â€œThe vision for 21st century cities must be to be the most imaginative cities for the world rather than in the worldâ€?
The Creative City Charles Landry
I. Preface II. Introduction III. Globalization IV. The Creative Economy V. The Role of Arts in Education VI. The Broadband Imperative VII. Rise of The Region-State VIII. Land Use in the New Economy IX. Civic Engagement X. Conclusion XI. Works Cited
Preface The world has undergone dramatic changes due to the pervasive spread of the Internet, the marriage of computers and telecommunication, and the shift to a global economy. Cities, regions, and nations everywhere face an uncertain challenge in the wake of globalization. What we do in the next few years to reinvent our civilization, our political, social and economic institutions, and, importantly, our schools to meet the challenges of this new economy will determine whether our cities and communities survive and succeed or atrophy and dieâ€Śin this new world order. The Creativity Community examines the challenges to regions and local communities, to education, and to parents, politicians and policymakers in the U.S. and indeed, across the world.
II. Introduction Cities across America have been struggling to reinvent themselves for the new post-industrial economy and society predicted by Harvard sociologist Daniel Bell in the 1960s.1 In their efforts to prepare themselves for the 21st century, many communities have focused on updating their data infrastructure to accommodate the needs of an age in which information is the most valuable commodity. The emphasis on technology has been rooted in the belief that as cities of the past were built along waterways, railroads and interstate highways, cities of the future would be built along â€œinformation highways,â€? specifically, wired and wireless information pathways connecting every home, office, school and hospital and, through the World Wide Web, millions of other individuals and institutions around the world. These new information infrastructures are undoubtedly important. But the effort to create a 21st century city is not so much about technology as it is about jobs, dollars and quality of life. Creating a city of the future, and a city for the future is about organizing oneâ€™s community to reinvent itself for the new, knowledge-based economy and society; preparing its citizens to take ownership of their community; and educating the next generation of leaders and workers to meet these global challenges. It will not be easy. The new economy represents a paradigm shift from manufacturing and service provision to technology and innovation. Yet, in the wake of the basic changes wrought by globalization, there is no alternative. Now more than ever business and industry are dependent upon an economic system that rewards creativity and innovation. 1
Thus, at the heart of this effort is recognition of the vital role that art and culture play in enhancing economic development, and ultimately, defining a creative community: one that exploits the vital link between art, culture and commerce and in the process consciously invests the human and financial resources necessary to prepare its citizens to meet the challenges of the rapidly evolving post-industrial, knowledge economy and society. Almost 20 years ago the city of San Diego launched a "city of the future" initiative. The Committee members really didnâ€™t know what a city of the future looked like, but they knew that fiber optics having lots of bandwidth in the ground were a key ingredient. So fiber optics and bandwidth were the foundation of the effort. Today, with greater understanding of the challenges of the new global economy and knowledge of what it takes to succeed in the workplace of the future, we know it is not bandwidth in the ground that matters most. In fact, it is not technology at all, but the bandwidth in people's heads that is important. People in every sector of the economy and society need to understand the challenges before us, and that technology had changed and was changing almost every facet of our lives. Only then can we begin to grapple with meaningful reform. We also know now that to have a creative community cities and regions must have creative people. To have creative people a city needs to nurture its young people and create a system of education that engenders the new thinking skills that business is now demanding while providing the vibrant culture essential to attracting and retaining the workforce needed to meet the challenges of the new economy.
Government has a vital role in promoting affordable, accessible broadband and encouraging land use policies that encourage development of creative economic clusters that include art districts, public art, art museums and other cultural institutions. Governments can also embrace green initiatives, encourage private sector investments in enterprises that exemplify and foster the concept of sustainability. While there are many things every region must do to make its community highly livable, and attract, nurture and retain the best and brightest, a truly creative community understands that: 1) Globalization has changed life and work, as we know it. Technology--particularly the internet and the pervasive spread and influence of new media--have led to the emergence of a world where every nation is inextricably tied to every other and manufacturing and service sector jobs are being outsourced or off-shored. 2) A new economy based on creativity and innovation has evolved that represents Americaâ€™s salvation because it relies on the principals of freedom, free enterprise and entrepreneurship unique to the US. 3) Education must be reinvented to ensure an American workforce capable of succeeding in this new economy. As Dana Gioia, former Chair of the National Endowment for the Arts said â€œcheap labor, cheap raw materials, or the free flow of capital or a streamlined industrial base,â€? 2will not be enough to compete.
