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The Swedish Industry by John-John Skoog

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P R O D U C T I O N

P R O C E S S

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röderna Skoogs Motorfabrik i Borlänge, som under nära 60 år tillverkade SOLOMOTORN, var i sitt slag en av de största och mest framgångsrika i Norden. Motorernas enkla och servicevänliga uppbyggnad, pålitlighet, slitsyrka, höga kvalitet och behagliga gång banade väg för fabrikens goda rykte. Solomotorn har i båtvärlden nära nog blivit själva definitionen av en fulländad bruksmotor. Mannen bakom Solomotorn var Aron Skoog som tillsammans med sin bror Erik ägde firman. Den 1 maj 1908 bildade de “Bröderna Skoogs Mekaniska Verkstad”. Bröderna utvecklade under de första kompanjonsåret 1908 en mindre stationär tvåtaktsmotor för bensin samt fotogendrift. Året därpå konstruerades en marin version av motorn. De här första motorerna hade bland annat batteritändning med induktionsrulle. Motorerna kännetecknades av att övre delen av cylindern var kopparmantlad. Att gjuta en cylinder med kylkanaler krävde avancerade gjuteritekniska kunskaper och resurser. Att förse cylindern med utvändig kopparmantel var ett sätt att förenkla framställningen. Fram till 1913 tillverkades även en utombordsmotor som kallades Rapidmotorn. Det var en tvåtaktare, i Evinrudes efterföljd, på två hk. När Erik Skoog började tillverka tändkulemotorer i Gävle återanvände han namnet, men modifierade det till Rapido. Från årsskiftet 1910 upptog bröderna Skoog en mer seriemässig produktion av inomhusmotorer, och i de första katalogerna kunde spekulanterna övertyga sig om motorernas förträfflighet genom att läsa intyg från de tidigaste kunderna; det äldsta är undertecknat Askersund den 7 juli 1910. 2010-12-08 16.26


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e e ar ly

0 7 18

since m

for motorboats

Th

E D A M D N HA e l p o e p y B

n i n bor

BELGIUM

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All eyes are individual 23

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INDUSTRY

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60 ĂĽr rsta nkla , ng

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the

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You can see

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V

V

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And now time for a commercial break.

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CLAY IN A POTTER’S HAND  Written by Jan Tchischold in England, late in 1948.

Perfect typography is more a science than an art. Mastery of the trade is indispensable, but it isn’t everything. Unerring taste, the hallmark of perfection, rests also upon a clear understanding of the laws of harmonious design. As a rule, impeccable taste springs partly from inborn sensitivity: from feeling. But feelings remain rather unproductive unless they can inspire a secure judgment. Feelings have to mature into knowledge about the consequences of formal decisions. For this reson, there are no born masters of typography, but self-education may lead in time to mastery.    It is wrong to say that there is no arguing about taste when it is good taste that is in question. We are not born with good taste, nor do we come into this word equipped wth a real understanding of art. Merely to recognize who or what ir represented in a picture has little to do with a real understanding of art. Neither has an uninformed opinion about the proportions of Roman letters. in any case, arguing is senseless. He who wants to convince has to do a better job than others.    Good taste and perfect typography are suprapersonal. Today, good taste is often erroneously rejected as old-fashioned because the ordinary man, seeking approval of his so-called personality, prefers to follow the dictates of his own peculiar style rather submit to any odjective criterion of taste.   In a masterpiece of typography, the artist’s signature has been eliminated. What some may praise as personal styles are in reality small and empty peculiarities, frequently damaging, that masquerade as innovations. Examples are the use of a single typeface perhaps a sanserif fon or a bizarre nineteenth-century script a fondness

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for mixing unrelated fonts; or the application of seemingly courageous limitations, such as using a single size of type for an entire work, no matter how complex. Personal typography is defective typography. Only beginners and fools will insist on using it.    Perfect typography depends on perfect harmony between all of its elements. We must learn, and teach, what this means. Harmony is determined by relationships or proportions. Proportions are hidden everywhere: in the capaciousness of the margins, in the reciprocal relationships to each other of all four margins on the page of the book, in the relationship between leading of the type area and dimensions of the margins, in the placement of the page number relative to the type area, in the extent to which capital letters are spaced differently from the text, and not least, in the spacing of the words themselves. In short, affinities are hidden in any all parts. Only through constant practice and strictest self-criticism may we develop a sense for a perfect piece of work. Unfortunately, most seem content with a middling performance. Careful spacing of words and the correct spacing of capital letters appear to be unknown or unimportant to come typesetters, yet for him who investigates, the correct rules are not difficult to discover.   Since typography appertains to each and all, it leavesno room for revolutionary changes. We cannot alter the essential shape of a single letter without at the same time destroying the familiar printed face of our language, and thereby rendering it useless.    Comfortable legibility is the absolute benchmark for all typography yet only an accomplished reader can properly judge legibility. To be able to read a primer, or indeed a newspaper, does not make anyone a judge; as a rule, both are readable,

