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FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT ENGLISH MAJOR ENGLISH PRAGMATIC GRAMMAR

SECTION: 01 TEACHER: DELMY GUADALUPE AMAYA MARTINEZ STUDENTS: MARQUÉZ HERNÁNDEZ, ROSA YANETH #42 RAMÍREZ GONZÁLEZ, JOHANNA STEFFANY #66 San Salvador, December 8th, 2017


TABLE CONTENT INTRODUCTION. ..............................................................................3 PART OF SPEECH .........................................................................4 PART OF SPEECH DESCRIPTION ..............................................6 STRUCTURE SENTENCE DESCRIPTION .................................9 TYPE OF CLAUSES..................................................................... 10 TYPE OF CLAUSES DESCRIPTION ......................................... 12 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE .................................................... 13 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE VOICE DESCRIPTION ......................... 15 ACTIVE VOICE VS PASSIVE VOICE ............................................ 16 CONCLUSION ................................................................................ 20 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................. 21 ANNEXES ...................................................................................... 22 COMMON MISTAKES PRESENTATIONS ................................. 22


INTRODUCTION. In this paper, you will find different topics about grammatical structure to the English language. which are the more common topics, most complicate to understand and common mistakes. Grammar can likewise affect the meaning and clarity or intention of a message. Grammatical errors come in many forms and all can easily confuse and change meaning. Some common mistakes are with sentence structure, parts of speech, punctuation and spelling. This assignment is about a magazine and it includes grammar topics, such as: Parts of speech, sentences structure, active and passive voice and type of clauses in order to learn more about these topics, explain them and be able to specially identify the parts of speech, to be able to make structured sentences correctly.

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PART OF SPEECH

In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech. There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. An individual word can function as more than one part of speech when used in different circumstances. Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary any of the classes of words of a given language to which a word can be assigned: different kinds of grammar have different criteria for classifying words, as form, function or meaning, or combinations of these: in traditional English grammar, patterned after Latin grammar.

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PARTS OF SPEECH.

DEFINITION

EXAMPLES

SENTENCES

NOUNS

A word names a person, places or ideas.

Dog, cat, garden, work, music, town ,Brenda, teacher, bob, book.

Anna goes to school.

PRONOUNS

Take the place of nouns or pronouns.

He, I, It´s, me, my, she, that, this, those, us, who, whom, you.

John is hungry. He wants to eat.

VERBS

A word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement.

Run, go, have, invite, listen, playing, dancing, singing, walk.

The dog and cat are running.

Modifies nouns or pronouns by making the meaning more definite.

Old, angry, brave, healthy, some, two, good, big, interesting.

Brown dog. Fat cat. Big garden.

A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, by making it is meaning more specific.

Very, badly, fully, hardly ,well, really, almost, nearly.

Runs quickly. Eats very slowly.

In, on, of, since, before, between above, upon, at, after, from.

I am going to my garden. My book is on the table.

A conjunction joins single words or groups or words.

And, or, so, after, before, unless, either, neither, because, since.

I was tired so I went to sleep. I want a sandwich and a coffee.

A word or phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation.

Aha!, Great!, hey!, hi!, oh!, oops!, ouch!.

Oops!, I spilled the milk.

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS

PREPOSITIONS

CONJUNTIONS

INTERJECTIONS

A word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in a sentence.

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PART OF SPEECH DESCRIPTION

As see you in this example the sentence uses the subject in this case the subject is THE DOG, the verb in this sentence is CHASES but the verb in base form is CHASE but when use the third person the verb changes and we add “S” or “ES”

In this sentence used the possessive pronoun MINE when you refer to something is yours like this example, and the sentence was structured by conjunction, adjective, subject, verb and possessive pronoun

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STRUCTURE SENTENCE

A simple sentence contains only one dependent clause, is a group of word that expresses a complete thought. A compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses. These clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction. A complex sentence contains a subordinate clause and an independent clause and is a group of words that has a subject and verb but doesn’t express a complete thought. The CompoundComplex Sentence contain at least two independent clauses and least one subordinate clause

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SENTENCES STRUCTURE

DEFINITION

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

A simple sentence. Consists of one independent clause. An independent clause contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought.

COMPOUND SENTENCE.

COMPLEX SENTENCES.

COMPOUNDCOMPLEX SENTENCES.

A compound sentence. Contain two or more independent clauses joined by a conjunction or semi-colon. Each of these clauses could form a sentence alone. A complex sentence Consists of an independent clause plus a dependent clause. A dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun, and contains a subject and verb, but does not express a complete thought. A compound-complex sentence Consists of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

EXAMPLES.

