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STUDIO POCHE: Making the Matter of Architecture University of Nebraska-Lincoln Fall Semester 2012 Joey Laughlin Assistant Professor Brian M. Kelly


TABLE OF CONTENTS


project

page

SYNERGY POD (duration 3 weeks)

02

PRECEDENT (duration 3 weeks)

32

FABLAB (duration 8 weeks)

50


SYNERGY POD


Synergy is defined as two or more things functioning together in order to produce a result not independantly obtainable. As such, this project focuses around the design of a pod (a temporary shelter) which has many systems that operate in a synergistic manner. Six such pods are designed to fit on a semitrailer bed for ease of transportation to either entertainment venues or natural disaster sites. The synergy happens due to the pod’s layered system. This consists of an inner wood shell surrounded by an outer rubber membrane. These layers facilitate natural ventilation, energy production, and water collection.


RESEARCH

Louvers

Louvers can be utilized on an exterioir face to cantly the impact of solar gain by Louvers canreduce be utilized on an exterior face to ecting The thermal is significantly reduce thelight. impact of solarenergy gain by and radiated or thermal carried away by is blockingected and reflecting light.out The energy the behind the louver system ratheraway than by thenairspace reflected and radiated out or carried being absorbed into interior spaces allowing forthan the airspace behind the louver system rather energy savings duringthe warmspaces months.allowing for being absorbed into interior energy savings during the warm months. Louvers can either be strategically angled or made opperable soeither as to allow more light (from the Louvers can be strategically angled or made winter’s and thus energy enter operablelower so assun) to allow morethermal light (from the to winter’s during the colder months to then harvest the solar lower sun) and thus thermal energy to enter during heat . the colder months to then harvest the solar heat.


available technologies

LED integration

Twists and Turns

change By greatly greatlydecreasing decreasingscale, scale,micro-louvers micro-louvers change blades to tovisually visuallyacting actingmore moreas asaascreen. from larger blades screen. By maintaing the proportions of blade depth By maintaining the proportions of blade depth and and spacing, micro-louvers providethe the same spacing, the the micro-louvers stillstill provide same ability to block direct sunlight(both (both glare glare and ability to block direct sunlight and thermal gain), gain),but butallow allowgreater greater visibility through visibility through windows. Compared Comparedto tolarger largerlouver louversystems systemswhich which block sections of ofvisibility visibilitywith withlarge largeblades, blades,micromicrolouvers look look like likeaascreen, screen,just and as such rather darkenthan the darkening view rather than block it completely. blocking.

can be beintegrated integratedinto intolouvers, louvers,such suchas Other systems can as building scale displays. integrating building scale LEDLED displays. By By integrating LEDLED lights lightsthe intofront the front of the louvers (pictured into ends ends of the louvers (pictured right), right), displays to cross can building can provide displays on theupbuilding provide information, information, entertainment, serve theThe aesthetic. entertainment, or serve the or aesthetic. spacing of lights of makes the content more clearlymore visible Thethe spacing the lights makes the content from distance while more visible at visible night, clearlyavisible fromand a distance and while more louver LED systems still usable during the day. at night, louver LEDare systems are still usable during the day.

andTurns Turnsby byHolger HolgerMadler Mader||Alexander AlexanderStublic Twists and Heike Wiermann (pictured above), an |Stublic Heike |Wiermann (pictured above), is an isexample example of cross building integrated of cross building display display integrated into a into louver a louver In system. In this theLED louver LED was system system. this case thecase louver system used was used the to distort on the facade of the to distort grid onthe thegrid facade of the building. building

http://www.smartlouvre.com/

http://www.louvreled.com/

SYNERGY POD

Micro-louvers

5


RESEARCH

LED Technology

Louvre-LED

Multi-touch LCD

LED Display

Aluminum or white powder-coated louvre blades are used, with LED strips attached to them to display messages or other graphics.

Planar PT3285PW Full HD 32” Widescreen MultiTouch Zero Bezel LCD

Sharp Aquos 32” Class LED TV

Power Consumption: 8.5w (max), 3.5w (typical)

Power Consumption: 100w $2269

Power Consumption: 75w Weight: 17.9 lb $379.99 30 13/32” wide x 19 37/64” tall x 47/64” deep


Kunsthaus Graz Lighting Skin

Used as an interactive portion of the games, the opening and closing ceremonies in the 2012 London Olympic games used LED lighting panels, one at each seat, to display designs and messages across the stadium.

The BIX facade on the art museum reflects a trend in buildings to use the latest in technologies in facade design. A combination of acrylic panels and 930 lighting rings are used to display designs and images on the side of the building. In essence, each ring fuctions as a pixel in a large picture. Text and film are both projected on the facade.

The lighting was only temporary and is used in similar situations for music concerts and other shows.

The building is located in Berlin and was designed in 2003 by Peter Cook and Colin Fournier.

SYNERGY POD

2012 Olympics

7


RESEARCH

Heating

Energy needs are based on typical heating days in Lincoln, Nebraska. Wall constructions are based upon typical residental housing standards. Energy calculations are determined during midday on December 21st.

Total Energy Needs:

Heat Loss Through Walls

496 BTU/H

oor are R-30 insulated. Calculations are based on an interior temperature of 72 degrees Farenheit and exterior temperature of 15 degrees Farenheit. Window is 4 sq ft and has a U-rating of .5. Heat is lost through condution. heat transfer=area of assembly*temperature erence/resistance

-1,122 BTU/H 2’-0” 8’-6” Heat Loss Through Infiltration Heat is lost through an exchange in air through cencies in the facade. Air change rates or the number of times that the entire volume of air is replaced per hour. Air change rates generally range from .25 to 2 exchanges per hour. For our purposes, it is assumed that this is a tight building with an air change rate estimated at .5. heat transfer=volume*air change rate*temperature erence 8’-6”

7’-0”

BTU/H released by a person:

light work

Latent Heat from Appliances xture using 40 Watts. Q=3.41*P

sedentary

sleeping 250

340

640

-259 BTU/H

Heat Gain Through Window Assuming the 4 sq ft window is of south orientation at 40 degrees latitude during midday on December cient for the window is .85.

136 BTU/H Q=SC*A*SHGF

409 BTU/H


Lighting

Lighting

Natural light

Every place intended for human occupancy shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings in accordance with Section cial light in accordance with Section 1205.3.

The minimum net glazed area shall not be less than oor area of the room served.

cial light

IBC 1205.2

IBC 1205.3

IBC 1205.1

Illuminance Conversion

Incandescent Bulbs Minimum Light Output Common Energy Star (WATTS) (LUMENS) (WATTS) 250 450 800 1,100 1,600 2,000 2,600

4 to 9 9 to 13 13 to 15 18 to 25 23 to 30 22 to 40 40 to 45

10 fc = 107 lux 107 lux = 9.94 lumens 1 watts = 10 lumens* oor area

*Dependant on bulb type Lighting information taken from the 2009 International Building Code

SYNERGY POD

25 40 60 75 100 125 150

cial light shall be provided that is adequate to provide an average illumination of 10 foot-candles over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches oor level.

9


RESEARCH

Passive Heating & Cooling

Sources of heat Gain

Low Cost Strategies

1. Occupant

1. High Albedo

2. Refrigerator

2. Overhang

3. LCD Monitor

3. Operable Windows

Product that stores and releases thermal energy during the process of freezing and thawing. PCM solutions are encapsulated in sealed containers that have developed standards as well as cusom-made capabilities.

4. Solar Gains

4. Breathable Roof

2. Super insulation Aerogel

5. Heat Transfer

5. High Mass Floor

Aerogel insulation is 99% air, breathable, incredibly strong, and doesn’t absorb moisture. Although the

Relevant Products 1. PlusIce PCM (phase changing material)

W

6. High Ceiling

S

S

S

DAY

DAY DAY

W

NIGHT

NIGHT

DAY

NIGHT

DAY

W W

W

DAY

NIGHT

NIGHT

DAY

DAY

NIGHT

W

DAY W W

W

WARM

NIGHT

WARM

NIGHT

STORED ENERGY

COOL

NIGHT

WARM

COOL

COOL

Direct Gain

Indirect Gain

Isolated Gain

Simplest approach, solar radiation is admitting into the space and absorbed by floors and walls which is in turn contverted into thermal energy at night.

Basic elements of collection and storage used in the direct gain approach as well as using the convection process.

Uses fluid (liquid or air) to collect heat in a float solar collector. The heat is transferred through pipes by natural convection to a storage area, which releases stored energy at night.