4) Efficient, affordable, effective broadband infrastructures available to citizens, businesses, governments, schools, and the entire non-profit sector are essential for economic survival and success. 5) Metropolitan regions are the new centers of commerce. Cities and Counties within regions must work together to compete in the global economy. Governmental planning and development, as well as the provision of vital public services must be regional. 6) Telecommunication has replaced transportation and affects land use and zoning rules and regulations. The creative community recognizes the important role of so-called creative clusters combining business, education, art and cultural institutions. Downtowns also play a special role becoming the â€œliving roomsâ€? of regional communities. 7) Civic collaboration or engagement is critical. New and existing organizations responsible for planning and development and for weaving the fabric of the new community demand that all institutions--public and private-and individuals become owners of the new economic, social, and political agenda.
IV. Globalization The challenges America faces in the wake of global competition are daunting. We have lost our prowess in manufacturing and in the provision of services such as banking, accounting and insurance because computers can be found almost everywhere in the world. With an educated workforce any country can now provide such services to any other country at a fraction of the previous cost. Globalization 3.0, according to Thomas Friedman, author of The World is Flat,3 has arrived. Outsourcing and off-shoring are commonplace. We are currently suffering what economists are calling a "jobless recovery," and our communities and schools are facing challenges not well understood by politicians, policy makers or parents. We don't know exactly how many jobs are lost from off-shoring but the loss of manufacturing and high-tech service jobs in America will be a permanent feature of our economic life in the 21st century. It is clear that the pervasive worldwide spread of the Internet, digitization and the availability of white-collar skills abroad--where low labour costs alone may justify the move--means changing all our institutions. As Business Week has argued: â€œThe Industrial Economy is giving way to the Creative Economy, and (communities) and corporations are at another crossroads. Attributes that made them ideal for the 20th century could cripple them in the 21st. So they will have to change, dramaticallyâ€Ś It's about creativity, imagination, and, above all, innovation." 4 3
IV. The Creative Economy During the Clinton presidency democratic strategist James Carville was fond of reminding campaign and White House staffers "It's the economy, stupid." Much the same could be said today. The stimulus packages and all the federal policies in the world will not help if all we do is prop up the old industrial, manufacturing economy. It is the creative economy that must be acknowledged, embraced and supported. John Howkins, author of The Creative Economy (2001)5, writes that anyone with a good idea can make money. He counts in the few millions the creative industries and occupations such as advertising, architecture, graphic design, filmmaking, writing, and artists. Richard Florida, author of The Rise of the Creative Class (2004)6, has a more expansive definition of the term "creative," and includes professionals in "business and finance, law, healthcare and related fields." These people "engage in complex problem solving that involves a great deal of independent judgment and requires high levels of education or human capital... all are members of the creative class." Florida claims 38 million people among the new creative class. Communities are struggling once again to define this shift in the basic structure of the world's economy. We know it's global, its digital, and author and columnist Thomas Friedman of The New 5
York Times has told us â€œthe world is flat." But it is creativity -simply defined as "the quality or ability to create or invent something originalâ€? that best defines what most of us need to succeed in the new economy. We need to understand that the tectonic plates of the world's economy have shifted and that a whole new economy and society based upon creativity and innovation is emerging. As a consequence, it is vitally important that we reinvent our communities, our schools, our businesses, and our government to meet the challenges such major structural shifts are compelling. The critical tasks of renewing and reinventing any city--housing, transportation, public safety, roads and bridges, clean water, electricity, schools etc.--is enormous. The task of creating a knowledge city, a creative and innovative community, is equally complex and essential. IV. The Role of Art in Education In order for the creative community to nurture the new workforce with the higher order thinking skills a creative and innovative workplace demands, we must reinvent our systems of education. In the early 90â€™s Robert Root-Bernstein, a biochemist and MacArthur prizewinner, completed a study of 150 biographies of eminent scientists from Pasteur to Einstein. His findings were startling to educators lobbying for more emphasis on the sciences. He discovered that nearly all of the great inventors and scientists were also musicians, artists, writers or poets. Galileo, for example, was a poet and literary critic. Einstein was a passionate student of the violin. And Samuel Morse, the father of telecommunications and inventor of the telegraph, earned his living as a portrait painter.