 

I like coffee. Mary likes tea.

Mary went to work but John went to the party.

We missed our plane because we were late.

Our dog barks when she hears a noise.

John didn't come because he was ill so Mary was not happy.

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STRUCTURE SENTENCE DESCRIPTION

If you see this sentence is a type simple sentence, the tense is simple past, because if you see the verb is in simple past to say as a group of people traveled to San Juan some time ago, where the personal pronoun is a simple subject and the complement is a complete predicate because the predicate has a verb and complement.

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TYPE OF CLAUSES

A clause is a group of related word; but unlike a phrase, a clause has a subject and a verb. An independent clause, along with having a subject and a verb, expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a coherent sentence. A subordinate clause has a subject and verb but, unlike an independent clause, cannot stand by itself. It depends on something else in the sentence to express a complete thought, which is why it's also called a dependent clause. A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun and functions as an adjective. A noun clause functions as a noun in a sentence. Many subordinate clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Examples of these conjunctions are because, unless, if, when, and although. What these conjunctions have in common is that they make the clauses that follow them unable to stand alone. The clauses act as adverbs, answering questions like how, when, where, why, to what extent, and under what conditions.

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TYPES OF CLAUSES.

NOUNS CLAUSE.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

DEFINITION.

A noun clause is a dependent clause that acts as a noun. Noun clauses begin with words such as how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, and why. Noun clauses can act as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives, or objects of a preposition. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that, like an adjective, modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective clauses begin with words such as that, when, where, who, whom, whose, which, and why.

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that, like an adverb, modifies an adjective, an adverb, or a verb or ADVERBIAL verb phrase. Adverb clauses begin CLAUSE with words such as after, although, because, before, if, since, than, until, when, and while.

EXAMPLES.

Choose a gift for whomever you want. The focus of our work is how we can satisfy customers most effectively.

This is the park where we can walk the dogs. Derek is the sibling to whom I am closest.

This computer works better than my last one did. Dad is worried about driving because the weather has gotten worse .

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TYPE OF CLAUSES DESCRIPTION

In these examples you can see some sentences using different type of clauses, sometimes sentence is simple or compound. Usually the sentences are in past simple saying some occurred in some time ago. If you see the last sentence in the chart say someone caught the train yesterday using pronoun, verb in past, object and adjective of time.

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Active Voice A feature of sentences in which the subject performs the action of the verb and the direct object is the goal or the recipient: The mechanic fixed the car. Passive Voice A feature of sentences in which the object or goal of the action functions as the sentence subject and the main verb phrase includes the verb to be and the past participle

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Definition

Passive voice

Active voice

The passive voice is used when we want to emphasize the action (the verb) and the object of a sentence rather than subject. This means that the subject is either less important than the action itself or that we don’t know who or what the subject is. The passive is formed with tenses of the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ and the past participle of the main verb. Here is a table showing the passive forms for most English verbs: Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the main verb's agent. That is, the subject does the verb's designated action. A clause whose agent is marked as grammatical subject is called an active clause.

Examples.

My laptop was stolen. Twenty civilians were killed in the bomb explosion.

Mom read the novel in one day. Tom painted the entire house.

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PASSIVE AND ACTIVE VOICE DESCRIPTION

if you see the example of passive, first it refers to the object that in this case takes the place of subject, the verb in past participle and then the subject becomes an object. when talking about Active Voice refers to a normal sentence in the past simple and a complement to complete the idea that the sentence refers to.

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ACTIVE VOICE VS PASSIVE VOICE TO BE

FUTURE

PRESENT

PAST

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

Aff.

Sub. + was/were + com.

Aff.

Not in use.

Neg.

Sub. + was/were + not + com.

Neg.

Not in use.

Int.

Was/were + sub. + com. + ?

Int.

Not in use.

Aff.

Sub. + am/are/is + com.

Aff.

Not in use.

Neg.

Sub. + am/are/is + not + com.

Neg.

Not in use.

Int.

Am/are/is + sub. + com. + ?

Int.

Not in use.

Aff.

Sub. + will + be + com.

Aff.

Not in use.

Neg.

Sub. + won’t + be + com.

Neg.

Not in use.

Int.

Will + sub. + be + com. + ?

Int.

Not in use.

SIMPLE TENSES.

FUTURE

PRESENT

PAST

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

Aff.

Sub. + verb + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub. + didn’t + verb + com.

Neg.

Int.

Did + sub + verb + com. + ?

Int.

Aff.

Sub. + verb + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub. + don’t/doesn’t + verb + com.

Neg.

