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SHOWING

SHOWING

IFI

T he

Ruins

of

S o uth

L o s

Ange l e s

An investigation into architectural rehabilitation and urban redevelopment within the inner-city. John A. Colwart


PUBLISHED BY CLEARSTORY CREATIVE PUBLISHERS 8320 MIRAMAR ROAD SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92121 Printed in the United States of America First printing, June 2017. Composed in arial, garamond, century gothic Printed on 100lb ultra-smooth paper.


The Ruins Of South L.A


A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of

The Newschool of Architecture & Design

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Architecture

by John Colwart June 2017 San Diego, CA

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© 2017 John Colwart ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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Abstract As the Los Angeles (L.A.) metropolitan area continues to evolve, special attention should be given to the state of its inner city, South L.A. (SOLA). This area is home to a large share of the city’s aging building stock. Further, the region has experienced radical change since the mid-twentieth century, which has isolated many SOLA communities from the larger L.A. urban network. Today, many of these inner-city communities are suffering from severe urban decay, thus abandoned and derelict buildings define the urban landscape. As one of the older sections of the city, it is important to address architectural decay throughout the area to seek urban revitalization. This investigation includes data of L.A. County’s existing building stock, historical data of L.A.’s economic and urban development patterns in the twentieth century, and researcher-led photo documentation of select urban artifact sites throughout SOLA. The case studies and photo documentation are incorporated into the establishment of a design project in downtown Inglewood, California. Moving forward, architects and planners will need to confront the realities of decaying urban environments – through the ruin – to accommodate rising densities and facilitate urban revitalization. Building rehabilitation, redevelopment, urban containment, zoning and planning ordinances, economic reintegration, and urban upkeep are solutions to urban and architectural decay. The design project focuses on an abandoned and decaying movie palace in downtown Inglewood, CA. The project addresses the existing ruin through a block masterplan and subsequent development of a film and media institute. The institute reintroduces the movie house as a vital component of the area’s locus, and invites the local community into its daily operations. The goal of the project is to be a driver that spurs revitalization in downtown Inglewood’s deteriorating historic core. iii


A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of

The Newschool of Architecture & Design

by John Colwart

Approved by:

Undergraduate Chair: Michael Stepner, FAIA, FAICP

Date

Instructor of Record: Raúl Díaz, AIA

Date

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for my mother, Cynthia R. Howard for my loving wife, Britney N. Colwart and my beautiful daughters, Kacy and Zoey Colwart

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A special thank you to Walter R. Allen, AIA and Christopher A. Campbell for your mentorship and guidance in support of my development in the field of architecture. To the NSA+D Department of Architecture faculty, with gratitude for your guidance, knowledge, and support.

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Contents Title Page

i

Copyright Page

ii

Abstract

iii

Signature Page

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Dedication

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Acknowledgements

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Table of Contents

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I.

THE RUIN

p.1

II.

THE ESSAY

p. 13

III.

THE URBAN ARTIFACT

p. 27

IV.

THE FILM INSTITUTE

p. 53

V.

REFLECTIONS

p. 81

LIST OF REFERENCES

p. 109

LIST OF FIGURES

p. 110

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Chapter I T h e

R u i n


1

Problem Statement

Figure 1.1 Mural at L.A. Coliseum. Los Angeles, CA Colwart (2016)

Typically, the remains of a deteriorating building, architectural decay signifies a “system of absences� in terms of use, perception, and performance. Architectural decay is a reality in many urban areas across the globe as population densities continue to rise and the availability of undeveloped spaces decreases. This decay contributes to urban blight and highlights the shortcomings in design, community institutions, and identity. Dilapidated buildings in cities today are the modern architectural ruin. As one of the older sections of the LA metropolitan area, SOLA has a significant share of aging and decaying building stock along with rising urban decay. The communities in this part of the city are socially, economically, and culturally isolated from the larger LA metropolitan region. This research investigates the

Figure 1.2 Advertisements for Architecture Tschumi (1976-77)


economic, cultural, political, and physical variables to understand how they affect building occupancy and urban vitality.

Critical Position

Figure 1.3 Fox Theater marquee sign Inglewood, CA Colwart (2016)

The urban context and its memory directly influences architectural decay. Aldo Rossi (1982) states, “With time, the city grows upon itself; it acquires a consciousness and memory. In the course of its construction, its original themes persist, but at the same time modifies and renders these themes of its own development more specific.” Rossi (1982) is referring to the characteristics that impact architecture through time within the city. (p. 20) Using Rossi’s study of the city as inspiration for this investigation of architectural decay in SOLA, the following is assumed; 1) the

Figure 1.4 Market Street & Regent Street Inglewood, CA Colwart (2016)

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urban environment is a constant interplay between particular and universal architectures (monuments and infrastructures) that help define the form of it over time, 2) the area is a product of its historical institutions (social, political, and economic), 3) the area is a unique spatial structure with its own architecture (buildings) and geography (streets, terrain, blocks, and limits) that are constantly evolving. These things have a direct impact on the viability of an area and affects the growth and decline of urban areas. Architectural decay is an inevitable condition that exists in most densely populated urban centers, and this study proposes sensitive redevelopment strategies that can spur urban revitalization.

Thesis Statement The individual architectural ruin is a critical component in reviving a declining community. Future architectural interventions within aging urban environments must maintain a constant dialogue with the architectural ruin to preserve the preceding layers of urban memory and facilitate progressive urban evolution. As SOLA evolves, architects will need to address the

Above: Figure 1.5 Granada Theater Inglewood, CA destroyed 1945. cinematreasures.com (2016)

Below: Figure 1.6 Vacant lot on Market St. Initial site option Inglewood, CA. Colwart (2016)


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Above: Figure 1.7 Fox Theater Inglewood, CA. abandoned 1993. Colwart (2016) Below: Figure 1.8 Abandoned storefront along Market St. Inglewood, CA. Colwart (2016)

many architectural ruins in the city, to accommodate rising densities, waning urban identities, and facilitate sustained urban revitalization through historic preservation, programmatic repurposing, and controlled redevelopment.

Context Inglewood, California is an incorporated community located at the western edge of the SOLA region. The downtown core of Inglewood is currently in decline. Once home to several movie palaces and a bustling retail-oriented business core, Market Street in downtown Inglewood has lost its prominence, significance, and identity. On Market and Queen streets, the Fox West Coast Theater, sits abandoned and decaying. The theater was destroyed by a sizeable interior fire in the early 1990s, and has yet to be reoccupied. Despite persistent vacancy, in 2014, the Fox Theater became a nationally registered historic landmark. The buildings adjacent to the Fox Theater are mostly vacated and


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boarded up. The design proposal includes addressing the currently declining urban environment per the following strategy; 1) repurpose existing vacant buildings 2) preserving the Fox Theater to a community operated cinema screening hall, and 3) redeveloping the northern lots of the Fox Theater block.

The Ruin Ruins are the by-products of architectural decay. Typically, the remains of a deteriorating building, the modern architectural ruin signifies a “system of absences” in terms of use, perception, and performance. Architectural ruins are either sacred or forgotten. Stonehenge, The Acropolis of Athens, The Forum Romanum, and Villa Savoye are examples of sacred ruins. Forgotten ruins exist throughout modern urban

Above: Figure 1.9 Forum Romanum. Present Bauer (2016) Below: Figure 1.10 Piranesi’s doric bay. Used in Theater Marcellus wikiart.org (2016)


landscapes in the form of industrial warehouses, abandoned homes, vacated businesses, and under used sports-entertainment venues. Cities tend to embrace their ruins as essential historical context while ignoring others as unavoidable blight due to a variety of political, social, and economic variables.

Above: Figure 1.11 Theater Marcellus arcade. archdaily.com (2016) Below: Figure 1.12 Casa del Fascio facade. Present, Giuseppi Teragni, architect archdaily.com (2016)

The ruin can be associated with perceptions of space, performance, and architectural value. In his 1975 exhibition of Advertisements, Bernard Tschumi comments on the qualitative architectural characteristics of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye by stating, “The most architectural thing about this building is the state of decay in which it is” (see Figure 1.2). (Malgrave & Goodman, 2011, pp.136-137). Tschumi goes on to say, “Architecture only survives where it negates the form that society expects of it. Where it negates itself by transgressing the

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limits that history has set for it.” (Malgrave & Goodman, 2011, pp.136-137). Interpreting Tschumi’s perspective on architecture, decay as a quality offers a unique opportunity for architects and designers to respond to in the form embracing, erasing, or rejecting the ruin. The architectural ruin allows the user to experience the most sensual aspects of architecture and space. The ruin is a bookmark of a past epoch. Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto (2006) explain in their book, Atlas of Novel Tectonics, “Thus, architecture is the substrate for the accidents of history rather than its embodiment.” (p. 18) Therefore, the ruin encompasses accumulated layers that continue to manifest throughout time. The ruin can be classified into two eras, pre-modern (classic) and modern (contemporary). Pre-modern ruins are usually iconic and sacred monuments that represent the continual progression of human civilization and technology. The Roman Coliseum, Parthenon, and Acropolis of Athens can be classified as pre-modern ruins. These iconic buildings are temporal vignettes that

Below: Figure 1.13 Grauman’s Chinese Theater forecourt Hollywood, CA. circa 1927 Meyer & Holler Architects Banham (1971)


Above: Figure 1.14 Watts Towers Watts, CA. Constructed 1954 Simon Rodia, artist/builder Banham (1971)

signify the existence of past civilizations. The modern ruin can be iconic or unknown, and usually follows a relatively brief period of success in terms of relevance. These ruins are transitioning into an indeterminate future. The modern ruin exists throughout most cities in the form of abandoned and decaying buildings. Villa Savoye, Casa Del Fascio, and the TWA Flight Terminal are examples of well-known modern ruins. These ruins have dormant architectural potential that need to be addressed to spur urban revitalization within their respective locales.

Anthony Vidler (1978) explains in his essay, The Third Typology, “The city is considered as a whole, it’s past and present revealed in its physical structure. It is in itself and of itself a new typology”. The built environment defines the urban landscape and provides a tangible identity for the city as it has evolved over time. Vidler goes on to explain, “Such ontology of the city is in the face of the modernist utopia, indeed radical. It denies all the social utopian and progressively positivist definitions of architecture for the last two hundred

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Above: Figure 1.15 Leimert Vision Theater forecourt Los Angeles, CA Colwart (2016)


years”. (Jenks, 2007, p.77) The utopic visions of Modernism have failed to be realized in the urban condition because they were originally never attainable. The modern ruins of L.A. were designed for a “hypothesized society” that never came to fruition. (Jenks, 2007, pp.77-78) In today’s globalized age, it is essential to investigate the long-term impact architecture has on the city and its identity.

