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Olympic Games Prsident Fernando Lugo


Tomatina- Spain

Advertising Photography

Gustavo Piedra Johnny Calvo Dayhan Marin Hugo Rivas

English IV


International: Advertising Photography




Global Warming


Dental Problems


Spain Traditions Tomatina Fight


President Fernando Lugo

National: Judycial System in C.R.

Special: Olympic Games


15/16 11

17/18 20/21

Our Magazine arguments and comments: ur magazine’s name its about strong, accesful and profesional, actual, and relevant articles for the comunnity, this articles represent information for many targets, our logo its the image of glorious power many people can be represent for that because the equality and the tone of magazine are create for connections with people. Our magazine talk about addictions, advertising photography, dental problems, global warming, law problems, President Fernando Lugo, and other interesting topics. By Johnny Calvo The aim of this magazine is that people take advantage of the information that we are given to them in each section. It is very important to know about different topics, we are living in an age that we must be informed and updated. All the writings were self-produced for each student who joined the group of the magazine; I think every contribution is valuable to be read, so the people would know the different points of view. By Gustavo Piedra About the magazine These items are important because they contain information varied. Since you can know about addiction in adolescents, as well as the traditions of Spain or even know of the laws and national regulations. Lastly, we mention about the Olympics that just ended. In conclusion all the tests turn out to be current topics, interesting and knowledge to share. By Dayhan Marín

Advertising photography

by Johnny Calvo

We are convinced that most of us like to take pictures, when we see something interesting or beautiful we instantly want to catch the moment with our cell phone or camera. As a result, some people are buying expensive cameras because they believe that have a good camera mean we are good photographers. There are some rules or tips to follow to create good photos. In our opinion, one of the most important is to identify the point of interest, in other words, it should be evident to anyone what the picture is about. In addition to that, we can put the eyes of the viewers where we want using the lines; for example, the horizon line in a sunset.


Those two rules are important; however there is one rule that stands out from the others, the rule of thirds. This rule is the most commonly used in photography; if you divide a square in three parts both length and high, the four intersections created inside the square show the points of interest. Now, if we add the correct use of the depth of field, with a simple background or front, the picture will be better. Despite these tips, most of the pictures we have seen in advertising were edited, mostly in Photoshop. This tool is used to trim pictures and change the color temperature. That is why in advertising photography this software should be to correct not to change everything from reality. In conclusion, there should be a balance between the levels of manipulation of pictures for advertising, because the main purpose of the images in advertising photography is to portray not to deceive.



Addictions I will to talk about what an addiction is, what is means to be an addict and other things related to this. According to what we discussed in the fieldtrip, an addiction is something that a person makes every day and in an almost unconscious way to satisfy a need. In this moment in which we live, there are many addictions to various things like the internet, cell phones, video games, shopping and work. I think that this is the result of the modern life that we are living right now, because it goes too fast, and this is going with a stressful felling.

by Gustavo Piedra

I try to handle this feeling with exercise; I think is the best way to do it. A recreational activity is an activity that helps to release any type of addiction o stress, doing exercises, playing an instrument, going to the beach, practicing any kind of sport or any other outdoor activity. Doing all that kind of activities, the people can live with harmony in life, and that is a very important part for all of us. Living a life without addictions, but chasing a balance with everything. 3

Addiction’s World Nowadays, we live in a crazy world, we are humans The routine causes stress but what is stress? I think

who have too many things to do every day: go to work, school, restaurants, buy clothes, and soon. I think that an addiction is an action you become dependent of and that you do not have the control of that. Addiction dominates you, and you lose control over your life. For me, addiction is a door that once is opened it becomes an obstacle, don’t permitted in our lives because for your dreams and goals.