Int.

Do/does + sub + verb + com. + ?

Int.

Aff.

Sub. + will + verb + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub. + will + verb + com.

Neg.

Int.

Will + sub + verb + com. + ?

Int.

Sub. + was/were + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub. + was/were + not + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Was/were + sub. + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. + ? Sub. + am/is/are + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub. + am/is/are + not + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Am/is/are + sub. + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. + ? Sub. + will + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub. + won’t + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Will + sub + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun + ?

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THE CONTINUOUS OR PROGRESSIVE TENSES

FUTURE

PRESENT

PAST

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE Sub + was/were + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + was/were + not + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Was/were + sub + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. + ? Sub + am/are/is + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + am/are/is + not + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun.

Aff.

Sub + was/were + verb (ing) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + was/were + not + verb (ing) + com.

Neg.

Int.

Was/were + sub + verb (ing) + com. + ?

Int.

Aff.

Sub + am/are/is + verb (ing) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + am/are/is + not + verb (ing) + com.

Neg.

Int.

Am/are/is + sub + verb (ing) + com. + ?

Int.

Am/are/is + sub + being + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. + ?

Aff.

Sub + will + be + verb (ing) + com.

Aff.

Not in use!

Neg.

Sub + won’t + be + verb (ing) + com.

Neg.

Not in use!

Int.

Will + sub + be + verb (ing) + com. + ?

Int.

Not in use!

THE PERFECT TENSES.

FUTURE

PRESENT

PAST

ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

Aff.

Sub + had + verb (PP) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + had + not + verb (PP) + com.

Neg.

Int.

Had + sub + verb (PP) + com. +?

Int.

Aff.

Sub + has/have + verb (PP) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + has/have + not + verb (PP) + com.

Neg.

Int.

Has/have sub + verb (PP) + com. +?

Int.

Aff.

Sub + will + have + verb (PP) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + won’t + have + verb (PP) + com.

Neg.

Int.

Will + sub + have + verb (PP) + com.

Int.

Sub + had + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + had + not + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Had + sub + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun +? Sub + has/have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + has/have + not + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Has/have + sub + been+ verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + will + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + won´t + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Will + sub + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun.

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THE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES. ACTIVE VOICE Aff.

PAST

Neg. Int.

PRESENT

Aff. Neg. Int.

FUTURE

Aff. Neg. Int.

Sub + had + been + verb (ing) + com. Sub + had + not + been + verb (ing) + com. Had + sub + been + verb (ing) + com +? Sub + has/have + been + verb (ing) + com. Sub + has/have + been + verb (ing) + com. Has/have + sub + been + verb (ing) + com +? Sub + will + have + been + verb (ing) + com. Sub + won’t + have + been + verb (ing) + com. Will + sub + have + been + verb (ing) + com.

PASSIVE VOICE Aff.

Not in use!

Neg.

Not in use!

Int.

Not in use!

Aff.

Not in use!

Neg.

Not in use!

Int.

Not in use!

Aff.

Not in use!

Neg.

Not in use!

Int.

Not in use!

MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS – MAV (SHOULD, WOULD, MUST) ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

Aff.

Sub + MAV + verb + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + MAV + not + verb + com.

Neg.

Int.

MAV + sub + verb + com +?

Int.

Sub + MAV + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + MAV + not + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. MAV + sub + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun +?

MODAL PERFECT (SHOULD, WOULD, MUST) ACTIVE VOICE

PASSIVE VOICE

Aff.

Sub + MAV + have + verb (PP) + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + MAV + not + have + verb (PP) + com.

Neg.

Int.

MAV + sub + have + verb (PP) + com +?

Int.

Sub + MAV + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + MAV + not + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. MAV + sub + have + been + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun +?

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GOING TO

PRESENT

ACTIVE VOICE Aff.

Sub + am/are/is + going to + verb + com.

Aff.

Neg.

Sub + am/are/is + not + going to + verb + com.

Neg.

Int. Aff.

PAST

PASSIVE VOICE

Am/are/is + sub + going to + verb + com +? Sub + was/were + going to + verb + com.

Int. Aff.

Neg.

Sub + was/were + not + going to + verb + com.

Neg.

Int.

Was/were + sub + going to + verb + com +?

Int.

Sub + am/are/is + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + am/are/is + not + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Am/are/is + sub + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + was/were + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Sub + was/were + not + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun. Was/were + sub + going to + be + verb (PP) + by + personal pronoun.