The Icon and Identity

The city has

an identity and icons. The icon is a symbol

of something, and is a sign whose form directly reflects the thing it signifies. Identity is the fact of being, and exists in the absence of icons. The city has identity that evolves over time and it experiences fluctuations in perception and intensity. During periods of growth, icons and monuments reinforce the city’s identity. During periods of decline, the city’s identity can be reinforced by absence, decay, and desolation. During urban decline, existing icon’s and monument’s identities and relevance are questioned. Does it, then, become a ruin? The question is the type of ruin,

desirable or undesirable. How can architectural interventions address both types of ruins? This summons the architect to address the identity of the community through the locus. Rossi (1982) describes the locus of an area as the predominant theme of an area, or the “site situation”. The ruin and the locus of the area have a relationship that must be mediated by the architect (p.103). The icon and identity are parts that define the locus.

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Chapter II T h e

E s s a y


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Research Methodology To confirm the existence of architectural decay within SOLA, the research studied building vintage and physical condition. Poor physical appearance, limited maintenance, and chronic vacancy are all factors that influence architectural

decay. A photographic survey was conducted of the urban artifacts noted in Figure 2.3. Economics is a significant variable that affects the longevity of a building. Existing use, ownership, operating costs, and maintenance costs are a few economic variables that were researched. In terms of use, it became essential to understand Below: Figure 2.1 Building vintage in Los Angeles County. Reyna & Chester (2015)


the intended economic use of a building such as industrial, commercial, civic, or residential. Finally, understanding the history of SOLA is important to interpret the area’s social and cultural context. This investigation does not solve the problem of architectural decay, but offers building and urban redevelopment strategies that can be tested by future interventions within SOLA.

lots. The research findings indicate that urban containment and pedestrian/communityoriented developments are valid responses to architectural and urban decay. Based on the evidence of statistical data of constructed building stock, data of L.A.’s development patterns, and historical data, SOLA is an area of L.A. that is experiencing urban blight and architectural decay. To

address the architectural decay in the area, aging building stock throughout the region became the primary focus.

Los Angeles – A Heteropolis Ibelings (1998) Los Angeles (L.A.) is identified as the “example city of the future” (p.84). Ibelings (1998) goes on to define the L.A. metropolitan areas as

The design project associated with this investigation is the master planned redevelopment of a city block along Market Street in downtown Inglewood, CA that will be home to a new film institute and a restored theater. The intent of the project is to respond to the existing decaying building by repurposing it and developing a new use on the adjacent

Above: Figure 2.2 Factors that contribute to excluded places Andersen (2002)

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MID-WILSHIRE

15 PICO-ROBERTSON

BALDWIN HILLS

FOX HILLS CULVER CITY LADERA HGHTS

VIEW PARK

INGLEWOOD WESTCHESTER

USC EXPO PARK

LEIMERT PARK

VERNON

HISTORIC SOUTH LA

VAN NESS

HYDE PARK

MARINA DEL REY

DTLA

WEST ADAMS

WEST LA

SANTA MONICA

PICO UNION

KOREATOWN

MID-CITY

SOUTH LA (WEST)

CENTRAL ALAMEDA

HUNTINGTON PARK

MORNINGSIDE PARK

WESTMONT

LAX CENTURY HGHTS

SOUTH LA (EAST)

SOUTH GATE

WATTS ACTIVE ICON REPURPOSED ICON

EL SEGUNDO

HAWTHORNE

WEST ATHENS

ABANDONED ICON

WILLOWBROOK

FREEWAY SYSTEM ARTERIAL STREET LIGHT RAIL SYSTEM FUTURE LIGHT RAIL SYSTEM ANCHORING DISTRICTS PROPOSED SITE

a formless, structure less, indeterminate, decentralized, and segregated “heteropolis”

several identities, and an overabundance of icons. The city of L.A. benefits from favorable

– city of difference and plurality (p.84). Ibelings (1998) also goes on to state how the urbanism of L.A. is a similar phenomenon to which is happening in Southeast Asia (p.84). The city has

geography, ample space for sprawl, and population diversity. The various neighborhoods of L.A. often have unique and independent identities that do not require association with prevailing identities

Above: Figure 2.3 Greater Los Angeles metro area Macro contextual analysis. Colwart (2016)

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of the city such as Downtown, Hollywood, and the Westside. The architecture of the city reinforces the diverse range of identities and independence of locales while rejecting homogeneity and embracing heterogeneity as strength. The heterogeneity of L.A. gives

more value to the ruins of the city.

the inherent diversity of the city within distinct neighborhoods through discriminatory housing practices and reinforced by law enforcement institutions. This segregated many neighborhoods and classified them as desirable or undesirable areas through residential “red-

Evolution of the South L.A. Suburbs Planned in the early to mid-20th century, the suburbs south of downtown L.A. were planned to house a rising middle class; however,

Below: Figure 2.4 Downtown Inglewood, CA Micro contextual analysis. Colwart (2016)

L.A. COUNTY SUPERIOR COURT

NORTH STATION FLO REN C

EA VEN

UE

CROZIER MIDDLE SCHOOL

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT CRENSHAW LINE/LA BREA LA COUNTY ADMIN. BLDG INGLEWOOD CITY HALL

TOWNSITE

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT MARKET GATEWAY

NORTH MARKET E NU

LA

BR

EA

E AV

100’

150’

68’

FOX THEATER

VIEW

MA

E RK

TS

T

EE

TR

UA THEATER DEMOLISHED

RE

GE N

TS TR E

ET

HISTORIC CORE TS

S CU

EE TR

T

LO

HILLCREST

SOUTH MARKET

NC HE

STE R

AV E

NU E

S RE

D

LV

TB

LC HIL

MA

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lining�. This ultimately led to the concentration of ethnic minority groups into relatively small geographic areas of the city – mainly the eastern and south-central sections. According to Davis (1991), in the 1920s, approximately 95 percent of the city’s housing stock was off-limits to Blacks and other minorities (pp.161-164). These barriers were reinforced further through social, political, and economic institutions within the city. Despite the prevailing inequality of institutions within L.A. during the 20th century, the neighborhoods of SOLA

thriving communities. The tumultuous events of the Civil Rights era combined with a massive employment exodus in the late 1960s and the rise of street gangs began to threaten the prosperity of SOLA neighborhoods. Since the mid 20th century, the 1965 and 1992 L.A. riots, the introduction of crack-cocaine in the 1980s, and increase in crime have yielded negative urban characteristics that further alienate these neighborhoods from the rest of the city (Davis, 1990, pp. 309317). Crime, poverty, and urban isolation are perpetuating a continuous

developed into, at times,

cycle of despair and

Above: Figure 2.5 African-American youth circa 1965. Watts, CA Life Magazine (1965)

Above: Figure 2.6 African-American youth circa 1965. Watts, CA Life Magazine (1965)


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Above: Figure 2.7 Alleyway in Vermont Knolls. Los Angeles, CA L.A. Times (2014)

hopelessness. These once thriving communities have succumbed to urban decay, and the architecture of the area reinforces this as a physical manifestation

sprawl have led to the decay and abandonment of existing, older inner cities and have contributed to the demise of many city centers.� (p.28) Suburban

of decay. Today in SOLA, blight defines the urban landscape, and opportunities seem limited at face value.

sprawl in L.A. County has arguably contributed to the abandonment of buildings within SOLA. Immediately after World War I, there was an influx of AfricanAmerican migrants into Los Angeles. Because of the changing demographic,

Johnson, et. al. (2014) states, “the effects of suburbanization and


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restrictive housing covenants were put into place that segregated communities based on race and desirability. Thus, the surrounding areas such as the San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando, and Los Angeles’s west side became off-limits for non-whites. This forced non-white ethnic groups into SOLA and East Los Angeles. (Davis, 1990) In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against restrictive housing covenants, but suburban property developers and community homeowner associations continued to exclude non-white groups from desirable areas in L.A. County. (Davis, 1990) Thus, suburban sprawl was intensified, and SOLA became increasingly abandoned and isolated from the rest of the city. Some effects of suburban sprawl include the exodus of private investment, decreased tourism, loss of local amenities (malls, theaters, museums, etc.), and the decline of the area’s upper middle class. (Hortas-Rico, 2015) These effects ultimately lead to economic consequences that contribute to architectural decay within SOLA and ultimately the decline of the area. Andersen (2002) explains, “The decreased flow of capital and people out of the area” is a process that contributes to economic deprivation in an area. The absence of private investment directly contributes to architectural decay. Without private investment, building maintenance decreases which causes unattractiveness in physical appearance and likely discourages investment within blighted areas. Johnson et al (2014) explains that suburbanization contributed to “the flight of consumers to “big box stores” and “retail power centers” on the outskirts of town...” (p.29) Within SOLA the combination of “job suburbanization”, “economic

Above: Figure 2.8 Jack-in the-Box circa 1960s. Example of L.A.’s heterogeneity. Los Angeles, CA Banham (1971)


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Above: Figure 2.9 The Forum during renovation. Inglewood, CA L.A. Times (2013)

internationalization”, and the exodus of the minority professional class to the “Black Westside” – Inglewood, Ladera Heights, and Baldwin Hills - has affected the small business climate in the area. (Davis, 1990, pp.302305) Thus smaller businesses struggle to survive, and ultimately many buildings end up partially vacated or abandoned completely.

Layers of Ruin There are several layers of architectural ruin that must be identified within SOLA; the ruins of living, working, and culture. Social housing projects in south L.A. are can be perceived as the undesirable ruins of living, and reflect the community’s economic isolation from the rest of the city. The Nickerson Gardens, Jordan


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Downs, Imperial Courts, and Pueblo Del Rio housing projects in SOLA are examples of the ruins of living. Along the southern sections of the L.A. River Corridor, abandoned warehouses and plants in the former industrial districts of the city represent the ruins of working. The city of L.A. was once known as a major industrial hub, housing many major companies such as Goodyear and General Motors that employed a large share of SOLA residents in the mid-20th century. By the 1970s, many of these industrial districts were left abandoned and became unsafe locales. The riots of 65’ and 92’ accelerated the progression of many existing buildings housing small to medium size businesses into a state of decay. The riot disasters occurred without substantial redevelopment, and resulted in many ruins of working – desirable and undesirable – throughout the area. The last layer involves Above: Figure 2.10 5th Avenue Theater forecourt Inglewood, CA cinematreasures.com (2016) Left: Figure 2.11 Leimert Vision Theater Promenade Initial site option. Los Angeles, CA Colwart (2016)


the ruins of culture, which includes abandoned theaters, drive-ins, sports-entertainment venues, and malls. Some of these cultural ruins were demolished or destroyed completely without substantial redevelopment. The cultural layer of ruins is the focus of exploration within this study, because it represents a tangible aspect of urban identity.