ST EN

L


Aerogel

PlusIce PCM

S S

S

DAY W

NIGHT

DAY DAY

DAY

NIGHTNIGHT W

W

W

DAY DAY

NIGHT

DAY

NIGHTNIGHT W

W

W

W

WARM

WARMWARM

COOL

NIGHT

DAY WARM

STORED ENERGY

LEEWARD

WARM STORED ENERGY

DAY DAY

NIGHT

NIGHT

DAY DAY

NIGHTNIGHT STORED ENERGY

STORED ENERGY

COOLCOOL

NIGHTNIGHT

WARM

WINDWARD

LEEWARD LEEWARD

COOL

COOL COOL

COOL

WINDWARD WINDWARD

WARM

WARM WARM

WARM

COOL

COOL COOL

WARMWARM

COOL

COOLCOOL

Convective Cooling Method

Radiative Cooling Method

Evaporative Cooling

Admits cool night air to drive out the warm air. If breezes are predominant, high vents or open windows on the leeward side (away from the prevailing breeze) will let the hottest air escape. The cooler night air sweeping in through low, open vents or windows on the windward side replace this hot air.

By using the cooling cycle, unwanted heat is rejected from entering the system during the daylight hours and exposed to open air during the night. Thermal storage ponds lose heat through radiation to the night breeze and absorb excess heat during the day.

Evaporative cooling is used to enhance the convective cooling model. When water evaporates, it absorbs a large amount of heat. This effect is magnified with increased air movement.

SYNERGY POD

W

11


RESEARCH

Solar Energy

Cylindrical Solar Panels

Cylindrical Design

Each panel is made up of 40 individual modules, wired in parallel for high current, which capture sunlight across a 360-degree photo-voltaic surface capable of converting direct, diffuse and reflected sunlight into electricity. Using innovative cylindrical copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS modules) and thin-film technology, the systems are designed to be able to provide low installation costs on a per watt basis for the commercial rooftop market.

The shape of the design allows panels to be placed in virtually any orientation with minimal impact on energy generation, which includes horizontal installation. Panels generally weigh 2.8 pounds per square foot and as such do not require roofs to carry substantially greater loads due to the panels.


light

inner tube cell optical coupling agent outer tube

Wind Flow

Weathering

A tube consists of a series of layers, including an inner and outer tube cell, mediated by a optical coupling agent.

The design of such photovoltaic panels allows for wind-flow beneath and around the tubes. In the summer, this helps with passive heating that might otherwise occur from the absorbtion of the sun’s rays.

The cylindrical design attracts less dirt and airborne particles than a panel design. Additionally, any precipitation on the tubes works to clean their surface. Research shows that energy loss due to soiling on the system is half of that for conventional panels. Following a light snowfall, that covers the surface beneath the panels, they actually perform better: using the snow’s reflection.

SYNERGY POD

Tube Design

13


RESEARCH RESEARCH

Photovoltaic Energy System Types

Thin Film Solar Cell

Monocrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Solar Panel

Polycrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Solar Panel

Thin film solar cell panel which are used to generate photovoltaic energy are made up of one or more layers of thin photovoltaic material. The different photovoltaic materials which can be used as these layers include amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium selenide, and dyesensitixed solar cells. Commercially, these solar cells are available for integration and installation onto the roofs of buildings. The advantages that they have over normal photovoltaic panels is that they are lightweight and can also be walked on as part of a roof assembly.

The most prevalent material that is used for solar panels is crystalline silicon. As such, monocrystalline photovoltaic solar panels are the most popular photovoltaic panels used today. These panel types are amongst the oldest used photovoltaic technology; yet they are often the most efficient and dependable way to produce electricity by using the sun’s energy. While these panels are more efficient than thin film photovoltaics, they are also more expensive. Aesthetically, they are typically either black or iridescent blue. The overall benefits include longevity, lower installation costs, and embodied energy.

These solar panels use lower levels of silicon than the more common monocrystalline photovoltaic solar panels. On one hand, this makes them less expensive to produce and buy. On the other hand, this fact makes them inherently less efficient. These types of panels are easy to install and maintain over long periods of time. Poly-silicon panels have a unique aesthetic, as they are made up of silicon which has been woven through rectangular conduit wires.


research

Electricity and batteries Batteries electricity 9.73”

10.89”

Sun Extender #pvx-2580l

Standard Usage Rates

Holds 258 Ah per battery

Standard 32” LED TV: 90 Watts x 6 hrs = 540 wh Laptop Charging: 60 Watts x 6 hrs = 360 Wh

258 Ah x 10.5 Volts = 2,709 Watts per battery

20.76”

Laptop in Use: 20 Watts x 6 hrs = 120 Wh

2,709 Watts x 18 Batteries = 48,762 Watts

Water Pump: 50 Watts x 1 hr = 50 Wh

Holds enough back-up battery for a 2 day reserve

Vent Fan: 35 Watts x 20 hrs = 700 Wh Small Cooling Unit: 860 Watts x 20 hrs = 17,200 Wh Small Heating Unit: 890 Watts x 22 hrs = 19,580 Wh

62.78”

66.59”

20,000 Wh Summer Usage Rates

19,000 Wh

Max Usage per hour: 90 + 60 + 20 + 50 + 35 + 560 = 1,115 Watts

18,000 Wh

Total Summer Day Usage:

17,000 Wh

540 Wh + 360 Wh + 120 Wh + 50 Wh + 700 Wh + 17,200 Wh = 18,970 Wh per day

16,000 Wh Winter Usage Rates

Total Winter Day Usage: 540 Wh + 360 Wh + 120 Wh + 50 Wh + 700 Wh + 19,580 Wh = 21,350 Wh per day

Percentage of Electrical Usage Per Day Heating/Cooling 91.5%

Miscellaneous 8.5%

1,000 Wh 800 Wh 600 Wh 400 Wh 200 Wh

Heating

Cooling

Fan

Water Pump

Laptop (Charging)

Laptop (In Use)

TV

0

SYNERGY POD

90 + 60 + 20 + 50 + 35 + 890 = 1,145 Watts

watt-hours consumed in a day

Max Usage per hour:

15


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Precedents

Gwangju Cube

BOXETTI_Lunch

Corian Super-surfaces

Firm: Office DA Type: Installation Place: Gwangju, South Korea Qualities: Anthropometric, quality of material, sectional variance

Designer: Rolen Landsburgs Type: Module Location: Anywhere Qualities: Functional, efficient, clean design

Designer: Amanda Levete Type: Installation Place: London: Qualities: Sectional variance: louver capabilities: flexibility


Shared-Wall Structuring

Orientation on Trailer

A common wall for plumbing, electrical, and ventilation not only saves space but allows fresh circulation of air to cool electrical systems

The pods align themselves side by side on the trailer, with alternating doors such that the shared-wall system functions properly.

SYNERGY POD

Pod Structure: Shared Utiility Wall

17


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Plan Progression

wall detail: malleable louvers, clips, aluminum framing, air gap, insulation, laminated wood

03

window detail: malleable louvers, clips, aluminum framing, insulation, laminated wood, double pane glass

07

02

06

09

section a

05

09

section b

02

01 / 02


01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

REST SIT COOL STAND STORE LOOK CLEANSE ENTERTAIN ENTRY

d c

b a

05

08

04

section c

09

section d

SYNERGY POD

09

06

19


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Sectional Qualities

c b

a

08

05

04

01

01

07

01

09 05

02

05

05

section a

section b

section c

Section a contains a bed on the right with a table that serves as a support for the desk, which swivels out.

Section b depicts the hydraulic part of the door on the left (closed), as well as the continued bed with storage on the right.

The far end of the pod contains a desk that swivels, a refrigerator, hidden sink, and shelf.

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

REST SIT COOL STAND STORE LOOK CLEANSE ENTERTAIN ENTRY


door-swing

SYNERGY POD

To enter the pod, one must lift the door, which operates on a hydraulic system.

21


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Exploded Axonometric

Facade Clips Malleable DuPont Facade w/ Photovoltaic Film Aluminum 1x3” Frame Polyurethane Rigid Insulation

Laminated Accoya Wood

Double-Pane Windows

Block Insulation

2” x 3” Steel Frame

Vapor Barrier


Materials

Polyurethane Rigid Insulation

DuPont Hytrel TPC Polymer

A high-perfomance solid wood, Accoya is modified chemically to increase the amount of acetyl molecules throughout the material. These molecules are naturally found in the center of the wood, though not at the edges. The overall process increases duraility of the wood, reduces shrinkage and swelling, reduces thermal conductivity, and increases its resistance to insects.1

Polyurethane rigid insulation is a material that can be used to insulate almost any building, and has a high R value. Some benefits are that it also has a high degree of sound absorption and class 1 fire resistance.2

DuPont Hytrel is a thermoplaster and elastomer in one. It provides the flexibility of a rubber and the strength of a plastic. It also contains 35% to 65% renewable material. It works well for parts requiring flex with minimal fatigue. It provides strength and toughness while allowing parts to bend, flex, twist, open, compress, turn, and move.3

Benefits:

Benefits:

Benefits:

-Durability -Recycled Wood -Reduced Thermal Conductivity -Reduced Shrinkage/Swelling

-High R Value -Sound Absorption -Class 1 Fire Resistance

-Flexibility -Durability -Recycled Content -Flame Retardant

1. Blaine Brownell, Transmaterial 2 (New York: Princeton Press, 2008), 62. 2. “Energy.gov.” Home Weatherization. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://energy. gov/public-services/homes/home-weatherization>. 3. DuPont Hytrel TPC-ET” Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomer. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2012. <http://www2.dupont.com/Plastics/en_US/Products/Hytrel/Hytrel.html>.

