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Assessing risk  and  adapta.on  needs     for  climate  and  water  resources   protec.on  in  rural  Andean   communi.es   Laura  Read     PhD  Candidate,     Climber  Scien.st       July  13,  2013   Huaraz,  Peru  


Mo.va.on to  be  a  Climber  Scien.st   Observa-ons   1.  Common  regional  water  problems  in  rural  communi.es   2.  Lack  of  technical  knowledge  and  resources   3.  Lack  of  local  data  collec.on  to  “prove  climate  change”  

Scope of  Work   1.  Work  within  a  group  of  communi.es  to  access  funding   2.  Hold  workshops  and  explore  par.cipatory  monitoring   3.  Test  feasibility  of  a  mobile  data  collec.on  system  


Scope of  work:  two  projects   Project  1:  PorMolio  of  community  water  problems  in  the   Tres  Cuencas  Commonwealth   •  Ac.vi.es:  Diagnos.cs  of  quan.ty  and  quality  issues   •  Goal  1:  Iden.fy  common  themes  to  access  regional  funds   •  Goal  2:  Pilot  community  scale  data  collec.on  

Project 2:  Building  capacity  to  address  conflict  in  Paron   •  Ac.vi.es:  workshops  for  community  percep.ons  of  water  problems   and  risk;  pilo.ng  data  collec.on     •  Goal  1:  Develop  a  watershed-­‐scale  water  management  plan   •  Goal  2:  Organize  the  community  to  prepare  for  risk  


Project 1:  PorMolio  of  water  issues   Mo-va-on  –  Why  do  this?   •  Exposure  to  regional  and   interna.onal  funds   •  Understand  how  water   systems  are  changing  at  a   regional  level     •  Scale  projects  between   communi.es  with  similar   issues  


Tres Cuencas  Commonwealth   •  Collec.ve  organiza.on  of   19  rural  communi.es  and  8   municipali.es  in  three   watersheds:  Santa,   Pa.vilca,  and  Fortaleza   rivers   •  Formed  a  na.onal  en.ty   solely  to  address  impacts  of   climate  change  on  water   and  land   •  Lack  technical  knowledge  to   receive  government   funding  for  adapta.on   projects  


Project 1:  PorMolio  of  water  issues   Process  –  How  we  do  this   •  Meet  with  campesina   community  members  and   listen  to  their  concerns   •  Measure  water  quan.ty   and  quality  in  irriga.on   canals,  reservoirs,  springs   •  Gauge  interest  in  self-­‐ monitoring  within  the   campesina  infrastructure  


Pilot example:  Canrey  Chico   Concern  

1

2

Ac-on

Water supply  for  irriga.on  

Measuring flow  in  canals  

Drinking water  during  dry  season   for  the  popula.on  

Explore quality  and  quan.ty  in   spring  sources;  map  sources  

Water quality  for  animals  

Measuring quality  in  canals  

Loca-on Canrey  A   Canrey  B   Canrey  C  

pH 7   7.2   7.2  

Phosphate (ppm)   30   35   25  

Nitrate Nitrite   1   0   N/A   N/A   N/A   N/A  

Alkalinity (ppm)   40   35   25  

Flow (L/s)   0.672   N/A   8.7  


Preliminary outcomes   •  Lack  of  informa.on  is  a  common  theme   –  Communi.es  have  a  general  idea  of  their   problems  and  what  projects  they  want,  but  lack  of   data  obstructs  progress  

•  Water for  irriga.on  is  the  major  concern  in  5   of  6  communi.es  sampled   –  Storage  and  changes  in  rainfall  dura.on   –  Human  and  animal  health  (drinking  water)  are   also  cited  


Future work:  Mobile  technology  to   collect  informa.on   •  Communi.es  with  high  levels  of  interest  and   organiza.on  afer  diagnos.c  visits  will  be   chosen  to  pilot  mobile  database  collec.on   project   •  Goal:  community  members  collect  data   regularly  and  send  it  to  the  database  via  1)   text  message;  2)  hand-­‐wrigen  data  logs   (where  cell  service  is  unavailable)  


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What data  does  the   community  want  to   collect?  