Thematic Ruins: South L.A.’s Movie Palaces An iconic cultural ruin of L.A. is the single theater movie palace. L.A.’s movie palaces are largely ornate single room theaters designed and constructed between the 1930s and 1950s. The movie palaces reflected a burgeoning identity of the city’s film industry before 1950. In downtown L.A., the original movie palaces are Above: Figure 2.12 Academy Theater Initial site option. Inglewood, CA Colwart (2016) Right: Figure 2.13 Fox West Coast Theater Initial site option. Inglewood, CA Colwart (2016)

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located along Broadway, and still support a vibrant urban environment. After the World War II, many of these theaters became the hallmark of major suburban boulevards in L.A., and became monumental icons for their respective communities. These movie palaces were built as leisure elements of growing middle class neighborhoods. In the 1950s, the growing popularity of the television, advent of multi-theater cinemas, and newly enacted anti-trust laws targeting L.A. film studios eroded the relevance of the movie palaces. Weekly movie theater attendance in America decreased from a peak of 90 million per week in the late 1940s to a low of 15.8 million per week in 1971. (Valentine, 1994, p.195) Many of these once iconic movie palaces were converted into churches, adult theaters, laundry cleaners, or abandoned completely. These movie palaces were once home to many Hollywood film premiers. Now, as obsolete follies, these theaters


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Below: Figure 2.14 5th Avenue Theater panoramic Initial site option Inglewood, CA. Colwart (2016)

reflect the uncomfortable realities of a declining urban area. In some cases, these decaying movie palaces allude to a core problem within the community, a lack

of substantial cultural institutions such as museums, theaters, concert halls, community marketplaces, and creative arts institutions. Due to these movie palaces’ iconic and monumental nature, they can be used as a beacon for urban revitalization.


Chapter III The Urban Artifact


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Conceptual Masterplanning Precedent: The Cleantech Corridor – Addressing Industrial Ruins of Downtown L.A. In 2010, Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc) co-sponsored a competition in L.A.’s old rail and industrial districts adjacent to the L.A. River, Boyle Heights, Downtown, and the northern extents of Southeast L.A. (Bergman & Zellner, 2010, pp.13-23). The intent was to revitalize a decaying industrial district for a promising clean technologies industry (Bergman & Zellner, pp.13-23). The Cleantech Corridor’s goal is to revitalize, redevelop, and attain a sustainable economy along the L.A. River corridor to identify the city as a contemporary global innovation competitor. SCI-Arc’s initiative southeast of downtown gained local political and economic support, and has begun to generate development interests throughout the area. Today, if you walk around the Arts and Toy districts you will find cafes, restaurants, art galleries, and tap houses, which highlights another, phase in the area’s urban evolution. The Cleantech Corridor addressed the economic opportunity of a formerly blighted industrial region. The Cleantech Corridor plan is an example of architectural intervention reinvigorating a previously declining locale.

Above: Figure 3.1 Cleantech Corridor Downtown Los Angeles, CA Bergman & Zeller (2011)


AUDITORIUM

BACK STAGE

BASEMENT PARADOS

Precedent: Timeless Ruin

OFFICES + CIRCULATION

Designed and built near the end of the 19th Century, Louis Sullivan’s, Chicago Auditorium is an example of a timeless ruin. The theater has remained an iconic building over the decades, and has maintained its BACK AUDITORIUM STAGE relevance through it culturally based program. Originally designed for live performing arts, the theater addresses BASEMENT LOUIS SULLIVAN |1890 | CHICAGO AUDITORIUM BUILDING the need for cultural institutions and interrelating private Above: Figure 3.2 PARADOS Chicago Auditorium exterior. programmatic functions such as offices. Now the Chicago archdaily.com (2016) Auditorium is partially used as a private school and still hosts live theater functions. The massing is a simple AUDITORIUM COURTYARD READING VESTIBULE MULTIPURPOSE cuboidSCHOOL volume with a hierarchical tower, which reinforced monumentality and identity. At the street level, the foyer and storefronts relate directly to the sidewalk, which is the primary generator in urban pedestrian traffic. The theater is located close to mass transit, which makes it more LOUIS SULLIVAN |1890 | CHICAGO AUDITORIUM BUILDING Above: Figure 3.3 Chicago Auditorium interior. accessible to a variety of users. Hierarchy and street-level archdaily.com (2016) pedestrian porosity are characteristics that will need to be ALVAR AALTO |1962 | WOLFSBURG CULTURAL CENTER incorporated into my design thinking. AUDITORIUM VESTIBULE

COURTYARD MULTIPURPOSE

READING SCHOOL OFFICES + CIRCULATION

VIOLIN

HOUSE OF ARTISTS

AUDITORIUM

ALVAR AALTO |1962 | WOLFSBURG CULTURAL CENTER

VIOLIN CASE

BACK STAGE

BASEMENT PARADOS

LOUIS KAHN |1973 | FORT WAYNE VIOLINTHEATER FOR THE DRAMATIC ARTS

HOUSE OF ARTISTS

VIOLIN

CASE

PARTHENON HALL

Above: Figure 3.4 Chicago Auditorium program section. Colwart (2016)

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Precedent: Mutual Space Designed and constructed during the mid-20th Century, Alvar Aalto’s Wolfsburg Cultural Center provides a community program for an,OFFICES otherwise, isolated working + CIRCULATION class community in Wolfsburg, Germany. The program includes functions as libraries, adult education facility, auditorium, event rooms, and private courtyards. This cultural center provides a common identity, outside of BACK work, for the community to associate. The form is STAGE based AUDITORIUM on a series of different size hexagonal cells rotating about BASEMENT a larger rectangular form. The section of the building PARADOSto communicate the is low and horizontal and attempts coexistence of intimate and shared space. Although the cultural center is not monumental in terms of form, its community-based program is monumental because Above: Figure 3.5 it addresses the heart of an urban fabric with shared Wolfsburg Cultural Center interior. archdaily.com (2016) space. The building does not have a specific function, yet it is the physical manifestation of the area’s locus. The community-based elements of the program are the essential portions of the Wolfsburg Cultural Center are concepts that will be integrated throughout the design LOUIS SULLIVAN |1890 | CHICAGO AUDITORIUM BUILDING process.

AUDITORIUM VESTIBULE

COURTYARD MULTIPURPOSE

READING SCHOOL

Above: Figure 3.6 Wolfsburg Cultural Center program section. Colwart (2016)

ALVAR AALTO |1962 | WOLFSBURG CULTURAL CENTER


Precedent: Contemporary Ruin Bernard Tschumi’s New Acropolis Museum was ALVAR AALTOdesigned |1962 | WOLFSBURG and built in CULTURAL the 2000s.CENTER The museum embraces physical decay as monuments of time as a witness rather than a competing interest. The museum is sited on top of existing archaeological excavations and located near the original Acropolis of Athens. The program is composed through a series of spatial sequences that guides the user from the original physical ruins of the site to the VIOLIN VIOLIN CASE penthouse gallery hall that faces The Acropolis. The HOUSE OF ARTISTS museum hovers over the excavations and only anchors itself to the ground in strategic locations. The recognition of solid and void is a critical component of the museum’s design. The museum is an example of contemporary architecture interfacing with existing physical ruins, and Above: Figure 3.7 responds to the existing through program and spatial New Acropolis Museum exterior. archdaily.com (2016) sequences. I hope to integrate the mentioned qualities of the New Acropolis Museum into my design process as spatial sequences are composed in relation to the LOUIS KAHN |1973 | FORT WAYNE THEATER FOR THE DRAMATIC ARTS development of the program.

PARTHENON HALL

GALLERY GALLERY

VOID

GALLERY GALLERY

EXCAVATED RUINS

Above: Figure 3.8 New Acropolis Museum program section. Colwart (2016)

BERNARD TSCHUMI |2009| NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM

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BASEMENT PARADOS

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Precedent: Composed Space Designed and constructed in the late 1960s, Louis Kahn’s Fort Wayne Theater for the Dramatic Arts is based on a poetic, yet straightforward concept, layering functions. Kahn separates the program into three components; 1) the violin – theater, 2) the violin case – LOUIS SULLIVAN |1890 | CHICAGO AUDITORIUM BUILDING public foyers and gathering spaces, and 3) the house of artists – studios, rehearsal room, and backstage. Also, these separated layers are associated with the sequence and method of construction. Formally, the exterior of the building is a series of platonic solids with arch AUDITORIUM COURTYARD READING and circular voids. The interior foyers, promenades, SCHOOL VESTIBULE MULTIPURPOSE and theater are composed to complement the intended functions and speeds of the space. The composition of spatial sequences and layered program are aspects of this Above: Figure 3.9 precedent that will be useful in the design’s development. Fort Wayne Theater interior. archdaily.com (2016)

ALVAR AALTO |1962 | WOLFSBURG CULTURAL CENTER

HOUSE OF ARTISTS

VIOLIN

VIOLIN CASE

Above: Figure 3.10 Fort Wayne Theater program section. Colwart (2016)

LOUIS KAHN |1973 | FORT WAYNE THEATER FOR THE DRAMATIC ARTS


32

(E) BLDG. REPURPOSE

FOX THEATER (E) BLDG. RESTORE

SITE REDEVELOPMENT (E) BLDG. REPURPOSE

PARTIALLY Above: Figure 3.11 OCCUPIED Block development strategies. Market Street VACANT Inglewood, CA Colwart (2016)

Goal and Opportunities VACANT

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT LOT

PARTIALLY OCCUPIED

EXISTING CONDITIONS (MARKET STREET)

This thesis investigates the following responses to architectural decay: 1) restoration (preservation & infill), 2) repurposing (preservation and reconfiguration, and 3) redevelopment (reset & reinstate). Repurposing is adapting for use in a different purpose or reinstating an object. Referencing Robert Venturi, the “decorated shed” is prime for repurposing. Restoration is preserving something to its original use. The “duck” can only be restored. Finally, redevelopment is erases an existing logic and order, and installs a different and new one. The “decorated shed” and the “duck” can both be redeveloped. An architectural response will need to focus on the individual ruin and its contextual relationship to a local identity, and analyze the past successes and

PARTIALLY OCCUPIED

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT

VACANT LOT

PARTIALLY OCCUPIED

Above: Figure 3.12 Market Street building occupancy. Colwart (2016)


33 L HAW

RENS

RE C FUTU

FL

EN OR

E AV

HILLCREST BLVD

5

LOCUST ST.