is a disease and it causes pressure. Stress is a symptom produced by too much work, of anything that cause pressure is too hard to handle it because people think it is normal to feel stress, I have too much work and responsibilities, I support them, and commit a mistake because stress in excessive level causes many diseases. When you are boring you need to distract do fun activities, read a book, exercise, swimming, running, recreational activities contribute to life are We can make different things every day, but beautiful when you enjoy all that you do, we must unfortunately we always choose always to make learn that each day is a unique opportunity to do the same every day, and think: “The same thing, one thing that you have never done. different day”, life is too short to do always the Peace is similar to harmony, it is about a neutral same but we are humans and do not know the balance in a body between emotional and physical price of take time of make all that I like and health. love. Addictions are more common than what Overcoming an addiction is a difficult process for you think. a person who has lived with addiction all his or More common addictions about I think at the her life, but is not impossible; humans are strong society are: in many circumstances. According to Lincoln, A. • Internet (1865) "Determine that the thing can and shall be • Facebook (Social Networks) done, and then we shall find the way", it is a beauti• Cell phones ful quote because impulse the effort of humans and • Videogames we can change anything, only need conviction. Ex• Sex (porn) perts around the world recommend accepting that • Drugs you need help and admitting there is a problem for • Shopping you, all problems have a solution. • Work Addictions are common in a society, but is more • Food common ignore that, I learn about it, only humans • Bet money ( gambling) need learn about life, we live in a world where People sometimes take time to make positive people are customary too many things and don’t things for the society but most of the time they change for fear to make different to other people only think of themselves. People detect an and you broke this obstacle, you live in a same addiction when the person loses control over world and don’t have extraordinary things because situation. you are a ordinary person. By Johnny Calvo


A d d i c t i o n s

by Hugo Rivas In Costa Rica, there is the Institute on Alcoholism

and Drug Dependence which is an agency under the Ministry of Health.  Its official website indicates that the IAFA (for its initials in Spanish) has among its responsibilities, “the study, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation for alcohol addiction , tobacco and other licit or illicit drugs, and the coordination and approval of all public and private programs aimed at those same purposes, in accordance with said Act. .(Official web IAFA). Of course society has evolved and addictions as well. Grajeda, B. (1995) mentioned the following: Criminal law deals with prohibited conduct and types of crimes that must be punished, and the corresponding penalties.  In our case, we shall consider the prohibited substances and prevention. Now I wish to present to you, in short, a criminological approach, which is bio-psycho-social, and therefore broader than the criminal law approach or that of an exclusively medical nature.  That is to say, that, a person does not need to enter the areas of criminal law to be classified as addicted to gambling, or to a substance, whether it is lawful or unlawful, but it is sufficient the fact that the questioned conduct is detrimental to the individual and that conduct goes beyond socially sane limits.  In Wikipedia we find the definition of a practice commonly called addiction, but in the DSM IV.R (The DSMV is the book that contains all diseases defined by the APA)I think that is not necessarily so, by that I mean: Problem-gambling is an irresistible impulse to play casino games despite being aware of its consequences


even while having a desire to stop. It is considered a disorder of impulse control, and therefore the American Psychological Association does not regard it as an adicción.1 Pathological gambling is classified in DSM-IV-R as disorders of impulse control, which also include kleptomania , pyromania and trichotillomania, which would be involved in impulsivity but lacking co-morbidity with these disorders.

In our era, it is common to see how people spend too much time with certain electronic devices, those reviewing the DSM IV-R, could conclude that persons obsessed with the internet or Facebook is addicted. (As defined by the DSM) Montagud (2001), offers the following perspective: After careful consideration of the question, investigations find that there are commonalities among pathological gambling, alcoholism and other drug dependence. Among others we note the following: the existence of certain common personality traits among different addictive behaviors, the loss of control over an activity that in principle is play-oriented or socially entwined, the progressive deterioration in employment and family relationships bears psychological similarity to reactions demonstrated following consumption of substances.  Also, after the gaming episodes, there is seen rejection or underestimation of the existence of the problem, which poses a major obstacle to its recognition and subsequent solution.  There is also a so-called co-addiction phenomena, i.e. joint appearance in the same individuals (and this frequently repeated) of toxic addictions and pathological gambling, overlapping social worlds between heavy drinkers and gamblers, and the value of group therapy programs. Of course unreasonable blocks of time dedicated to a single activity, can produce stress. Hans Selye, states: stress is a nonspecific response of the organism to any activity that people perform. It is desirable to avoid negative stress the following measures are beneficial: sufficient water both inside and outside the body, adequate rest, regular exercise, sunlight in the early hours of the morning, healthy nutrition, balanced use of that which is good and abstinence from that which may prejudice the mind and body.  In addition to the above a good dose of hope is important. Many years ago I heard it said that: “the better we feel about ourselves, the less need we will have to make others feel bad.” Feeling good about ourselves produces harmony with others.



