'

aXX^Xof?

Tore

Oeov,

koi

irou'iarei

vto^

yn TrapaSoOrjo-erai

tj

a.

KTL(TL<;

twv

koi

(pai/^arerai tol

avrov,

yelpa<i

avOpcoTTon'

e/9

irvpwcnv

rrji^

ttoXXol Kai

crKavoaXicrOrjaroi^TaL

avTou tou KaraOejULarog.

ar>]iuL€ia t>;9

aXfjOelag.

'/cxeracreo)? ev ovpavui. eiTa

KOI

TO TpLTOV am(TTacrig

15 eppeOty

t6t€

avTOv. eiravw

6

i]^ei

rcoi'

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avTtev

20

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Kai

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01

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top K.vpiou epyojixevov

vecbeXwv tov ovpavov.

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o

Kai

(Ttjfxeia

10 airoXovvrai, ol Se vTrojULELvapreg ev rr] iricTTeL (TwBi}(TOVTaL viro

Kai

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dimrjv.


TRANSLATION OF

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES AS GIVEN IN THE EDITION OF BRYENNIUS


;;

75

(

)

THE TEACHING OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES. I. There are two paths, one of life and one of death and the difference is great between the two paths.

Now the path God who made

of life is this

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

first,

thou shalt love the

thee, thy

neighbour as thyself, and all things that thou wouldest not should be done unto thee, do not thou unto another.^

maxims

is

Bless

as follows.

pray for your enemies.'-

And

the doctrine of these

them that curse

you, and

Fast on behalf of those that

what thank

persecute you

;

for

that love you

?

do not even the Gentiles do the same

is

there

if

ye love them 1

them that hate you, and ye will not Abstain from fleshly and worldly have an enemy. If any one give thee a blow on thy right cheek, lusts. ^ turn unto him the other also, and thou shalt be perfect if any one compel thee to go a mile, go with him two if a man take away thy cloak, give him thy coat also if a man take from thee what is thine, ask not for But do ye

love

;

it

again, for neither art thou able to do so.*

Give to

every one that asketh of thee, and ask not again, for the Father wishes that from his ^

Matt. XXV. 40.

'"

*

Luke Luke

vi. vi.

own 28.

gifts there should '

Matt.

29.

K

v. 29.


;

76

(

be given to

Blessed

all.

)

he who giveth according to

is

commandment, for he is free from guilt but woe For if a man receive being in unto him that receiveth.

the

;

but he who receiveth pay a penalty as to why he received and for what purpose ; and when he is in tribulation he shall be examined concerning the things that he has done, and shall not depart thence until he need, he shall be free from guilt

when not

;

in need, shall

For

has paid the last farthing. ^

of a truth

it

has been

on these matters, Let thy almsgiving abide in hands until thou knowest to whom thou hast given. said

II. is

th}'

But the second commandment of the teaching Thou shalt not kill thou shalt not commit

this.

;

adultery

commit

thou shalt not corrupt youth

;

fornication

;

thou shalt not

thou shalt not steal

;

;

thou shalt

not use soothsaying; thou shalt not practise sorcery; thou shalt not

thou slay of

it

kill

a child by abortion, neither shalt

when born

thy neighbour

;

;

thou shalt not covet the goods

thou shalt not commit perjury

shalt not bear false witness

;

;

thou shalt not speak

thou evil

thou shalt not bear malice

;

minded or double-tongued,

for to be double-tongued is

the snare of death.

thou shalt not be double-

Thy speech

shall not be false or

empty, but concerned with action.

Thou

shalt not be

covetous, or rapacious, or hypocritical, or malicious, or

proud

;

thou shalt not take up an

thy neighbour

;

evil

design against

thou shalt not hate any man, but some

thou shalt confute, concerning some thou shalt pray, and

some thou III.

My

shalt love beyond thine child, fly

from everything that

own

soul.

from everything that is ^

like to

it.

:Matt. V. 26.

Be not

is

evil,

and

wrathful, for


77

(

)

wrath leadeth unto slaughter or

tentious,

quarrelsome,

My

slaughter ensues.

up

lifter

adulteries. it

from

be not a

;

all

these

things

be not lustful, for lust

child,

leadeth unto fornication

a

be not jealous, or con-

;

for

filthy talker

;

be not

of the eye, for from all these things

My child,

come

be not an observer of omens, since

leadeth to idolatry, nor a user of spells, nor an astio-

loger,

nor a travelling

things, for child, be

from

not a

all liar,

purifier,

nor wish to see these

for lying leadeth unto theft; be

not covetous or conceited, for from arise.