REGENT ST.

MARKET ST.

LA BREA AVE

GREVILLEA AVE

CROZIER MIDDLE SCHOOL + CITY HONORS PREP. ACADEMY

RT

CE

LINE

4 3 2 1

QUEEN ST.

QUEEN ST.

CIVIC CTR.

MANCHESTER AVE GREVILLEA AVE

INGLEWOOD HIGH SCHOOL

N

failures of the ruin under observation. The ruin, as a temporal object, is subject to change in terms of its context and use.

commerce hubs, and programmatic anchors (venues, museums, public spaces, entertainment districts, and creative

It is important to take advantage of existing opportunities of access, adjacency, economy, and program. Various aspects of the built environment that experience change include adjacency to transportation networks,

districts)

Site Selection The chosen sites of interest within this investigation are the Fox Theater in downtown Inglewood and the

Above: Figure 3.13 Downtown Inglewood figure- ground. Colwart (2016)


Leimert Park Vision Theater in the Leimert Park neighborhood of SOLA. The two sites are experiencing change in terms of adjacency to resources and economy. Development ventures such as the new L.A. Rams stadium, revitalization of the Forum, and the introduction of the Crenshaw/LAX light rail transit line can

Right: Figure 3.14 Leimert Park figure- ground. Colwart (2016)

The Leimert Park Vision site is located within five minutes of the University of Southern

SH

EN CR AW E IN TL LR

A SH N RE C

DEGNAN BLVD.

43RD ST.

reconnect these once isolated neighborhoods as anchoring urban nodes of the L.A. metro area. Given the opportunities within SOLA and Inglewood, new and diverse users will have the opportunity to interface these areas.

W BL

43RD PL.

VD LEIMERT BLVD.

VERNON AVE

34


35

California (USC). The theater is nestled within a larger master planned urban promenade. The vision theater was built in the 1930s in attempts to lure home buyers to a newly formed suburb close to downtown and industrial districts along the L.A. River corridor.

The marquee of the theater can be seen from blocks away. The Leimert Park site currently hosts a wide array of community events and festivals on the weekends. Locally, Leimert Park is identified as the hub of AfricanAmerican culture within SOLA. Despite its cultural

S

E

M

Above: Figure 3.15 The Block ANTAGONIST THE BLOCK Cinegram denoting space,| events, and movements within the city block Colwart (2016)

S

E

M

SCENE | THE STREET


S

significance, the site still succumbs to decay. The theater and surrounding business are unable to reach full permanent occupancy, and the pocket park located across the promenade from the theater is home to a large transient population. The presence of the transient E

population attracts undesirables such as street gangs, drug dealers, and other criminals. Security is a major need for this site to attract people whom are not native to the Leimert Park neighborhood. For this site, the proposal includes the improvement of an M ANTAGONIST | THE BLOCK

S

E

M

Above: Figure 3.16 The Street SCENE |events, THE STREET Cinegram denoting spaces, and movements along Market St. Colwart (2016)

S

E

M

PROTAGONIST | THE RUIN

36


E

S

M

ANTAGONIST | THE BLOCK

37

existing arts-based urban village by repurposing the Vision Theater as a central anchor into a concert hall, a community marketplace, and live-work creative studios. Located in Inglewood’s downtown core, Market Street is the

S

runs north-south and intersects major east-west thoroughfares including Manchester, Florence, and La Brea avenues. Market Street is adjacent to significant civic and cultural programs that include Inglewood City Hall, The Forum, L.A. County Superior Court,

E

E

S

storefront buildings and vacant lots that seem to further reinforce the streetscape’s abandoned identity. On Market and Queen streets, the Fox West Coast Theater, is abandoned and in a state of decay. The theater M experienced a sizeable SCENE | THE STREET fire in the 1990s, and has

M

Above: Figure 3.17 The Ruin Cinegram denoting spaces, events, and movements associated with the ruin PROTAGONIST | THE RUIN Colwart (2016)

city’s historic district. Once home to several movie palaces and a bustling business core, the Market Street area of downtown Inglewood has lost its prominence, cultural significance, and optimistic identity. Market Street

and the future CrenshawLAX light rail transit line. Despite ideal adjacencies, the area continues to decline because of a lack of identity, culture, and purpose. Adjacent to the Fox Theater are several partially vacant

yet to be reoccupied. The Fox Theater, designed by architect S. Charles Lee, was built in 1949 as a replacement movie palace to the Granada Theater, built in 1924 and destroyed in a fire in 1945 (Valentine, 1996, p. 207). In 2014,


38

M

Above: Figure 3.18 Concept A Colwart (2016)

M M ANTAGONIST | THE BLOCK

HOVER + CONFLICT + CONNECT

ANTAGONIST | THE BLOCK

HOVER + CONFLICT + CONNECT

ANTAGONIST | THE BLOCK

HOVER + CONFLICT + CONNECT

M M

Above: Figure 3.19 Concept B Colwart (2016)

M SCENE | THE STREET

ANCHOR + FISSURE + RECIPROCATE

SCENE | THE STREET

ANCHOR + FISSURE + RECIPROCATE

SCENE | THE STREET

ANCHOR + FISSURE + RECIPROCATE

M M M

Above: Figure 3.20 Concept C Colwart (2016)

PROTAGONIST | THE RUIN

EXPOSE + VEIL + SUPERIMPOSE

PROTAGONIST | THE RUIN

EXPOSE + VEIL + SUPERIMPOSE

PROTAGONIST | THE RUIN

EXPOSE + VEIL + SUPERIMPOSE


39

Above: Figure 3.21 Concept A Model Colwart (2016)

Above: Figure 3.22 Concept B Model Colwart (2016)

Above: Figure 3.23 Concept C Model Colwart (2016)


TYPOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

SSESSMENT

PROGRAM: FILM INSTITUTE

N N N N N N Y N

Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y

Y Y Y

LIBRARY EDUCATION CENTER CONVENTION CENTER LIVE-WORK SITE INFILL

ADAPTIVE

Y Y N N Y Y Y N

MUSIC HALL

INTERACTION OPPORTUNITY

OPPORTUNITY

ADAPTIVE

Y Y N N Y Y Y N

THEATER RESTORATION

CULTURE

INTERACTION

Y Y N N Y Y Y N

N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N

IDENTITY

CULTURE

Y Y N N Y Y Y Y

N N Y Y N N Y N

40

PURPOSE

IDENTITY

Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y

REVITALIZATION

PURPOSE

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N

MUSEUM CULTURAL CENTER RESIDENTIAL HOSPITALITY REACTIVATION PERFORMINGURBAN ARTS CENTER PLAZA MUSIC HALL MARKETPLACE

COMMUNITY MARKETPLACE

ACCESS

REVITALIZATION

N N Y Y N Y Y N

SITE INFILL

Y = MEETS N= DOES NOT MEET GOAL = 7/9 MEET MIN.

ECONOMY

ACCESS

PROGRAM: LEIMERT PARK ARTS VILLAGE

Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N Y N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y

SITE DEVELOPMENT STUDENT CLASSROOMS + WORKSPACES + EQUIPMENT ROOMS

SITE INFILL

SITE INFILL

STUDENT EXHIBITION HALL

LIVE-WORK LOFTS

FOX THEATER REPURPOSE STUDENT LECTURE HALL + ADMINISTRATION + FILM ARCHIVES

LIVE-WORK LOFTS STREET REACTIVATION URBAN PROMENADE

Above: Figure 3.24 Leimert Park site strategy. Colwart (2016)

Above: Figure 3.25 Market Street site strategy Colwart (2016)

the Fox Theater became a nationally recognized historic landmark. The buildings adjacent to the Fox Theater are mostly vacated and boarded up.

decay. The Leimert Park site only requires security and a revitalized identity that will attract non-native users. I am proposing the following, within

existing vacant lot adjacent to the theater.

This Market Street site needs purpose, identity, economy, access, and security. This site was chosen over the Leimert Park site because it has more needs that deal with architectural and urban

the block of the Fox Theater, to address the currently declining urban environment; 1) repurpose existing vacated buildings 2) restoring the Fox Theater to a cooperative operated screening hall, and 3) redeveloping the

Three conceptual strategies for The Fox Theater Block involve studying the context at varying scales; the individual ruin, the street, and the block. The first scale occurs microscopically by

Conceptual Framework


41

addressing the individual ruin, The Fox Theater. The ruin in this case seeks out moments of opportunity to survive which can manifest in the form of adapting programmatic use per the needs of the context. An important assumption of the ruin is its negative affect on the overall perception of the local context. The ruin is perceived through the lens of solid, void, layers, depth, and memory. The second scale zooms out to a midpoint between micro and macro and focuses on the street as a perceptual device that allows the user to experience both the ruin and the context. The street sets the scene for the experiences that will be formed within an urban context. The street in a sense acts a threshold for the user in which phenomena are experienced such as light, materiality, and transparency. Finally, at the macro scale, the block is interpreted as a direct reflection of its aggregates. The block seeks evolution and manifests itself in the form of spaces, sequences, and events.

Above: Figure 3.26 Conceptual sketch. Colwart (2016)

Typology The needs of Fox Theater Block are economy, access, revitalization, purpose, identity, culture, and viable program. Given the needs, it is important to test varying typologies against these requirements. Identity, purpose, and culture are essential needs for the site, and are very influential in selecting a final typology. The typology that fully addresses the essential needs of the site is an Above: Figure 3.27 Conceptual sketch. Colwart (2016)


42

Right: Figure 3.28 Conceptual sketch. Colwart (2016)

education center. An education center can provide a community with a sense of identity through association and influence. Also, a culture is generated within the education institution’s community that has the potential to spill over into the adjacent community. Lastly, the presence of a non-commodity program such as a school gives the currently abandoned buildings a new purpose for existence. Despite hopeful assessments of introducing this typology into the context, it is important to recognize the opportunity for failure and address vulnerabilities through programming.

