GLACIAL FLOODING AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE AND FIELD TRAINING July 11-24, 2013 Huaraz, Peru July 16, 2013 Day 4 - Field Methods and Modules I Managing Water and Land Resources in Lake Parón Laura Read, Rachel Chisolm, Marlene Rosario Guerrero, Cesar Portocarrero Background – A Brief History In 1960, a French glaciologist, Dr. Louis Libotry visited Laguna Parón and declared the lake dangerous to communities downstream. In 1979, Libotry recommended that a tunnel be built to maintain a safe lake level, with a freeboard of 15 meters. In 1982, the tunnel was constructed, and the desague finished in 1983. Construction on the tunnel system began in 1985 and was completed in 1992. At this point, the Peruvian government started working downstream on the Santa River, constructing a hydroelectric plant. In 1995, the Cañon del Pato power plant was built and a law was written to give ElectroPeru (now owned by Duke Energy) the rights to 11 MCM of water per year from Laguna Parón. A conflict between the Campesina Community that lives and operates the land and resources in the Parón watershed and Duke Energy has resulted in a stalemate. The Community (Cruz de Mayo) no longer allows Duke Energy to pass through and have access to the lake.
Lake volume: 79 MCM Safety freeboard: 15 m Rural population: ~ 7,000 Community sectors: 10
In addition to the social issues surrounding Par贸n, the risk of an avalanche and associated glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) event have increased over the past 20 years. Laguna Par贸n is part of a series of glacial lakes, including Lake Artesoncocha above Par贸n and a newly formed unnamed lake that sits above Artesoncocha at the base of the Arteson glacier; this emerging lake is causing an increased GLOF risk. This lake is currently approximately 150 meters in length (Google Earth 2012). Estimates of the future evolution of the lake indicate that it could reach a length of 1500 m and contain 20 MCM of water. Researchers are working on simulating events to understand the potential impact on downstream communities. Map of the watershed
Issues concerning the community Through community participatory workshops, members of the Cruz de Mayo Campesina Community identified the following as the most pertinent issues facing the community: Issue Municipal Water Supply
Description One sector has experienced shortages in the dry season since 2008 Cows (diarrhea), pigs (cholera, fever), sheep (allergies); when it rains the animals get sick more frequently Duke Energy wants to control the operations of ParĂłn Crops have plagues more often; canal infrastructure and maintenance; production costs
Land management Mining
The pastures and forests are both valuable; when it rains the eucalyptus flourishes but that means pasture is limited; in periods of no rain there is abundant pasture but then no eucalyptus Possible contamination from activities in the area
Animal sickness Hydropower
Current activities Workshop series on risk and water management with communities of ParĂłn:
Through a series of four workshops for members of the Cruz de Mayo Community held in March and April, water management, risk management, and participation of local teachers and schools were addressed. The workshops were divided into two segments â€“ one educating the community on the risks and vulnerabilities and the Peruvian laws/regulations that exist to aid the community; the other segment was a series of interactive activities soliciting facts, opinions, and facilitating discussion about the issues and steps for the future.
The expected outcomes are: (1) A community driven water management plan that includes cooperation with the municipality and Duke Energy (2) A committee formed within the Cruz de Mayo community and municipality to serve as a Civil Defense Platform to formally address risk management in the watershed A national crisis In the early months of 2013, the mayor of Caraz traveled to Lima for a series of meetings with the central offices of the National Water Authority, Ministry of the Environment, and Office of the Vice President. Recent conflicts between the community and Duke Energy have escalated regarding the appropriate date for closing the gate to the Lake to store water for the dry season, and what entity is responsible for closing the gate. This is the primary concern of the community, as they rely on storage for agriculture and consumption until the next rainy season. To date, negotiations continue and the gate is (almost) closedâ€Śexpected to fully close in July.