"

My

child,

unto blasphemy

from

all

;

My

these things idolatry ariseth.

all

these things thefts

be not a murmurer, since

leadeth

it

be not self-willed or evil-minded, for

these things blasphemies are produced

;

but be

thou meek, for the meek shall inherit the earth ^ be thou long-suffering, and compassionate, and harmless, ;

and peaceable, and good, and fearing alway the words

Thou

that thou hast heard.

shalt not exalt thyself,

neither shalt thou put boldness into thy soul.

Thy

soul

be joined unto the lofty, but thou shalt walk with the just and humble. Accept the things that happen to thee as good, knowing that without God nothing shall not

happens.

lY. My child, thou shalt remember both night and day him that speaketh unto thee the Word of God; thou shalt honour him as thou dost the Lord, for where the teaching of the Lord is given, there is the Lord ; thou

by day the favour of the saints, that words ; thou shalt not desire thou mayest them that contend ; thou peace at shalt set but schism, shalt seek out day

rest in their

shalt

judge righteously 1

;

thou

Matt.

V. 5.

shalt

not accept the


;

78

(

)

person of any one to convict him of transgression

;

thou

Be

shalt not doubt whether a thing shall be or not.

not a stretcher out of thy hand to receive, and a drawer of

back in giving.

it

If

thou hast, give by means

of

Thou shalt not doubt to give, neither shalt thou murmur when giving!; for thou should est know who is the fair recompenser of the reward. Thou shalt not turn away from him that thy hands a redemption for thy

is

need,

in

sins.

but shalt share with

thy brother in

all

and shalt not say that things are thine own for if ye are partners in what is immortal, how much more in what is mortal ? Thou shalt not remove thine heart from thy son or from thy daughter, but from their things,

;

youth shalt teach them the fear of God. Thou shalt not command with bitterness thy servant or thy handmaid,

who hope

in the

same God as

God who

fear not in consequence the

he Cometh not to

whom

call

over both

they ;

for

with respect of persons, but those

And

the Spirit hath prepared.

submit yourselves to your masters being the type of God.

fear, as

thyself, lest is

hypocrisy and everything that

is

do ye servants

with reverence and

^

Thou

shalt hate all

not pleasing to God

thou shalt not abandon the commandments of the Lord, but shalt guard that which thou hast received, neither adding thereto nor taking therefrom

;

thou shalt confess

thy transgressions in the church, and shalt not come unto prayer with an of

evil conscience.

This

is

the path

life.

V. But the path of death evil

and

teries,

full of

is this.

First of

all, it

is

cursing; there are found murders, adul-

lusts, fornication, thefts, idolatries, soothsaying, ^

Colos.

iii.

22

;

Ephes.

vi. 5.


-

(

79

)

sorceries, robberies, false witnessings, hypocrisies,

mindedness,

double

craft, pride, malice, self-will, covetousness,

filthy talking,

jealousy, audacity, arrogance

they who persecute the good

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;lovers

of a

lie,

there are

;

not know-

ing the reward of righteousness, not cleaving to the good nor to righteous judgment, watching not for the good but for the bad, from whom meekness and patience are afar

off,

loving things that are vain, following after

recompense, having no compassion on the needy, nor labouring for him that is in trouble, not knowing him

made them, murderers of children, corrupters of who turn away from him that is in need, who oppress him that is in trouble, unjust judges of the poor, erring in all things. From all these, chilthat

the image of God,

may ye be delivered, VI. See that no one make thee to err from this path of doctrine, since he who doeth so teacheth thee apart from God. If thou art able to bear the whole yoke of dren,

the Lord, thou wilt be perfect

what thou

but

;

if

thou art not

able,

But concerning meat, bear But keep with care do.

art able, that do.

that which thou art able to from things sacrificed to idols, for

it

is

the worship of

the infernal deities.