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though barely. They are decipherable. Decipherability and legibility are opposites. Good legibility is amatter of combining a suitable script and an appropriate typesetting method. For perfect typography, an exhaustive knowledge of the historical development of the letters used in printing books is absolutely necessary. More valuable yet is a working knowledge of calligraphy.    The typography of most newspapers is decidedly backward. Lack of form destroys even the first signs of good taste and forestalls its development. Too lazy to think, many people read more newspapers than books. Small wonder, then, that typography as a whole is not evolving, and book typography is no exception. If a typesetter reads more newspapers than anything else, where would he aquire a knowledge of good taste in typography? Just as a person gets used to poor cuisine when nothing better is available and means of comparison are lacking, so many of today’s readers have grown used to poor typography because they read more newspapers than books and thus kill time, as it is so succinctly termed. Since they aren’t acquainted with better typography, they can’t ask for it. And not knowing how to make things better, the rest lack voice.   Beginners and amateurs alike overestimate the importance of the so-called brain wave, the sudden brilliant idea. Perfect typography is largely a matter of choice among different and already existing possibilities: a choice based on vast experience. The correct choice is a qeustion of tact. Good typography can never be humorous. It is precisely the opposite an adventure. The brilliant idea counts for little or nothing at all. It counts the less, since it can only apply to a single job. it is a condition of good typographic work that each single part be formally de

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pendet upon every other part. These relationships are developed slowly while the work is in progress. Today, the art of good typography is eminently logical. I t differs from all other art forms in that a substantial portion of the inherent logic is accessible for verification be lay persons. Circumstances exist, however, where a perfectly logical but too complex graduation of type sizes may be sacrificed to achieve a simple image.    The more significant the content of a book, the longer it has to be preserved, and the more balanced, indeed, the more perfect its typography has to be. Leading, letterspacing and word spacing must be faultless. The relationships of the margins to each other, the relationships of all type sizes used, the placement of running heads: everything must exhibit noble proportions and yeild an unalterable effect.    The decisions made in higher typography about the design of a booktitle, for example are, like a higly refined taste, related to creative art. Here, forms and shapes may be invented which in their perfection are the equal of anything good sculpture and painting have to offer. The connoisseur is compelled to admire these creations all the more since the typographer is chained more than any other artist by the unalterable word, and only a master can awaken to their true life the rigid and formal letters used in the printing of books. Immaculate typography is certainly the most brittle of all the arts. To create a whole from many petrified, disconnected and given parts, to make this whole appear alive and of a piece only sculpture in stone approaches the unyielding stiffness of perfect typography. For most people, even impeccable typography does not hold any particular aesthetic appeal. In its inaccessibility, it resembles great music. Under the best of curcumstances, it is gratefully accepted. To remain nameless and without specific appreciation, yet to have been of service to a valuable work and to the small number of visually sensitive readers this, as a rule, is the only compensation for the long, and indeed never-ending, indenture of the typographer.

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INK STREET

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Evinrudes efterföljd, på två hk. När Erik Skoog började tillverka tändkulemotorer i Gävle återanvände han namnet, men modifierade det till Rapido. Från årsskiftet 1910 upptog bröderna Skoog en mer seriemässig produktion av inomhusmotorer, och i de första katalogerna kunde spekulanterna övertyga sig om motorernas förträfflighet genom att läsa intyg från de tidigaste kunderna; det äldsta är undertecknat Askersund den 7 juli 1910.

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Black Water

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Colour management

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R R R R

R R R R R RR

92

R

R RR

R R

R RR R R

R R R

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R R

R R

R

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F

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John-John Skoog 2nd quarter student The Voice Of Type Miami Ad School Europe First of all I would like to thank my typography teacher Sergey Sidorov for teaching me the world of typography. Then I would like to thank my family for all the support that I had during my A-D education at Miami ad School Europe. MynameisJohn-JohnPhilippeLeeSkoog and I was born 1988 in Sweden. In the early 20th century my forefathers imigrated from Belgium to Sweden. I was fascinated about their travelling and their work, And that was my motivation for writing this book.

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The Swedish Industry