by Dayhan Marin

Young people are exposed to serious social problems, including addictions. These can be in many ways such as: drugs, sex, music, sleeping, video games, facebook, internet, chocolate, and coffee, among many others. The problem causing these addictions, mainly, is the behavioral changes that occur in people. They fail to realize their common activities and spend time in your addiction. It is considered that the most serious drug addictions is because health deteriorates and the body very quickly. This does not mean that other addictions are good, but are less harmful. It is very important to monitor the behavior of people, especially young people.


Global Warming by Gustavo Piedra

The issue that i will develop, is very important for everyone because drastic changes are currently happening in our planet, some of them are common but in a couple of years maybe are going to be more destructive and without any way to avoid them. Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of earth´s atmosphere and oceans. It has been occurring since late 19th century. There are some initial causes of this temperature change that i want to mention. The first one is the greenhouse effect, as Joseph Fournier in 1824 said: “This is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet´s lower atmosphere and furface”. This includes different tyoes of gases including CO2,Methane,CFC´s and nitrous oxide. Another fact is the variation of the solar light, this has affected the climate right now. Recently, we see how the vegetation has been modified, several animals or some species have become extinct and the ice have been melting. The world leaders have suggested some answers or responses to this, three of the most important answers are mitigation, adaptation and innovation in engineering. They talk about the ability to make the process of climate and more slower and adapt to this changing, also change the economic and social structure in many societies. The consecuences that we are living right now are problematic for all of us, we experience floods, forest fires, loss of rain forests and the disappearance of ice. We need to be aware of these changes and do something to change our bad habits, because in the future this effect will be irreversible.


Tomatina Spain

The Tomatina Tomato Fight is the world’s biggest food fight. It takes place on the fourth Wednesday of August in the village of Buñol, near Valencia. The “battle” takes place during a week-long celebration filled with on-going festivities and with even greater anticipation for the monstrous tomato battle that serves as the culmination of the week’s events. During the forties, in Buñol’s main town square, a number of friends started a tomato fight for unknown reasons. It’s unclear whether the initial volley was aimed at city officials or simply pedestrians unlucky enough to be in the line of fire. They had so much fun, in fact, that from that day forward, the party has been celebrated annually and has grown ever bigger each year. The people usually do for fun and tradition, but so do many occasions to get rid of all the stress they have had during the year, for this fight is recomended that you should not wear jewelry, hats, sunglasses, keys, cell phones because whatever that should bring or be prepared to lose! And especially the use should be clothing very comfortable clothing and light colors to point out the tomato color, we


recommend white shirts. La Tomatina started with a good laugh and whatever the reason for the Buñol’s annual food fight, each fourth Wednesday in August, the Tomatina Tomato Fight now attracts people from all over Spain and the rest of the world. The throw buckets of water at the crowd from the trucks, as an omen of rain tomato is going to come. In this party tomatoes are the protagonist, this fight start in a lot of water that shower people to prepare to the tomatino war. This fight do not have political or religious significance, it is just for fun. For people it is recommend wearing comfortable clothes and white to be distinguished during the struggle and wear clothes to throw away. Around the world visit this place to enjoy this fight, there are about 20,000 participants from around the world. The number of tomatoes used: about 150,000, people knows Buñol in a fun way, after the battle, you can wash the remains into the river, where the city installed public showers.

Each year, the fight is relayed by the most prestigious channels in Spain, this country offer too much for visitors, why not enjoy this; it is a big opportunity to relax and release stress. Buñol and Tthe Tomatina are the next vacation destination.