Program

The program introduces the combination of

occupational learning , collective resource management, and assembly as an essential response to the site’s locus. The Inglewood Film Institute (I.F.I.) and Market Street Media Cooperative (M.S.M.C.) share a programmatic container. These organizations are fictional, and only realized for the purposes of this study. I.F.I/M.S.M.C’s mission is to provide open access to vocational education in the media and visual arts along


43

Above: Figure 3.29 Massing study of marquee as a motif Colwart (2016)


44

Above: Figure 3.30 Massing study of corner condition. Colwart (2016)


45

Above: Figure 3.31 Model study of facade conditions. Colwart (2016)


46

Above: Figure 3.32 Model study of building orientation in relation to Market St. Colwart (2016)


47

with providing community accessible resources for personal and professional development. The I.F.I wing will educate 200-300 students on an annual basis. The critical components of the program are the following; 1) public screening/lecture hall, 2) administrative offices, 3) classrooms, 4) audio/production/mastering labs, 5) soundstages, 6) recording studios, 7) equipment rooms, 8) community resource center, 9) virtual film archive and library, 10) exhibition halls, and 11) fabrication studios. The key in deploying the program onto the site is addressing the relationship between public and private functions. It is also important to ensure moments of collaboration between the private and public spheres of the program. The ruin, street, and block are devices that will need to be used as complementing elements to the deployed program. the program. The ruin, street, and block are devices that will need to be used as complementing elements to the deployed program.

Above: Figure 3.33 Conceptual sketch analyzing building anchoring conditions and sidewalk relationship. Colwart (2016)


Code and Zoning The Fox Theater Block is a part of the Inglewood town site, and is zoned as historic core (HC). The maximum height allowed by the zoning ordinance is 68 feet which is based on the height of the theater’s marquee sign. There are zero-foot front and side yard setbacks and a two-

foot rear yard setback. The site is zoned by land use as C1, Limited Commercial. The code and zoning elements I will need to adhere to are the Inglewood Transit Oriented Development (TOD) plan, Chapter 17 of the Inglewood Municipal Code, 2016 California Building Code, 2016 California Green Code, and the 2012 International Building Below: Figure 3.34 Preliminary program deployment diagram. Colwart (2016)

48


49

IFI

MSMC

PROGRAM INGLEWOOD FILM INSTITUTE / MARKET STREET MAKERS LAB - Wood shop - Digital Fabrication - Metal Shop

STAGING ZONE

PUBLIC RECORDING STUDIOS

PUBLIC SOUNDSTAGE

- Mixing rooms (3) -Sound Booths (3)

EXHIBITION HALL

ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OFFICES

- Green Room - Stage set capable

PUBLIC LABS -Mastering (3) -Audio (3) -Production (3)

COMMUNITY RESOURCE CENTER

COLLABORATION SPACES

EQUIPMENT CENTER -Rentals - Audio -Visual -Hardware

Above: Figure 3.35 Land use diagram. L.A. County Assessor’s Office parcel map MEDIA COOPERATIVEColwart (2016)

STAGING ZONE

RECORDING STUDIOS

STUDENT SOUNDSTAGE

ACTING CLASSROOM

- Green Room - Stage set capable

STUDENT LABS FOX THEATER

- Public theater - Screenings/Showings + Independent + Student + Industry

- Lectures

-Mastering (3) -Audio (3) -Production (3)

FILM ARCHIVE - Physical access -Screening booths - VR Booths

ACTING CLASSROOM

SCREENING CLASSROOM

SCREENING CLASSROOM

ACTING CLASSROOM

WILL CALL FOYER PUBLIC PROMENADE SIDEWALK

Above: Figure 3.36 Program diagram. Colwart (2016)


Above: Figure 3.37 Conceptual vignette. Concept A Colwart (2016)

HOVER + CONFLICT + CONNECT

Above: Figure 3.38 Conceptual vignette. Concept B Colwart (2016)

ANCHOR + FISSURE + RECIPROCATE

Above: Figure 3.39 Conceptual vignette. Concept C Colwart (2016)

EXPOSE + VEIL + SUPERIMPOSE

50


Chapter IV

The Film Institute


53

Design Development The design process continued prioritized the following; vision, light, memory, way finding, materiality, and transparency as tools that are used to modulate a person’s perception of their spatial experience and associated phenomena. The design project is conceptualized as a montage of spatial sequences that progresses towards designated events. Throughout these sequences, cinematic transitions will be used to inform the user of changes in function and atmosphere such as cut, fade, dissolve, wipe, and focus. These transitions are accomplished using materiality and transparencies. Throughout the project, a sense of voyeurism is reinforced in select private zones such as acting lofts, central atrium, and recording studios.

Above: Figure 4.1 Initial site plan. Colwart (2017)


Along Market, the project was set back from the street approximately 20 feet. The setback seeks to demonstrate reverence of the new development towards the Fox Theater, and allow it to remain a significant urban artifact. Given the importance of the area’s locus as a place of assembly, there is an opportunity to extend the domain of the sidewalk as a place that acts as portal or threshold into the project and the restored theater.

Due to the high vacancy percentage on The Fox Block, it became apparent to critically analyze the existing buildings based on their relevance. The relevance of the building is gauged by a combination of use, occupancy, historic significance, and architectural consequence. The architectural interventions on this block involve preservation, repurposing, and redevelopment. The former two options are

the most sensitive and sustainable interventions in most urban scenarios. Redevelopment questions the permanence of the existing buildings. The new development must seek to reinforce the urban artifact’s permanence. The building on the corner of Market and Regent streets and south of the existing vacant site were demolished to address the block’s pedestrian corner and integrate it into planned public space. Below: Figure 4.2 Site plan & elevation sketches Colwart (2017)

54


55

Above: Figure 4.3 Program diagram. Iteration 1 Colwart (2017)

Below: Figure 4.4 Code analysis Colwart (2017)


56

Above: Figure 4.5 Elevation study. Colwart (2017)

Below: Figure 4.6 Isometric drawing. Iteration 1 Colwart (2017)


57 PROGRAM DATA + LEGEND MAKERS LAB - Wood shop - Digital Fabrication - Metal Shop

STAGING ZONE

PUBLIC RECORDING STUDIOS

PUBLIC SOUNDSTAGE

- Mixing rooms (3) -Sound Booths (3)

EXHIBITION HALL

ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OFFICES

- Green Room - Stage set capable

PUBLIC LABS -Mastering (3) -Audio (3) -Production (3)

COMMUNITY RESOURCE CENTER

COLLABORATION SPACES

EQUIPMENT CENTER -Rentals - Audio -Visual -Hardware

STAGING ZONE

RECORDING STUDIOS

STUDENT SOUNDSTAGE

ACTING CLASSROOM

- Green Room - Stage set capable

STUDENT LABS -Mastering (3) -Audio (3) -Production (3)

FOX THEATER

- Public theater - Screenings/Showings

FILM ARCHIVE

+ Independent + Student + Industry

- Physical access -Screening booths - VR Booths

- Lectures

CIRCULATION FILM SCHOOL VERTICAL CIRCULATION

ACTING CLASSROOM

SCREENING CLASSROOM

MEDIA COOPERATIVE

SCREENING CLASSROOM

TERRACE

ACTING CLASSROOM

WILL CALL FOYER

COMMUNAL RESOURCE

PUBLIC PROMENADE SIDEWALK

THEATER

Above: Figure 4.7 Program diagram. Iteration 2 Colwart (2017) Below: Figure 4.8 Isometric drawing. Iteration 2 Colwart (2017)

USE GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS TO AID THERMAL PERFORMANCE - IRRIGATE WITH PERCENTAGE OF STORM WATER RESERVES - USE MAJORITY XEROSCAPE PLANTING MASSING BROKEN UP FOR CROSS-VENTILATION - OPEN AIR INTERSTITIAL TERRACES SHIELD AFTERNOON SUMMER SUN IN COURTYARD SPACES VIA MASSINGS WEST FACING FACADES: -SMALLER & CONTROLLED FENESTRATION OPENINGS - SOLAR PROCUREMENT VIA FACADE + ROOF - WIND PROCUREMENT VIA FACADE

PRESERVE EXISTING BUILDING STRUCTURE AND FACADES

SOUTH FACING FACADES: MEDIUM FENESTRATION OPENING WITH RECESS OR OVERHANGS SOLAR PROCUREMENT VIA FACADE

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: - COURTYARD REFLECTING POOL - DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM

EAST FACING FACADES: -LARGE SCREENED & RECESSED FENESTRATION OPENINGS -WIND PROCUREMENT VIA FACADE

NORTH FACING FACADES: LARGEST FENESTRATION OPENINGS


58 LIMITED COMMERCIAL NORTH MARKET 110’ MAX. HEIGHT CIVIC CENTER 122’ MAX. HEIGHT

125’ HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION TYP. 68’

VERTICAL CIRCULATION TYP. A-2

MOTION PICTURE/PROJECTION ROOM

106’ S-1 100’ A-1

256’

LIMITED COMMERCIAL HISTORIC CORE ZONE 68’ MAX. HEIGHT

Above: Figure 4.9 Code diagram. Iteration 2 Colwart (2017) Below: Figure 4.10 Isometric drawing. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

RE GE N

TS TRE ET

RK MA

QU

EE N

STR

EE

T

S ET

T EE

TR


59

TO LA BREA TRANSIT STATION

TO FLORENCE AVE FUTURE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT

TO L.A. COUNTY SUPERIOR COURT

(E) PUBLIC PARKING LOT

REGENT STREET

LA BREA AVENUE

MARKET STREET

KJLH BROADCAST STATION

REGENT TOWERS (E) RESIDENTIAL FUTURE MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

COURTYARD

BACKLOT

FOX THEATER

TO INGLEWOOD CIVIC CENTER

QUEEN STREET

FUTURE K-8 CHARTER SCHOOL TO MANCHESTER AVE

SITE PLAN

N 0

50

100

25

Above: Figure 4.11 Block masterplan. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

The sustainable strategies that were

exterior courtyards during peak summer months.

do not require daylight such as sound stages,

implemented began with optimizing the project to perform the best during seasonal extremes through day lighting, shading, fenestration patterns, and building orientation. The massing is configured to shade the

Fenestration systems along the northern faรงade will be expansive and facilitate indirect day lighting. The central atrium allows natural daylight to penetrate the core spaces of the project. Elements of the program that

film screening rooms, and building services are situated along the westfacing faรงade. The west faรงade is deeper than the others and performs as a thermal barrier, and has limited openings and fenestration due to its


60

B 1

patio A

A

1

1

virtual cinema

foyer A

A

2

2

screening hall

atrium

A

A

3

3

cafe

women's

gallery men's

community center atrium

bldg services

reception

equipment room

lobby

fabrication yard

A

A

4

4

courtyard

fabrication lab

breezeway

backlot

B 1

N GROUND FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.12 Ground floor plan. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


61

B 1

exterior terrace A

A

1

1

film archive

film archive A

A

2

2

classroom

vest.

