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Understanding Climate Change and Mountain People of Nepal RESULTS INTRODUCTION 


Nepal is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to its mountain topography, weak institutional capacity, poor economy, and less opportunities for livelihood diversification. Government has formulated policies such as National Adaptation Plan for Action (NAPA) to Climate Change, Climate Change Policy and Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) to climate Change. However, communities are facing tremendous constraints in managing adverse impacts of climate change due to the lack of science based knowledge on the impacts of climate change, management options and adaptation technologies.


Monsoon rainfall one month late and retreats three weeks earlier than in past; In the past, rainfall at least four times (spread in 8 months) in a year, now hardly two times (spread in 4 months); In the past, continuous rainfall in monsoon (mid June-1st week of September, now erratic and short (mid July-Mid August)

Warm (Hot) days

Summer starts one month later: hot days-2nd week of Feb. to end of August in past, now 2nd week of March to 2nd Week of September; intense hot days in past - from 2nd week of March to Early July, now - 2nd week of April to Mid July

Cold days

Winter starts two weeks later: In past, cold days-1st week of September to 1st week of March, now October to 3rd week of March; In past, very cold from early Dec. to 2nd week of February, at present mid Dec. to End of February


Drought duration has increased more than 3 folds: Two times in past- one from mid Feb. to end of March and another last week of May to mid June, now mid October to mid July

Flood/ Landslide

Duration is same as in past, but intensity and magnitude has decreased drastically


Rice plantation has became history due to scarcity of water; Used to grow in small area, about 60000 kg/year, now no more plantation


Production is more or less same but uncertainty in sowing due to erratic rainfall; Sowing time early April and harvesting at end of August in past, now Sowing early May and harvesting at end of August

In 2012, Resources Himalaya Foundation conducted a research study to understand local perOBJECTIVES   

To understand people’s perception on climate change To know impacts of climate change on agriculture & livelihood, and To document adaptation activities of local communities


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Ramechhap District,( 27028'N-27050' N; 85050'-86035' E; area: 1564.33 sq km); Elevation:369m-7,000 m) Central Mid-Mountain of Nepal The second most vulnerable to climate change Four drought prone VDCs of the district This is a case from Pakarbas VDC (86°01' 56.51" - 86° 57'02.60"E, 27° 21'03.99"- 27°26'18.68"N; Elevation: 480– 1580 m msl) Subtropical to temperate climate Natural resource and agriculture based livelihood

Millet Traditional Legumes (Rice Bean / Horse Gram) Animal Husbandry

Children and Women in queue for water

Community Level (29 persons)

Decision Makers (10 persons)

Used to cultivate in large area (Last week of July-Dec 1st Week) with good production in past but no more traditional legumes People have changed their strategy on rearing livestock- big to small; in past Big cattle like cow and buffalo was common (6-8 cattle/HH; 1-2 pig/HH), now Big cattle are rare (hardly 1 cattle/HH; 3-4 pig/HH)



Focus Group Discussion

Very low production compared to past

In past, more than 20 natural wells with sufficient drinking water, now more than 75% drinking water sources (wells) has dried up (Only 5 well with limited water) Forest condition is more or less same, but many non-native plants have appeared



Perceived Changes

Local communities have perceived gradual environmental changes Climate induced problems have severely affected livelihood options of local people


Local people are practicing their own coping strategy to sustain livelihood

Local people are unaware about climate change policies and practices Padlocking well for water protection

DR Bhuju, JC Baral, DB Shrestha, P Yonzon Shrestha, Resources Himalaya Foundation, Nepal, July 2013

Bhuju climate change and mountain people Nepal poster  

Poster for presentation given to High Mountains Adaptation Partnership in Huaraz, Peru on 13 July 2013.

Bhuju climate change and mountain people Nepal poster  

Poster for presentation given to High Mountains Adaptation Partnership in Huaraz, Peru on 13 July 2013.