Spain Traditions

by Dayhan Marin

In the old Continent Spain is one of the most emblematic places, because of the many different traditions. The city of Pamplona enhances the Traditional bull race during the month of July. During these days, people usually crowds over the streets, drink wine, sing songs, and the most striking element is the traditional bulls running though the streets of. There are other important celebrations as the Holy Week Traditions or “Semana Santa�. Holy Week is the week immediately before Easter. In this time the people may see most celebrations in the religion of Andalusia, in Sevilla and Malaga. The history of The Running of the Bulls is not totally clear. It started when bullfighting became a popular pastime, and many bullrings were built. The only way to get the bulls from the corral to the bullring was by running them through the streets to the ring.


Dental caries and restorations Tooth decay causes small or large cavities depending on the size of the cavities, in teeth. In tooth decay starts in the enamel witch is the first layer of the tooth, then it continues to the dentin these two layers protect the living tissue. If the cavities are left for a long time the infection expands to the nerve after the dentin, if this nerve gets infected the tooth dies, and the treatment are more complex and expensive, you should also know that cavities does not occur alone, it is normally due to the carelessness of oral hygiene on people because tooth decay is caused by four factors: time (when they brush their teeth in a while) bacteria, host( which are the teeth) and diet (having a poor diet, eating sweets, carbohydrantes). Sometimes cavities are given by bad brushing teeth, should be washed because vertically not horizontally. Besides it is important to implement the use of dental floss mouthwash or other fixtures that complement hygiene. Tooth decay can cause much damage because the teeth were demineralized. It can cause tooth sensitiy in the worst case and tooth extraction. When there are cavities the dentist must perform a dental filling, this process has several steps that must be followed to produce positive result. The idea of a restoration is to remove the damage tissue from the tooth and with the completion of the cavity, we prepare the tooth to receive the restorative material.

Steps to follow when you make a resin restoration: •Remove the cavity from the tooth. • When the cavity is ready, allow the smooth floors so as not to decay again. •Acid is placed, this so that the resin sticks, after 20 seconds were removed with water •Placing a material called adhesive this serves to make the resin sticking to the tooth and not fall • Place the resin in thin layers so there are not spaces where bacteria can get. •Each layer of resin that is paced need polymerized with a particular lamp wich is the curing. • When you finish placing the layers should be given to the tooth shape. • And polish to make it birther and have a nice esthetic.


Fernando Lugo

During recent days, the South American country of Paraguay has been the center of attention among the principal news services of the world. Effectively, Paraguay has been in the news because of the destitution of its constitutionally elected president.  The ouster of Fernando Lugo cut short his five-year term of office which began in 2008 and should have continued until 2013. It is important to remember that a president counts on a political platform and a political party which promotes and backs him,  In the case of President Lugo, he lost the support of his party and that loss is what led to his being impeached. According to Paraguayan Radio RPP International the following are some of the reasons why the Upper Chamber of Paraguay’s congress decided to depose President Fernando Lugo: 1. Among the arguments, according to Radio Cooperativa, is the political act carried out by a leftist group under orders from Lugo in the Engineers Brigade of the armed forces; this situation caused serious debate in Paraguay.   2. Another suggested motive results from a denunciation presented by the prosecutor, Jorge Avalos, who accuses Lugo of subjugating the military to the “whims of the peon land take-over movement”.  “It was disgusting to see how officials wearing the glorious uniform of the armed forces were made to take orders from the rabble as though our military officials were simply their soldiers”, he commented. 3. A third argument presented by the Upper Chamber asserts that there has been a wave of insecurity in the country. “Lugo did not have the intelligence or the capability to halt the wave of lawlessness”, claimed Deputy Carlos Liseras. The deputy recalled the death of 17 persons during the clash between police and peons at the Curuguaty ranch. 4. The fourth argument was Lugo’s endorsement of the Ushuaia II protocol in December, 2011, which established the possibility of foreign intervention if democracy was in jeopardy.   5. Deputy Justo Cárdenas accused the Paraguayan president of being the instigator responsible for bad management of the resources of the State and for environmental faults.   