Michele and Robert Root-Bernstein, co-authors of Sparks of Genius,7 conducted extensive research into the minds of inventive people and argued that creativity can be encouraged and enhanced in everyone. The goal of education should be “understanding,” the RootBernstein’s argue, rather than merely knowing. The process of learning should be active rather than the passive acquisition of facts. It is possible, they argue, to know about the principles of physics or literature without having to use them; however, being able to use them is not possible without an understanding of how they function in nature and human affairs. In every field, inventive thinking originates in nonverbal, non-logical forms. All students should be given early and ongoing stimulation of aural, visual and other senses and be taught to imaginatively recreate sense images. They should learn to abstract, empathize, analogize and translate intuitive forms of knowledge into numbers, words, images, sounds and movement. In some instances, feeling and sensing are communicated most naturally as literary, visual or musical expressions. The arts are important in that they provide the most effective and, in some cases, the only exercise of many tools of thinking -- both in expression and imagination. As Einstein once said, “Imagination is more important than knowledge.” More recently Steve Jobs, who was influenced by a course in calligraphy at Reed College, often said “The reason that Apple is able to create products like iPad is because we always try to be at the intersection of technology and liberal arts, to be able to get the best of both." 7
After a decade of studying the human brain, according to the Dana Foundation, a neuroscience research center at John Hopkins University, scientists know the arts enhance math and science comprehension. We also know that where art-infused education is used to redesign the curriculum, one that is truly integrated, collaborative and interactive, students’ daily attendance dramatically improves, as does performance. Today much more is known about the brain and how people learn. While neuroscientists do not usually characterize functions between one hemisphere and the other, it is a fact that the left or right hemispheres of the brain dominate certain functions. Artists or those trained in the arts are usually categorized as “right brained.” A colloquialism that acknowledges the role of the right hemispheres of the brain, according to Ian McGilchrist, neuroscientist and author of The Master and his Emissary8 is that “evidence shows that the right hemisphere pays wide-open attention to the world, seeing the whole, whereas the left hemisphere is adept at focusing on a detail. New experience, whatever its kind, is better apprehended by the right hemisphere, whereas the predictable is better dealt with by the left.” According to many experts, “The left hemisphere of the human brain controls language, arguably our greatest mental attribute (while) the right hemisphere is dominant in the control of, among other things, our sense of how objects interrelate in space.”
Our success in a new economy demanding creativity and innovation will come from nurturing both hemispheres of the brain--the whole brain--working in tandem. Author and educator Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi calls such total emersion in a task FLOW…a “ mental state of operation in which a person in an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity.” 9 Dr Richard Restak in his book, The New Brain10 uses the words “plastic” and “malleable” to describe the brain. He believes that we can be creative by acquiring the right series of “repertoires”; that we can “preselect the kind of brain (we) will have by choosing richly valued experiences.” In short, he and many other neuroscientists are beginning to conclude that we all have the capacity to be creative. STEAM not just STEM In 2007 then-president George W. Bush signed into law a bill called the America Competes Act, also known as the STEM initiative for Science Technology Engineering and Math. The administration bill authorized $151 million to help students earn a bachelor's degree, math and science teachers to get teaching credentials, and provide additional money to help align kindergarten through 12th grade math and science curricula to better prepare students for college. President Obama has called for yet a new effort called "Race to the Top," but has also supported a renewed STEM focus.
