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Biological monitoring  of  water  quality  and  potential  sources   for  remediation  of  naturally  acidi6ied  headwaters  in  the   Quilcay  watershed  

Raúl Loayza-­‐Muro   Universidad  Peruana  Cayetano  Heredia,  Lima  


The high  altitude  Andes:  a  unique  environment  

A blistering   solar  radiation  

Low temperatures  and   oxygen  levels


A complex  geology  (…exposed  to  climate  changes)  

Weathering of  metal-­‐rich  rocks  =  acid  drainage  +  metals  in  headwaters      

Stressed ecosystem!  


Aim  

To determine  physical  chemical  conditions  of  lagoons  and  rivers  along   the  Quilcay  basin,  and  to  explore  how  native  biodiversity  can  be  used  to   monitor  and  improve  water  quality.        

Objectives  

  Ø  To  build  a  base-­‐line  of  water  quality.     Ø  To  describe  aquatic  invertebrate  community  composition  as  an   indicator  of  stream  health.   Ø  To  explore  the  potential  use  of  vegetation  for  remediating  pollution.     Ø  To  involve  social  actors  working  on  conservation  of  mountain   ecosystems,  on  water  management  and  climate  change  adaptation.  


Study sites  in  Peru     The  Quilcay  basin  in   the  Cordillera  Blanca   -­‐  Churup  lagoon  +  river   -­‐  Shallap  lagoon  +  river   -­‐  Quilcay  river                Reference  sites                Polluted  sites  


¿How to  perform  an  integrated   analysis  of  the  effect  of  climate   change  on  water  quality?  

traditional (chemical  analysis)  

applied (native  biodiversity)  

Integrated analysis   bioindicators:     sensitive  vs  tolerant  


Base-­‐line of  physical  chemical  parameters   Water  quality   Status   Ref   Ref   Poll   Poll   Poll  

Site

Altitude pH Conductivity Temperature (m)   (uS/cm)   (°C)  

Churup Lagoon   Churup river   Shallap   Lagoon   Shallap river   Quilcay river  

Al

Ca

Co

Fe

Mn

Si

Sr

Zn

4467 7.5  

46

10.8

ND

4.07

ND

ND

ND 1.51  

0.02

ND

3852 7.44  

37

9.1

ND

4.07

ND

ND

ND 1.51  

0.02

ND

4280 3.66  

176

9.2

2.72

5.82 0.02  

3.17

0.44 2.61  

0.02

0.22

4161 4.13   3301   4.59  

112 119  

8.7 9.7  

1.52 1.45  

5.06 8.02  

0.92 1.62  

0.29 2.05   0.34   2.97  

0.02 0.04  

0.15 0.12  

ND ND  

Category 1:  sur6icial  water  for  production  of  potable  water.   Category  2:  agricultural  use   Category  3:  cattle  rising  use   Category  4:  conservation  of  the  aquatic  environment  

Sediment quality  

Shallap

Al

As

Ba

Cd

Co

9430

541.5

63.2

2.875

11.1

*all metals  in  mg/L  

Cr

Fe

Mn

9.8 121000  

735.5

Mo

Ni

Sr

69.45 5.15   43.8  

Ti

V

Zn

518.5 45.3   90.65  


Biodiversity and  indicator  communities   Churup Lagoon   Churup river  

Shallap Lagoon

Shallap river Quilcay river  

Changes in  community   composition:  

Order/Family Non-insects   Arachnida   Gammaridae   Copepoda  

1 121  

1

1

1

Ø  Churup lagoon  +  river:   sensitive  organisms  

1

1

1

25

Ø  Shallap lagoon  +  river:   tolerant  organisms   Ø  Quilcay  river:  tolerant   organisms  

3

Tubificidae

1

Insects Diptera   Simuliidae  

1

23

Chironomidae

7

15

Tipulidae

1

3

Tabanidae

2

Muscidae

1

Empididae

49

1 1   1  

Ceratopogonidae

1 1  

2

Coleoptera Elmidae  

3

Scirtidae

1 1  

1

Ephemeroptera Baetidae  

18

11

Plecoptera Perlidae  

1

Trichoptera Odontoceridae  

3

1

Leptoceridae

1

3

Hydrobiosidae BMWP   ASPT  

1

1

48

101

22

21

26

6

7.8

3.7

4.2

3.7

Biotic indices:     Each  family  has  a  value   (10  most  sensitive;  1   most  tolerant).   Sum  of    values    =  BMWP   and  ASPT  indices  


¿How we  understand  water  quality?   …  to  the  map   from  numbers…   Quality  

Score

Meaning

Color

Pristine

>101

Very clean  

Blue

Good

61-­‐100

Clean

Green

Fair

36-­‐60

Low pollution  

Yellow

Poor

16-­‐35

Pollution

Orange

< 15  

Heavy pollution  

Red

Critical


Expected result:  color  key  for  an  easy  identi6ication  of  bioindicators   and  calculation  of  BMWP/ASPT  indices  for  determining  water  quality.       Cheap  and  quick!  


Plant metal  accumulation   Al  

As

B

Ba

Cd

Co

Cu

Fe

Mn

Mo

Pb

Sr

Ti

U

V

Zn

Plant A

362

215 26.5  

29.1

2.8

4.6 5.94  

35500

447 34.0   ND   167   6.5  

36 63.6  

160

Plant B

190

132 22.6  

24.5

4.2

3.2 3.33  

36550

241 21.9   ND   143   7.3  

24 19.7  

139

Plant C

2850

790

60.9 ND  

195 35.4  

33 17.0  

103

7.8

6.0 7.83   184000  

*all metals  in  mg/L  

Candidates for  remediation  of  polluted  waters?   Next  steps…  

13

82 194  

Raúl Loayza-Muro: Biological monitoring of water quality in acidified headwaters Quilcay watershed  

Slides for presentation given to High Mountains Adaptation Partnership in Huaraz, Peru on 13 July 2013.

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