A 3

mixing room

sound booth A 3

vest.

mixing room

sound booth

vest.

mixing room

sound booth

mixing room

sound booth

women's

atrium

vest.

men's

lounge

storage

acting classroom

reception

conference office A

A

4

4

office open office office

storage

open office

B 1

N SECOND FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.13 Second floor plan. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


62

B 1

open below exterior

green room A

A

1

1

green room

lounge

A

A

2

2

screening room A

A

3

3

media lab

women's

men's

storage

acting classroom

reception

media lab A

A

4

4

open studio

B 1

N THIRD FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.14 Third floor plan. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


63

B 1

A

A

1

1

A

A

2

2

A

A

3

3

open studio

screen writers studio

A

A

4

4

open studio

B 1

N MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.15 Mezzanine floor plan. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


64

film archive

exit

fabrication yard

virtual cinema

lobby/ reception

SECTION B-1

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.16 Building section through atrium. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

higher thermal loading. All other fenestration systems are mediated using overhangs, recessed openings, and vertical fins. Sustainability is more focused on supporting the community and its identity through the redevelopment of the northern half of the block and program. A sustainable design strategy

open studios

media labs

sound booth

mixing room

cafe

within the building is an assumed as a basic responsibility of any design process.

vestibule

Neuroscience Integration Arbib (2015) stresses the importance of memory within our life, and how it shapes our consciousness of place and being. In his essay, Arbib (2015), he provides an account of a man who had a portion of his hippocampus removed. atrium

screening room

classroom

foyer

screening room

The man, Henry Gustav Molaison, lost the ability to store episodic memories. However, he could recall activity and procedural based memories thanks to his cerebral cortex. (p.82). This is meaningful because it suggests that spatial

sequence is important in universal design (designing for everyone). This makes way finding vital within the design process. Eberhard (2009) cites a study that shows how taxi drivers’ hippocampus tended to grow due to their frequent experience within a city setting. (p.190) The memories are formed in accumulation, and way finding becomes smoother and easier. This scientific finding will be integrated into the development of my architectural solution. The two other parts of the brain’s memory system, the thalamus and cerebral cortex are also vital


65

Above: Figure 4.17 Market street elevation. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

Above: Figure 4.18 Alley elevation. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

Above: Figure 4.19 Regent street elevation. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


66

Above: Figure 4.20 Exterior vignette at courtayrd. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


67

components in forming memories. This takes different memory type as input and allows everyone a truly unique experience of place and being. (Eberhard, 2009, p.191) Vision and light are the essence of what architecture means and how it is valued within society. Through vision we can conceive harmony, symmetry, and proportion

which we label as beauty. (Eberhard, 2009, p.69) Eberhard (2009) explains that humans experience stronger visual responses in â€œâ€Śspaces and placesâ€? than any other form of visual stimulation. Harmony, symmetry, and proportion are the basic principles of architecture, yet neuroscience has concluded what architects have practiced for centuries. Within this

Above: Figure 4.21 Preliminary transverse section. Colwart (2017)


68

atrium green room

green room

exterior terrace film archive

film archive

virtual cinema

SECTION A-1

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.22 Transverse section. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

project, it is important to use these basic principles when composing what the building looks like from the street. Is there harmony with the context?

features. This idea put into practice seems logical, but there are many instances within architecture where light and shadow are completely ignored. For

Is it proportional to the individual, street, and block scales? Eberhard (2009) goes on to conclude that light is a complementing, yet crucial component, to vision, because it allows us to distinguish architectural

this project it became important to carefully curate the interaction between light, shadow, and visual perception within architectural space.


69

The experience of a building is shaped through our perception and cognition of place and being. This impacts visually able users by directly engaging their vision along with short and long-term memory. The visual cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus are the physiological components of the memory system which are engaged through vision. Vision and memory influences

spatial perception, sensory experiences, and way finding. It is crucial to focus on spatial cognition, cues within way finding, and transparency conditions to storyboard a montage of spatial experiences. Since our vision and memory are interconnected, the concepts based on vision and memory will need to be synthesized throughout the project.

atrium

open studios

media labs

sound booth

mixing room

cafe

SECTION A-3

screening room

classroom

vestibule

foyer

screening room

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.23 Transverse section. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


70

open office

motion picture display screen open office breezeway

SECTION A-4

office

fabrication yard

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 4.24 Transverse section. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

The moods expressed throughout the design project are arousal and curiosity, and helps to shape the user experience throughout the project.

is important to reactivate the areas adjacent to it through experiential qualities. Considering the moods being expressed in the project helped

into the design projects. It will be expressed by dealing primarily with the project’s interior spaces. Therefore, the building’s form is irrelevant, and is a

These two emotions deal directly with a person’s perception of space and place. Arousal and curiosity are emotions that deal with anticipation and reaction. Since the design project is responding to a decaying urban artifact, it

the development of project’s interiors, spatial relationships, and façade conditions to craft quality spatial experiences. Arousal is another mood that deals with awe, amazement, and surprise that was incorporated

summation of its spaces, events, and trajectories. Since the project responds to an urban artifact, it is essential for the project to incorporate it as central stimulus throughout the building. The users of the project will have a constant


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visual dialogue of the theater throughout the atrium. Curiosity deals with awe, submission, and distraction. This emotion is important because it provides the users of the building with a constant working goal, discovering the locus of the block. This is accomplished through the façade conditions, transparencies, spatial tension, and framing landmarks as a part of the circulation system. Throughout the project, conceal, reveal, and veil are established transparency conditions. These conditions are applied to the building’s facades, internal thresholds, media displays, and architectural reveals.

Below: Figure 4.25 Exterior vignette Theater approach Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


Winter 2017 Midterm Review

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The intent of the midterm review was to communicate the progression of the design project’s development. This review was an opportunity to test the first synthesized design solution. The feedback from the instructor jurors were helpful, and helped organize the components of the framework and conceptual development. These ideas dealt with the relationship between the sidewalk and façade. In response to this critique, the design focused on the relationship between the sidewalk and building, and introducing an arcade element along Market Street. This helped define the threshold between the promenade and project. Another critique focused on how dealing with the relationship

Below: Figure 4.26 Exterior vignette Arcade Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


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between the design project and the host community. The communication of the concept was unclear and did not emphasize responding to the urban artifact as a primary vehicle to spurring urban revitalization. The term sensitive redevelopment became incorporated into the lexicon of this study. This revitalizing needs to occur without displacing the host community. The program invites the community to collect their efforts in a physical place through the public media cooperative. The project addresses the locus through the public spaces along the block such as the courtyard, back lot, and sidewalk. The movie wall in the courtyard changes the dynamic of the cinema experience by shifting it out into the public sphere. The movie screen can run continuously as a backdrop to public events. The movie walls invite pedestrians to assemble in the courtyard. Hierarchy of elements also became an important concept to consider as the design project progressed. A structural critique of the building form suggests reconsidering the formal connections of the building parts to avoid seismic vulnerabilities.

Above: Figure 4.27 Exterior vignette Regent & Market street corner Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


Winter 2017 Quarterly Final Review A great deal of good feedback from the various jurors including architects and NSAD professors. The critiques are the following; (1) fully establishing and communicating the criteria for architectural preservation within my project’s scope, (2) articulating the relationship between the community and the formal attributes of the project, (3) expressing the events in further detail within the plans, sections, and elevation, (4) establishing a programmatic hierarchy in terms of privacy and access and how that relates to transparency conditions, (5) expanding on the idea of changing the dimensionality of the cinematic experience and allowing the screen to pervade throughout the entirety of the project, (6) addressing the edge along the alley, and finally, (7) further façade articulation that indicate events, entrances, and wayfinding cues.

Below: Figure 4.28 Exterior vignette Regent St. approach. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

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Statement of Learning Moving into the Spring 2017 quarter, establishing the criteria for preservation and the urban artifact became essential steps in the project’s development. The

elevations and sections sought to consistently be in dialogue with the urban artifact. The façade suggested how the building is anchored, how it interacts with the sidewalk and other public space, and how it signals the community

to become involved with the facility and institute. The interaction between the building and urban fabric (sidewalk, street, block, urban artifact, and locus) is essential as the design process progressed into the next phase of research. Experimenting Below: Figure 4.29 Model study on screens and transparency. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


with collage in the building section could help break away from conventional notions of spatial arrangements and sequences, but was not explored in order to focus on physical model testing and development. The arrangement of Below: Figure 4.30 Site massing model. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)

the program in terms of access is considered. The community center is accessed by everyone; therefore, it becomes one of the more public components of the project. The same is true for the virtual cinema, screening halls, and film

archives. The genius loci of the area as a place of leisure and assembly is already established, and the project is held accountable by these existing conditions.

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Above: Figure 4.31 Block aerial perspective facing southeast. Winter quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Chapter V

R e f l e c t i o n s


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Spring Quarter Process The spring quarter began with a reassessment of the design in its current state based on the feedback from the jurors in the winter quarter. There was an emphasis on readdressing the faรงades, spatial arrangements, structural systems, and active systems. This

process began by revisiting the drawings from winter quarter and assessing the effectiveness of materiality, tectonics, transparencies, and fenestration. As the drawings were revised, it became apparent to study the design through the lens of the physical model. The physical model allowed shortcomings within the design to be realized in terms of

Below: Figure 5.1 Isometric drawing. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

RE GE NT S

LA

EA BR

AV

UE

TRE

EN

(N) COMMUNITY EVENTS HALL

ET

FUTURE RETAIL

TS

KE

R MA FUTURE PHASE SOUNDSTAGES

QU

EE N

STR EE

T

FOX BLOCK ISOMETRIC

T EE TR


Below: Figure 5.2 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

the structural system, market street faรงade, and how the building addresses the sidewalk and courtyards. Through the model, the materiality of the structural system changed from steel to concrete to achieve a sense of permanence of the building. The faรงade elements became incorporated into the structural system as

concrete structural fins that receive the concrete floor slabs. This helped to address the cantilevers over Market and Regent streets. The Market Street central faรงade elements became uniform based on a single motif with a single top datum line. This helps the faรงade to be perceived as a single and symmetrical element.