Today centers and institutes for STEM are popping up across the nation. STEM is the latest academic catchword and dire futures are predicted unless STEM is broadly adopted. In a commentary in The Wall Street Journal, Chester E. Finn Jr. and Diane Ravitch, both assistant secretaries of education in the first Bush administration, complained loudly: "This is a mistake that will ill serve our children while misconstruing the true nature of American competitiveness and the challenges we face in the 21st century."11 In truth, we need a change in attitude about art and music, math and science. We need to define a well-rounded education and to make the case for its importance in a global economy. Given what we now know about how people learn, and about the new economy, maybe we really need to eliminate all the existing “silos” in education and launch an aggressive program of arts integration, as the Obama Committee for the Arts and Humanities (PCAH) has argued in a recent report which strongly recommends "an expansion of arts integration.” The PCAH encourages “further development…through strengthening teacher preparation and professional development, targeting available arts funding, and setting up mechanisms for sharing ideas about arts integration through communities of practice. In this recommendation we identify roles for regional and state arts and education agencies as well as private funders."12 Given the painful cuts our education systems face, only radical solutions will solve the difficult challenges. This is an important first 11
step in giving students the new thinking skills for a whole new age of creativity and innovation. As the Arts Education Partnership has reported, the term arts integration has evolved over the years as “school districts, state arts councils, and arts organizations have experimented with various models of implementation.” 13 Harvey White, former President of wireless technology firm Qualcomm explains.“We need STEAM as well as STEM, going forward.” White, who was responsible for hiring thousands of engineers, has said, “The arts are an integral and necessary part of educating our future innovators so (our workers) can compete successfully in the forthcoming world economy…we need to get business, government and media to connect the dots between arts education and economic success.”14 At the Federal level, the STEM initiative needs to acknowledge the vital role of the arts. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), sometimes called the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act, must include a focus on creativity, provide the teacher training necessary to change the curriculum, and infuse the curriculum with the arts. States, counties, and cities cannot wait for the Federal government to act. Together they must redefine the purpose of public education, reinvent our current systems of education, and put creativity, imagination, and innovation at the top of the agenda for action. According to Dana Gioia, "If the U.S. is to compete effectively with the rest of the world in the new global marketplace, we need a (school) system that grounds all students in pleasure, beauty and wonder." 13
High Tech High in San Diego is a remarkable example of Gioia’s model of art infusion through experiential project-based learning which is helping to arm kids with the higher order thinking skills we need. Each semester the entire faculty and student body are assigned a topic they work together on and that draws on all disciplines, forcing students to work collaboratively on real world problems. There is no math class or art per se. Rather, that disciplines-still taught, still relevant-are integrated into larger questions with real world practicality. Technology also plays a role and with budgets for education increasingly being cut, distance learning, blended learning, and generally, the use of technology is considered the best - perhaps only - alternative to classroom instruction. Kids have computers, and cell phones and video games, Facebook, and Twitter and who knows the apps screaming for their attention. The question is how to use the technology in a way that not only optimizes the learning experience but also enables the acquisition of genuine thinking skills and habits that will sustain them for the rest of their lives. Computer technology, and the tools of social media--distracting as they can be--help us create that kind of real time, interactive learning environment. The Kahn Academy an educational website that aims to let anyone “learn almost anything - for free,” allows students or anyone interested to watch some 2,400 videos in which the site’s founder, Salman Khan, according to Wired Magazine, “chattily discuss principles of math, science, and economics (with a smattering of social science topics thrown in).” 15