SYNERGY POD

Accoya Acetylated Wood

23


SYNERGY DIAGRAMS

Skin System

Closed Louver Facade

Open Louver Facade

Malleable Louver Skin System A desirable quality of the skin system was its support of the venilation system. As a result, a louver system was chosen based on its flexibility to provide varying amounts of air. In addition to ventilation, the system allows varying sizes of apertures for the collection of water, etc. The system was developed through the use of three different clip systems, which hold the malleable louver panels in place. These clips secure the louvers, but also allow for their movement as well.

Five Zones of Louver Mobility


Ventilation

Prevailing Wind

As the breeze blows against the side of the malleable facade, the flexible points of the louvers twist, allowing for the intake of fresh air. This serves not only to provide the guest with clean air, but for air to circulate air in the shared wall: cooling the electrical components. There are five general zones where the gills are allowed to fluxuate: three on the top and two on the sides.

SYNERGY POD

Natural Air Capture

25


SYNERGY DIAGRAMS

Water Collection

The water collection and plumbing system of the pod works to collect and filter rainwater for use in the sink or for storage. Rain is first funneled in through the skin to the first collection tank. It is then drained through a filter to either the faucet or to the overflow tank beneath the trailer.

Rainwater collection

Initial Storage Tank Filter

Faucet

Greywater / Clean Water Storage


Electrical The electrical system consists of photovoltaic film strips mounted to the louvers on the roof. These provide the pod with power stored in batteries located under the bed. The rest of the circuit consists of a LCD display, LED embedded light fixtures, a plugin for a laptop, and the minifridge.

Photovoltaic Film

Wiring

LED Lighting @ 80 w LCD Entertainment @ 540 w

6 Batteries @ 2700 w ea. =16200 w Capacity

SYNERGY POD

Laptop Plugin @ 120 w Minifridge @ 2160 w

27


SYNERGY DIAGRAMS

Moving Parts: Desk and Storage

1. Shelf Space

2. Lift Lid

3. Swivel Desk to Reveal Sink (Rests on night stand)

4. Open Bed / Bench to Reveal Storage


Shell System

Malleable Louvers

Aluminum Frame

Laminated Wood

SYNERGY POD

Insulation

29


DOCUMENTATION

Models

Composite of All Section Pod Models

3d Print Section Model on Trailer


SYNERGY POD

Laminated Inner Wooden Shell

31


PRECEDENT


The Media ICT is a landmark structure found in the 22@ district of Barcelona which was awarded the World Architecture Festivalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Building of the year in 2011. Its use of innovative fabrication processes, construction methods, and sustainability techniques makes it one of the creative icons of modern architecture. Throughout the design process, Cloud 9 aimed to create an intelligent building that would not only respond to a global need for more energy efficient buildings, but also to everyday conditions. The various relationships between systems within the building enhance its overall performance.


INTRODUCTION Site

Facade Performance

CO2 Reductions

Component Parts

CAC facade solar factor w/o fog: 0.45 CAC facade solar facor w/ fog: 0.10

20% - use of District Cooling, clean energy. 10% - energy of photovoltaic roof. 55% - use of ETFE sun filters.

18 different sections of tubes 120 different flower types 500 sensors

SA facade solar facor open: SA facade solar facor closed:

0.35 0.10

10% - energy efficiency due to smart sensors.

2,500m2 ETFE facade

Total 95% CO2 reduction

Miscellaneous

Structural Performance

Cost

January 2009: completion date 201 parking spaces 26 motorcycle spaces maximum occupancy: 2,418 auditorium for 300 people

individualized distributed network tensile force acting upward to truss 8% of mass touches ground [of 1500m] floorplates assembled on ground: then hoisted no scaffolding used [typically 8% budget]

24.5 million Euros 1,234 euros / m2 above ground 20% savings with ETFE filters


Spain

Barcelona

Map Barcelona 22@ district

PRECEDENT

Media ICT is located in the 22@ district in Barcelona, Spain. It has an initial footprint area of 3,572 m2 and a total constructed area of 23,104 m2.

35


DIAGRAMS

Construction Details

Structural frame- exploded

Section ETFE Triangular Structure The system of beams and clips are composed of tubes, mullion clips, and a series of fasteners, which overall produce triangular sections individualized for their corresponding ETFE panels. The structural system is not based on a â&#x20AC;&#x153;peakâ&#x20AC;? stress point, but uses a distributed network customized for each point and bar. The mullion clips and aluminum framing compress the edges of the three ETFE sheets into an airtight enclosure so that they can function properly.

Front


Flower clip assembly- exploded

Elevation

Front

One of the ways that the structure performs in an efficient manner is through the use of digital fabrication to produce individualized components based on local loading conditions. The flower clips compose this localized system and there are 120 different types of flowers based on their locations and load conditions. These were designed using programs such as grasshopper, from which the data was exported directly to the fabrication company, Manvaga.

PRECEDENT

Sancho de Avila Facade Structure

37


DIAGRAMS

Construction Details

Roof cable support- exploded

Elevation CAC Structural Details The fog-filled cushions on the CAC facade are fastened with cables, which are attached to the roof using steel brackets. They are also supported intermittently from each floor as can be seen below. At the top of the system, a fog inlet valve deploys the nitrogen-based vapor into the ETFE cushions, which are composed of two layers. At the bottom, a valve outlet is able to extract fog when not in use, which is fed back to the fog generation unit. This fog is used to shade the building from the sun.

Front


PRECEDENT 39


steel I-beam

DIAGRAMS Section Detail

solar panel

steel I-beam

ETFE panels

ne. As air is erlap, allowght sensor.

ETFE light sensor

flower clips

concrete on metal decking

fasteners, which nels. The structutomized for eacb hree ETFE sheets

steel I-beam

s

ion

cush

pa cla ne m lt pc yp u es shi A, on B, C

E3

r laye

TE

EFT

EF

flooring on plenum

Section Quality curtain wall

ceiling plenum

SECTION scale: 1/2” = 1’ - 0”

The result of the section is a work of architecture with exceptional performance that uses unconventional materials. The building employs a highly specialized structural network to distribute loads. Additionally, it implements ETFE in two different light-controling facades. Details of the front facade are explored in section and profile. This exposes the intricate details depicting how the structural components contribute to the building’s performance and success.


solar panel

steel I-beam

ETFE panels

ETFE light sensor

concrete on metal decking

PRECEDENT

Detail Section

41


DIAGRAMS

Exploded Axonometric

prim

ar v fl ooreprtical truy truss late jo ss cho int rd tra

nsp girdmeullions arent gla rs z

ing

s

terttiaeel supp ry sup orts ports ET

st

nitrogFE fog c en fee ushio d tub ns e

suppeoel cable rt bra supp ckets orts

Exploded Axonometric Throughout the design process, Cloud 9 aimed to create an intelligent building that not only responded to a global need for more energy efficient buildings, but also to everyday conditions. The result is a work of architecture with exceptional performance that uses unconventional materials, is supported by a unique structural system, and was financially reasonable. To do this, the firm analyzed the aspects of building design, construction, and operation to determine where improvements could be made. Ultimately some of the major areas were to structurally support the building from the top down, to use individualized production, to create a locally-specific structural network, and to implement ETFE in the two light-controling facades.


re ctu stru r a l u iang E tr E TF

PRECEDENT

rc laye E3 ETF

cla m E T p cu FE sh pa ion ne l

rior exte

fas stru te ct ni ur ng al flo bra tub we ck es r c ets lip s

se co nd ar yb ra eam ilin s gs

s mn colu ort p p su

ns pa ba ren di lco t g ag n la on y b zin al ea g br m ac s in g

tra

de c b k pl eam ing en s um

tes rpla floo

ony balc

s ion ush

43


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Roof Systems

Green Roo

Rain wate

photovoltaic panels greenroof rainwater collection tank (below garage)

maintenance cart track

solar-captured electricity

Roof Sustainability Strategies The roof is composed of many systems which assist in the total reduction of CO2 emissions. A green roof is composed of sedum plants, which have waterstoring leaves. These plants absorb the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rays, reducing heating. 140 units of photovoltaic panels assist in generating electricity for the building with a peak potential of 23.02 kWp. A rainwater collection system pipes water to tanks beneath the garage, which serves to water plants. Also, a service cart on a track exists for maintenance and cleaning.

Fotovolta


fog generator

inflation unit

ventilator

exhaust

nitrogen

Tubular ETFE Cushions The ETFE cushions on the CAC facade utilize the production and storage of fog in the elongated panels to make a vertical cloud: reducing the solar heat gain by up to 90%. The system runs according to light sensors which control fog production and extraction when needed.

PRECEDENT

hion

CAC Facade System

45


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

Sancho de Avila Facade System

ETFE Skin The ETFE cushions on the Sancho de Alvila facade are composed of three layers. The intermediate and interior membranes contain a positive/negative pattern which forms an almost opaque surface when overlapped: reducing the amount of sunlight into the interior. The outer membrane is marked by a speckled dust pattern.