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CONCLUSION In the development of this paper, we learned many new things, that we will put them in practice at the time of writing, speaking and knowing which are the mistakes that are committed for not knowing well a grammatical structure, also help me to know new forms of learning , and with the examples is much more clear the use of each structure and we also learned that everything carries a chronological order and that if we practice more the grammatical structures, it would be easier to be able to make a sentence, a paragraph and be able to write what we want. The most difficult for us was to understand the topic active & passive voice, since there is where everything is practiced, we have to clear or have understood each grammatical structure, since if it is not known to use it well, it will be more difficult to understand the passive & active and that was one of the largest problems we find at the time of making a sentence and changing it from passive to active and vice versa, but this work helps us to have a little more clear, because if we put the examples into practice, it will be easier to understand this topic. The easiest for us was the development of the part of speech, since it is one of the topics we most use at the time of make sentences, and also is what we know the most and can do easier, since this topic we have developed along our career, and is what we put in practice at the time of specifying a sentence.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY  http://partofspeech.org/  http://www.butte.edu/departments/cas/tipsheets/grammar/part s_of_speech.html  https://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/sentencestructure.html  https://www.engvid.com/common-english-errors-some-any/  https://classroom.synonym.com/common-mistakes-englishgrammar-tenses-13375.html

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ANNEXES COMMON MISTAKES PRESENTATIONS

Usually we don’t have idea when use “a little” because The quantifiers 'a little', 'little', 'a few', and 'few' are often used interchangeably in English. However, there is a difference based on whether the object specified is countable or uncountable. The use of the indefinite article 'a' also changes the meaning of these important words. Study the rules for usage with this guide to these commonly used expressions.

A preposition is a very common little word like at, for, in, on, and to, which the dictionary defines as a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause. Native English speakers rarely make mistakes with these very common prepositions. However, non-native speakers frequently get them wrong, often because they translate directly from their own language rather than listening to native English speakers. 22


Other means ‘additional or extra’, or ‘alternative’, or ‘different types of’. We can use other with singular uncountable nouns and with plural nouns. When we use the indefinite article a before other, we write it as one word: another. Another means ‘one more’ or ‘an additional or extra’, or ‘an alternative or different.

Some adjectives only appear before nouns and do not follow verbs. They include adjectives of degree, time and order, and adjectives that limit the noun that follows them. One common mistake with adjectives and adverbs is using one in the place of the other

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Some English adjectives and adverbs, for example, even, almost, only, just, nearly are very flexible and can be placed almost anywhere in a sentences. But it is very easy to make mistakes with these adverbs and adjectives. Where you place them can impact the meaning of your sentence.

Then' and 'than' are often confused in English. Here is an explanation with a follow-up quiz to help you understand the differences between these two commonly confused words. Than' is also used to state a preference when stating preferences with the form 'would rather'

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The tense that English uses for verbs in subordinate clauses depends on the tense of the main verb. This connection is especially important and easily confused when you’re reporting someone else’s speech. For example, if your daughter says, “I have cleaned the house,” you might tell your spouse, “She says that she has cleaned the house.” In this sentence, the main verb “says” is present tense and the subordinate verb “has cleaned” is in present perfect tense.

Any and some are both determiners. A determiner indicates the type of reference that a noun has. Determiners are used to discuss indefinite quantities or numbers when the exact quantity or number is not important. In some cases, any and some can have the same meaning. Examples: “Will you have any?” “Will you have some?” “Won’t you have any?” “Won’t you have some?” As a general rule, however, we use some for positive statements and any for questions and negative statements. 25


As you know, uncountable nouns do not have plural forms and they cannot be used with numbers or the article a/an. Distinguishing between countable nouns (unit nouns) and uncountable nouns (mass nouns) can be very difficult. This area is the source of many mistakes.

Use the in subsequent references to that person or thing. Use the indefinite article to talk about a person or thing not known to the speaker or the listener. We can use the in subsequent references to that person or thing

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The correct use of the articles is one of the most difficult points in English grammar. Here are some rules regarding the correct usage of the definite and indefinite articles. When you talk about a person or thing for the first time, use the indefinite articles (a and an) with them

Most words in English follow a simple regular pattern. If we want to talk about more than one of each we simply add an -s to the end to make them plural. The majority of English nouns are regular which means they follow this simple rule. However, some nouns in English are irregular and make their plural in a different way

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We often use too before much and many. It means ‘more than necessary’. We can use too much before an uncountable noun and too many before a plural noun, or without a noun when the noun is obvious.

Some nouns consist of more than one word. These are compound nouns. Compound nouns can be formed in different ways. The most common way is to put two nouns together (noun + noun); other common types are adjective + noun and verb + noun.

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