2

Install basic   instruments  for   collec.on  

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4

Send a  text  message   with  the  data  and  an   associated  code   Data  is  stored  on  the   internet  and   accesible  to  the   municipality,  NGOs,   and  other   organiza.ons  


Scope of  work:  two  projects   Project  1:  PorMolio  of  community  water  problems  in  the   Tres  Cuencas  Commonwealth   •  Ac.vi.es:  Diagnos.cs  of  quan.ty  and  quality  issues   •  Goal  1:  Iden.fy  common  themes  to  access  regional  funds   •  Goal  2:  Pilot  community  scale  data  collec.on  

Project 2:  Building  capacity  to  address  conflict  in  Paron   •  Ac.vi.es:  workshops  for  community  percep.ons  of  water  problems   and  risk;  pilo.ng  data  collec.on     •  Goal  1:  Develop  a  watershed-­‐scale  water  management  system   •  Goal  2:  Organize  the  community  to  prepare  for  risk  


Project 2:  Capacity  and  conflict  in  Paron   (Cruz  del  Mayo  Community)   Mo-va-on  –  Why  do  this?   •  Ongoing  conflict  could   escalate  as  resource   availability  changes   •  Community  wants  to  be   organized  to  face  challenges   (water,  conflict,  risk)   •  Water  demands  are   increasing,  usage  is  not   “efficient”  


Project 2:  Capacity  and  conflict  in  Paron   Process  –  How  we  do  this   •  Held  two  diagnos.c   workshops  for  1)  water;           2)  risk  percep.on   •  Follow  up  field  workshop  on   data  collec.on   •  Introduce  community  to   exis.ng  hazards  and  Peru   laws/rights  for  risk   protec.on  


Preliminary outcomes:  water   •  Community  wants  to   develop  a  management   plan  for  all  15  canals   •  Interested  in  collec.ng   climate  and  water  data   •  Our  group  ain  gauge,   temperature  gauge,   flow  meters  expected   to  be  installed    

What is  the  major  problem  in  the   %  of   community  with  respect  to  water?   total   Shortage   48.8   Cost   3.03   Realloca.on  of  water   21.21   Conflict   27.27   What  are  the  failures  of  the   community,    and  of  you  and  your   families,  to  resolve  these   problems?   No  agendance  at  the  mee.ngs   Disorganiza.on   Failure  of  the  dirigentes   Failure  of  all  par.es   Lack  of  aJachment     Lack  of  capacity  

% of   total   13.9   11.4   15.2   11.4   24.1   24.1  

From a  survey  of  45  workshop  a=endees  


Preliminary outcomes:  risk   •  Risks  iden.fied  as:   avalanche,  floods,   plagues  on  crops,   animal  sickness   •  Vulnerabili.es  as:  lack   of  capacity,   organiza.on   •  Community  and  mayor   formed  a  civil  defense   commigee  to  address   physical  risks  


Con.nuing work  in  Paron   •  Watershed  op.miza.on  model:  managing   demands  

•  Pilo.ng mobile  data  collec.on  in  Cruz  del  Mayo  


Final Thoughts   •  Communi.es  have  a  sense  of  the  problems   but  lack  technical  data  to  support  claims   •  Interest  in  measuring  data  comes  from   wan.ng  to  adapt  (needing  to)   •  Irriga.on  supply  and  water  quality  are   emerging  major  concerns  in  TCC  communi.es   •  Scaled  projects  can  benefit  a  group  of   communi.es,  encourage  informa.on  sharing  


Acknowledgements   •  Cesar  Portocarrerro  and   Marlene  Guerrero   •  The  Mountain  Ins.tute,   Fidel  Rodriguez   •  Daene  McKinney,   University  of  Texas   •  Devyn  Powell,  Tufs    


Pictures on pictures


La Mancomunidad Tres Cuencas (Three Watersheds Commonwealth) •  Something something history background Fidel •  Organizing together gives small communities greater resources and political power


Laura Read: Risk & adaptation needs for climate & water resources in rural Andean communitities  

Slides for presentation to High Mountains Adaptation Partnership in Huaraz, Peru, 13 July 2013.

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