Shading

The lighting on the interior is controlled through the movement of the intermediate membrane. As air is pumped into the cushion, the membrane is pushed to the interior, where the holes (see left) overlap. This allows less light into the interior rooms: reducing passive solar gain. Moreover, each individual panel is connected to a light sensor, which controls its movement.

PRECEDENT

Movable ETFE Membrane

47


DOCUMENTATION

Composite Board

MEDIA ICT

CAC FACADE

CLOUD 9 [ENRIC RUIZ-GELI]

BARCELONA, SPAIN 2009

exhaust

Throughout the design process, Cloud 9 aimed to create an intelligent building that not only responded to a global need for more energy efficient buildings, but also to respond to everyday conditions. The result is a work of architecture with exceptional performance that uses unconventional materials, is supported by a unique structural system, and was financially reasonable. To do this, the firm analyzed the aspects of building design, construction, and operation to determine areas of weakness. Ultimately, improvements included structurally supporting the building from top to bottom, using individualized production, creating a locally-individualized structural network, and implementing ETFE in two light-controling facades. The various relationships between systems within the building enhance its overall performance.

facade performance

0.45 0.10

SA facade solar facor open: SA facade solar facor closed:

0.35 0.10

2,500m2 ETFE facade

miscellaneous January 2009: completion date 201 parking spaces, 26 motocycle 2,418 maximum occupancy auditorium for 300 people

CO2 reductions

nitrogen

component parts

20% - use of District Cooling, clean energy. 10% - energy of photovoltaic roof. 55% - use of ETFE sun filters. 10% - energy efficiency due to smart sensors. Total 95% CO2 reduction

inflation unit

ventilator

The Media ICT is a landmark structure found in the 22@ district of Barcelona and was awarded the World Architecture Festival’s building of the year in 2011. Its use of innovative fabrication processes, construction methods, and sustainability techniques makes it one of the creative icons of modern architecture.

CAC facade solar factor w/o fog: CAC facade solar facor w/ fog:

SANCHO DE AVILA fog generator

18 different sections of tubes 120 different flower types 500 sensors

tubular ETFE cushions

ETFE Skin

The ETFE cushions on the CAC facade utilize the production and storage of fog in the elongated panels to make a vertical cloud: reducing the solar heat gain by up to 90%. The system runs according to light sensors which control both fog production and extraction when needed.

The ETFE cushions on the Sancho d interior membranes contain a positi overlap: reducing the amount of sun

cost

cost: 24.5 million Euros 1,234 euros / m2 above ground 20% savings with ETFE filters

structural performance

individualized distributed network tensile force acting upward to truss 8% of mass touches ground [of 1500m] floorplates assembled on ground: then hoisted no scaffolding used [typically 8% budget]

ETFE cushion

site

3,572 m2 plot area 23,104 m2 constructed area

Green Roof

roof cable support - exploded

flower clip assembly - exploded

Rain water collection support cable

roof bracket photovoltaic panels greenroof

Fotovoltaic modules

maintenance cart track

rainwater collection tank (below garage)

fog inlet valve

electricity to be consumed

fog inlet tube

roof sustainability

fog input

The roof is composed of many systems which assist in the total reduction of CO2 emissions. A green roof is composed of sedum plants, which have water-storing leaves. These plants absorb the sun’s rays, reducing heating loads. Also, 140 units of photovoltaic panels assist in generating electricity. They have a peak potential of 23.02 kWp. Additionally, a rainwater collection system pipes water to tanks beneath the garage; which is used to water plants. Lastly, a service cart on a track is able to move around the perimeter of the roof for maintenance and cleaning purposes.

elevation

1

ETFE cushion

front

elevation

CAC structural details The cushions are fastened with cables, which are attached to the roof using steel brackets. They are also supported intermitantly between each floor as can be seen below. At the top of the system, a fog inlet valve deploys the nitrogen-based vapor into the ETFE cushions, which are composed of two layers. At the bottom, a valve outlet system is able to extract fog when not in use, which is fed back to the fog generator unit.

2

prim

ary ve floorprtical tru truss late jo s chor int d

1 tran

spar m girderullions ent glaz s ing

3

stee tercia l suppor ry supp ts orts ETFE

stee

nitroge fog cu n feed shions tube

suppor l cable t brac suppor kets ts

Composite Board The compilation of information about each of the components of the Media ICT building can be viewed on the composite board. This allows the reader to view all of the various systems and tectonic aspects of the building simultaneously.

AXONOMETRIC scale: 3/32” = 1’ - 0”

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC scale: 3/32” = 1’ - 0”

2

Sancho de Avila facad

One of the ways that the s rication to make individua are an example of such a adjacent conditions. Thes data was exported directl


steel I-beam

SANCHO DE AVILA FACADE

solar panel

inflation unit

steel I-beam

exhaust

ETFE panels

orage of fog in the elongated 90%. The system runs accordn when needed.

ETFE Skin

movable membrane

The ETFE cushions on the Sancho de Alvila facade are composed of three layers. The intermediate and interior membranes contain a positive/negative pattern which forms an almost opaque surface when they overlap: reducing the amount of sunlight into the interior. The outer membrane contains a dust pattern.

The lighting on the interior is controlled through the movement of the intermediate membrane. As air is pumped into the cushion, the membrane is pushed to the interior, and the printed patterns overlap (see left). This reduces light levels and passive solar gain. Each individual panel is connected to a light sensor.

ETFE light sensor

flower clips

flower clip assembly - exploded

structural frame - exploded

ort cable

concrete on metal decking

structural tube

roof bracket

mullion clip

support bracket mullion clip

flower clip flange

support bracket

fog inlet tube

clamp cushion

structural tube ETFE cushion

d to the roof using steel brackfloor as can be seen below. At en-based vapor into the ETFE tom, a valve outlet system is he fog generator unit.

2

front

section

Sancho de Avila facade structure

3

One of the ways that the structure was efficient in production was through the use of digital fabrication to make individualized components based on local loading conditions. The flower clips are an example of such a system as there are 120 different types based on their locations and adjacent conditions. These were designed using programs such as grasshopper, from which the data was exported directly to the fabrication company: Manvaga.

front

EFTE triangular structure The system of beams and clips are composed of tubes, mullion clips, and a series of fasteners, which overall produce triangular sections individualized for their corresponding ETFE panels. The structural system is not based on a “peak” stress point, but uses a distributed network customized for each node and tube. The mullion clips and aluminum framing compress the edges of the three ETFE sheets into an airtight assembly so that the middle membrane moves due to changes in air pressure.

tes rpla

steel I-beam s

mn

colu

tra ns pa b re di alco nt g ag n la on y b zin al ea g br m ac s in g

ry be ra am ilin s gs

ony balc

da

rior

exte

co n

ture

ns

shio

r cu laye

pa cla ne m lt pc yp u es shi A, on B, C

E3

EFT

EF TE

ngu

tria

ruc

lar st

fas stru te ctu ni ra ng l t flo bra ube we cke s r c ts lip s

port

sup

se

ary ve floorprtical tru truss late jo s chor int d

de c be king pl am en s um

floo prim

flooring on plenum

curtain wall

ceiling plenum

SECTION scale: 1/2” = 1’ - 0”

PRECEDENT

elevation

49


FABLAB


A collaborative effort between the private companies of Zahner Metals, OriginOil, and LumiGrow, will produce innovative results in the building industry. Specifically with Zahner’s technical capabilities, OriginOil’s knowledge in algae production, and LumiGrow’s expertise in vegetative lighting, new technologies will be developed to produce performative facades that are able to produce energy.


RESEARCH

STUDENTS & FACULTY [RESEARCH]

FOOD

INNOVATION

Innovation Campus Vision

FUEL

PRIVATE COMPANIES [REALITY]

WATER

Innovation Campus Vision: 1. Transform ideas into innovation through a dynamic, collaborative environment 2. Utilize university and private sector talent together in a synergistic manner 3. Create innovation that as an impact on a global scale


FABLAB Program Vision

ORIGINOIL + LUMIGROW [BIOSYSTEM] FACULTY + STUDENTS COLLABORATION ZAHNER [FACADES] [REALITY] [DESIGN]

INTELLIGENT FACADE

Fab-Lab Building Vision Stimulate research in facade development in a collaborative environment Publically display the processes and research happening within Serve as an intelligent structure: responding over time to technological development Serve to steward as well as produce resources

FABLAB

1. 2. 3. 4.

53


RESEARCH Precedents

Pompidou Center Architects:

Richard Rogers & Renzo Piano

Location:

Paris, France

Year:

1971-1977

Description: The Pompidou Center houses the French Museum of Modern Art as well as IRCAM, a center for musical and acoustic research. The design was produced in cooperation with ARUP, and has 7 levels with a total floor area of 103,000 m2.

mechanical / color

structure

circulation space

Piano and Rogerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location of the mechanical equipment on the outside of the building, leaving them exposed to the public is a key concept in the project. In color coding the systems, the building is able to be read from the outside. In addition, it frees up space for the interior of the building.