In various electronic sites diverse and opposing opinions appear with regards to the removal of the president. Some commentators consider the removal of Lugo to be correct; nevertheless the Unasur nations— Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, and Venezuela—oppose the decision taken by the Upper Chamber of the Paraguayan congress.  They insist that due process was not followed, in other words, they complain that President Fernando Lugo was not given enough time to present his defense against the accusations. Lugo’s defense “questions the impeachment process conducted by the Senate claimed to be based on internal rules without consideration for the provisions found in the civil code, which establishes that there must be allowed sufficient time to prepare the defense.  Customarily in ordinary justice cases a period of 18 days is allowed for that purpose. It seems to me worth mentioning, in closing, that no matter what the post is that one holds, the people, through their elected representatives, will call into account the acts committed by leadership.


Judicial System in Costa Rica In addition, the Judicial System makes available to the Costa Rican family its entire organizational structure to meet the constitutional provisions protecting family interests and especially the interests of minors. When there are issues threatening to end in divorce  whether  the result of cruelty, adultery, or separation, just as in cases which require Judicial Child Support, our legal system provides the opportunity for people to find solutions to their conflicts. The parties can with confidence air their differences before the relevant authorities, i.e. before Family Courts, which are specialized bodies empowered to enable the parties to have their arguments heard. Either the plaintiff or the injured party, the defendant or offender, can submit to the judicial authorities their disputes for a hearing of the relevant evidence: this consists of testimonial proof in the form of documental evidence, witness testimony, opinions by experts, and any other proof which enables the parties to defend their positions.  They may be assured that the Court shall act with objectivity and impartiality stating its resolutions with clarity and precision. By Hugo Rivas


In addition, the Judicial System makes available to the Costa Rican family its entire organizational structure to meet the constitutional provisions protecting family interests and especially the interests of minors. When there are issues threatening to end in divorce  whether  the result of cruelty, adultery, or separation, just as in cases which require Judicial Child Support, our legal system provides the opportunity for people to find solutions to their conflicts. The parties can with confidence air their differences before the relevant authorities, i.e. before Family Courts, which are specialized bodies empowered to enable the parties to have their arguments heard. The plaintiff or the injured party, the defendant or offender, can submit to the judicial authorities their disputes for a hearing of the relevant evidence: this consists of testimonial proof in the form of documental evidence, witness testimony, opinions by experts, and any other proof which enables the parties to defend their positions.  They may be assured that the Court shall act with objectivity and impartiality stating its resolutions with clarity and precision. By Dayhan Marin


Olympic Games Costa Rica participated in the 2012 London Olympics, with a delegation of eleven athletes who competed in six sports. The XXX Olympic Games was a sporting event that took place from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in the city of London, UK. The sporting event took place which covered 26 Olympic sports 39. This was the first time took place in the women’s boxing, also in cycling track the number of competitions for each gender was five, unlike Beijing where there were five men and three women; and added in tennis mixed doubles competition. The Ancient Olympic Games were a religious and athletic festival held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. The origin of these Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend, one of the most popular myths

UK 2012


identifies Heracles and his father Zeus as the progenitors or creators of the games. According to this legend, it was Heracles who first called the games “Olympic” and established the custom of holding them every four years. In 1896 were the first Olympic Games, in Athens. These games brought together 14 nations and 241athletes who competed in 43 events. Today they are finalizing the 2012 London Olympics. 204 countries have participated from around the world, from all continents. However, there are three countries that have excelled in the medals. United States of America, People’s Republic of China, Great Britain. The London 2012 Olympic Games Closing Ceremony started at 9pm on 12 August 2012 and celebrated the amazing sporting feats of the athletes who have taken part in the Games with the ultimate aftershow party.

The Ceremony featured more than 4,100 performers, including 3,500 adult volunteers and 380 schoolchildren from the six east London Host Boroughs, and showcased the great creative talent of the UK in a fun, colourful and festive atmosphere.


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