Kids and teachers love the site. For students of all ages who need the personal touch – one on one instruction - this on-line system allows it. Because the class signs on to the site when time or circumstances permit, and their performance or difficulty is recoded, the teacher can follow student progress and give individual attention as needed. As the Economist described it: “This reversal of the traditional teaching methods-with lecturing done outside class time and tutoring (or “homework”) during it-is what Mr. Khan calls “the flip,” a synonym for flip, of course, is revolution, and … just might lead to one.” 16 Museums Can Make a Difference Too The American Association of Museums published a report in 1984 on the future of American museums; called “Museums for a New Century” including one chapter entitled "A New Imperative for Learning." 17 To put it bluntly, the report said, "Despite a strong commitment to educational programming, museums have yet to realize their full potential as educational institutions." And the report noted: "The museum-school relationship shows considerable potential... particularly in light of the recent calls for strengthening the quality of instruction in science, the arts and the humanities in the schools." Now museums are stepping up to the plate. Recently, Museum Educators of Southern California (MESC) held their annual conference at the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, California. They "stressed [that] the value of the museum experience is the development of creativity and problem-solving, essential skills for a 21st-century workforce [and] focused on examining how museums 16
and schools can work together to overcome the challenges to initiating, developing and sustaining successful partnerships." In San Diego in 2004, for example, the Balboa Park museums created a project funded by Price Charities called School in the Park (SITP). This program is extremely unique in that it "shifts the location of [Rosa Parks Elementary, an inner city school] from a traditional classroom setting ... to the resources and educational opportunities available at museums in Balboa Park" thus allowing all third, fourth, and fifth graders to spend up to eight weeks in educational programs at nine museums in the Park. More recently, Balboa Park launched the Collaborative Arts resources for Education (CARE) program, a school-based artist residency and teacher professional development collaboration among four premier arts organizations in San Diego: the Museum of Photographic Arts, La Jolla Playhouse, the Mingei International Museum and the Timken Museum of Art. Other cities, according to the California Association of Museums, are also doing groundbreaking work. At the de Young Museum in San Francisco, workshops "are offered throughout the year to introduce educators to museum collections and special exhibitions." A four-day program in which teachers will visit and explore the collections of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Asian Art Museum, and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco is available. The Institute for Museums and Library Services which serves as the primary source of federal support for the nation's 123,000 libraries and 17,500 museums, recently launched a 21st century skills assessment tool worth considering. 17
They have a "21st Century Skills initiative [that] underscores the critical role our nation's museums and libraries play in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness." 18
Eric Digest, the worldâ€™s largest digital library of educational literature, describing the Museum/School Partnership put it succinctly: "The partnership takes on new significance as our society expands its definition of "education" to describe a lifelong process of developing knowledge, skills, and character that takes place not just in the classroom, but in a variety of formal and informal settings. Museums and schools both figure in this learning network and they have long worked together toward common educational goals." V. The Role of Broadband Broadband today is as important as waterways; railways and highways were in an earlier era. Unfortunately, this belief is not widely held. From a policy standpoint, clearly, at the federal, state and local level, we have lost our way, much to our peril. Clearly the role of local and regional government in fostering policy to accelerate the development of wireless infrastructures, and /or the laying of fiber optics to create a wired environment is paramount. However, most cities are intimidated by the cable or the telephone companyâ€™s presence and hesitate to assume a lead role in creating a citywide or region-wide infrastructure plan. Whether in cooperation with the existing provider or separately, the region needs to take the lead in providing the information infrastructures. 18
Having broadband is a necessity and, as such, is a public utility. It is something every man and woman and child depends on to succeed in the new economy. Thus, cities should intercede to be sure the new infrastructures are there, affordable and accessible by everyone, not just the rich or those living in urban areas. The city, or cities, the county, federal and state government agencies in the area, and for that matter all schools and hospitals, and nonprofit agencies can build the new information infrastructures needed and offer vital public services. But they need to organize the effort to provide these new information infrastructures--the wired and wireless facilities necessary to all businesses and governments in the region. VII. The Rise of the Region-State The idea of stimulating economic prosperity by reorganizing government, according to syndicated columnist Neil Pierce, is essential. Region-states, or "city-states" as he calls them, should be looking to develop synergies across nearby cities or counties. "Cities and towns that have a shared identification," he argues, "function as a single zone for trade commerce and communication and are characterized by social, economic and environmental interdependence." 19 Most people already live in one jurisdiction, work in other, and play or dine in a third. They have no idea that the cost to them is enormous because of the duplication and waste. Moreover, they do not realize that the new creative economy demands consolidation to save money. But more is at stake than simply dollars or turf.