The structural system of the building uses unique members on the outside, which utilize the moment produced from the exterior to help support the floors.

A portion of the circulation takes place in the large area that makes up the facade of the building, also freeing up the middle of the building for usable floor-space.


MIT Media Lab Architects:

Fumihiko Maki

Location:

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Year:

2007-2009 Description: The Media Lab in MIT has a building which facilitates a studio culture of cross-breeding ideas and a broad exposure. The idea is that through a focus on human adaptability and the convergence of technology, multimedia, and design, that creative, innovative ideas will immerge that are infused with multidisciplinary ideas.

circulation / color

stacked nature

The Media Lab boasts of cross-disciplinary labs, which provide students the opportunity to learn from different disciplines including engineering, computer science, physics, education, and music. Each lab space has an exterior exposure and doubleheight work space, adapting to projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs.

The generous use of glass in the interior provide diagonal and horizontal views throughout the building. In addition, bold colors identify the stairs as circulation through the large void in the interior. In this manner, the void serves to connect the seven labs that exist throughout the structure.

The building is stacked such that the levels that are used the most are on the upper floors: so that students and guests are invited to move throughout the building: thus viewing all of the projects being worked on. For example, the auditorium and conference rooms are on the top floor.

FABLAB

synergistic laboratories

55


CONTEXT

Infrastructure

AN LO

TE

AY DW

PE

EK

EY

L VAL

RE

C LT SA

A RO

AY KW

PAR

Fabric // Infrastructure Key CITY BLOCKS

EXISTING BUILDINGS

SURROUNDING BUILDINGS

PERMIT

INNOVATION CAMPUS ZONAL BOUNDARY

PROPOSED BLOCKS

PROPOSED BUILDINGS

WATER TREATMENT PLANT

CREEK

PARKING GARAGES

RESIDENTIAL

PROPOSED BIOSWALE

PARKING LOTS

INDUSTRIAL

OTHER HEALTH

PROPOSED FIBER LINES EXISTING FIBER LINES

EXISTING BLOCKS

PROPOSED WATER

EXISTING WATER

CITY EFFLUENT WATER LINE

EXISTING ELECTRIC EXISTING SEWER RAILROAD


Region / Network

S

AY

W

GH

HI

S

HU

RN

CO

R KE

ADAMS STREET

02 003

INT

ER

ST

AT

E8 0

HOLDREDGE STREET

VINE STREET

01 O STREET

9TH STREET

10TH STREET

SOUTH STREET

NORMAL BLVD

HIGHWAY 77

27TH STREET

VAN DORN STREET

HIGHWAY 2

Urban Scale

Key 01

CITY CAMPUS

02

INNOVATION CAMPUS

03

EAST CAMPUS

BETHANY / NORMAL

BIKE PATHS

43 NORMAL

LINCOLN CITY LIMITS

UNIVERSITY PLACE

LAKES

ARAPAHOE

PARKLAND

HOLDREDGE

AIRPORT TO SITE

4 MILE DIAMETER 2 MILE RADIUS 1 MILE RADIUS

FABLAB

Region // Network

57


CONTEXT

Ecology

A

B

Ecology

0

Soil Types

Key SOIL BOUNDARY WATER PLANT

CREEK FLOODWAY

FEMA FLOOD PLAIN 500 YEAR FLOOD PLAIN

FUTURE BIOSWALE

PARK

1/4

(within area of interest)

A: silt loam

B: silty clay loam

Slope: 0-2%

Slope: 0-2%

Flooding: Occasional Urban Land:

AREA OF INTEREST

1/8

Flooding: Not Occasionally

Flood Plain

Water Infiltration Rate: Water Transmittance:

Urban Land: Slow

0.60 - 2.0 in/hr

Stream Terraces

Water Infiltration Rate: Water Transmittance:

Moderate 0.60 - 2.0 in/hr

1/2 m i


Demographics INDUSTRY 250 MILE RADIUS

500 MILE RADIUS

UNIVERSITY

Fortune 500 by Industry (within 500 miles)

FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES NEAR LINCOLN

Professional

41-60 Undergraduate

FUEL

FOOD

WATER

>60

24,207 Students

Nash Finch 48 Tyson Foods 96 Emerson Electric 12o 79,000,000

<40

Graduate

8,072 Staff

1,556 Faculty (by age)

Oneok Ok E 175 General Mills 181 Lando O Lakes 210 Conagra Foods 215 Monsanto 224 Chesakeake Energy 229 Devon Energy 232 Xcel Energy 246 Newmont Mining 257 Peabody Energy 316 Hormel Foods 327 Ameren 340 Williams 325 Ecolab 365 Seaboard 427 Ch2m Hill 440 Graybar Electric 451

LINCOLN

47,000,000

15,000,000

1,000,000 0

194

8

404

Other (Intercampus & Visitors)

56

495

43

Architecture

Law

769

611 Intercollegiate & Non-Degree

103

940

Fine & Performing Arts

69

1,307

Journalism & Mass Communications

2,665

Undecided Undergraduates

295

3,227

Agricultural Science & Natural Resources

140

Engineering

3,514

99

Business Administration

4,353

214

Education & Human Sciences

5,728

489

Arts & Sciences

Number of Students and Teachers Per College

CITY

POPULATION: 262,341

13% 12% 11%

Lincoln, NE

10%

22.4%

6% 5%

20.6%

EDUCATION LEVEL

4%

9.8%

6.7% Some High School

17.5%

25.2% Bachelor Degree

Education Level

FEDERAL FUNDING

18% Dept Health and Human Services

2%

9.8%

1%

12.6% 7.5%

4% Other

3%

5% USAID 5% Dept of Education

Professional Degree 1990

Chicago, IL

1992

1994

1996

Denver, CO

1998

2000

Unemployment by Region

2002

United States

2004

2006

2008

Nebraska

2010

2012

Lincoln, NE

5% Dept of Transportation 2% Nasa

Federal Funding for University

10% USDA 6% Dept of Energy

FABLAB

7%

29.2% 15.4%

Associates Degree

18% Dept of Defense

8%

High School Degree 23.4% Some College

27% National Science Foundation

9%

United States

59


TENANTS

Zahner Metals

LumiGrow

About Zahner is primarily an engineering and production company focused on metal facades. Since 1897, the company has been producing advancing the fabrication techniques in order to meet the architectural demands. They use BIM software and digital techniques to produce custom pieces fit for jobs. Today, they use many processes and use a variety of materials to keep up with the demands of the Architectural market.

Systems Zira - transfers an image to a facade via perforation Zepps - complex sheet metal form MetaSystems - custom perforations and embossing

About LumiGrow is a company dedicated to research of crop efficiency in providing smart horticulture lighting to create a higher growth rate of crops. Research has specifically focused on algae growth as well, as pertaining to a greater energy efficiency and financial savings.

Tessellate - An animated, kinetic metal system

World Market: Copper - Germany Zinc - Germany Titanium - Japan

Applications Commercial Greenhouses Indoor Gardening Entomology Algae Production

Products: ES330 LED Growth Light Lumibar LED Strip Lights Fabrication Techniques: perforation cut extrusions punch Projects: Broad Art Museum Cooper Union de Young Museum NASCAR Hall of Fame Pritzker Pavilion September 11th Museum Wyly Theater

Materials: steel aluminum copper zinc titanium

US Market:

Imports: Los Angeles, New York Structural Steel - Dallas Aluminum - Dallas


OriginOil About OriginOil is a company dedicated to energy production from the growth and harvesting of algae. Processes include the growth of the algae plant, the harvesting of hydrogen, water purification, and others. Essentially, in the production of algae biomass, a type of crude-oil is also produced, which can be processed for energy production. The process also uses CO2 which is a detrimental gas to the working environment.

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION WASTE-WATER

ALGAE PRODUCTION

ALGAE OIL PRODUCTION BIOMASS PRODUCTION CLEAN WATER

Current Components of System:

Single Step Extraction Method

Compatibility with almost all algae species Patented components Fully scalable from lab to mass-production Simple and energy efficient

Technologies

Benefits of Algae: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Bio Feedback Algae Controller An LED feedback system that assists the production of algea in the various aspects of its growth cycle

Optimize energy consumption

Quantum This process ensures that each algae cell receives the proper nutrients for growth through the dissolving of CO2 and micronizing of solid nutrients without a loss of injected material.

Ensure an economical management of water resources Carefully use non-renewable resources Minimize waste production Conserve biodiversity Develop nature in the city

Hydrogen A large quantity of hydrogen is produced during the growth of algae, which is a highly valuable product. This process captures the hydrogen for use in other processes.

FABLAB

Diversify energy sources

Power Four Solution The Power Four Solution is an algae production process directed toward use in and on a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facade. It uses neighborhood wastewater to assist the growth of algae, which in turn takes in CO2 and produces oils and hydrogen. Both of these by- products is a form of fuel and can be used in the plant, or stockpiled and stored. One of the best things about this system is that it can be used on either existing or new buildings.

Single Step This energy efficient method of separating the oil, water, and biomass found in algae is efficient due to its use of gravity. Separating the oil from the rest of the solution improves the efficiency of oil production.