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FUTURE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT

FUTURE MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT

(E) PUBLIC PARKING LOT

MARKET STREET

REGENT STREET

(E) VACANT LOT FUTURE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

COURTYARD

(E) PARKING GARAGE

BACKLOT

FOX THEATER (E) MEDICAL OFFICES

QUEEN STREET

FUTURE K-8 CHARTER SCHOOL

(E) OFFICE BLDG

N SITE PLAN

0

50 25

100

Left: Figure 5.3 Site masterplan. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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B1

virtual cinema

A1

patio

A1

cafe

foyer

screening hall

A2

A2

lecture hall A2.1

A2.1

women's

multipurpose room

men's

bldg services reception

equipment room

security

staging yard

A3

courtyard

A3

fabrication lab

breezeway

B1

backlot

N GROUND FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.4 Ground floor plan. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


85 exterior terrace digital film archive

vest.

mixing room

sound booth

mixing room

sound booth

mixing room

sound booth

mixing room

sound booth

vest.

women's

vest. vest.

men's

equipment storage

open rehearsal loft

conference

office

office

office

open office

N SECOND FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.5 Second floor plan. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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green room green room

film production lab

audio production lab

screening hall women's

men's animation lab equipment storage

screenwriters studio

classroom

classroom

open studio

N THIRD FLOOR PLAN

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.6 Third floor plan. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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green room

terrace

green room

digital film archive

virtual reality cinema

patio

SECTION A-1

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.7 Transverse section. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

atrium

digital media lab

sound booth

mixing room

vestibule screening room cafe

SECTION A-2

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.8 Transverse section. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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classroom digital display office

courtyard

SECTION A-3

0

16 8

UPCOMING EVENT

NORTH ELEVATION (REGENT STREET)

UPCOMING EVENT

0

32

Above: Figure 5.9 Transverse section. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

UPCOMING EVENT

16

32

8

north elevation

Above: Figure 5.10 Regent Street elevation Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Above: Figure 5.11 Interior vignette: Atrium at ground floor. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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SHOWING

SHOWING

IFI EAST ELEVATION (MARKET STREET)

0

16

32

Above: Figure 5.12 Market Street elevation. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

8

open rehearsal loft

digital film archive

reception

courtyard

virtual cinema

SECTION B-1

0

16

32

8

Above: Figure 5.13 Longitudinal section. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

IFI

MARKET STREET CREATIVE WEST ELEVATION (ALLEY)

0

16

32

8

west elevation

Above: Figure 5.14 West elevation. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


Thesis Defense Review The jurors on the final review were practicing architects and NSA&D studio instructors. The discussion at the review generated some positive feedback

in terms of the plan organization, site master plan, and the design research process. A major critique of the final design prototype highlighted shortcomings in the elevation. The elevation could be improved by providing

92

Below: Figure 5.15 Exterior vignette: Courtyard approach Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Above: Figure 5.16 Interior vignette: Atrium at third floor. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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SECTION A2.1


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Above: Figure 5.17 Perspective transverse section through lecture and screening halls. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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more cross porosity along Market Street between the sidewalk and public ground floor elements. Earlier in the design process, this idea was investigated by placing one of the major entrances along the sidewalk as a recessed opening; however, this scheme was abandoned because it removed importance away from the main entry in the courtyard. Another critique suggested providing a formal connection between the project and the Fox Theater. If there were an additional month of design development, the focus of design development will be on interior development of the project to resolve

52’-0” t.o. conc. panel tube steel beam

hvac supply

linear led pendant lighting

low-e glazing system

media production lab

perforated metal screen 30’-0” 3rd flr

curtain wall floor attachment insulated floor closure

suspended acoustic ceiling

acoustic panel beyond two-way concrete flat slab

sound booth

15’-0” 2nd flr. curtain wall attachment

precast concrete panel (full height) white aluminum soffit panel

cafe

reinforced masonry wall concrete paving 0’-0” market st. fin. grade concrete slab-on-grade concrete footing

WALL SECTION - EAST FACADE

Above: Figure 5.18 Wall section at Market Street. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017) 0

4

2

8


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cast in-place concrete over metal decking

55’-0” roof termination

steel roof truss @ 48” o.c. white aluminum facade panel

issues of spatial sequence and cross porosity between Market Street and public elements of the ground floor.

Conclusions screening

concrete slab over metal decking

30’-0” 3rd flr.

steel truss @ 48”o.c. steel moment frame white aluminum facade panel

acoustic ceiling

acoustic panels beyond insulated furred wall, acoustic panel finish media display screen

screening

reinforced masonry wall

0’-0” 1st flr.

concrete slab-on-grade

- 2’-4” alley fin. grade

concrete footing

Above: Figure 5.19 WALL SECTION - WEST FACADE Wall section at alley. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

0

4 2

8

Architectural decay is a sign of urban isolation and requires the institutions to evolved to reintegrate an isolated area. Future and ongoing redevelopment within South LA will likely displace the native community due to increased investment and development interest within the area. Sustainable redevelopment within should focus on interventions no larger than the scale of a city block. Operating at


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larger scales is harder to achieve by members within the community. Micro-redevelopment will likely lead to urban and architectural intervention that can manifest sooner, thus allowing a constant feedback-loop between the architect, community, and urban planning institutions

within cities. Preservation and rehabilitation of existing buildings are the most sensitive approaches to urban revitalization. Not all decaying buildings are created equally, it is important to analyze ruins against the locus of the place and local significance (historical, economic,

Above: Figure 5.20 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

Below: Figure 5.21 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


and contemporary). The sidewalk and adjacent public spaces are the most essential elements of the urban environment; therefore, master planning is more important than the program contained within the building. The program should accommodate the master plan. Architectural decay is an inevitable condition that architects can directly change; however, urban vitality

summons the community, policy makers, and architects to cooperate. As L.A. continues to evolve; special attention should be given to the state of its inner-city area of SOLA. It is important that this area is reintegrated into the L.A. urban network without displacing the native community members. When SOLA becomes an accessible and thriving area, it will benefit

the identity and evolution of L.A. as a major city in the world. It is important for future developments within the area to focus on sensitive urban interventions in efforts to seek sustained urban revitalization.

Below: Figure 5.22 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)

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Above: Figure 5.23 Exterior vignette: Regent & Market Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Above: Figure 5.24 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Above: Figure 5.25 Scale model. Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


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Above: Figure 5.26 Scale model. Atrium interior Spring quarter final Colwart (2017)


A p p e n d i c e s


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Appendix A - List of References Andersen, H. S. (2002). Excluded Places: The Interaction Between Segregation, Urban Decay and Deprived Neighbourhoods. Housing, Theory & Society, 19(3/4), 153-169. doi:10.1080/140360902321122860 Banham, R. (1971). Los Angeles: The architecture of four ecologies. London: Allen Lane. Bergman, D., & Zellner, P. (2011). Cleantech corridor: An open ideas competition. Los Angeles, CA: SCI-Arc. Davis, M. (1990). City of quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. London: Verso Books. Daniel Chi Wing, H., Yung, Y., Chi Kwong, L., Sun Wah, P., Hak Kwong, Y., & Ervi, L. (2012). Social sustainability in urban renewal: An assessment of community aspirations. Urbani Izziv, 23(1), 125-139. doi:10.5379/urbani-izziv-en-2012-23-01-005 Eberhard, J. P. (2009). Brain landscape: The coexistence of neuroscience and architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hortas-Rico, M. (2015). Sprawl, Blight, And The Role of Urban Containment Policies: Evidence from U.S. Cities. Journal of Regional Science, 55(2), 298-323. doi:10.1111/jors.12145 Ibelings, H. (1998). Supermodernism: Architecture in the age of globalization. Rotterdam: NAi.t Jenks, C. (1993). Heteropolis: Los Angeles, the riots and the strange beauty of hetero-architecture. London: Academy Editions. Jenks, C., & Kropf, K. (2007). Theories and manifestoes of contemporary architecture. Chichester, West Sussex: Academy Editions. Johnson, A. J., Glover, T. D., & Stewart, W. P. (2014). Attracting Locals Downtown: Everyday Leisure as a Place-Making Initiative. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(2), 28-42. Mallgrave, H. F., & Goodman, D. (n.d.). An Introduction to Architectural Theory: 1968 to the Present. Page, Max. “Beyond Pretty Buildings�. The Chronicle Review 2017: B11-B13. Print. Reiser, J., & Umemoto, N. (2006). Atlas of novel tectonics. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Robinson, S., & Pallasmaa, J. (Eds.). (2015). Mind in architecture: Neuroscience, embodiment, and the future of design. United States: MIT Press. Rossi, A. (1982). The architecture of the city (4th ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Reyna, J. L., & Chester, M. V. (2015). The Growth of Urban Building Stock. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 19(4), 524-536. doi:10.1111/jiec.12211 Valentine, M. (1996). The show starts on the sidewalk: an architectural history of the movie theatre, starring S. Charles Lee. London: Yale University Press. Venturi, R., Brown, D. S., & Izenour, S. (1977). Learning from Las Vegas: The forgotten symbolism of architectural form. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Williams, G. (2010). It Was What It Was: Modern Ruins. Art Monthly, (336), 1-4. Tschumi, B. (2001). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Appendix B - List of Figures Chapter 1

Figure 1.1: Colwart, J. (2016). Mural at L.A. Coliseum. Photograph – p.1 Figure 1.2: Tschumi, B. (1976-77). Advertisements for Architecture. Photograph. – p.1 Figure 1.3: Colwart, J. (2016). Fox theater marquee. Photograph – p.2 Figure 1.4: Colwart, J. (2016). Market Street & Regent Street. Photograph – p.2 Figure 1.5: www.cinematreasures.com (2016). Granada Theater. Photograph – p.3 Figure 1.6: Colwart, J. (2016). Fox Theater. Photograph – p.4 Figure 1.7: Colwart, J. (2016). Abandoned storefront along Market St. Photograph – p.4 Figure 1.8: Bauer, S. (2016). The Roman Forum. Photograph – p.5 Figure 1.9: Colwart, J (2016). Vacant lot on Market St. Photograph – p. 5 Figure 1.10: www.wikiart.org (2016). Piranesi’s Doric Bay. Photograph – p.5 Figure 1.11: www.archdaily.com (2016). Theater Marcellus arcade. Photograph – p.6 Figure 1.12: www.archdaily.com (2016). Casa del Fascio façade. Photograph – p.6 Figure 1.13: Banham, R. (1971). Grauman’s Chinese Theater forecourt. Photograph – p.7 Figure 1.14: Banham, R. (1971). Watts Towers. Photograph – p. 8 Figure 1.15: Colwart, J (2016). Leimert Vision Theater forecourt. Photograph – p. 9