VII. But concerning baptism, thus baptize ye first

recited all these precepts, baptize in the

:

having

name

of

the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in

running water tize in

;

but

if

thou hast not running water,

some other water, and

in cold, in

warm

water

;

but

if

if

l)ap-

thou canst not baptize

thou hast neither, pour

water three times on the head, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. before the baptism, let him

who

baptizeth and he

But

who


(

is

80

)

baptized fast previously, and any others

able.

fast

And

thou shalt

command him who

is

who may be baptized to

one or two days before.

them not be with tlie and fifth days of the week, but do ye fast on the fourth and sixth days. Neither pray ye as the hypocrites,^ but as the Lord hath commanded in his Gospel so pray ye Our Father Thy kingdom come. in heaven, hallowed be thy name. VIII. But as for your

fasts, let

hypocrites, for they fast on the second

:

Give us will be done as in heaven so on earth. day our daily bread. And forgive us our debt, as we also forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil for thine is the power, and the glory, for ever.^ Thrice a day pray

Thy this

:

ye in this fashion.

IX. But concerning the Eucharist, after this fashion We thank First, concerning the cup.

give ye thanks.

Father, for the holy vine, David thy Son,

thee, our

which thou hast made known unto us through Jesus Christ thy Son; to thee be the glory for ever.

concerning the broken bread.

We

thank

thee,

And our

and knowledge which thou hast made known unto us through Jesus thy Son; to thee As this broken bread was once be the glory for ever. scattered on the mountains, and after it had been brought together became one, so may thy Church be

Father,

for

the

life

gathered together from the ends of the earth unto thy

kingdom

;

for thine

is

Jesus Christ, for ever.

the glory, and the power, through

And

let

none eat or drink

of

your Eucharist but such as have been baptized into the name of the Lord, for of a truth the Lord hath '

Matt.

vi. 7, 9,

2

Luke

xi. 2.


81

(

said

concerning

this,

)

Give not that which

is

holy

unto dogs.^

X. But after it has been completed, so pray ye. We thank thee, holy Father, for thy holy name, which thou hast caused to dwell in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality which thou hast

known unto us through Jesus thy Son

;

made

to thee be the

Thou, Almighty Master, didst create things for the sake of thy name, and hast given both

glory for ever. all

meat and drink

men

for

to enjoy, that

we might

give

thanks unto thee, but to us thou hast given spiritual meat and drink, and life everlasting, through thy Son. Above all, we thank thee that thou art able to save; Remember, Lord, thy to thee be the glory for ever. Church, to redeem

it

from every

evil,

and

to perfect

it

together from the four winds,

and gather even that which has been sanctified for thy kingdom which thou hast prepared for it; for thine is the kingdom and the glory for ever. Let grace come, and

in thy love,

it

Hosanna to the Son of pass away. any one is holy, let him come (to the Maraif any one is not, let him repent. Eucharist) thanks, give to natha. Amen. But charge the prophets

let

this world

David. 2

If ;

so far as they are willing to do so.

XL all

shall come and teach you him do ye receive but if the

Whosoever, therefore,

these things aforesaid,

;

with a teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine if he but him; to not hearken you, subvert view to knowledge the and righteousness, your to add to come But concerning Lord. of the Lord, receive him as the to the according the apostles and prophets, thus do ye -'

1

Matt.

vii.

6.

^^^a". xxi. 9.


82

(

)

Let every apostle who cometh

doctrine of the C4ospel.

He will remain one unto you be received as the Lord. day, and if it be necessary, a second ; but if he remain three days, he

a false prophet.

is

And

when departing take nothing but bread at his resting-place

;

but

let

the apostle

until he arrive

he ask for money, he

if

is

a

And

ye shall not attempt or dispute with any prophet who speaketh in the spirit ; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven.^ false

prophet.

But not every one who speaketh prophet, but he

is

who hath

so

in the spirit

is

a

the disposition of the

Lord; by their disposition they therefore shall be known, the false prophet and the prophet. And every prophet

who

ordereth in the spirit that a table shall be

not eat of

laid, shall

it

himself, but

if

he do otherwise,

and every prophet who teacheth the truth, if he do not what he teacheth is a false prophet ; and every prophet who is approved and true, and he

is

a false prophet

;

ministering in the visible mystery of the Church, but

who teacheth not

others to do the things that he doth

himself, shall not be judged of you, for with

God

lieth

judgment, for in this manner also did the ancient But whoever shall say in the spirit. Give me prophets.

his

money, or things

of that kind, listen not to

him

;

but

you concernin.i; others that are in need that ye should give unto them, let no one judge him.

if

he

tell

XII. Let every one that cometh in the name of the Lord be received, but afterwards ye shall examine him and know his character, for ye have knowledge both of good and assist

evil.

him

If the person

who cometh be

so far as ye are able 1

Matt.

xii.