61


SYSTEM SYNERGY

General Building Technologies

Water Collection System Collecting both rainwater and grey water for use in watering plants is important. Not only this, but doing it in a way that celebrates the water collection process as well as how the facade weathers over time is interesting.

Ventilation Utilizing the natural air-flow through either a mechanical opening and closing of the facade or a more passive approach. This could deal with perforations in panels, or in movable louvers, etc.

Power Generation - Algae / CPV Power generation is also an important part of the facade: using it in a way to generate electricity: whether that be through the use of algae or through PV panels, such as the concentrated photo-voltaic panels (CPV), which increase the light intensity.

Glenn Murcutt South Wales House

Flansburgh Architects Hawaii Preparatory Academy

Iowa State University Algae Biomass Experiments


Thermal Barrier Using the mass of the wall to capture and radiate heat in the winter, as well as cool air in the summer is useful. Also, having a good insulation quality is imortant, thus maximizing the thermal efficiency of the building.

Productive Facade The actual production of food on the side of the facade is of interest: where it could assist other research from Innovation Campus. Also, being able to advertise on the exterior: thus supporting other parts of Innovation Campus is key.

Morphosis Federal Building

Terra Firma Builders Rammed Earth Wall

Patrick Blanc Vertical Garden

FABLAB

Transparency / Shading Maximizing the use of daylight for optical use, but also for maximizing passive solar gain in the winter is important. In a similar manner, being able to reduce glare and passive solar gain in the summer is also key. This could be through perforations or louvers.

63


SYSTEM SYNERGY

Algae Specifics

algae biomass facade: Process Zero | HOK

natrual ventilation Sustainable Systems

Algae Production 1.252 MBTU

solar thermal & radiant floor heating 8,384 MBTU

energy recovery & chilled beams

geothermal cooling

photovoltaic & algae power 7.236 MBTU 1.252 MBTU


Why Algae?

Cycle

CO2

+Na

wastewater

closed-loop

open pond

salt-water

Statistics

2 Growth

Algae Oil Content

02%

Algae Growth Rate

01x:

60% 30x:

H2

3 Extraction

freshwater

O2 gas

hydrogen oxygen

biomass

energy CO2

butanol fertilizer

Corn Oil Content

Food Crop Growth Rate

oil

biodiesel jet-fuel ethanol gasoline

300x:

Algae Oil Per Acre

01x:

Soybean/Corn Oil Per Acre

FABLAB

1 Input

Systems

65


SYSTEM SYNERGY Algae Specifics

O2 CO2

ve orati Evap

g

n Cooli

H2O

O2

Oxygen

CO2 Carbon Dioxide Shade Food

Natural Systems The natural systems found in the performance of a leaf can be applied to a building as well. The essential concepts throughout the cycle include the intake of carbon dioxide, as well as nutrients and water. Using energy from the sun, the plant then produces oxygen as well as glucose: a food source for the plant. Lastly, the leaf shades the ground in the summer, but allows for passive heating during the winter.


H2

Fuel

O2

Fresh Air

Biofuel Fertilizer

CO2

H2

Carbon

CO2 Dioxide Shading

O 2 Oxygen Oil Biomass

Algae System Using the solar energy, an array of algae tubes are able to take in CO2 from the building as well as waste water from the nearby plant and produce Hydrogen, Oxygen, Oil for Biofuel, as well as Biomass for fertilizer. In addition, the algae tubes shade the building during the summer, allowing for passive cooling.

FABLAB

Water

Hydrogen

67


PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Site Selection

A

A

A C

C

C

B

B

B

South Facing Area The area of facade facing south is of upmost importance for the production of algae and photosynthesis

Visibility The amount of publicity received by Zahner is of importance: especially along the major axis on the site

Waste Water Access The use of waste-water in the production of algae is also of importance

importance:

importance:

importance:

A

A

A

C

C

C

B

B

B

Accessibility The ease of access to the site is of importance for the unloading and loading of materials

Closed Loop Circuit The potential use of the closed loop circuit is of value for efficient heating and cooling in the building

Connection to Campus A connection with the rest of Innovation Campus is important so that collaboration occurs

importance:

importance:

importance:


Site Selection A B C

Pros:

-Close to Bioswale -Closed Loop Access

Cons: -Little Southern Exposure -Low Visibility -Low Accessibility -Low Central Connection verdict:

A

A B

Pros:

C

Cons: -Buildings Blocking Sun -Low Accessibility

A

-Central Access -High Visibility

C B

verdict:

B C

Pros:

-Maximum Southern Exposure -Highest Visibility -High Accessibility -Closed Loop Circuit

Cons: -Waste Water Access -Connection to Campus verdict:

Composite The previous criteria including South Facing Facade, Visibility, Waste Water Access, Accessibilikty, ClosedLoop Circuit, and Connection to Campus were overlayed to determine the most advantageous site

Site Characteristics Views: The best views from the site are located to the north to the rest of campus, and as there are railroad tracks to the south

Truck Access: Materials will be coming from the North-West on Salt Creek Roadway Sunlight Exposure: The southern corner offers excellent sunlight exposure for algae growth and natural lighting

FABLAB

Innovation Campus Connection A connection is desired to the West, where the rest of innovation campus is located.

69


PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Parti, Layout, Circulation

ADMINISTRATION

FABRICATION 1

General Program Parti There are three general portions of the program: the administration, fabrication, and studio space. This studio space contains both Zahnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operations as well as the tenant space.

GALLERY

OPERATIONS

STUDIOS

FACADE TESTING

TENANT SPACE

FABRICATION

ATRIUM CIRCULATION

CONFERENCE + COLLABORATIVE STUDIO

ADMINISTRATION

2

Building Layout As a result of the collaborative nature of the project, the program is situated such that a central space serves to mix the work of students, faculty, and tenants. Additionally, the space serves as a connection to the fabrication as well.

STUDENTS

FACULTY

TENANT LAB ORIGINOIL + LUMIGROW ZAHNER


FACADE TESTING

GALLERY PARKING BIKE BUS

ATRIUM

SHOP

CIRCULATION PIN-UP WALL

CONFERENCE

ADMINISTRATION

FABRICATION FACULTY

OPERATIONS

ZAHNER STUDIO Occupant Circulation The circulation paths of the various occupants is important in determining the connections that the different program have to one another. A layout where people run into one another is essential for innovative collaboration Students Faculty OriginOil Employee Zahner Employee Visitors

STUDENT STUDIO

ORIGIN FAB LAB ORIGIN OIL STUDIO

ALGAE TESTING / BIO-FUEL CENTER

OUTDOOR BREAKOUT SPACE

FABLAB

3

71


PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Collaboration

Zahner

OriginOil

LumiGrow

UNL Faculty

UNL Students

Fabrication

Tenant Space

Studios

Administration

Operations

10,000 sf

10,000 sf

5,000 sf

3,000 sf

2,000 sf

TYPES

ORIGINOIL

DESIGN

ZAHNER

STUDENTS

COLLABORATIVE SPACE

FAB FLOOR

COLLABORATIVE SPACE FACULTY

STUDENTS

STUDENTS

ORIGIN OIL

FACULTY

STUDENTS

ZAHNER

ZAHNER

FACULTY

STUDENTS

2

SECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

STUDENTS

3

ORIGIN OIL

COLLABORATIVE SPACE FACULTY

ZAHNER

ORIGIN OIL

STUDENTS

COLLABORATIVE SPACE ZAHNER

1

ORIGIN OIL

COLLABORATIVE SPACE

ORIGIN OIL

COLLABORATIVE SPACE ZAHNER

FABRICATION

OPERATIONS

FACULTY

ORIGIN OIL

COLLABORATIVE SPACE FACULTY

ZAHNER

FACULTY


DESIGN PROCESS

Section Qualities

Adjacent

Section Quality

HalfLevel

Full Level

Double Height

Gap

Type

Bar

Bar

L-Shape

Spline

Courtyard

X-Shape

FABLAB

U-Shape

73


DESIGN PROCESS

Buidling Typology: Massing Study

1

2

3

Courtyard Bar

Site Integration

Southern Exposure

Program Integration

Site Integration

Southern Exposure

Program Integration

Site Integration

Southern Exposure

Program Integration

Atrium Bar

Elongated X


Building Typology: Section Qualities

1

Section Qualities -Central Circulation Spine -Split-Level Studio -Green Roof Break-Out Space -Tiered Studio Levels

Section A-A’

B A’

A

Section B-B’

25

50

75’

0

25

50

75’

0

25

50

75’

B’

0

2

Section Qualities -Central Circulation Spine -Double Level Studio Space -Ramp Circulation -Central Lounge Space

Section A-A’

B A’

A B’

Section B-B’

Section Qualities -Studio-Fabrication Access -Central Circulation Path -Studio Loft Space Section A-A’

-Continuous Lab Space

A

B A’

Section B-B’

B’

0

50

100

200’