The issues associated with reducing crime, energy consumption, water use, waste and toxic emissions, while also making it easier for people to get around, are not the concerns of individual cities but the whole region. Indeed, whole metropolitan regions should be aggregating demand for such services and striking an agreements with one another and then with one of several providers to better serve the citizens of the entire region. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowing the establishment of so-called enterprise systems may also be an option. Again, by consolidating operations and mining data, the region can streamline all departmental operations, allow new ways of doing the peoplesâ€™ business and get more services on line, thus eliminating altogether anyone from physically getting in line again. Importantly too, by pushing the limits of electronic Government, the government lays the foundation for a more robust private sector. And by embracing â€œgreenâ€? initiatives sets the stage for more sustainable community- wide services. The new global knowledge economy, not to mention our current fiscal crisis, demands that government rethink how to organize itself to be most competitive. That might mean cutting out a city council or two or other top administrative posts in the name of efficiency. At minimum, it means cities within a region (including the counties) ought to be jointly pursuing opportunities to operate services together. According to Bruce Katz, a founding director of the Metropolitan Economy Initiative at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C., "There is a fundamental disconnect between how we live and work in large portions all over America and how we govern." "The mismatch between governments and the economy undermines the competitiveness of places by raising the costs of doing business,
exacerbating strong development trends, squandering urban assets and deepening racial and class separation." The Obama Administration hopes to reverse decades of neglect of our cities by stimulating economic prosperity in "metropolitan regions " where, according to Brookings, "the top 100 metropolitan areas covers about two thirds of the nation's population and an even larger share of the nation's gross domestic product. As Katz argues, "whereas markets -- and more important, people's lives -- operate in a metropolitan context, our government structures and programs clearly do not.â€? Cities cling to boundaries more suited to an 18th century township than to a 21st century metropolis." And as David Kocieniewski pointed out in The New York Times, "The crazy quilt of municipal governments that ring the metropolitan area (usually) grew for an assortment of personal, cultural, economic and political reasons most having little to do with the best use of tax dollars or the reality of services."20 Not surprisingly, these fragmented governments struggle to provide even the most basic services. Larger cities are experiencing the same problems, but the real loss is not simply municipal deficits, it is the loss of the metropolitan region to brand itself and develop a forward thinking economic development strategy. It is these regional economies that foster quality places-- vibrant down-towns, attractive town centers and historic, older suburbs--that feed the development and acquisition of human capital, financial capital and contribute to resource efficient, sustainable growth.
Not merging municipalities or certain basic services puts the prowess of a region at risk. VIII. Land Use in the New Economy Land use is a major factor in developing a new --creative-- economy and in most cities and regions is already an issue undergoing analysis as telecommunications slowly replaces transportation and as the Internet pervades the workplace In the industrial age we had industrial zones, commercial zones, and residential zones. And it was common to keep housing, shopping and the workplace separated in different area or zones. There was no such thing as â€œmixed-use zoningâ€? for example. All that is changing fast and a new urbanism is occurring with businesses, shops and people living in the same locales. Now "creative clusters" are the early indicators that the architecture of the city is changing, and that art and culture are becoming key to economic development. Indeed, in the creative age, developing "creative clusters," is perhaps most important to meeting the challenges of todayâ€™s global economy. In a sense, these real estate developments are often the first signs that a community is awakening to the importance of creativity and innovation as essential elements of success. In the UK, co-location of creative industries has been a mainstay of economic development. The National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) in a major study on Creative Clusters and Innovation, stated: "The case studies also show that the mere existence of a creative agglomeration is not enough for the benefits from clustering to emerge. The other crucial ingredient is connectivity between firms within a cluster, with 25
collaborators, business partners and sources of innovation elsewhere... and finally, with firms in other sectors that can act as clients, and as a source of new and unexpected ideas and knowledge. These three layers of connectivity are underpinned by a dense web of informal interactions and networking."21 It is no surprise that these clusters of creativity are popping up in cities in Europe and across America. Miami, Florida the city has had astounding success establishing such a cluster. Maybe it was getting the most successful art fair in the world--The Basel--to host a second fair in Miami. Maybe it was the art deco hotels or the weather. But it is working. According to The Miami Herald, “Already the news of the luxury fashion arrivals (in the Miami Design District) is having an impact on the market's real estate ... some recent prices have more than doubled.” Tony Cho, president and chief executive of Metro 1 Properties, which specializes in real estate, said, “there's definitely an uptick in activity, some excitement and probably some speculation.” In the last few years, the Urban land Institute (ULI) helped start a project in Chicago called the "Industrial Renaissance" aimed at "establishing a Creative Industries District" in one of the oldest but most blighted areas of the city.