;

a wayfarer,

but he will not remain

;i.


;

s:^

(

)

with you more than two or three days, unless there be a necessity.! But if lie wish to settle with you, being a craftsman, let him work, and so eat but if he know not any craft, provide ye according to your own dis;

may

cretion, that a Christian

but

From such keep

Christ.

so,

he

is

is

a traj3icker in

aloof.

XIII. But every true prophet who

among you

among you

not live idle

he be not willing to do

if

is

willing to dwell

worthy of his meat, likewise a true teacher himself worthy of his meat, even as is a labourer.

Thou

is

shalt, therefore,

take the first-fruits of every pro-

duce of the wine-press and threshing-floor, of oxen and sheep, and shalt give

your chief priests it

unto the poor.

to the prophets, for they are

it

but

;

if

ye have not a prophet, give

thou makest a

If

manner when thou openest a the first-fruits and give

it

feast,

take and give

commandment

the first-fruits according to the

jar of

;

wine or of

to the prophets

in like

oil,

take

take also the

;

money, of clothes, and of every possession, seem good unto thee, and give it according

first-fruits of

as

it

to the

shall

commandment.

XIV. But on

the Lord's day, after that ye have as-

sembled together, break bread and give thanks, having in addition confessed your sins, that your sacrifice

But companion

not any one

who hath a

may

be pure.

let

his

join with you, until they be reconciled,

that your sacrifice

which

is

may

not be polluted, for

spoken of by the Lord.

time offer unto

me

quarrel with

a pure sacrifice, for I

King, saith the Lord, and

my name

it

is

that

In every place and is

am

a great

wonderful among

the Gentiles.^

Ignatius, Epistle to

Romans,

c.

ix.

"

Mai.

L

i.

ii.


;

84

(

XV.

Elect,

therefore,

)

yourselves

for

deacons worthy of the Lord,

men who

bishops and

are

meek and

not covetous, and true and approved, for they perform

you the service

for

tlierefore,

despise

Do

and teachers.

of prophets

not,

them, for they are those who are

honoured among you, together with the prophets and Rebuke one another, not in wrath, but peaceably, as ye have commandment in the Gospel ; and, but teachers.

no one speak to any one who walketh disorderly let him be heard

let

with regard to his neighbour, neither

by you until he repent. almsgivings and y^ w

all

But your prayers and your

your deeds so do, as ye have com-

mandment in the Gospel of our Watch concerning your life

Lord.^ ;

let

not your lamps be

quenched or your loins be loosed,^ but be ye ready, for ye know not the hour at which our Lord cometh.'^ But be ye gathered together frequently, seeking what suitable for your souls shall profit last

time.

you For

;

for the

not, unless ye be in

is

whole time of your faith found perfect in the

the last days false prophets and

seducers shall be multiplied, and the sheep shall be

turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate

and because iniquity aboundeth they shall hate each other, and persecute each other, and deliver each other up and then shall the Deceiver of the world appear as the Son of God, and shall do signs and wonders, and ;

the shall

earth shall be delivered into his hands

;

and he

do unlawful things, such as have never happened

since the beginning of the world. tion of '

man come Matt.

Then

shall the crea-

to the fiery trial of proof, -

xvi. 15. ^

Matt. xxiv. 42.

Luke

and many

xii.

35.


85

(

shall be offended

and

)

but they who remain by the rock of offence itself.

shall perish

in their faith shall be saved

;

And then shall appear the signs of the truth ; first the sign of the appearance in heaven, then the sign of the sound of the trumpet ; and thirdly, the resurrection of the

Lord

deadâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; not

shall

of

all,

come and

but as

all

shall the world behold the

his

it

with

him

;

then

Lord cominij on the clouds

of heaven.^ ^

has been said, The

saints

Zech. xiv.

5.


87

(

)

NOTES Cap. I.— The introductory part in the recen.slon of Bryennius largely taken from the Gospels of St.

Matthew and

St.

is

From

Luke.

almost certain that the writer must have had the Sermon on the Mount in his possession, as the coincidences are too numerous to allow it to be supposed that they are based on traditional sayings. The Gospel of St. John does not seem to have been used, and St. Mark is only quoted once, in caj). cap.

to

i.

vi. it is

text of the

where

xii.,

tions

St.