FABLAB

3

75


DESIGN PROCESS

Midreview | Program Distribution

1 2

3 5

4

7 6

Public Space

First Floor

1. Entry Atrium 2. Administration 3. Collaborative Lounge 4. Circulation to Studio Space

Second Floor

5. Balcony Circulation / Display Space 6. Conference Room 7. Outdoor Algae Balcony Lounge

6

5 6

1 2

7

3 4

Private Space First Floor

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Zahner Studio Student Space Collaboration / Pin-up Space OriginOil / Lumigrow Studio Operations Fabrication

Second Floor

6. Fabrication 7. Loading Dock


Midreview | Context

N VATIO

INNO

PUS

CAM

EK

RE

C LT

AD RO

SA

EK

RE

C LT

AD RO

SA

0

50

100

200’

Axonometric

FABLAB

Innovation Campus

77


DESIGN PROCESS N VATIO

S

PU CAM

C

INNO

B

Midreview | Site Sections

A

LT

SA

D’ E’ F’

D E C’

F B’ A’

Section A-A’

Section B-B’

Section C-C’ Northwest - Southeast Sections

0

50

100


Section D-D’

Section E-E’

Section F-F’ 0

50

100

200’

FABLAB

Northeast - Southwest Sections

79


DESIGN PROCESS

Midreview | Heating / Cooling Studio Collaboration

Pin-Up Zahner

Students

OriginOil

The tiered levels for the open-air studio allow for Zahner, the Students, and OriginOil to have their respective spaces. The middle level serves as a collaborative space, useful for pin-up as well.

The Power of Water

Radiant Heating

Radiant Cooling

Utilizing the energy found in water is valuable due to its heat-carrying capacity. Water retains its energy much better than air. As such, the closed loop system provided by the water treatment facility is of great value to the heating/cooling system.

Radiant heating via the 55 degree closed-loop water source is more energy efficient and comfortable than traditional HVAC systems. During the winter, the water is warmer than the air temperature: thus heating the concrete thermal mass floors.

During the summer, the water coming from the closed loop is cooler than the outdoor temperature. This is run through the ceiling so that the cool air drops: making the space comfortable while using less energy than air systems.

Section A-Aâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;


Midreview | Algae Production Algae Tube Location Wall-Mounted Algae Tubes Roof-Mounted Algae Tubes OriginOil Fab-Lab

Double Facade

OriginOil FabLab

Producing the Algae on the facade utilizes the ETFE tubes to expose the organisms to sun. The use of CO2 and waste-water for algae growth is beneficial, as these are unwanted elements.

Algae grows at best efficiency in certain temperatures. Thus, a double facade with the algae incorporated in the void offers a more consistent temperature, namely in the winter.

Connected to Zahnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fabrication Floor, OriginOil has their own double-height space to collect, sample, and test algae. This is directly adjacent to their studio, providing ease of access.

FABLAB

Algae Production

Section B-Bâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

81


DESIGN PROCESS Midreview | Ventilation

SummerHot Air Released

Winter Energy Captured & Reused

Thermal Mass At points along the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spine, thermal mass doubling as structural bearing walls serve to increase the stack effect: helping to naturally ventilate the structure. Stack Affect The central spine offers not only generous lighting, but the increased height and louvers at the peak offer the hot air a chance to escape the building: increasing ventilation

Summer Ventilation

Summer Lighting

Algae Summer Shading

The prevailing North and South winds of Lincoln are used to naturally ventilate the space. Operational windows exist along the studio wall, which may either be controlled by the user or the building management system.

The South-facing studios receive optimal amount of natural lighting to increase productivity. This also cuts back on the amount of artificial lighting needed to operate the structure. Ultimately, this is a costsaving measure as well.

The algae provides shading and heat absorption during the hot months of summer. In addition, the algae is not only deflecting the heat, but transforming it into more power.

Section E-Eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;


Midreview | Circulation & Adjacencies 2 75’

min

51.5’

min

3 2 75’

min 51.5’

1

min

3 1

Loading Dock The loading dock sequence is a crucial part to receiving materials for Zahner metals, as well as OriginOil. The turning radius of a semi-truck, (75’ max, 51.5’ min) as well as the dock configuration were taken into account.

Public / Private Access

Studio Culture

The fabrication floor is secure as a result of its adjacency to the operations area. Anyone: Zahner, Student, Faculty, or Tenant, must be granted access before entering this area.

The half-floor division allows for visitors to come in to the space and learn about the tenants in the upperfloor circulation area. While having views of the studio and the fabrication floor, they do not disturb anyone.

Having an open studio space with all four groups of people allows for a collaborative environment. While it may be chaotic at times, it is this vigorating atmosphere that achieves the greatest results.

Section E-E’

FABLAB

Operations Security

83


DESIGN PROCESS Sketchbook Work

User Diagrams In order to figure out the paths of the user-groups, a series of diagrams were produced which were eventually compiled into one digital diagram.


Program Location

The bar and spline typologies were explored to see the benefits of each. The dark line represents the use of algae in trying to maximize southern exposure for algae growth.

In addition to typology explorations, program locations within these schemes were addressed, in attempting to figure out what adjacencies worked well.

FABLAB

Typology Explorations

85


DESIGN PROCESS Sketchbook Work

Model Iterations Sometimes there is no substitute for working in physical form. These models were developed through the manipulation of planes, to both observe sectional qualities and various plan iterations.


Plan Development

Sectional Development

FABLAB

Developing the systems and sectional qualities of the structure vital along with the development of the floor plans. Wind, sunlight, ventilation, as well as the closed-circuit pump system were each explored.

87


DESIGN PROCESS Sketch Progression

Circulation Midway through the process in determining the form of the building, circulation about the space, namely about a central spine became a focal point. This became mediated by a series of conference rooms between studios to increase collaboration.


Structure

FABLAB

Eventually a structural grid was implemented within the plan to give the building support. Orginally a 50’ x 50’ grid was designated, however in places it was reduced to 25’ x 50’.

89


DESIGN PROCESS Sketch Progression

Conference Spaces

Oculi

In order to increase and encourage collaboration between studios, a series of conference rooms are situated in between the tiered spaces. Additionally, these open up to the algae on the roof, providing a stimulating, creative environment.

The conference rooms can be seen both on the interior and exterior of the building. The ceiling of these collaborative spaces opens up to the algae and sky. This additionally lets light into the studios as well.


Elevation

The integration of the algea system within the facade was explored, in terms of both where the algae was to be located and how it was to be integrated tectonically. The algae eventually evolved from application on the wall to the roof as well.

The algae distributes from the horizontal members and travels through the vertical ETFE tubes. This allows gravity to pull the algae through passively as well as distribute CO2 throughout the system.

FABLAB

Algae Integration

91


DESIGN PROCESS Sketch Progression

Sectional Development As with earlier portions of the project, the sectional qualities continued to progress iteratively: both in examining the incorporated systems as well as the formal gesuture of the building.


Process Study Model

FABLAB

A model was made incorporating the structural grid as well as many of the sectional qualities explored in previous studies. The composition of the buidling was also a facit of the model, and it was manipulated as well. Lastly, the form of the oculi was a detail that was looked at.

93


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

Envelope Components Progression

Energy Recovery

Exterior

Interior Exterior

Interior

Productive Facade

Algae Facade

Exterior

Ventilation Exterior

Exterior

Interior

Energy Recovery

Interior Interior

Interior

Productive Facade

Algae Facade Ventilation

Exterior Social Space

Exterior Social Space

Dust Barrier

Dust Barrier

Radiant Heating / Cooling Radiant Heating / Co Thermal Mass

Thermal Mass

Water Collection Unit Water Collection Uni

Continuous Facade The facade separates exterior space from interior space and interior space from interior.

Parts of the structure The facade incorporates the intelligent aspects of design, while also serving to house the studio space within the skin, which extends to the exterior as well.


Exterior Facade Algae Production Tubes

LED Growth Lighting

Double-Skin Glazing

Productive Facade

Condensing Water Collection Tubing

Panel

Vertical Tube

Horizontal Tube

FABLAB

Algae Configuration Options

95


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

Technical Review | Exploded Axonometric The following information was part of the structural process used for a technical review. This helped the progression of the building in terms of how the form would work structurally, as well as how passive and active mechanical systems would be integrated.

Low-Iron Glazing

Window Mullions

ETFE Algae Tubes/ Glazing Clips

Concrete / Insulation Decking

Steel Frame

Algae Collection Tanks

On-Grade Slab Lumigrow Algae Lighting

Double - Curtain Wall


Section Double - Curtain Wall Algae Tubes Structural W-Member Beam

Radiant Piping: Closed Loop

Algae Collection Tanks

On-Grade Slab

Natural Lighting The low-iron glazing provides for excellent transmission of light. With studios oriented along the South facade, these spaces receive excellent day lighting for the occupants: maximizing productivity.

Materials The use of ETFE in the algae system is beneficial in several respects. First, ETFE is a flexible material, that allows the algae to flow along the exterior surface (facade & roof ). In addition, ETFE is a durable material, which performs well in tension. As such, it can be stretched and hung along the facade without breaking.