F Magazine, published by The Art Institute of Chicago, noted that “The Cermak Creative Industry District, as it is also called, is devoted both to the historic preservation and revitalization of the Cermak corridor, and to providing new outlets and opportunities for 21
artists of all kinds; but as New City editor Jason Foumberg pointed out in a 2010 article that strongly supported the project, “galleries and studios will be just a small fraction of the big picture, if at all...the goal of the district is to encourage new businesses of many kinds (from graphic design studios to cafes) as much as it is to support artists.” The web site for the effort makes it clear that “An important part of the plan...is the incorporation of arts incubators to help smallbusiness start-ups…targeting designers, graphic designers, architects, urban planners, all the entertainment arts professionals and others representing one of fastest growth sectors of the new economy, the creative industries.”22 More than 200 organizations, and over 1000 individuals are part of the Chicago effort. In San Diego, an arts district called I.D.E.A. (Innovation, Design, Education and Art) is underway. As Steve Jobs did, the founders see design itself, combining technology and art in ways that the new economy most values, as the next wave of economic development. Co-location, they argue, is the secret to nurturing this kind of development and those involved in the effort envision a ten-block area of the city as ideal for such a new district. There are green developments too. I.D.E.A. for example, is a 93-acre sustainable, mixed-use development. Intended to be an incubator for artists and designers it is, in the old tradition, a walk-able complex of art galleries, studios, performing spaces, coffee shops, restaurants and retail establishments. Art and Cultural Districts, according the Americans for the Arts report of 1998,” are well recognized, labelled, mixed-use area of the 22
city in which a high concentration of cultural facilities serves as the anchor of attraction.” Although the report says, “The primary motivation behind the establishment of a cultural district is urban revitalization,” the connection between art and culture and economic development is becoming clear. Thus, it is becoming apparent that the most successful communities of the 21st century will be places with strong and vibrant creative clusters designed to attract, nurture and retain creative workers. VIII. Civic Engagement The key to success in building “creative communities” is the nonprofit sector. Management guru Peter Drucker has said “The nonprofits have the potential to become America’s “social sector” equal in importance to the public sector of government and the private sector of business.” The non-profit centers or institutes for civic engagement should include representatives from the Universities, business, for profit and non-profit institutions and other organizations with a planning or development responsibility. They and their institutions are the heart of the new civic “collaboratories, which are needed to help “reboot” or reinvent our great American cities. Such groups with similar goals rarely talk to each other or work together. Yet because the tasks are huge and complex and often involve many jurisdictions within a region, require resolve, persistence and coordination to accomplish our goals. Everyone has a stake and everyone must be at the table. Many cities have organizations, which are formed to spur the whole community to action, fail because they are underfunded. Some fail because it isn’t clear what their agenda is or how it relates to the 28
needs of the community. More fail simply because they are not aligned with such other institutions in the area. Every citizen has a stake in the community and its future. Every business, school, hospital, neighborhood center, for profit or nonprofit enterprise in the region has a stake. IX. Conclusion Today, understanding the challenges of the new global economy is critical. It demands that we renew and reinvent the places where we live and work. There is no alternative short of letting our cities, our communities, atrophy and die, and with it, the great experiment in freedom and free enterprise we so highly value. We created the pen-based computer, the silicon chip and the Internet itself, which now is the vehicle for every nation, every city, and every community worldwide to compete with every other. We can be proud of what we have accomplished but we must be mindful that the new truly global-economy has been unleashed. Now we must focus on what is next for America in the wake of a globalized world economy. Walter Isaacson, author of the biography of Steve Jobs, observed, "The creativity that can occur when a feel for both the humanities and the sciences combine in one strong personality was the topic that most interested me in my biographies of Franklin and Einstein, and I believe that it will be a key to creating innovative economies in the twenty-first century." This is the future for America. Creativity and innovation. The intersection of arts and the humanities and technology.
A â€œcreativity communityâ€? can nurture, attract and retain the talent we need to succeed let alone survive in the new economy. Parents, politicians, policy-makers and importantly, business needs to better understand the powerful role of the arts, and support arts training, maybe arts integration too. Does all creativity come from the arts? Of course not, but the chances of nurturing creativity through arts based training is a no brainier. This of course is what STEAM is so important. It is also why cities and regions must have creative people by nurturing its young people and, reinventing a system of education that engenders the new thinking skills to meet the challenges of the new economy. Today, as Sandra Ruppert, President of Art Education Partnership observed, is this: "Arts learning experiences play a vital role in developing students' capacities for critical thinking, creativity, imagination, and innovation. These capacities are increasingly recognized as core skills and competencies all students need as part of a high-quality and complete 21st-century education." Government has a vital role in promoting accessible broadband and encouraging land use policies that encourage development of creative economic clusters including art districts, public art and art and cultural institutions such as museums. Governments can also embrace green initiatives, which encourage private sector initiatives and foster the concept of sustainability. And they can use technology to improve productivity, foster new, more efficient delivery of government services and encourage business and the non-profit sector to use technology as well. Involvement by the whole community will be needed to make meaningful changes. Civic collaboration or engagement is critical. New and existing organizations responsible for planning and development and for weaving the fabric of the new community 30
demand that all intuitions and individuals become owners of the new agenda. Public art, art integration, graffiti parks, art districts, museums, regional collaboration, civic engagement and robust information infrastructures: all are important to the region of the future, to development of a creative community. .