Mark

xi.

text I have prefixed the

the

9

is

alluded

from the Old Testament.

names

There are a few quota-

to.

my own

commencement

reconstruction of the

of the

Epitome, as

it

gives

twelve Apostles, and assigns the maxims to their

of the

The substance

various authors. in the

In

two works

of the teaching is nearly the

as far as cap.

vi.

At

cap.

vii.

same

the Didache of

the recension of Bryennius diverges from the Epitome, and directions from the Clementine Liturgies for the administration of the Sacrament are added. The resemblance to the Clementine Liturgy in the 7th book of the Apostolic Constitutions cannot be disputed, the form for the administration of the Comnumioji being substantially the same, though with a few differences of expression employed.

Cap. Ill,

fi7]

ylvov

\f/evffTr)s.

—This passage

is

quoted by Clement of

319 ; he apparently supposed that ovros /cX^tttt/s VTrb ttjs from one of the canonical books Alexandria, Stromata,

i.

it

:

eiprjraL' iprjal

kKotttjv.

No

yap

tis, fxr]

ylvov xpevarris' b^r^yei yap to •<p€va^a irpbs rrjv

other quotations from the Didache have been found.

Cap. VI. Xarpeia yap eari dewv Corinthians,

came

ypa(f>rjs

ii.

3

:

yjfieis ol

veKpdbv.

iH^fTes toTs

— Cf.

St.

Clement

to the

veKpoh Beoh ov dvo/nep Kal 00

TTpoaKvvovfxev avToh.

Cap. VI, i.-vi.

of

— No book

the

of the

Old Testament

is

mentioned

in cap.

Didache, but a number of passages are evidently


88

(

alluded

The

to.

Proverbs

following seem to have been used

15-2S,

xii.

)

34; Tobit

iii.

iv.

15

;

:

Exodus

Habakkuk

xx. 13;

9 Psalm be traced Leviii,

;

3,4; and allusions to the following books may Deuteronomy, Isaiah, Zechariah, the Book of Wisdom (several With regard to the New Testatimes), and the Book of Baruch. ment, besides the quotations from St. Matthew and St. Luke, :

i.

ticus,

which form the basis of the doctrine of the

many

Way

of life, there are

allusions to the Epistles of St. Paul, particularly the P^pistles

to the

Romans and

James, and

St.

Galatians,

and the Epistles

Jude, so that there can be

of St. Peter, St.

reason to doubt

little

that the author or compiler had a complete copy of the canonical books of the New Testament in his hands, from which he drew the

substance of his teaching.

Cap. VII. vii. -X., it

any

of

is

— With regard

to the liturgical

necessary to remark that

it

fragment given

in cap.

does not harmonise with

the ancient liturgies, with the exception of that found in

the Clementine Constitutions.

The whole body

Western Liturgies may be divided the Gallic, that of Alexandria,

of the

into four classes

and that

of

Eastern and

— the

Roman, The

Jerusalem.

Clementine Liturgy, as found in the Apostolic Constitutions, dififers entirely from these four, and does not seem ever to have been used, the object for which

The form given

was composed being apparently unknown. Didache for the celebration of the Commu-

it

in the

series, and does not resemble in any way that contained in the four ancient liturgies ; and though it is not precisely the same as that found in the 7th book of the Apostolic Constitutions, it evidently belongs to the same recension. The form given for the administration of baptism does not seem

nion belongs to the Clementine

to correspond with

any form that was ever actually employed The expression, "having first recited

the Primitive Church. these things"

i.e.,

all

the preceding part of the

in all

Didache— cannot

be allowed to represent correctly the primitive form of baptism,

which was entirely

different,

nothing resembling the commence-

The oldest form, Didache having been employed. after that used in the New Te.stament, is found in Tertullian and Cyprian.' According to Tertullian, the person to be baptized

ment

of the

1 Tertullian, Dc Corona, ni. Cyprian, Kpist., xlix. 6; Ixx.

;

i,

Adver. Prix., xxvi.; De Baptismo, 2.

vii., viii.

'


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

89

(

)

renounced publicly the Devil, his pomp and his angels, and was then dipped three times into water in the names of the three Persons of the Trinity

and according

;

to Cyprian, at a period a

a formal confession of faith was made: "Dost thou

little later,

believe in eternal

life

and the remission

mentine form for the administration

of sins

baptism

of

?