Chapter 2

Figure 2.1: Reyna, J. L., & Chester, M. V. (2015). Building vintage in Los Angeles County. Map – p.13 Figure 2.2: Andersen, H. S. (2002). Factors that contribute to excluded places. Diagram – p.14 Figure 2.3: Colwart, J. (2016). Greater Los Angeles metro area macro contextual analysis. Drawing – p .15 Figure 2.4: Colwart, J. (2016). Downtown Inglewood, CA micro contextual analysis. Drawing – p .16 Figure 2.5: Life Magazine (1965). African-American youth circa 1965. Photograph – p.17 Figure 2.6: Life Magazine (1965). African-American youth circa 1965. Photograph – p.17 Figure 2.7: L.A. Times (2014). Alleyway in Vermont Knolls. Photograph – p.18 Figure 2.8: Banham, R. (1971). Jack-in the-Box circa 1960s. Photograph – p.19 Figure 2.9: L.A. Times (2013). The Forum during renovation. Photograph – p.20 Figure 2.10: www.cinematreasures.com (2016). 5th Avenue Theater forecourt. Photograph – p.21 Figure 2.11: Colwart, J (2016). Leimert Vision Theater Promenade. Photograph – p. 21 Figure 2.12: Colwart, J (2016). Academy Theater. Photograph – p. 22 Figure 2.13: Colwart, J (2016). Fox West Coast Theater. Photograph – p. 22 Figure 2.14: Colwart, J (2016). 5th Avenue Theater panoramic. Photograph – p. 24

Chapter 3

Figure 3.1: Bergman, D., & Zellner, P. (2011). Cleantech Corridor. Photograph – p.27 Figure 3.2: www.archdaily.com (2016). Chicago Auditorium exterior. Photograph – p.28 Figure 3.3: www.archdaily.com (2016). Chicago Auditorium interior. Photograph – p.28 Figure 3.4: Colwart, J (2016). Chicago Auditorium program section. Diagram – p. 28 Figure 3.5: www.archdaily.com (2016). Wolfsburg Cultural Center interior. Photograph – p.29 Figure 3.6: Colwart, J (2016). Wolfsburg Cultural Center program section. Diagram – p. 29 Figure 3.7: www.archdaily.com (2016). New Acropolis Museum exterior. Photograph – p.30 Figure 3.8: Colwart, J (2016). New Acropolis Museum program section. Diagram – p. 30 Figure 3.9: www.archdaily.com (2016). Fort Wayne Theater interior. Photograph – p.31 Figure 3.10: Colwart, J (2016). Fort Wayne Theater program section. Diagram – p. 31 Figure 3.11: Colwart, J (2016). Block development strategies. Diagram – p. 32 Figure 3.12: Colwart, J (2016). Market Street building occupancy. Diagram – p. 32 Figure 3.13: Colwart, J (2016). Downtown Inglewood figure- ground. Diagram – p. 33 Figure 3.14: Colwart, J (2016). Leimert Park figure- ground. Diagram – p. 34

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Figure 3.15: Colwart, J (2016). The Block Cinegram denoting space, events, and movements within the city block. Diagram – p. 35 Figure 3.16: Colwart, J (2016). The Street Cinegram denoting spaces, events, and movements along Market St. Diagram – p. 36 Figure 3.17: Colwart, J (2016). The Ruin Cinegram denoting spaces, events, and movements associated with the ruin. Diagram – p. 37 Figure 3.18: Colwart, J (2016). Concept A. Diagram – p. 38 Figure 3.19: Colwart, J (2016). Concept B. Diagram – p. 38 Figure 3.20: Colwart, J (2016). Concept C. Diagram – p. 38 Figure 3.21: Colwart, J (2016). Concept A model. Photograph – p. 39 Figure 3.22: Colwart, J (2016). Concept B model. Photograph – p. 39 Figure 3.23: Colwart, J (2016). Concept C model. Photograph – p. 39 Figure 3.24: Colwart, J (2016). Leimert Park site strategy. Diagram – p.40 Figure 3.25: Colwart, J (2016). Market Street site strategy. Diagram – p.40 Figure 3.26: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual sketch. Image – p.41 Figure 3.27: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual sketch. Image – p.41 Figure 3.28: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual sketch. Image – p.42 Figure 3.29: Colwart, J (2016). Massing study of marquee as a motif. Photograph – p.43 Figure 3.30: Colwart, J (2016). Massing study of corner condition. Photograph – p.44 Figure 3.31: Colwart, J (2016). Model study of facade conditions. Photograph – p.45 Figure 3.32: Colwart, J (2016). Model study of building orientation in relation to Market St. Photograph – p.46 Figure 3.33: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual sketch analyzing building anchoring conditions and sidewalk relationship. Image – p.47 Figure 3.34: Colwart, J (2016). Preliminary program deployment diagram. Diagram – p.48 Figure 3.35: Colwart, J (2016). Land use diagram. L.A. County Assessor’s Office (2016) parcel map. Diagram – p. 49 Figure 3.36: Colwart, J (2016). Program diagram. Diagram – p.49 Figure 3.37: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual vignette - Concept A. Drawing – p.50 Figure 3.38: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual vignette - Concept B. Drawing – p.50 Figure 3.39: Colwart, J (2016). Conceptual vignette - Concept C. Drawing¬¬ – p.50

Chapter 4

Figure 4.1: Colwart, J (2017). Initial site plan. Drawing – p.53 Figure 4.2: Colwart, J (2017). Site plan & elevation sketches. Image – p.54 Figure 4.3: Colwart, J (2017). Program diagram - Iteration 1. Diagram – p.55 Figure 4.4: Colwart, J (2017). Code analysis. Diagram – p.55 Figure 4.5: Colwart, J (2017). Elevation study. Image – p.56 Figure 4.6: Colwart, J (2017). Isometric drawing - Iteration 1. Diagram – p.56 Figure 4.7: Colwart, J (2017). Program diagram - Iteration 2. Diagram – p.57 Figure 4.8: Colwart, J (2017). Isometric drawing - Iteration 2. Diagram – p.57 Figure 4.9: Colwart, J (2017). Code diagram. Diagram – p.58 Figure 4.10: Colwart, J (2017). Isometric drawing - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.58 Figure 4.11: Colwart, J (2017). Block masterplan - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.59 Figure 4.12: Colwart, J (2017). Ground floor plan - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.60 Figure 4.13: Colwart, J (2017). Second floor plan - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.61 Figure 4.14: Colwart, J (2017). Third floor plan - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.62 Figure 4.15: Colwart, J (2017). Mezzanine floor plan - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.63 Figure 4.16: Colwart, J (2017). Building section through atrium - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.64 Figure 4.17: Colwart, J (2017). Market Street elevation - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.65 Figure 4.18: Colwart, J (2017). Alley elevation - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.65 Figure 4.19: Colwart, J (2017). Regent Street elevation - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.65


Figure 4.20: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette at courtyard - Winter quarter final. Image– p.66 Figure 4.21: Colwart, J (2017). Preliminary transverse section. Image – p.67 Figure 4.22: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.68 Figure 4.23: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.69 Figure 4.24: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Winter quarter final. Drawing – p.70 Figure 4.25: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Theater approach - Winter quarter final. Image – p.71 Figure 4.26: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Arcade - Winter quarter final. Image – p.72 Figure 4.27: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Regent & Market street corner - Winter quarter final. Image – p.73 Figure 4.28: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Regent St. approach - Winter quarter final. Image – p.74 Figure 4.29: Colwart, J (2017). Model study on screens and transparency - Winter quarter final. Photograph – p.75 Figure 4.30: Colwart, J (2017). Site massing model - Winter quarter final. Photograph – p.76 Figure 4.31: Colwart, J (2017). Block aerial perspective facing southeast - Winter quarter final. Image – p.77

Chapter 5

Figure 5.1: Colwart, J (2017). Isometric - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 81 Figure 5.2: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 82 Figure 5.3: Colwart, J (2017). Site masterplan - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 83 Figure 5.4: Colwart, J (2017). Ground floor plan - Spring quarter final. Drawing– p. 84 Figure 5.5: Colwart, J (2017). Second floor plan - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 85 Figure 5.6: Colwart, J (2017). Third floor plan - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 86 Figure 5.7: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 87 Figure 5.8: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 87 Figure 5.9: Colwart, J (2017). Transverse section - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 88 Figure 5.10: Colwart, J (2017). Regent Street elevation - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 88 Figure 5.11: Colwart, J (2017). Interior vignette: Atrium at ground floor - Spring quarter final. Image – p.89 Figure 5.12: Colwart, J (2017). Market Street elevation - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 91 Figure 5.13: Colwart, J (2017). Longitudinal section - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 91 Figure 5.14: Colwart, J (2017). West elevation - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p. 91 Figure 5.15: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Courtyard approach - Spring quarter final. Image – p. 92 Figure 5.16: Colwart, J (2017). Interior vignette: Atrium at third floor - Spring quarter final. Image – p. 94 Figure 5.17: Colwart, J (2017). Perspective transverse section through lecture and screening halls - Spring quarter final. Image – p.96 Figure 5.18: Colwart, J (2017). Wall section at Market Street - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p.97 Figure 5.19: Colwart, J (2017). Wall section at Alley - Spring quarter final. Drawing – p.98 Figure 5.20: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 99 Figure 5.21: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 99 Figure 5.22: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 100 Figure 5.23: Colwart, J (2017). Exterior vignette: Regent & Market - Spring quarter final. Image – p. 102 Figure 5.24: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 103 Figure 5.25: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 104 Figure 5.26: Colwart, J (2017). Scale model: Atrium interior - Spring quarter final. Photograph – p. 106

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© 2017 John Colwart ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Ruins of South L.A. - UG Arch Thesis  

Moving forward, architects and planners will need to confront the realities of decaying urban environments – through the ruin – to accommoda...

The Ruins of South L.A. - UG Arch Thesis  

Moving forward, architects and planners will need to confront the realities of decaying urban environments – through the ruin – to accommoda...

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