X. Works Cited 1) Bell, Daniel, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, Basic Books, 1993. 2) Gioia, Dana, “Pleasure, Beauty and Wonder.” Fordham University, Washington, D.C., December 12, 2009.Friedman, 3) Friedman,Thomas L., The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. 4) “Get Creative: How to build Innovative Companies,” Business Week, August 1, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_31/b3945 401.htm 5) Howkins, John, The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas, Penguin, 2001. 6) Florida, Richard, The Rise of the Creative Class: and How it's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books, 2004. 7) Root-Bernstein, Robert and Michele, Sparks of Genius: The 13 Thinking Tools of the World’s Most Creative People, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. 8) McGilchrist, Ian, The Master and his Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World, Yale University Press, December 15, 2009. 9) Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, Harper Perennial, 1996. 32
10) Restak, Richard, M.D., The New Brain, Rodale, 2003. 11) Finn, Chester and Ravitch, Diane, “Not By Geeks Alone”, The Wall Street Journal, August 8,2007. 12) “Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America's Future Through Creative Schools: President’s Committee on Arts, Humanities and Culture. 2011 http://www.pcah.gov/ 13) “Making a Case for the Arts: How and Why the Arts are Critical to Student Achievement and Better Schools.” Art Education Partnership, 2006. 14) White, Harvey, “Arts and the Innovation Gap”, San Diego Union Tribune, March 11, 2010. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2010/mar/11/arts-andthe-innovation-gap/ 15) “How the Kahn Academy is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired Magazine, July 15, 2011. http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/all/1 16) “Flipping The Classroom,” Economist, September 17, 2011.http://www.economist.com/node/21529062 17) “Museums for a New Century”, American Association of Museums, 1984. http://www.aam-us.org/ 18) Eger, john M., “The Changing Role of Museums as Vital Partners in Education”, Huffington Post, March 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johnm-eger/the-role-ofmuseums-as- pa_b_828533.html
19) Eger, John M., “21st Century Skills Initiative”, Institute for Museum and Library Services, 2009. http://www.imls.gov/about/21stcskills.aspx 20) Pierce, Neil, Johnson, Curtis, hall, john Stuart, Citistates: How Urban America Can Prosper in a Competitive World, Norton, 1983. 21) Kocieniewski, David “A Wealth of Municipalities, and an Era of Hard Times,” The New York Times, May 29, 2009. 22) “Creative Clusters Innovation Report,” NESTA, November 2010. 23) “Industrial Renaissance”, Urban Land Institute, April 2007.
About the Author John M. Eger, Lionel Van Deerlin Endowed Chair of Communications and Public Policy and Director of the Creative Economy Initiative at San Diego State University, is an author and lecturer on the subjects of creativity and innovation, education and economic development. A former Advisor to the President and Director of the White House Office of Telecommunications Policy he helped spearhead the restructuring of America's telecom Industry and was Senior Vice President of CBS, which opened China to commercial television. More recently he served as Chair of California Governor’s Commission on Information Technology; Chair of the Governors Committee on Education and Technology; and Chair of San Diego Mayor’s “City of the Future” Commission. He has published over 100 articles, book chapters, and white papers on the subjects of technology, education, economic development and creativity and recently authored the seminal “Guidebook for Smart Communities”, a “how to” for communities struggling to compete in the age of the Internet; “Art and Education: and the Innovation Economy: A Monograph,” and “The Creative Community: Linking Art, Culture, Commerce and Community,” a call to action to reinvent our communities for the Creative Age.”
"We are at the beginning of an early struggle which will last for generations, a struggle to remake our civilization. It's not a good time for politicians and bureaucrats, but it is a time for dreamers, explorers and those willing to plant trees for their children to sit under." Walter Lippmann