" &c. is

The

Cle-

given at cap.

xxxix.-xlv, of the 7th book of the Apostolic Constitutions,

and

does not resemble that given in the Didache, being a service of

some length, containing a confession of faith and directions for the details of the baptism, which included the anointing with oil, and

and water employed. Didache differs from the Clementine Constitutions does not seem to be known, the editor for some' cause declining to give the Clementine form, which is followed in the form for the administration of the Communion.

instructions for the consecration of the oil

The reason why the form given

The form given

in the

in cap. ix. for the administration of the Eucharist

agrees on the whole with that found in the Apostolic Constitutions, vii.

25, 26,

though there are a few differences

in the expressions

employed, and in the Apostolic Constitutions no form

is

given for

Neither form resembles that found in

the consecration of the cup.

the ancient liturgies, where the service is of much greater length. The expression " Holy vine of David " does not occur in any of the

and together with the

earlier liturgies,

"This broken

sentence,

bread scattered upon the mountains," seems to point to Palestine as the source of the passage, of the ancient

which may probably be a fragment Cffisarea. Cf. Clement of

Liturgy of Antioch or

Alexandria, Quis. Div. Salv. 29,

Aa^i5 ex^a^

TrjS dfjLireXov ttjs

Tjfxwi'

952

p.

:

ovtos 6 tov clvov to al[xa

ewl rds TeTpUfxeua^ ^I'Xds.

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Cap. VIII. The version of the Lord's Prayer given in the Didache agrees on the whole with that in the Apostolic Constitutions,

with the following variations

Didache Kal

7]

do^a

:

np

ovpavt^

els roi/s

eirl

;

ecTTLu

tj

;

:

ttjv ocpeiXrjv

;

6tl aov iariv

i)

dvvafiLs

alQuas.

Apostolic Constitutions 6'rt (TOV

7^5

^acriXeia

The occurrence

toTs ovpavois

:

els

tovs alQivas

of the

Didache, and also in that

;

eirl rrjs jtjs

;

ra ocpeCK-qixara

;

d/uLTjv.

Doxology in the version given by the of

the Apostolic Constitutions, which,

though not precisely the same as that found

in St.

Matthew,

is


r

BW245 .A3 1894 The Didache; or, Teaching of the twelve

p.

Princeton Theological Semmary-Speer Library

1012 00059 0184

1

90

( in

)

both instances substantially the same, proves conchisively that

must have been part of the original prayer as recorded by St. :Matthe\v, and not an addition, as some critics hold, from the Greek if

The following are the variations in St. Matthew Luke from the version of the Didache Matthew vi. 9 tois ovpavols ; eirl ttjs yrjs to, o^eiXTj/xara. Luke xi. 2 to'cs ovpavo?s iwl rijs yrji rds afxaprias. 56$a Matthew 6Vt aov iariv ij ^acCKda /cat rj dvuafxis Kat

service books.

and

St,

St. St.

St. eis

:

:

;

;

r?

:

TOvs alwvas. St.

;

:

Luke

Cap.

dfJ.r]v.

the Doxology

:

XI.— The

apostle.^ are

is

omitted.

directions given for the reception of prophets

and

not precisely parallel to the directions in the Apostolic

Constitutions,

though there

and

is

Constitutions.

in

to the Didache,

some respects are peculiar

a general resemblance to cap. xxviii. of the Apostolic

As

to the substance of them, they

do not justify the

statement in the text that they are Kara to doyfia rod evayyeXiov (according to the precept of the Gospel), as nothing resembling

They is found in the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke. do not, further, harmonise with the passages relating to Church offices in Clemens Romanus and Hermas and the other early authorities, who make no mention of the order. of prophets and them

apostles as

still

existing, so that

it

seems best to regard them as

the composition of the compiler of the Didache, to

who

inserted

them

convey the impression that the work was written in the time

of

the apostles themselves.

Cap. XIII.

— The passage about the maintenance

of the ministers

Church is parallel to cap. xxix. of the Apostolic Constitutions, and from cap. xiv. of the Didache to the conclusion the two works are substantially the same, as will be seen by comparing them with cap. xxx.-xxxii. of Book vii. of the Apostolic Constiof the

tutions.

I'rintcd

liy

Bai.i.antvnr,

Hanson & Co.

Edinburgh and London

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