FABLAB

Sustainable Design The building envelope is a double curtain wall system which uses the stack effect to heat the envelope in winter and cool it in the summer. This, in turn, helps facilitate the growth of algae within the skin.

97


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Technical Review | Structural System

1

2

3

4

Structural System Due to the open nature of the studios, there exist large gaps that the members have to span. As a result of this, a steel post and beam system was chosen in addition to the open web steel joists that span over the fabrication floor. The structural grid is primarily 50’ x 25’. 1) open web joists over fabrication 2) exposed steel web-member columns, beams

25’

3) floor assembly: cast-in place slab on top of decking and rigid insulation to assist with radiant heat system 5

4) concrete footings 5) grid system: 50’ x 25’

50’


Egress

0’

50’

Egress & Circulation There are two primary entrances to the building which allow for the proper means of egress for all spaces. The central circulation path connecting these entrances exists in between the studios and the fabrication floor: serving as a noise buffer and a viewing corridor.

100’

7

6) main circulation pathway through building

8

6

9) accessible ramp

9 Ground Floor

8) passenger elevator / egress stair

9 Upper Floor

FABLAB

7) loading dock 8

99


SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

Technical Review | Mechanical / HVAC System

12

10 11

0’

12

50’

100’

HVAC / Mechanical System In addition to passive cooling due to the double facade, there are two separate mechanical systems to ensure that the FABLAB is at a comfortable temperature for its occcupants. In addition, a system of radian pipes in the floor slabs distributes heat via radiation. This conserves energy by reducing the temperature needed to heat the water, and the closed loop circuit helps with this heating. 10) central mechanical room with a variable air-flow system

12

11) operable windows on the south side to catch prevailing winds / passive heating

13 10 11

12) heat-pump system for administration

13 11

13) radiant heat water tubes embedded in studio floor


Composite Board

FAB-LAB

Joey Laughlin Tectonic Review | Arch 430 Brian Kelly Studio | Fall November 09, 2012

Building Envelope System: Cladding: A] low-iron exterior curtain glazing B] aluminum mullions C] aluminum clips / ETFE algae tubes D] concrete and decking E] algae collection tubes / structural framing F] second layer interior glazing

A B C

Sustainable Design: The building envelope is a double curtain wall system which uses the stack effect to heat the envelope in winter and cool in the summer. In addition, it provides a good temperature range for the growth of algae in this exterior facade.

D

E

Day lighting: The low-iron glazing provides for excellent transmission of light. With the studios oriented along the South facade, these spaces receive excellent day lighting for the occupants: maximizing productivity.

F

Structural System: Framework: 1] open web joists over fabrication 2] exposed steel web-member columns, beams 3] floor assembly: cast-in place slab on top of decking and rigid insulation to assist with radiant heat system 4] concrete footings 5] grid system: 50’ x 25’

1

Framework: Vertical Structure steel with welded and bolted connections

2 3

Framework: Horizontal Structure steel with welded and bolted connections

25’

4 5

50’

Code System: 0

25

50

Code System: Circulation, Egress, and Transportation 6] main circulation pathway through building 7] loading dock 8] passenger elevator / egress stair 9] accessible ramp

100’

6

7

8

8

6 6

8

9

9 Ground Floor

Second Floor

Components: 10] central mechanical room with a variable airflow system 11] operable windows on the south side to catch prevailing winds / passive heating 12] heat-pump system for administration 13] radiant heat water tubes embedded in studio floor

12

12 14 Plumbing and Water Management: 14] stack vents for restrooms 13 10 11

Ground Floor

Second Floor

FABLAB

Mechanical and HVAC System:

101


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Parti Diagrams

Conference Views

Algae Unification

Fabrication | Studio | Administration

The conference rooms are strategic locations where views to the fabrication floor are direct: allowing people to have an unobstructed view of what is being produced there, and vice versa.

The algae facade as well as roof serve to encompass the southern portions of the building envelope. This also serves as an icon to people on Salt Creek Road depicting the innovation occuring as related to biofacades.

The basic orientation of the studios in relation to the fabrication floor allows for easy access to both. The circulation path provides a noise barrier from the fabrication floor, but also serves as a pin-up space for the public.

Circulation

Studio Space

Conference Space

The circulation throughout the buidling connects people to the North with the rest of innovation campus and to East with East Campus. It also provides visitors the opportunity to look at the innovation happening within the building: both in studio and in the fabrication floor.

A set of four studio spaces are connected yet separate to provide working areas for students, faculty, OriginOil/Lumigrow, and Zahner Operations. These are tiered to differentiate them: yet allow for a continuous feeling.

Conference rooms between the studios (as well the administration area) serve as spaces for collaboration to occur between the various user groups.


Plans

0

50’

100’

FABLAB

Site Plan

103


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Plans

A

B

C

D

I

01 E

03

F

02 G

H

J

K

L

04

N H

O

09 G O

05

06

07

Q

08

Ground Floor Plan 0

25’

50’


Program 01 ENTRANCE 02 ADMINISTRATION 03 FABRICATION 04 ZAHNER OPERATIONS 05 LOUNGE 06 CO-ARCH STUDIO_A 07 MECHANICAL 08 ORIGINOIL STUDIO (G) 09 CIRCULATION SPACE 10 CIRCULATION HALLWAY (2) 11 CO-ARCH STUDIO_B 12 ORIGINOIL STUDIO (2)

A. SUPPORT STAFF B. BUSINESS OFFICE C. MARKETING OFFICE D. COMMUNICATIONS E. OPERATIONS MANAGER F. DIRECTOR G. CONFERENCE ROOM H. RESTROOMS I. LOADING DOCK J. WOOD SHOP K. PROTOTYPE TESTING L. LASER CUTTERS / 3D PRINTING M. WATER-JET FABRICATION N. CUSTODIAL O. ELEVATOR / FIRE EGRESS P. ALGAE OIL COLLECTOR Q. EXTERIOR PATIO R. RELAXATION AREA

03 K

04 O

09

10

G

G

06

O

07

08

R

R

0

25’

50’

FABLAB

Upper Floor Plan

105


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Perspective


FABLAB 107


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Section Perspective


FABLAB 109


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Wall Section

Cantilevered Joists Spider-Clips

Steel W-Member Beam Metal Decking Insulation Spider-Clip Structure

ETFE Vertical Algae Tubes

Low-Iron Glazing

Operable Windows

Ramp Railings

Tension Cables Horizontal Algae Collection Tube

Metal Joist Clip Operable Air-Intake Louvers Cast-In-Place Concrete Slab Metal Decking Radiant Floor Tubing Double-Pane Window

Metal Panel Cladding Concrete Wall

On-Grade Slab

Reinforced Footing


ETFE Algae Tube Membrane

Low-Iron Glazing

Concrete + Radiant Tubing

ETFE is a malleable, transparent membrane that can allows transmittance of light while holding algae.

A low-iron glass surface provides a thermal barrier and has a high light transmittance rate.

As a thermal mass, concrete is able to absorb and radiate energy well, while also providing support

Benefits:

Benefits:

Benefits:

-Durability -Permeability Resistance -Transparency

-High Light Transmittance -Colorless

-Structurally Strong in Compression -Thermal Mass: Energy Retention

FABLAB

Materials

111


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Composite Board

gn will facilitated by such desi that the interaction to occupy the space. ronment. It is the hope r tenants are proposed uniqcollabotive envi othe a . More two ide . ucts prov UNL to prod lty thoughts, and ents and facu ents and faculty from -polination of ideas, es are paired with stud pany, followed by stud ntial for successful cross where private compani al fabriacation com they possess a pote will be Zahner met Innovation Campus, e thus â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spac and aska er, the Nebr of Zahn of nt y connections with for the Universit d. The primary tena umption grid. a variety of indirect n: Fablab is a design been unprecedente to the overall grid cons in which they have A project of innovatio lems in ways that have e their own energy tioned in a manner tions to design prob buildings to contribut e companies are posi promote unique solu igrow. Both of thes which would allow de, Lum faca and bioa inOil of Orig These consist of on a development nce a focus is placed specifically, in this insta

space fabrication / studio algae unification conference views conference space studios circulation

FABLAB

| UNL CoARC | ZAHNER METALS W RO IG M LU | L OI ORIGIN


I 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

D

C

03

F

E

M

02 H

G

K

J

L

04

N H

O

09 O G

05

06

07

Q

08 P

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R.

03

entrance administration fabrication floor zahner operations lounge co arch studio_a mechanical originoil studio (G) circulation space circulation hallway (2) co-arch studio_b originoil studio (2)

K

04

O

Q

09

support staff business office marketing office communications operations manager director conference room restrooms loading dock wood shop prototype testing (G) laser cut / 3d printing water-jet fabrication custodial elevator / fire egress algae oil collection exterior patio relaxation zone

G

Q

G

06

11

10

12

P R

R

U FLOOR ANS G FLOOR FLOOR PL 1/16” = 1’-0” scale:

DETAIL WALL SECTION

scale: 3/8” = 1’-0”

FABLAB

01

B

A

113


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Model


FABLAB 115


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Model


FABLAB 117


Studio Poche: Fall 2012 Studio Work